Английский язык в фокусе 10 класс Учебник Афанасьева Дули Михеева

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Virginia Evans Jenny Dooley Bob Obee Olga Afanasyeva Irina Mikheeva Express Publishing PROSVESHCHENIYE PUBLISHERS для общеобразовательных учреждений Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации 5-е издание Москва Express Publishing «Просвещение» 2012 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 Аб4 Серия «Английский в фокусе» основана в 2006 году. На учебник получены положительные заключения Российской академии наук (10106-5215/15 от 31.10.2007 г.) и Российской академии образования (№01 -381/5/7д от 22.10.2007 г.). Авторы; О. В. Афанасьева, Д. Дули, И. В. Михеева, Б. Оби, В. Эванс Authors: Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley, Bob Obee, Olga Afanasyeva, Irina Mikheeva Acknowledgements Authors' Acknowledgements We would like to thank all the staff at Express Publishing who have contributed thar skills to producing this book. Thanks for their support and patience are due in particular to: Megan Lawton (Editor in Chief); Mary Swan and Sean Todd (senior editors); Michael Sadler and Steve Miller (editorial assistants); Richard White (senior production controller); the Express Publishing design team; Warehouse (recording producers); and Kevin Harris, Kimberly Baker, Steven Gibbs and Christine Little. We would also like to thank those institutions and teachers who piloted the manuscript, and whose comments and feedback were invaluable in the production of the book. Colour Illustrations: Stone, Chris. Music Compositions & Arrangement by Ted and Taz. While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. Английский язык. 10 класс ; учеб, для общеобразоват. учреждений/ А64 [О. В. Афанасьева, Д. Дули, И. В. Михеева и др.]. - 5-е изд. - М.: Express Publishing : Просвещение, 2012. - 248 с.: ил. - (Английский в фокусе). - ISBN 978-5-09-029135-4. Учебник является центральным элементом учебно методического комплекта серии «Английский в фокусе» для 10 классов общеобразовательных учреждений. Отличительной особенностью УМК является модульное построение учебника, наличие аутентичного материала о России, заданий, соответствующих требованиям международных экзаменов, готовящим постепенно к Единому государственному экзамену по английскому языку. Учебник получил положительные заключения РАН и РАО на соответствие федеральному компоненту Государственного образовательного аандарта среднего (полного) общего образования. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 Учебное издание Серия «Английский в фокусе» Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Дули Дженни Михеева Ирина Владимировна Оби Боб Эванс Вирджиния Английский язык 1 о класс Учебник для общеобразовательных учрехщений Центр группы германских языков Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова Зам. руководителя Центра по проектам И. Н. Темнова Руководитель проекта Ю. А. Смирнов Выпускающий редактор М. А. Семичев Редактор А. А. Каплина Корректор И. Б. Окунева Налоговая льгота - Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005-93 - 953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД № 05824 от 12.09.01. Подписано в печать 01.06.12. Формат 60x90/8. Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура Прагматика. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 28,19. Тираж 50 000 экз. Заказ № 3786/12. Открытое акционерное общество «Издательство «Просвещение». 127521, Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Express Publishing. Liberty House, New Greenham Park, Newbury, Berkshire RG19 6HW. Tel.; (0044) 1635 817 363. Fax; (0044) 1635 817 463. e-mail: [email protected] http://www.expresspublishing.co.uk Отпечатано в соответствии с предоставленными материалами в ООО «ИПК Парето-Принт», г. Тверь, www.pareto-print.ru ISBN 978-5-09-029135-4 © Express Publishing, 2011,2012 © Издательаво «Просвещение», 2011,2012 Все права защищены Contents Module 1 - Strong ties (pp. 9-26) 1a Reading Skills ............ pp. 10-11 1b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp. 12-13 1c Grammar in Use ............ pp.14-15 Id Literature........... pp. 16-17 1e Writing Skills ............ pp. 18-20 Module 2 — Living & Spending (pp. 27-44) 2a Reading Skills ............ pp. 28-29 2b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp.30-31 2c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 32-33 2d Literature........... pp. 34-35 2e Writing Skills ............ pp.36-38 Module 3 — Schooldays & Work (pp. 45-62) 3a Reading Skills ............ pp.46-47 3b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp.48-49 3c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 50-51 3d Literature.............. pp. 52-53 3e Writing Skills ............ pp. 54-56 Module 4 — Earth Alert! (pp. 63-80) 4a Reading Skills ............ pp. 64-65 4b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp.66-67 4c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 68-69 4d Literature........... pp. 70-71 4e Writing Skills ............ pp. 72-74 Module 5 - Holidays (pp. 81-100) 5a Reading Skills ............ pp. 82-83 5b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp.84-85 5c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 86-87 5d Literature........... pp. 88-89 5e Writing Skills ............ pp. 90-94 Module 6 — Food & Health (pp. 101-120) 6a Reading Skills ............ pp. 102-103 6b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp.104-105 6c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 106-107 6d Literature.......... pp. 108-109 6e Writing Skills ............ pp. 110-114 Module 7 — Let’s have fun (pp. 121-138) 7a Reading Skills ............ pp. 122-123 7b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp. 124-125 7c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 126-127 7d Literature........... pp.128-129 7e Writing Skills ............ pp. 130-132 Module 8 - Technology (pp. 139-156) 8a Reading Skills ............ pp. 140-141 8b Listening & Speaking Skills ... pp. 142-143 8c Grammar in Use ............ pp. 144-145 8d Literature.......... pp. 146-147 8e Writing Skills ............ pp.148-150 Word Perfect & Grammar Check .... pp. 157-181 Spotlight on Russia ............. pp.183-192 Song Sheets ..................... pp.SS1-SS4 Grammar Reference Section ....... pp.GR1-GR19 Irregular Verbs ................. p. GR20 Word List ....................... PP.WL1-WL28 111 Table of Contents la (pp. 10-11) VOCABUURY GRAAAAAAR activities 1b (pp. 12-13) character qualities; idioms, parts of the body 1c (pp. 14-15) present tenses, phrasal verbs (look), dependent prepositions, forming adjectives Id (pp. 16-17) appearance 1e (pp. 18-20) Culture Corner 1 (p. 21) - Teenage fashion in the UK; Across the Curriculum (Citizenship) (p. 22) Put an end to discrimination!; Going Green 1 (p. 23) The recycling loop; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 24-25), Progress Check 1 (p. 26) 2a (pp. 28-29) spending money 2b (pp. 30-31) hobbies & personalities, weather idioms 2c (pp. 32-33) -ing form, (to) infinitive, forming abstract nouns, phrasal verbs (take) 2d (pp. 34-i5) 2e (pp. 36-38) abbreviations Culture Corner 2 (p. 39) - Great British Sporting Events!; Across t are you with your money?; Going Green 2 (p. 41) Clean Air at Home; Check 2 (p. 44) he Curriculum (PSHE) (p. 40) How responsible Spotlight on Exams (pp. 42-43), Progress 3a (pp. 46-47) types of school, school activities 3b (pp. 48-49) jobs, job qualities, idioms related to work 3c (pp. 50-51) future tenses, comparative/superlative degree, phrasal verbs (pick), forming personal pronouns 3d (pp. 52-53) 3e (pp. 54-56) Culture Corner 3 (p. 57) - American High Schools; Across the Curriculum (Citizenship) (p. 58) My friend needs a teacher; Going Green 3 (p. 59) Endangered Species; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 60-61), Progress Check 3 (p. 62) 4a (pp. 64-65) environmental protection 4b (pp. 66-67) environmental issues 4c (pp. 68-69) modals, phrasal verbs (run), forming negative adjectives 4d (pp. 70-71) 4e (pp. 72-74) linkers I Culture Corner 4 (p. 75) - The Great Barrier Reef; Across the Curriculum (Science) (p. 76) Photosynthesis; Going Green 4 (p. 77) Tropical Rainforests; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 78-79), Progress Check 4 (p. 80)____________ IV READING LISTENING. SPEAKING FUNCTIONS WRITING Teenagers enquiring about/expressing likes, dislikes a paragraph about what you like doing a dialogue socialising, expressing sarcasm/ anger, talking about friends, identifying speakers a list/paragraph an extract from Little Women a conversation a letter to a friend understanding rubrics an informal letter Britain’s young consumers an interview a paragraph about how you spend your money dialogue enquiring about/expressing preferences: completing a form; suggesting/replying letters asking for/ giving advice extract from The Railway Children a diary entry short messages a short message Schools Around the World a short article about your school an interview about your school asking about & expressing wants/intentions; note taking; Hairdressers happiest at work giving/reacting to news a short paragraph extract from The Darlins a short dialogue CV; letter of application a CV; a letter of application Use less stuff a quiz dialogue make notes express concern, hope, discuss environmental awareness weather explain signs extract from The Lost World a letter Should cars be banned from city centres? expressing agreement/disagreement a for-&-against essay VOCABULARY GRAAAAAAR 5a (pp. 82-83) travel 5b (pp. 84-85) holidays - problems & complaints 5c (pp. 86-87) travel idioms past tenses, time linkers, articles (a/an, the), compound nouns, phrasal verbs (get) 5d (pp. 88-89) adjective - noun collocations 5e (pp. 90-94) present/past participles, adjectives/adverbs Culture Corner 5 (p. 95) - The River Thames; Across the Curriculum (Geography) (p. 96) Weather; Going I Green 5 (p. 97) AAarine Litter; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 98-99), Progress Check 5 (p. 100)_______ 6a (pp. 102-103) food 6b (pp. 104-105) problems related to diet; food idioms 6c (pp. 106-107) conditionals type 1-3, prefixes, phrasal verbs (give) 6d (pp. 108-109) ways of looking 6e (pp. 110-114) restaurants clauses of concession Culture Corner 6 (p. 115) - A Night For All Scots!; Across the Curriculum (Science) (p. 116) Teeth; Going Green 6 (p. 117) Why organic farming?; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 118-119), Progress Check 6 (p. 120) 7a (pp. 122-123) entertainment 7b (pp. 124-125) types of performances 7c (pp. 126-127) cinemas the passive, forming compound adjectives, phrasal verbs (turn) 7d (pp. 128-129) 7e (pp. 130-132) reviews modals Culture Corner 7 (p. 133) - Madame Tussauds; Across the Curriculum (Music) (p. 134) The triumph of the amateurs; Going Green 7 (p. 135) Paper; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 136-137), Progress Check 7 (p. 138) 8a (pp. 140-141) high tech gadgets 8b (pp. 142-143) electronic equipment & problems, idioms 8c (pp. 144-145) reported speech, relative clauses, phrasal verbs (bring), forming verbs 8d (pp. 146-147) 8e (pp. 148-150) linkers I Culture Corner 8 (p. 151) - The Best of British Inventions; Across the Curriculum (Science) (p. 152) Heating things up; Going Green 8 (p. 153) Alternative Energy; Spotlight on Exams (pp. 154-155), Progress Check 8 (p. 156) VI READING LISTENING, SPEAKING FUNCTIONS WRITING Beautiful Nepal visualising a scene a postcard dialogue (disastrous holiday) talking about holidays, multiple choice a short account of a bad travel experience extract from Around the World in 80 days listening for specific information an ending to a story a perfect day for a carnival setting the scene; expressing feelings a story rainbovy of food healthy/unhealthy eating a healthy menu a dialogue about health advising, agreeing/disagreeing expressing regrets, wishes extract from Oliver Twist a paragraph continuing a story report on an Asian food court concluding a report evaluating a place Teens today ... a square-eyed generation? summarising a longer text a survey dialogue (at the opera) inviting/accepting/declining, expressing opinions London Imax Cinema extract from The Phantom of the Opera an account of the Phantom’s life types of reviews recommending a review 3 Things 1 Couldn’t Live Without an interview an article about your favourite gadgets reporting technical problems, responding an email to your pen-friend about a faulty gadget you bought a text about funding extract from The Time Machine a short description of a journey in a time machine Mobile Phones in Schools ... expressing opinions an opinion essay Vll Strong ties ♦ Before you start... • How did you spend your summer holiday? • How do you feel now that school is starting? Look at Module 1 Find the page numbers for pictures 1 -4. ♦ Find the page numbers for • a list of things to do □ • an author’s biography □ • a single dictionary entry П L • a letter □ Ф Listen, read and talk about... • teen activities • qualities in a friend • teen fashion in the UK • recycling ♦ Learn how to ... • express likes/dislikes • socialise • express sarcasm/anger • make suggestions • give advice ♦ Practise ... • words often confused: supporting! supportive, careful!carins, respected! respectful, mean!well-meanins • present simple, present continuous • present perfect simple/continuous • phrasal verbs: look • word formation: adjectives ♦ Write / Give ... • a short paragraph about what you like doing • a two-minute talk about friends • informal letters • a short paragraph about teenage fashion in your country • a talk on how to fight discrimination \ ( 1 Reading Skills Vocabulary Teen activities Which of these activities do teens in your country enjoy doing? What about you? Use: most, a few, some, not many. • hang out with friends • go dubbing • send emails • play computer games • go window shopping • send text messages on their mobiles • chat online • listen to music • watch TV/DVDs • surf the Net • do extreme sports • spend time with their families • go on trips to the countryside • do voluntary work (plant trees, run errands for the elderly, etc) ► Alost teens enjoy hanging out with friends. I enjoy chatting online, etc Reading 2 ',r' Look at the title and the introduction in the text. What do you expect to read? Listen, read and check. ^udy skills Reading for specific information Underline key words in the instructions, questions, etc. Read the text(s) and try to find sentences, phrases, etc that match the underlined key words. The matching sentences, phrases, etc are usually paraphrased. Using this information, answer the questions. 3 Read again. Answer questions 1-6. Who. 10 1 would rather live somewhere else? 2 enjoys watching funny programmes on television? 3 likes buying clothes but not spending too much money on them? 4 prefers to spend his/her free time doing unusual activities? 5 enjoys spending some of his/her weekend with their family? 6 gets angry with members of his/her family? What's it like being 16? We spoke to six 16-yeor-olds from around the world to find out what they and their friends like to do in their free time. Here's what they had to say. I Fiona, 16 - Galway, Ireland "I've got lots of friends and we're all into the same kind of things. We like watching TV, especially comedies and my all-time favourite is Father Ted. We love music too, and I'm really into indie* bands like The Bravery and the Arctic Monkeys. I try to go to as many gigs** as I can. I'm not really into fashion. I can't stand shopping and I couldn't care less about designer labels." Josie, 16 Glasgow, Scotland "I really like shopping. I think it's a relaxing, enjoyable pastime. So much so, I can spend hours window shopping in the city centre with my friends. H&M is my favourite clothes shop because you can always find great bargains there. I also like going to the cinema and I try to catch a film at least once a fortnight with my friend, Tom. Everyone my age is crazy about mobile phones and texting has become a new national pastime!" I Jamie, 16 - Crystal Brook, Australia live with my family on a farm near a small town in South Australia. The countryside is beautiful around here and I go walking and horse riding a lot, but life is generally boring. I don't fancy living here when I'm older and dream of going to live in a big city. My friends ' from 0 smoll independent record label * live performances and I spend a lot of time on the Internet playing games and chatting and we watch DVDs. Of course, like all teenagers, we always have \ homework to do." □ Kim, 16 L Vancouver, Canada "During the week I don't do much in the evenings apart from my homework, so I really 1сюк forward to the weekends. On Saturdays, I usually hang out with my friends down at the shopping mall where we check out the shops for new clothes, grab a bite to eat and watch a movie. On Sundays, I usually go for a trip to the countryside with my parents. I love that." Q Brandon, 16 L Seattle, USA "I'm an active person. I hate TV. I find sitting in front of a TV screen a waste of time. I'm fascinated by the great outdoors. I'm a skateboard fanatic and get to and from school every day on one. At the weekends, I try to get out of the city and go rock climbing or paragliding. Extreme sports are my passion! I think it's important to look good tcю and I go for the sporty look." g Emily, 16 L London, England "I like keeping fit, buying expensive clothes and dance music! I love going out clubbing with my friends at the weekends - we dance all night. I have two younger sisters, but we fight a lot because they always want to wear my clothes. That's so annoying -1 hate it when they do that!" 5 Speaking Portfolio: Imagine you are a TV reporter and your partner is one of the teenagers in the text on pp. 10-11. Find out what he/she likes/doesn’t like doing. Everyday English Expressing likes/dislikes Use the language in the box to discuss your likes/dislikes. Use the phrases in Ex. 1 and your own ideas. Enquiring about likes and dislikes • Do you like/enjoy... (-ing)? • What sort of thing(s) do you like ... (-ing)? • What do you like/dislike about... (-ing)? • What do you think of. • (-ing)? Expressing likes Expressing dislikes • 1 like/love it. • It’s terrible. • It’s cool/great/ • 1 don’t like/enjoy it brilliant. (very much/at all). • 1 find it relaxing/ • 1 hate it. 1 find it enjoyable. really boring. • I’m crazy about it. • 1 hate/can’t stand ... • I’m really into it. • 1 don’t fancy it. • 1 like/love... • It’s awful/boring. ► A: Do you like chattins online? B: Yeah ... / love it. A: Really? I don't enjoy it very much. I like listenins to music. Writing 6 Portfolio: Write a paragraph about what you iike/do not like doing. Use the texts on pp. 10-11 to help you (60-70 words). i Words ol Wisdom The best substitute for experience is being sixteen. Raymond Duncan (American author) in two minutes, think of ten new words/ phrases you have learnt in this lesson. Make sentences using them. Close your book and tell your partner. 11 Listening & Speaking Skills Vocabulary Character qualities 1 Read the poem. Think of your best friend. What makes them special to you? Discuss. «А memory lasts forever. Never does it die. True friends stay together, f And never say goodbye (Anon.) 2 Look at the dictionary entries of the qualities below. Which do you look for in a friend? Which do you try to avoid? Discuss. loyal (adj) — firm in their support for a person selfish (adj) — caring only about themselves aggressive (adj) — angry and violent patient (adj) — calm, not ciLsily annoyed respected (adj) — admired and considered important____________________________________ dedicated (adj) — devoted and enthusiastic mean (adj) — unkind to another person caring (adj) — affectionate, helpful and sympathetic__________________________________ jealous (adj) - angry or bitter about sth creative (adj) — able to invent and develop original ideas trusting (adj) — honest and sincere dishonest (adj) — not truthful, cannot be trusted supportive (adj) — kind and helpful during difficult or unhappy times_______________ 12 moody (adj) — angry or depressed without any warning well-meaning (adj) — unsuccessful when trying to be helpful or kind______________ A: To me a good friend should be honest. What do you think? B: I agree ... and patient too ... but a good friend shouldn't be aggressive or... Reading 3 0 Read the first two exchanges and answer the questions. Listen, read and check. 1 What’s the relationship between Kim and Julie? 2 Why is Kim angry? 3 What is the dialogue about? Laura: Kim: Laura: Kim: Laura: Kim: Laura: Kim: Laura: Kim: Laura: Kim: What’s the matter, Kim? I’ve had enough! What do you mean? It’s Julie - my so-called friend - she’s cancelled our plans again. She’s always doing it and it hurts my feelings. But she looks so sweet and caring ... That’s what most people think ... but she only cares about herself and she only goes out with me when she has nothing better to do. Oh, come on! Aren’t you being a bit mean? No ... she might be nice to you ... but she keeps letting me down. Oh well... forget about it... why don’t we rent a DVD? Alright... any ideas? There’s that comedy ... you know... what’s it called?... Forever Friends. Oh, perfect! Э Read again. Use the words/phrases in the columns to make as many true statements Expressing sarcasm/anger as possible. Kii&‘ bsiom thinks feels wants says angry with Julie Julie is nice Kim isn't being fair to rent a DVD Julie is selfish ► Kfm feels angry with Julie. b Which expression does Kim use to tell Laura she Is annoyed? 5 6 Speaking Portfolio: Your friend is always borrowing things from you and never gives them back. Complain to your partner. Use the dialogue in Ex. 1 as a model. Record yourselves. Listening d Read the list of statements. Which do you agree with? Give reasons. A I can make friends easily. В Friends should never be selfish. C Friends help us to express ourselves. D Friends will always help out with money. E I’m never bored with friends. F I’ve experienced a lot with friends. 7 b о Now listen to a radio interview with British teenagers giving their views on friendship. Number the statements above in the order you hear them. There is one extra statement. Say it right Socialising Q Choose the correct response to the statements. Listen and check. 1 What’s up? How’s it going? You’re looking well. Everything alright? See you later. Yeah, fine. Bye. Not too bad. And you? Thanks, so are you. Nothing much. 8 I don’t believe it! I’m sick and tired of it. 9 Listen and repeat. Which express sarcasm/ anger? What could the other speaker say? 1 Oh, perfect! 5 That’s crazy! 2 Unbelievable! 6 3 That’s it! 7 4 Really! Idioms Fill in: nerves, back, eye, shoulder, neck, head. Check in the Word List. Are there similar idioms in your language? 1 They never agree with each other. They don’t see eye to......... What’s wrong with Sam? He’s like a bear with a sore.......... They gave me the cold . entered the room. He drives me crazy. He’s a pain in the....... Get off my..........I’m in a bad mood today. I’m fed up with him. He really gets on my when I Words often confused 10 11 Choose the correct word. Check in the Word List. Then make a sentence with the other word. Amy is very supporting/supportive. You can rely on her to help you if she can. Josh is a really careful/caring person - he’s always ready to listen to my problems. The teacher wasn’t respected/respectful by his students. Angela always tries to do the right thing -she’s really mean/well-meaning. Speaking Portfolio: Prepare a two-minute talk about friends. Include: • if you have a lot of friends. • why your friends are important to you. • what qualities you look for in friends. • what you usually do with your friends. Record yourself. 13 Grammar in Use Present tenses Grammar Reference 1 1 Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, present continuous, present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. A: .........(you/do) anything interesting this evening? B: No, I ........ (not/think) so. I ........ (stay) in.........(you/go) out? A: How long..........(he/know) Kathy? B: Since they met at university. A: My friend .......... (forget) to buy me something for my birthday. B: Never mind. A: ......... (you/read) the new Harry Potter book yet? B: I.........(read) it now actually. Why are you in such a hurry? B: Because the film.....(start) at 8 o’clock. A; What........... (you/do) for your holidays this summer? B: We..........(think) of going to Spain for a week. A: The weather .......... (get) colder since last Monday. B: I........(know). It..........(get) colder and colder as the days go by. A: ........(you/like) tennis? B: Yes, I........(be) a member of the local club for years. 9 A: What...........(you/do)? B: I ......(taste) the soup to see if it’s OK. 10 A; The room..........(smell) awful. B: Why..........(not/you/open) the window? 5 A; 8 b How is each tense in Ex. la used? Look at the Grammar Reference section and say. 1 Are you doing: present continuous, fixed future arrangement C Which of the verbs in Ex. la are stative verbs? Find an example where a stative verb is in a continuous form. What does it mean? 2 14 Ask and answer, as in the example. Use: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom, never. How often do you ... • go window shopping/clubbing/surfing/ dancing/skating/swimming, etc • surf the Net/chat online/send emails • watch documentaries/listen to jazz music ► A: How often do you go window shopping? B: Not very often. I usually go window shopping once a month. 3 Use the verbs and the table below to make sentences about yourself. • meet • travel • talk • eat out • buy • read • write • change • go • see for a week/a month/a year/a long time/etc since last week/last month/last Мау/1998/etc / haven’t seen my uncle since 1998. 5 Been or gone! Complete the sentences. ► Have you ever been to Portugal? ► Jane has gone out for the evening. She won’t be back until late. 1 Ann’s away. She has.........to Spain. 2 We’ve just.........to the supermarket. Look at what we’ve bought. 3 Laura has........out. She’ll be back in an hour. 4 Are you going to the gym? No, I’ve already.......... a QO Look at Ann’s list. Ask and answer questions. Use yet or already. • go to the gym (/) • have lunch (/j • do the shopping OQ • /ix her bike (/) • do her housework (X) A: Has Ann been to the gym yet? B: Yes, she’s already been there. Has she b Make a list of things to do today. Swap papers. Ask questions to find out what your partner has already done/hasn't done yet. 6 Respond to the questions (1*5). Use just, already or yet. 1 "How atx)ut a sandwich?" "No, thanks. I ► 've just had lunch." 2 "Is Jane here?” "I’m afraid not. She........” 3 "Have you posted the invitations?" "Sorry. I...." 4 "Is dinner ready?" “Sure. I..........” 5 “Would you like some coffee?” “No, thanks. I 7 Qf”'- 8 Ask and answer using for or since. 1 The ground is wet. (rain) ► A: Has it been raining? B: Yes, for two hours./Yes, since this morning. 2 You look tired, (work) 3 Your clothes are dirty, (play in the garden) 4 You are sunburnt, (sit in the sun) Phrasal verbs Study the diagram, then complete the sentences (1-4). Choose one phrasal verb and draw a picture to illustrate its meaning. down on (think sb is not good enough) look > - I to V. (anticipate) 1 Don’t tell me that the concert has been cancelled. I was really......it. 2 My grandmother.........my baby sister while my mother works. 3 When you travel abroad, you should ........ pickpockets. 4 My cousin is really arrogant. I hate the way he ..........everyone. 9 In teams, make sentences using a phrasal verb from Ex. 8. Each correct sentence gets one point. Dependent prepositions Use Appendix 1 to complete the paragraph vdth: at, with, on, about. Use the phrases to make sentences about yourself and your friends. My best -frUwci.jolni»., is very 0ood i) ► at solving other people's problevws, but very bad a)......fi.i^ciiv\^ soLutloi^i for hU owu problewLS. For ir^tar\^e, he tells kue to be careful з)......псу nconey but then, he Is careless -f)....his own.. He's teeen. s).....the Idea of other people saving nconey for a raln-y day but hes not so enthusiastic e>)......doing It hlncself. ► I’m very good at giving advice, but I’m very bad at receiving it. Word formation 10 Read the theory box. Form adjectives from the words in brackets to complete sentences (1-4). Forming adjectives To form adjectives from nouns, we use -able (comfort - comfortable), -ese (China - Chinese), -ful (beauty - beautiful), -ical (economy - economical), -al (brute - brutal), -ish (self -selfish), -ous (fame -famous), -y (fun - funny), -ed (talent - talented). To form adjectives from verbs, we use -ive (act -active), -ing (care - caring), -ed (confuse -confused), -less (count - countless). 1 BATMAN; A.........(dare) and........(honour) superhero who fights crime. m HARRY POTTER: A ........... (fiction) teenage wizard who has a.......(power) enemy. [fj ASTERIX & OBEUX: Two ...... (comic) cartoon characters who are also...(fear) warriors. 4 THE THREE MUSKETEERS: An........(excite) story about the adventures of three.....(courage) Frenchmen. 11 Key word transformations Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words. I last travelled abroad two years ago. been I.........two years. I haven't met him before. time It’s the...........him. He started work in 1999. working He.......... 1999. It’s a long time since we ate out. for We.........a long time. I’ve never read such a good story, best It’s the...........read. Grammar Checkl 15 1 Look at the picture and the title. What might the book be about? Read the biography and check. Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888) grew up in a poor family in Boston, USA, and was one of four daughters. She is best known for her children’s books, especially Little Women (1868-1869). The novel reflects L M Alcott’s life and experiences. It is about the loves and lives of four young sisters growing up in New England during the American Civil War. The four March sisters. Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy, work hard with their mother to have a happy and peaceful home while their father is away at war. 2 3 чг'* Read the first paragraph of the extract. Where are the sisters? What time of year is it? Which of the two music extracts best matches the description? Listen and say. !’О Listen and read. Which sister (Meg, Jo, Beth or Amy)... 1 was always quiet and content? 2 felt awkward being a teenager? 3 was very attractive? 4 had an expressive face? 5 was comfortable spending time alone? 6 was delicate-looking and polite? 7 thought very highly of herself? What parts of the text helped you find the answers? : ! '' У t rl ' ^ . . '1 •*,' I 16 d Match the highlighted words/phrases vdth their meanings below. Then use your dictionary to explain the words in bold. • interrupted • loose/flowing • strong • moving her body • old and useless • growing fast • arms and legs • not thin • cheered up talking Match the underlined parts of the text to the appropriate explanation below. • who is very polite • leaving it • she rarely lost • a typical pale beauty • bothered her/made her feel awkward • quite a few paintings As young readers like to know ‘how-people look', we will take this moment to give them a little sketch of the four sisters, who sat knitting away in the twilight 5 while the December snow fell quietly outside and the fire crackled cheerfully within. It was a comfortable old room, though the carpet was faded and the furniture very plain; for a good picture or two hung on the walls, books filled the 10 shelves, chry.santhemums and Christmas roses bloomed in the windows and a pleasant atmosphere of home-peace filled the пют. the name suited her excellently; for she seemed to live in a happy world of her own. only venturing 35 out to meet the few whom she trusted and loved. Amy, though the youngest, was a most important person - in her own opinion at least. A regular snow-maiden, with blue eyes and yellow hair curling on her shoulders, pale and slender, and 40 always carrying herself like a young lady mindful of her mourners. What the characters of the four sisters were, we will leave to be found out. Meg, the eldest' of the four, was sixteen, and very pretty, being plump and fair, with large eyes. 15 plenty of soft, brown hair, a sweet mouth and white hands of which she was rather vain. Fifteen-year-old Jo was very tall, thin and brown, and reminded one of a colt-; for she never seemed to know what to do with her long limbs, which were 20 very much in her way. She had a decisive mouth, a comical nose and sharp, grey eyes, which appeared to see everything, and could be fierce, funny or thoughtful. Her long, thick hair was her one beauty; but it was usually bundled in a net. to 25 be out of her way. Jo had round shoulders, big hands and feet, a fly-away look to her clothes and the uncomfortable appearance of a girl who was rapidly shooting up into a woman and didn't like it. Elizabeth - or Beth, as everyone called her -30 was a rosy, smooth-haired, bright-eyed girl of thirteen, with a shy manner, a timid voice and a peaceful expression, which was seldom disturbed. Her father called her ‘Little Miss Tranquillity’, and 'ihe oldest (used lor family members) -a young male horse ^the flmtr of a fireplace The clock struck six; and, having swept up the hearth\ Beth put a pair of slippers down to warm. 45 Somehow the sight of the old shoes had a good effect upon the girls; for mother was coming, and everyone brightened to welcome her. Meg stopped lecturing and lighted the lamp, Amy got out of the armchair without being asked, and Jo forgot how 50 tired she was as she sat up to hold the slippers nearer to the fire. ‘They are quite worn out; Mother must have a new pair.’ ‘I thought I’d get her some with my dollar.’ said 55 Beth. “No, I shall!’ cried Amy. ‘I'm the oldest,’ began Meg, but Jo cut in with a decided: ‘I’m the man of the family now that papa is away, 60 and I shall provide the slippers, for he told me to take special care of mother while he was gone.’ ‘I’ll tell you what we’ll do,' said Beth; ‘let’s each get her something for Christmas, and not get anything for ourselves.’ 65 5 Form compound adjectives from the following, as in the example. Find two examples in the text. 1 dark hair ► dark-haired gir/, 2 green eyes, 3 long legs, 4 broad shoulders, 5 stiff neck, 6 cold heart, 7 wide eyes, 8 baby face, 9 kind heart, 10 sharp tongue b Use the words to describe the girls to your partner. 7 ’ Imagine the March sisters nowadays. How would their appearance be different? Where could they be living? Discuss. 6 d Complete the table with words from the text. 8 hair 1 facial characteriscics i bcxjy/builci 1 Jo иДп11| 3 Portfolio: Work in groups of four. Take roles and continue the sisters’ conversation. b Now write your conversation. Exchange with another group. Compare your ideas and check for mistakes. 17 Writing Skills ...Endings Beginnings... Hi Jane! Sorry to hear that you're not getting on very well with your brother. Maybe I con help! _ Dear Mall, Hi! I haven’l heard from you for ages so I ihoughl I’d drop you a line! I really hope you feel better soon. Give me a call some time! Best wishes, Sam Anyway, that's all for now! Write and tell me your news! Love, Andy Hi! 3 How are you? I just wanted to tell you how sorry I am about what happened last Monday. . Dear Grandma, 4 I Thanks SO much for ' the birthday present I I absolutely loved it! Well, lhai’s aboui all. Thanks again for the gift. Grandma. See you soon, Love, Luke XXX Anyway, I hope D my advice helps! i Write and tell me how you get on. Lots of love, |Л11 XXX I hope we get a chance to discuss things. Once again. I'm really sorry. Yours. Dan 5 Hi Jamie! Congratulations on your graduation! We are all so happy for you! 6 Dear Mark, Г Thanks so much for the I invitation to your party. I'd love ' to cornel I Dear Diana, Sorry I haven't written for ages - I've been reoUy busy studying. In fact I'm having a real problem studying for my exams this year. You always do so well Could you please give me a few tips? 8 Dear Tony, Hi! Sorry to hear that you haven’l been feeling well. I’d love to see pictures from the ceremony. See you soon Beth So, Г11 see you on Friday after school at your house. 1 can’t wail! John What would you advise н me to do? Please write back as soon as you can. Kathy 2 Read the theory box and the plan. 1 18 Informal letters a Match the beginnings (1-8) to the endings (A-H). Which type of tetter is each pair from? • a letter giving your news • a get-well letter • a letter congratulating someone • a reply to a party invitation • a letter asking for su^estions/ advice • a thank-you letter • a letter of apology • a letter home to your parents • a letter asking for/giving advice • a letter asking for/giving information b Find examples of informal style. We write informal letters to friends and relatives we know well, or to people our own age. An informal letter should include; • an informal greeting such as Dear/Hi + person’s name or just Hi! • an introduction with opening remarks, e.g. How are you? I’m fine but I’ve been really busy, etc. and your reason for writing. • a main body containing the main point(s) of the letter. • a conclusion with closing remarks, e.g. That’s all for now. Write back soon. • an informal ending, e.g. Love from/Lots of love/See you soon/Best wishes/Yours + your name or just your name. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence followed by appropriate supporting sentences. Informal letters should be written in an informal style. That is: everyday vocabulary (e.g. It’s taken me a while to ...), short forms (e.g. I’d, I’ve, there’s), colloquial expressions/idioms (e.g. I thought I’d drop you a line ...), phrasal verbs (e.g. settle in, getting on). Ч__________________________________________________________ Plan Para 1 opening remarks and reason for writing t Paras 2-3 Main body - development t Para 4 closing remarks •ludy skills Understanding rubrics Before beginning a piece of writing, you need to make sure you understand the rubric. Underline the key words. These will tell you who will read your piece of writing, why you are writing it and what you should write about. 3 d Read the rubric, look at the key words, and answer the questions. You recently moved to a biQ city and have decided to write a letter to vour friend back in vour small town. Write a letter describing life in the city and vour feelings about the change. 1 What are you going to write? 2 Who is going to read your piece of writing? 3 Why are you writing the letter? 4 What should your letter include? b Read the letter and match the paragraphs with the headings below: closing remarks writer’s feelings about the change life in the new city opening remarks/reason(s) for writing 5 Dear Jane, How are you doing? I’m really well, but it’s taken me a while to settle in. It’s been/our months now since I moved, so I thought I’d drop you a line to let you know how I’ve been getting on. ^ Dublin is a really exciting city! There’s always something going on. In/act, there are so many cafes, cinemas, sports /acilities and shopping centres that it’s sometimes difficult to decide what to do! There are lots of interesting people here, too. Even though I’ve only been here/or a short time, I’ve already made quite a few new friends. I’m really enjoying li/e here, but I still miss Ashby from time to time. It’s more industrial here and there are a lot more tragic jams and crowds - I have to be really careful when I’m riding my bike! What I miss most though is my old friends - especially you! Well, that’s all my news for now. Write back and let me know what you’ve been up to since I last saw you. You’re always welcome to come and visit - I’d really love that. Say hi to the rest of the gang! Yours, Fiona Use the words in brackets to rewrite the sentences. 1 I’m writing to tell you about my last holiday, (just a quick note) 2 I’d like to thank you for your help, (thanks a lot) 3 I was really glad to get your letter, (great to get) 4 It’s a shame you didn’t get the job. (sorry to hear) Making suggestions Use the language in the box to make suggestions for the following. • / think I/you/we should... • How/What about + ... ing ...? • Why don’t I/you/we...? Would you like to 6 1 spend next weekend vrith us ► How about spending next weekend with us? 2 go camping together 3 get a puppy for your sister 4 go to a concert together 5 meet you at the train station Giving advice Give advice as in the example. If t were you, You should (n't). Have you thought of, Why don’t you...? 1 I’ve put on weight. —► join a gym/you’ll lose weight. ► If I were you I’d join a gym. This way you'll lose weight. 2 I’ve got nothing to do. —► take up a new hobby/you’ll keep busy 3 I don’t have enough money. —> get a part-time job/you’U earn money 4 I don’t have any friends. —► join a youth club/sports team/ you’ll meet new people 5 I’m unhappy at work. —► look for a new job/you’ll be happier 19 Writing Skills 7 Understondins rubrics Find the key words in each of the rubrics, then say: who is soing to read the letter/email; what type of letter/email it is; why you are writing it; how many main body paragraphs each letter/email should have and what topics they should include. A You are about to visit a school exchange partner in another country and you are not sure what clothes to take with you or how to get to their house. Send an email to your friend asking for information (100-140 words). two main body paragraphs Para 2: ask what clothes to take with you Para 3: ask how to get to friend’s house В Read the extract from your English pen-friend’s email. Her name is Ann. Write an email to her. In your email: • tell her about your birthday party • ask three questions about her trip to New York (100-140 words). I hope you enjoyed your birthday party. What did you do? Did you have a nice time? I’m going to New York next week. I Just can't wait C Read the extract from your English pen-friend George's email. What's your best friend like? What do you do together? I can't wait for the winter holidays! I've got lots of things planned. Write an email to George. In your email: • tell him about your best friend • ask three questions about his plans for the holidays (100-140 words). D Read the extract from your English pen-friend Michelle’s letter. Write a letter to Michelle and give her some advice on how to overcome her problem (100-140 words). My town’s 90 oiuiet and boring! My friends and I would love to go out mors, but there’s nothing much to do. There isn’t even a cinema! What can we do? 8 Discuss & write Choose any rubric in Ex. 6 and write your letter/email. Before handing in your piece of writing, review and revise it. Use the questions below. General review strategies • Read the letter/email. How does it ‘sound"? • Does the text flow in an effective way? • Does the reader get the required information? Paragraphs • Does your first paragraph introduce the reason you are writing? • Are your paragraphs clear? • Are the paragraphs in a logical order? • Does each main body paragraph start with a topic sentence? • Do supporting sentences further explain the main idea of the topic sentence? • Are there any unnecessary sentences you need to take out? • Does the conclusion summarise the content of the letter/email? Style Is the style consistent throughout your letter/email? Is it simple, everyday English? Vocabulary Do you overuse any words? Would synonyms make your letter more interesting? Do you write with your left hand or your right hand? Neither. I writeN. with a pen. J 20 ULTURE 'll CORNER X Fashion in the UK The weather in the UK is well known for being cold and wet, but there is one thing that's always hot and that's the fashion I We spoke to three teenagers about their views on clothes and what they like wearing. "I think I'm reasonably well-dressed. I usually wear comfortable clothes that show a little bit of individuality. I love skateboarding, so most days you'll find me in very baggy jeans, trainers and a hoodie; that’s a sweatshirt with a hood for those of you who don't know! I'm not really bothered about brand names or logos. I tend to stick to cheaper clothes that won't rip when I fall off my skateboard!" "I love keeping up with all the latest trends. It's so easy to be fashionable these days as lots of top designers make clothes for the cheaper, high street shops’. I spend too much time and money in all of them, but they are full of trendy, affordable clothes! So, what's a girl supposed to do? Hit the shops of course!" "When it comes to fashion, I like to take my inspiration from many different places. Britain is a very multi-cultural place, so you see lots of different styles and trends all the time. I like picking up bargains at the street markets and second-hand shops. Then, I put these clothes together with things I have found on the high street. That way, I always stand out in a crowd! Young people today are so creative when it comes to fashion that pop stars are influenced by their style and not the other way round!" the shops in the main shopping area What kinds of clothes do British teenagers like wearing: comfortable cheap clothes, expensive designer outfits, second-hand clothes, modern colourful desisns, brand namesl Guess from the pictures. Listen, read and check. b Ш In one minute, write as many phrases as you can with 'shopping'. Check in your dictionaries. Make sentences using them. 2 Read again. Who {Amy, John or Lisa): ► shopping spree, Sunday shoppins, late-night shopping, last-minute shopping 3 chooses clothes based on practical reasons? likes to look different? has money to spend on trendy clothes? doesn’t like dressing just to impress? loves shopping? Use your dictionaries to explain the phrases in bold. Then, list all the words related to places teenagers buy their clothes. Are there similar places in your country? 5 Take roles and interview one of the r teenagers in the text. A: So Amy, tell me, do you like to keep up with the latest fashions? B: Oh yes! I... Portfolio: What do the teenagers in your country like wearing? Where do they go shopping for clothes? How much money do they spend on clothes? Write a short paragraph. 21 CITIZENSHIP ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 1 Read the dictionary entry. What kinds of discrimination can people suffer from? fe.g. skin colour, nationality... etc) discrimination treating a person or group of people less fairly or well than other people or groups e.g. racism, sexism, ageism _ d Read the case studies (A-C). Who is discriminating against each person? Why? Paolo is teased at school because he is Italian. He has to have extra les.sons for his English reading and writing. He often feels nervous about going to school. His teacher knows he is unhappy but isn’t doing anything about it. Meg was made redundant from her job as a secretary last year at the age of 49. She loved her job and would like to find a similar one. She keeps applying for secretarial positions and has joined a placement agency. However, she has only been called to a couple of interviews which she feels didn’t go very well even though she is highly qualified. She suspects that employers are looking for younger secretaries. She doesn’t know what to do. Julie has always been a bit of a ■ tomboy. She loves the outdoors and docs a lot of extreme sports. She often wears combat trousers and trainers and i.sn’t keen on fashion or make-up. Unfortunately, the girls at school don't talk to her and never invite her out. They sometimes even make fun of her. She feels hurt and thinks that people don’t always accept her for who she is, but she is reluctant to talk to anyone about it. 4,5. ;; Put an end to 1яшаш1&йц.и ✓ Don't suffer in silence. Call a helpline for advice or share your problem with a friend, a teacher or someone you trust. A problem shared is a problem halved! ✓ Know your rights. Remember; discrimination is illegal in Great Britain in employment, education, housing etc. Schools, police and employers have a responsibility to protect you! ✓ Get other people involved. If you're feeling brave, start an anti-discrimination group in your school, university, youth group etc. You could provide a counselling service or invite guest speakers along. ✓ Above all, Never give up! If you're finding it difficult to get a job, keep on applying. If you're being bullied because of your race, keep on fighting! EVERYONE HAS A RIGHT TO UVE HAPPILY AND FREE ROM DISCRIMINA-RON, NO MATTER WHO THEY ARE! 3 22 b Now read the advice about stopping discrimination. What should Paolo, Meg and Julie do? Why? ► A: I think Paolo should talk to a teacher because... B: t agree. He can also ... Explain the underlined words/phrases in the texts. Use appropriate ones to complete the sentences 1-4 below. 1 They laughed at her. They all...her. 2 She is upset by what they said. She feels . 3 She was asked to leave her job. She was .. 4 She loves boys’ games. She’s a..... Project: Imagine you visit schools to give talks about fighting discrimination. Make notes about: • what discrimination is • examples (from the case studies or your own ideas) • how to fight/ end discrimination Use your notes to give a two-minute talk. Record your presentation. 1 Look at the pie chart. What makes up our rubbish? Which of these do you recycle? 27% Paper 20% Other 2 О Read the text and complete the gaps with the correct word formed from the words in brackets. Listen and check. Thie loop'^ 3 D о you wonder what happens to the materials you recycle? Think of the recycling logo with the three chasing arrows. Each of them 1)..........(represent) one part of the process. Recycling starts when you put your rubbish in the recycling bins. A recycling truck collects all the materials and takes 2)..........(they) to recycling facilities for sorting. From there, they are sent to factories and new products are manufactured. This is the second part of the process. The 3)..........(three) part is where the 4).........(consume) comes in. Recycled materials are everywhere, even in the clothing we wear. 5)..........(buy) clothes made from recycled material makes recycling work and 6)..........(complete) the recycling loop. Look at my fleece jacket and gloves for example. Here they are! They are great, aren't they? Believe it or not, they are all made of 7)..........(recycle) plastic! Next time you go 8)............(shop) for clothes and accessories, look for items which display the recycling logo. This way you help conserve precious resources and eliminate waste overflow in landfills. Remember you are the 9)...........(drive) force. Only you can persuade 10)..........(manufacture) to produce recycled products. gloves fleece jacket 5 Explain the words in bold. Use your dictionaries. Portfolio: Use the text to give a 2-minute talk about the Importance of recycling. In the talk: • explain what the logo means • say how recycling works • persuade your audience to buy recycled products Record yourself. Project: What do you recycle at home or at school? Make a list and compare it with your partner. MODULE 1 Ф Listening 24 w Listen to the speakers. For questions 1-7, chooser, В or C. 1 You will hear a woman talking about a party she is going to. How does she feel? A nervous В unsure C worried 2 Listen to a teenager talking about his family. What does he find surprising? A He has lots of boy cousins. В There are so many twins. C He is an only child. 3 Listen to a woman talking about a new shopping centre. What is her opinion of it? A She really likes it. В It has some disadvantages. C The shops are expensive. 4 Listen to an advertisement for a magazine. What is special about it? A It has articles about clothes and movie stars. В It has stories about successful teenagers. C It is only for different teenagers. 5 Listen to a girl talking about someone who was her best friend. Why doesn’t she like her now? A She isn’t fun to be with any more. В She didn’t tell the truth. C They had a fight. 6 Listen to a woman giving advice about dealing with discrimination. What does she suggest? A To phone an organisation. В To get a lawyer. C To forget about it. 7 Listen to an excerpt from a radio programme. What kind of programme is it? A A news report. В A classical music programme. C A pop music programme. Reading Match the texts (1-6) to the headings (A-G). There is one extra heading that you do not need to use. A AN INTERESTING READ В WHAT’S IM fashion! C HOROSCOPE UPDATE D MAKING PLANS E SHARING A PROBLEM F BEAUTY TIPS G INTERNET PALS For those of you who like to stay ahead of the latest trends, expect to see plenty of romantic blouses and dresses on the high street this spring. High-heeled shoes and plenty of accessories, such as gold chains, beads and leather bags will also be hot this season. And if you like hats ... they are set to make a big comeback! Witi Ihimaera’s Whale Rider is a rare story of love, rejection, adventure and passion. Beautifully written and memorable, it is about family relationships, traditions and culture, and a little girl who rode a whale out to sea. Those interested in finding out about the native people of New Zealand, the Maoris, will find it well worth reading. Do you enjoy clubbing, hanging out with friends, taking part in extreme sports or surfing the Net? Whatever you like, others want to know about it! Join our online pen-friends club today by just filling in the form below. We will send you your secret password and you'll be set to be part of this amazing chatroom! LIBRA (23 Sept - 22 Ocl) With Venus as your key planet, you have a ’ great personality, patience and a good sense of humour. Your greatest gifts are your honesty and trustworthiness, as well as your ability to understand the problems of others. You are very dedicated to your job and will go far in your chosen career. I am a slxteen-year-old student who has been brought up to respect other people, so why don't people respect me too? OK, so I'm short and fat, but that's no reason for other kids to make fun of me behind my backi Please help me. IVe had enough! I’m sorry that I haven’t written back sooner. I’ve been studying for exams. They’re over now and I have time on my hands. Tell me, what are you going to do /or the holidays? Why don’t we meet up and go shopping? The winter sales are starting soon and I need some new jeans! There are some real cool ones at our local shopping centre. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Peter the Great Ч IT PETRO riUM* CATHARINA «ашвА M*CCtXKXN s; Ф Use of English Choose the best word (A-D) for each gap (1-7). 1 A very В most C best D well 2 A changed В differed C moved D altered 3 A save В keep c avoid D stop 4 A had В made c did D brought 5 A spent В had c used D passed 6 A at В in c for D of 7 A little В few c short D some Ф Writing Read the extract from your English pen-friend’s letter. Her name is Emma. Write a letter to Emma. In your letter: • tell her about your family • ask three questions about her best friend Write 100-140 words. My brother really annoys me. Do you get on well with your family? Tell me all about them! Well. I have to go now because Гт meeting my best friend Katie. We always have a lot of fun together! Peter the Great (1672-1725) is probably the 1)....famous of all the Russian tsars. Under his rule, Russia 2)...from being a poor farming society into an empire as strong as the other European powers. Peter toured Europe, sometimes in disguise to 3)....being recognised, and learned about western culture and science. Returning to Russia, he 4)....changes to his army and government to make Russia more like Europe, especially Germany. He 5)........ much of his time fighting wars, first against the Ottoman Empire and then against Sweden. He founded St Petersburg, his most lasting contribution to Russia, on some land he conquered along the Baltic Sea. A gateway to Europe, St Petersburg became the new capital 6)..his kingdom. In 1725, after bravely trying to rescue some drowning sailors, he ended up with a bad cold and died a 7)...time later. Speaking / You are going to a friend’s birthday party. Make sure you ask him/her questions about: • time • how to set there • what to wear Your partner will play the part of your friend and you will speak first. Remember to: • be active and polite • set all the information you need • decide on what to wear WordPerfect! 25 Progress Check IFill In: dishonest, aggressive, patient, jealous, selfish, mean, caring, loyal, moody, trusting. 1 You are just too...........! You shouldn’t believe everything people tell you! 2 She is so.............She only thinks of herself! 3 Thanks for your support. You’re such a(n) .............friend. 4 John is happy one minute and sad the next. He’s so............... 5 Lee can be very.............at times. I thought he was going to hit you. 6 I know the queue is long, but we must be.......... and wait our turn. 7 Violet is so helpful. She’s a(n).........person. 8 Bill always says unkind things to me. He’s so..... 9 Every word that comes out of her mouth is a lie. She is a very.........person. 10 Stop being..............You can’t have it all for 3 yourself. f Points: —] X2 20j [ЮХ2 2 Fill in: window, the great, top, mobile, grab, hit, shopping, extreme, brand, all-time. 1 .........centres 6 .........a bite 2 .........favourite 7 .........the shops 3 .........names 8 ...........designers 4 .........shopping 9 .........phones 5 .........sports 10 .........outdoors fPoints: — И0Х2 20 Put the verbs in the correct present tense. 26 1 I ......... (save) my money for three weeks now. I’ve almost got enough. 2 .........(you/see) the new King Kong film yet? 3 Hurry up, Tom! The film...........(start) in half an hour! 4 Luke, do you have any special plans for tonight? .............(you/go) out with your friends? 5 Helen is a very loyal friend. I.......... (know) her for ten years now. 6 This road..........(get) you there quicker than that one. /points: —\ ^6X3 18j ^ Form adjectives from the words in brackets. 1 Andrea is a..........(beauty) little girl. 2 I won’t lend him my car - he’s too.......(care). 3 Don’t be ........... (self)! There’s enough for everyone! 4 5 5 1 2 6 He is a..........(talent) teacher. My mum is very...........(resource). (Points: — ^5X2 10 3 Fill in: forward to, up, out for, after, down on. Can you look..........my cat while I’m away? If you don’t know her phone number, then look it .........in the phone directory. If you go swimming, look..........boats. I’ve been looking..........this holiday for ages. You shouldn’t discriminate against people. It’s not right to look.........others. I Points: — ^5X2 10 b Fill in: at, with, on, about. Are you good...........sports? Be careful..........your money. Don’t spend it all at once. Tina is very excited........going shopping later. Don’t be careless.........other people’s things. I’m not keen..........watching TV.. / Points: — \5X2 10 Choose the correct answer. A: How’s it going? B: a Not too bad. And you? b To the park vrith my dog. A: What do you think of rock climbing? B: a 1 find it very excited. b I find it very exciting. A: You’re looking very well. B: a Thanks, so are you. b Thanks, so am I. A: Do you enjoy surfing the Net? B: a I’m fine. b I’m really into it. Points: 4X3 12 I Can I My score: — j [ ^ 100 j • talk and write about what types of activities I like doing • enquire about and express likes/dislikes • talk about character qualities • socialise and express sarcasm and anger • talk about my friends • write an informal letter • write about what teenagers in my country wear • talk about fighting discrimination and the importance of recycling . _ , ........................... in English Living & Spending ♦ Before you start... • What is your best friend like? • Which person do you admire the most? Why? Ф Look at Module 2 Find the page numbers for pictures 1 -4. ♦ Find the page numbers for • a class enrolment form I I • a postcard I I • a sports centre advert I I Ф Listen, read and talk about... • spending money • free-time activities & personalities • British sporting events • being responsible with money • clean air at home Learn how to ... • enquire about/express preferences • make and reply to suggestions • express/enquire about opinions • express agreement/disagreement Practise ... • -ins form/to -infinitive/infinitive vnthout to • word formation: abstract nouns • phrasal verbs: take • words often confused: charge/owe, exchange/change, broke/debt, wages/salaries Write / Give / Conduct... • a short paragraph entry about how you spend your money • a short letter about a problem you have/your suggestions on how the problem can be solved • a diary entry • short messages • a short article about a famous sporting event in your country • a survey to find out how responsible your class is with money a two-minute talk about air pollution / Reading Skills Reading 1 1»'^' Read the title and the first paragraph of the article. What do you think British teenagers spend their money on? Listen or read to find out. 2 Read the teenagers’ quotes (1-6) in the text on p. 29 and match each one to the comments (A-F) below. A I have borrowed money, which I will pay back when I start working. В I’m such a keen fan that I spend my pocket money on buying tickets for all their matches. C It’s not that I’m too lazy to work, I just don’t have the time. I need to get good grades. D I want one that takes photos and has an MP3 player on it. E I don’t mind earning my pocket money. I think it’s only fair! F I’ve just bought some fantastic new jeans. I spent two weeks' wages on them. Shopping is my favourite hobby. b Who are you most like? Why? ! (;j^udy skills ------------------Л Understanding new words While reading, do not use your dictionary each time you come across an unfamiliar word. Read the whole sentence. This will help you guess the meaning from the context. 3 Explain the words/phrases in bold. Use them to make sentences. There are over 9 million of them in Britain and they are the most powerful group of consumers. Who are they? Teenagers! A retailer's 'dream come true'. Each year they spend £6 billion. Sweets and chocolates are still the number one best seller, but sales of mobile phone cards are catching up quickly, and they are expected to overtake sweets and chocolates very soon. Modern technology is rapidly replacing traditional favourite pastimes such as board games and reading with video game consoles like PlayStation 2 and Xbox, which cost over £300. Quite a lot of teenagers have also joined clubs that involve extreme sports, such as gliding and parachuting. This means that parents are digging deeper into their pockets than ever before. They are handing out a massive £3.3 billion to their teenagers every year, but is this enough? Obviously not, because this is only 60% of what they are spending! Teenagers are making ends meet by doing odd jobs, such as helping with the chores around the house, delivering newspapers, and working weekends as sales assistants in shops. Although they earn and receive the same amount of money, girls spend more than boys. How about you? Do you get enough money? Are you a big spender or a saver? Here is what some teenagers say: Vocabulary Spending money Э What do you think teenagers in your country spend their money on? Choose from the list. • clothes and accessories • household bills • eating out • mobile phone cards • sweets and snacks • rent • bus fares • petrol • computer games • CDs/DVDs • going out (cinema, concerts, sporting events) • magazines/ books/comics • supermarket shopping 28 (J) 'I can never resist buying the latest fashions, and I eat out with my friends at least once a week. I guess I’m quite rich for a teenager! I earn £50 a week from my weekend job, and my parents give me an extra £20.' (Patricia. 15. Swansea) Do you ever ............ money from your friends? Do you ........... up to buy something you want, e.g. a new bike? Do you think teenagers.......... their money on things they don’t really need? Which of the things you buy..... a lot and which are reasonably priced? Do you have a part-time job to ......extra money? 'I зт a first year university student and I have to survive on ^ my student loan, which is £70 a week. It's not really enough. I had a credit card but 1 cut it up. I spend my money on snacks, bus fares, going to the gym and going out.' (Hayley, 19. Middlesex) 3 Tm football crazy! I follow my team wherever they play. My parents give me £20 a week pocket money, and I earn an extra £40 a week helping my dad in his shop.' (Lee. 14. Manchester) 'I get £15 a week and I spend it on computer games, CDs, comics, going out - anything really. I can't get a job at the moment because I'm studying for my exams.' (Josh, 15, Enfield) 'I earn £20 a week by doing household chores for my parents. I'm mad about computer games and spend hours playing with my friends. My parents can't afford to splash out on expensive things for me, so I save the money I earn from my Saturday job.' (Rotxrt. 15. Kent) (Э 'I get £10 a week. I enjoy going on shopping sprees and buying magazines. At the moment I'm saving up for a mobile phone.' (Andy, 13. Devon) Ф Ф Ф ьШ What do you spend your money on? >■ A: I spend most of my money on ... B: Me too. I also buy... 5 b Answer the questions (1-7) about yourself. Speaking 6 Portfolio: Take the roles of two of the teenagers from the text. Ask and answer questions about how they get their money and what they spend it on. ► A: How much money do you get, Josh? B: I set £15 a week. Writing 7©g: Portfolio: Write a short paragraph about yourself (40-50 words). Include: • how much money you get • where you get your money from • what you sp>end your money on • whether you are good with money 8 ©f’ fh-v J Spend two or three minutes, revising what you have learnt in this lesson. Close your books and tell a partner. a Fill in: waste, pay, cost, lend, borrow, save, earn. Check in your dictionaries. 1 How do you.............for things you buy: in cash, by cheque or by credit card? 2 Do you ever............money to your friends? i Words ol Wisdom The art is not in making money, but in keeping it. (Author unknown) 29 Listening & Speaking Skills 1 2 Vocabulary Free-time activities & personalities Which of the activities do you do/play/go? Check with a partner. Add more activities to each category. • gardening • white-water rafting • fishing • skydiving • martial arts • football • tennis • board games • snowboarding • archery • aerobics do sardenins What kinds of people usually enjoy these activities? Make sentences. • adventurous • cautious • creative • fit • brave • relaxed • quiet • outgoing • shy • sociable • boring • ambitious • strong • reserved • determined • active • imaginative • sensitive ► Adventurous people enjoy skydMns or white-water rafting. Everyday English Enquiring about/expressing preferences 3 Ф Use the language in the box to discuss your hobbies Enquiring about preferences Expressing preferences • Do you prefer (-ing form)... or... • Would you rather (inf without to)... or... • Do you like (-ing form)... more than ... • Well, I really like/love/hate etc. • I’m not too keen on/l don’t like doing... • I (much) prefer (-ing form) to... ^ О Complete the dialogue with the sentences A-F. Listen and check, then read out the dialogue. Explain the words in bold in the dialogue. What hobbies do Jake and Suzy like? ► A: Do you prefer playing football or playing board games? B: Well, I’m not keen on playing football. I prefer board games. Reading 5 6 fi.' Read out the dialogue. idioms 30 d Sentences A to F are from a dialogue between two friends. What is the dialogue about? A And so what’s next... learning to fly a plane? В Oh really? Where? C Oh I’ve got art class tonight. Fancy coming along? D Me? No way! I’d rather swim with sharks than slide down a mountain on a piece of wood. E By the way, how did the white-water rafting go? F I suppose I could. I know - I’ll bring my camera. Choose the correct word. Check in the Word List. Are there similar idioms in your language? 1 Keep calm and don’t show your feelings. Just play it cold/cool. 2 John is an honest person. He plays it direct/ straight. 3 This can’t be happening. Are you playing a joke/fun on me? Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Suzy: Jake: Hi Suzy. Where are you off to? 1) .............................. N Me? Art class? I don’t think so. Not ‘extreme’ enough for you, I suppose! That’s right. 2) ........................................ Great. I’ve got a few bruises but I just love it! It’s such an amazing sport! 3) ........................................ No, but I’m going snowboarding this weekend, 4) ........................................ You know, the ski centre near my father’s village. Why don’t you come along? We’ll have a great time. 5) ........................................ Well, why not just come and watch then? 6) ........................................ Yeah. You might get some great action shots of me for your art class. OK. Well, I’d better get going. I’ll call you about it later. OK. Bye. Greenville Youth & Community Centre CURRENT ACTIVITIES/CLASSES oil painting aerobics kick boxing chess club basketball drama Listening 7 a Look at the form below. What can the missing words be? b , 1Listen and fill in gaps 1-6. Were your guesses correct? Gins eiirilnent hroi Name: Andrew 1) Contact number: 0789 2). Class! es): 3).......... Start date: 4)..........September Payment: £ 5).........../or 10 classes How you heard about the community centre*: 6)............. * place where people who live in a particular area gather for group activities, public information, etc. 8 Speaking Enrollins for a class @i) Portfolio: You want to enrol for a class at the community centre. Act out the dialogue between you and the receptionist. Record yourselves. 9 A: Good mornins- How can I help you? B: I’m interested in taking some classes at the community centre. A: Sure. Can I take your name, please? etc Say it right Suggesting/replying a О Choose the correct response. Listen and check. 1 A: I’m on my way to the gym. Fancy coming along? B: a Thanks, but I’m really tired, b Yes, that’s great! 2 A: Would you like to come to the cinema tonight? B: a I’d love to, but I really can’t, b I’m sorry, I wouldn’t like it. 3 A: How about going shopping this afternoon? B: a I think you’re right. b That would be really great! b Cr' Listen again and underline the stressed words. Read out the exchanges. 10 Use the phrases in Ex. 9 to make suggestions: e.g. spend the afternoon together, rent a DVD, come fishing with me, go to an exhibition. 11 Think of ten words/phrases you have learnt in this lesson. Make sentences using them. Close your book and tell a partner. 31 Grammar in Use 1 -ing form/to -infinitive/infinitive without to Grammar Reference Э Read the problem page letter and reply. What’s Andrew’s problem? What does Claire suggest? 2 I’m not keen on .... prefer (watch) TV. 3 1 must .... (finish) this essay tonight. 1 have to hand it in tomorrow! 4 He left without 5 I’d hate (do) archery. 6 Brian really enjoys . (play) his guitar. 7 Please let me (go) out tonight! 8 The story made me (cry). 9 Remind me (see) to it tomorrow. 10 Would you like (go) now? < jjy^your problems... SOLVED! Dear Claire, I'm always broke! I love being sociable and rd like to go out shopping more with my friends but I've never got any money. I don't mind working but I live in a small town and there just aren't many part-time jobs. Is there anything I can do? Help me! Andrew, 76, Cardiff Don't despair, Andrew! How about doing some odd jobs around your neighbourhood like cleaning windows or cars if you want to earn some extra cash? You'll have more money and help your neighbours out, too! Let me know how you get on! b Use the structures in bold to complete the rules (1-7) with: to -infinitive, infinitive without to or -ins form. Check in the Grammar Reference section. 1 preposition +................ 2 verb of preference (like/love/ hate/enjoy) +............... 3 would love/like/hate, etc +............... 4 modal verb (can, will, must, etc) +....... 5 can’t stand/help/imagine, look forward to, don’t mind ♦............... 6 want, can’t wait, remind +................ 7 let, make +............... 2 m:- 32 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. Compare with your partner. 1 Do you mind ............... (help) me with some jobs today, Sam? 3 Use the phrases to complete the sentences. GdeOs© Й©(Ш}Ши]© C2I5XJCS OGXI© liXiGE© ©оОШшоэ ca? OmciDem Оэс^хЗ 1 She never travels by ship. She ... 2 He always works overtime. He...... 3 Mary is afraid of large groups. She 4 Bob is never late. He ............ 5 You decide! I .................... 4 Use the words below to make true sentences about yourself. • look forward to • can’t help • don’t mind • can’t imagine • can • let • want • fancy ► I’m really looking forward to going out this weekend. 5 Word formation 3 Read the theory box. Then complete the advert on p. 33 using nouns formed from the words in brackets. Forming abstract nouns We use -ation (examine, examination), -ment (enjoy, enjoyment), -ence (correspond, correspondence), -ion (exhaust, exhaustion), -y (discover, discovery) to form abstract nouns. 1)............(act), adventure, 2) (compete) & 3)..................(excite)! You'll find all this and more at Oak Hall. You can try a wide 4).................(select) of extreme sports, stay in comfortable 5).............(accomiTKxiate) and enjoy a delicious choice of good food. For an unforgettable experience, call: 02037464839 b Use a dictionary to find the nouns derived from the following verbs. Use them in sentences of your own. 1 amaze ► 5 achieve amazement 6 suggest 2 educate 7 recover 3 collect 8 agree.. 4 depend ► John looked at Tim in amazement. Phrasal verbs 6 Read the diagram, then complete sentences 1-6 with the correct phrasal verb. out (invite someone out & pay for them) / over ' (gain control s^of sth) up (begin a hobby, activity, career) 1 He’ll ........ the company when his father retires. 2 I want to.........tennis. Do you know where I can have lessons? 3 We’re going to..........you..........for your birthday, Dave! 4 She................ her father. She looks and acts just like him. 5 ........your shirt and I’ll wash it for you. 6 Now that you’ve lost weight you should ........your clothes........... 7 8 9 Dependent prepositions Use Appendix 1 to complete the sentences with about, on, of, at or in. Then make sentences about yourself. 1 He’s crazy ►obout skydiving. 2 He was brilliant.....football. 3 Tom is interested.......gardening. 4 She is terrible.....cooking. She burns everything. 5 My mother is fond.......knitting, 6 Jim is keen......snowboarding. 7 Pam’s father is proud.....her achievements. Words often confused Choose the correct word. Check in the Word List, then make a sentence with the other word. 1 Have you got the money you charge/owe me? 2 Hello. I’d like to exchange/change this into pounds, please. 3 I’m broke/debt. I have no money at all. 4 Doctors’ wages/salaries are usually really high. Key word transformations Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words. 1 All Tom thinks about is football! crazy Tom ......................football. 2 We don’t have enough money to go out tonight, afford We......................out tonight. 3 I prefer going out to staying in. rather I ..........................stay in. 4 She doesn’t really like going to the theatre, keen She’s .........................to the theatre. 5 He can’t wait to see the new Harry Potter film, forward He is.............................. the new Harry Potter film. 10 Writing (a letter) QO Think of a problem you have. Write a short letter to Claire. Try to use (to) -inf or -ins forms. Swap papers and reply to your partner’s problem. Grammar Check 2 33 2QOa_gOC^gOG8 £003 1 Look at the picture and the title. When do you think the story took place? Read the biography to find out. Edith Nesbit (1858-1924) Edith Nesbit was born in Surrey. After she got married in 1880. she staned writing children’s poems and stories to help support her large family. Her w riting w'as very popular. Her well-known stories include Five Children and It (1902) and The Phoenix and the Carpet (1904). Altogether, she published more than 40 novels before her death in 1924. Nesbit’s most famous and well-loved story is The Railway Children (1906). Tlie novel is about the adventures of a middle class Edwardian family living near a railway station in the suburbs of London at the turn of the 19th century. In 1970. the book was made into an extremely successful film. 2 О Read the first sentence of each paragraph. What is the extract about? Listen and read to find out. Study skills Answering multiple-choice questions Read the text quickly to get the general idea of what it is about. Look at the first part of the question and underline the key words. Don’t read options A-D yet. Find the part of the text the question refers to. Go through the choices and underline the key words. Choose the answer that fits best. Keep in mind that the information may be rephrased. Check your answer against the text. 10 15 20 25 Chapter l\ The Beginning of Things 30 34 They were not railway children to begin with. I don't suppose they had ever thought about railways except as a means of getting to the pantomime. Zoological Gardens and Madame Tussauds. They were just ordinary suburban children, and they lived with their father and mother in an ordinary red-brick-fronted villa, with coloured glass in the front door, a tiled passage that was called a hail, a bathroom with hot and cold water, electric bells, French windows, a good deal of white paint, and ’every modern convenience', as the estate agents say. There were three of them. Roberta was the eldest. Of course, mothers never have favourites, but if their mother had had a favourite, it might have been Roberta. Next came Peter, who wished to be an engineer when he grew up; and the youngest was Phyllis, who meant extremely well. Mother did not spend all her time paying dull calls to dull ladies, and sitting dully at home waiting for dull ladies to pay calls to her. She was almost always there, ready to play with the children, and read to them, and help them to do their home lessons. Besides this, she used to write stories for them while they were at school, and read them aloud after tea, and she always made up funny pieces of poetry for their birthdays and for other great occasions, such as the refurnishing of the doll's house, or the time when they were getting over the mumps. These three lucky children always had everything they needed: pretty clothes, a lovely nursery with heaps of toys and a Mother Goose’ wallpaper. They had a kind and merry nursemaid^, and a dog who was called James, and who was their very own. They also had a father who was just perfect - never cross, never unjust, and always ready for a game - at least, if at 35 any time he was not ready, he always had an excellent reason for it, and explained the reason to the children so interestingly and funnily that they felt sure he had to do it. You will think that they ought to have been very 40 happy. And so they were, but they did not know how happy till the pretty life in the Red Villa was over and done with, and they had to live a very different life indeed. The dreadful change came quite suddenly. 45 Peter had a birthday - his tenth. Among his presents was a model engine more perfect than you could ever have dreamed of. The other presents were full of charm, but the engine was fuller of charm than any of the others were. 50 Its charm lasted in its full perfection for exactly three days. Then, owing either to Peter’s inexperience or Phyllis's good intentions, or to some other cause, the engine suddenly went off with a bang. James was so frightened that he went out and did not come back all 55 day. All the Noah's Ark^ people who were in the tender* were broken to bits, but nothing else was hurt except the poor little engine and the feelings of Peter. The others said he cried over it - but of course boys of ten do not cry, however terrible the tragedies may be 60 which darken their lot. He said that his eyes were red because he had a cold. This turned out to be true, though Peter did not know it was when he said it, the next day he had to go to bed and stay there. 1 A character in a nursery rhyme. 2 A woman paid to look after young children. 3 A large ship built by Noah, with 2 of each kind of animal on board. 4 An open vehicle behind a train engine used to carry coal. 5 6 Еф Read the text again carefully. Choose A, B, Cor D for questions 1-5. Give reasons. 1 Before they were ‘The Railway Children’, the children ... A always loved the railway. В only used the railway to go to the zoo. C just saw the railway as a means of transport. D never travelled by train. 2 Mother spent most of her time ... A visiting old ladies. В sitting at home. C writing poetry. D helping her children. 3 The children’s father often ... A got angry. В made excuses. C told funny jokes. D played with them. 4 The exploding engine didn’t... A frighten the dog. В hurt Peter’s feelings. C injure Peter. D break the Noah’s Ark people. 5 Peter went to bed because ... A he was very upset. В he had caught a cold. C he had a problem with his eyes. D the others told him to. d Use your dictionaries to explain the words in bold. b Match the highlighted phrasal verbs with their meanings. Use them in sentences of your own. 1 recovering from 2 proved to be 3 became an adult 4 invented 5 exploded Explain the underlined phrases in the text in your own words. Which of these adjectives best describe the children’s mother, father? loving, reliable, funny, creative, fair, imaginative. Discuss. Portfolio: Write Peter’s diary entry for the day of the incident with the engine (50-80 words). 35 Writing Skills 1 2 Short messages When did you last send a short written message to someone? Did you: send a postcard? leave a note? write a quick email? send a text message? Who to? Why? a Read the theory box. When we want to write someone a short message we usually send a postcard, a note/message, a short email or a text message. We might do this to inform, to remind, to thank, to apologise, etc. We often omit words such as personal pronouns (I, you, etc), articles (a, the, etc) and some verbs (am, have etc). We also use short forms (e.g. I won't instead of I will not), the imperative, informal linkers (e.g. so, instead of, therefore), abbreviations, present or past participles (leaving instead of / am leaving, been invited instead of we have been invited) and ^hort informal opening and closing remarks.___________^ b Look at the note and complete the gaps (1-6) with the words/phrases in bold from the theory box. 3 /shoit^ ^ 1) ► informal opening and closing \remarks Hi Dan! Going skiing on Sat - fancy coming along? Don’t worry about equipment, you can hire it there! Leaving my house at 8 am so don’t be late! Hope you can make it, Sam P.S. Penny’s coming too! Make the following sentences shorter. Compare with your partner. 1 I am having a great time in Spain. ► Having great time in Spain. 2 I can't come to the cinema tonight. I haven’t got any money. 3 I will be back late tonight. 4 We are meeting at eight o’clock this evening in front of the theatre. 5 There is some food in the fridge for you. 6 I have got a new Saturday job. I will tell you about it when I see you. 7 I have gone out to the supermarket. I will not be long. 8 I am really looking forward to our white-water rafting trip next month. 9 I am sorry I did not call you yesterday. I will call you this evening. 10 John has gone to buy tickets for the volleyball match on Saturday. Text messages Text messages have a unique language that uses the shortest possible forms of words and even substitutes numbers for words, e.g. C u I8r = see you later; Znite = tonight; etc. This style of writing is only appropriate in text messages or in chatrooms on the Internet. 36 L Look at the extracts (1-6) and match them to a description (A-G). There is one description that you do not need to use. Which words and symbols helped you to decide? |a| Jthank-younote I C| lapology I D I "Ireminder ВI lemait I E I Itext message I G I Idiary entry [EO postcard ^ 6.30 instead. CAUL MR LUCAS'. From: jono230blogmail.com hippygirllgokmail.com Hey Jon! Saw Saturday job advertised in If newspaper. Sounds like something I you'd like so let me know if I !J]l interested! Amy <9 Hi Pete. Can’t come 2 drama club 2nite. Can u tell Mr Barnes? Thanks! © Amy Dear Sally, Having great time here in Wales! Weather amazing, so much to do here! Went sailing yesterday! Can’t wait to show you photos. See you next week! Love, Jo Sally Webster 14, Church l^ne Aylesbury______ Buckinghamshire Emma Forgot to give back money I borrowed - sorry! Will give you it next time! Lucy (leallY пееЫ new -Venn,5 vaoUet See Soon, L-l f.s. ^nn saY« W«‘. 5 Match the abbreviations (1-5) to their meanings (A-E). Complete the note below with an appropriate abbreviation. m s in J PTO A et cetera ] P.S. В for example 1 asap C post script J e.g. D as soon as possible D etc E please turn over Hi Jack! Gone shopping /or shoes, makeup 1)........•' Remember Kate’s party tonight. Will get her gi/t jrom us 2)... CD, jewellery. Will be back 3)....... See you soon, Jemma 4).......Will bring you something nice! 37 Writing Skills 6 a Read the rubric and find the key words. Your mum has left the following note on the kitchen table: Luke . Gone out to get football boots. Size 8? Call ' me if wrong size! What time are you back I tonight? Don't forget - Dad's birthday dinner at 7! Г) Love Mum xxx You have to go out now, too. Leave your mum a reply (25-35 words). In your note say: • thanks for the boots • when you’ll be back b Look at a student’s answer. Is it the correct length? Does it include the correct information? Is it written in an appropriate style? Thank you for buying a new pair offootball hoots for me. -Size 8 fits me really well. I have got football practice later today, so I will not arrive home until half past six. % the way, you don’t need to worry because I haven’t forgotten that it’s Dad’s birthday. yoLWS, Тцке 7 от 38 8 ^ Make any necessary changes to the note in Ex. 6b. Think about: opening/closing remarks, which pronouns/articles/verbs you can take out, if you can add any imperatives/informal linkers/abbreviations. Compare your answers with another pair. a Read the rubric and answer the questions. Your sister has left you the following note. Emma, Going shopping with Jane after school. Want to come? Will wait at bus stop till 4. ' Katie I fiS. Could go to cinema or have dinner after. Reply to it (25-35 words). In your note include: • reason you can’t make the shopping trip • suggest meeting the girls later (say where you will meet) 1 What are you going to write? 2 Who is going to read it? 3 What style are you going to use? 4 What information are you going to include? skills Checking/Editing your work When you edit a piece of writing, check for the following: • grammar, punctuation or spelling mistakes • inclusion of all points mentioned in the rubric • coherence (sentences must fit together and flow smoothly) • tone according to the target reader b Write your note. Swap with your partner and edit each other’s note. 9 Discuss & write Choose any two of the following and write your answer (25-35 words). 1 You are on holiday. Send a postcard to your friend. Write: • where you are • what you are doing there • how you like it 2 You have moved to another city. Send an email to your friend. In your email write: • what the new place is like • how you like it • invite him/her to your house 3 You need to go out for a while. Leave a note for your parents. Write: • where you are going • when you’ll be back • remind them to walk the dog ULTURE CORNER Great British Sporting Events: :f 1 Ч tt ) Look at the pictures of some well-known sporting events and the titles A-D. Think of one question about each event. Read and listen. Can you answer your questions? The London Marathon ЛГ The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race The Boat Race is a rowing race along the River Thames. It takes place each spring on the River Thames. The 18 competitors (9 in each boat) must be students at Oxford or Cambridge University. They train extremely hard, six days a week for six months before the race. If you get out of breath running for the bus, then can you imagine running 26 miles (about 42 km)? Every year, usually in April, this is exactly what around 40,000 people do when they take part in the London Marathon. It’s a serious athletic event which offers big prize money for the winners, but the majority of runners do it for fun or to raise money for charity. C Royal Ascot Royal Ascot is a 5-day horse racing event at the Ascot race course in Berkshire. Each year, about 300,000 people buy tickets to watch the races. Ascot is very popular with members of the royal family and the rich and famous, but anyone is welcome to go. Royal Ascot is a fashion show too! TV presenters love to comment on what everyone’s wearing, especially the ladies’ smart hats! Anyone for tennis? Every June, the world’s oldest and most famous tennis championship takes place in Wimbledon in London. The tournament lasts for two weeks. Hundreds of spectators queue for hours for tickets to see the world’s top players compete. It’s not just the tennis they go for either! Strawberries and cream are the traditional snack at Wimbledon. 28,000 kilos of strawberries and 7,000 litres of cream are sold every year! 2 Read the texts. Which event A, B, C or D: 3 1 offers a cash prize? 2 lasts the longest? 3 is attended by British royalty? 4 is a competition between two teams? b Explain the words/phrases in bold. Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionaries. Make sentences using the other words. 1 The directors/presenters of all the major TV channels comment on the fashions at Royal Ascot. 5 2 The spectators/audience cheer the tennis players on at Wimbledon. 3 About 40,000 competitors/rowers run in the London Marathon each year. Imagine you are a radio presenter. Choose one of the events A-D and present it to the class. Portfolio: Write a short text about a famous sporting event in your country (50-60 words). Write: • name • type • place • time • competitors • spectators • prizes • any other interesting information 39 ISMSia ACROSS THE CURRICULUM Personal, Social & Health Education : J ‘ n are y©u Money choices can be difficult. What would J • • • • e a iwit'h your Money? you do in the following situations? You lend part of your pocket money to a friend. Your friend promises to poy you back tomorrow, but doesn't What should you do? a Forget it Ask for the money c Other ••••••• ••••••• Your friend borrows money from you. He pays you back. A week later, he pays you back again. What would you do? a Take the money again b Tell your friend c Other You go to the cinema with your best friend. Your friend wants to buy popcorn but doesnt have enough money Youve got some spare money with you. What would you do? a Lend some money to him/her b Nothing c Other You spend your whole week’s pocket mon^ on video games at the arcade on Monday afternoon. Now you don't have enough money for lunches and bus tickets for the rest of the week. How would you solve this problem? a Borrow money b Take sandwiches and walk c Other You use the pay phone at school to call home. When you put the phone down, £6 comes out of the coin return. What would you do? a Keep the money b Hand it in c Other iu Your mum asks you to go to the shop to buy some bread and milk. She gives you a £10 note. What would you do with the change? a Give it back to her b Keep it c Other 1 Debate each situation (1-6). Say what you would do and why. Agree/Disagree with your partner’s decisions. Use the language in the box. 2 Expressing/Enquiring about opinions • Don’t you agree that...? • Do(n’t) you think ...? Expressing agreement/disagreement • Of course (she is/ does)./That’s right. • That’s correct./ Certainly. • Certainly not. • No, 1 don’t think so. • 1 don’t agree. • You are wrong there. Prepare a survey with yeslno answers to find out how responsible your class is with money. Vbu find a wallet in the street with an address in it. Do you keep the wallet? Yes/No Write a paragraph about your findings. Alost of the class seem to be quite responsible with money. Almost everyone would... A: Don’t you think you should just forget about it if your friend doesn’t return your money? B: Certainly not. If they borrow money, they should give it back. 40 Why are money and a secret so alike? Because they're both difficult to keep. 1 2 О What is air pollution? What causes it: factories, cars, rubbish, cleanins products, insect sprays, high temperatures, fumes from cooking/cigarettes/paint? Listen and read to find out. Read the text and answer the questions. Explain the words in bold. 1 What pollutes air indoors? 2 What happens if we don’t allow fresh air into our houses frequently? 3 What problems can stale air at home cause? 4 -(^leari Air at Home A ir pollution doesn’t just come from factories and our cars. We also cause it at home with the products jfT we use and the way we live. Air indoors can be • , ^ polluted by cleaning products, dust, paint, insect sprays, cigarette smoke or steam from cooking. We often 9- • need to keep doors and windows closed to keep the insides of our houses cool in the summer or warm in the winter. This traps pollutants and can make places for insects, dust mites and mould to live. Some pollutants such as smoke and insect sprays can cause breathing problems such as asthma, especially for those people who are allergic to dust. To reduce air pollution at home you should open the doors and windows 2-3 times a day, use natural cleaning products, and do not allow smoking. 3 Do you keep the air inside your house clean and safe? Do the quiz to find out. Do people smoke cigarettes in your house? A Never В Sometimes C Often Do you use water-based cleaning products to clean your house? A Yes, always В I try to Cl don’t check Do you clean your air-conditioning filter? A Yes В Sometimes C Where is it? 4 Do you ever enjoy light meals that require little or no cooking like salads? A Often В Sometimes C Not very often 5 Do you clean bedding and items used by your pets regularly? A No, never В Sometimes C Yes, often Mostly As: Great work! Bs: Try using more of the techniques in the text to reduce air pollution. Cs: You can do much more to reduce air pollution. Try harder. Portfolio: Work in groups. Collect information, then give a two-minute talk about what air pollution is and how we can have clean air at home. Record yourself. There’s so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs, there would be no place to put it all. (Robert Orben, VS comedy writer) 41 MODULE 2 Reading Read, then choose A, B, C or D for each question (1-6). RUSSIAN IN STAR TREK Fictional character Pavel Andreievich Chekhov first appeared on TV in 1967, during the second season of the science fiction series Star Trek. Despite being on TV for a short time (from 1966-69), the series was a hit and still has many fans today, 40 years after its creation. Star Trek led to ten feature films, an animated series, novels and comic books. So why was it so popular and why did they need a Russian star? Executive Producer Gene Roddenberry decided to introduce a character with 'youth appeal’, that is to say a character young people could understand. Best known as the young, enthusiastic navigator on board the starship Enterprise, Chekhov had a haircut similar to one of The Monkees (a very popular pop group in the USA at that time). But he certainly was no American! He was a proud Russian with a thick accent and had the surname of the famous Russian playwright. Actor Walter Koenig played the role, an American with Lithuanian Russian parents. We can view the character of Chekhov as symbolic, one introduced to present a better world. Created in the 1960s during the Cold War, the series was set in a very different time - in the 23 “ century. There was a rumour that the Russians themselves came up with the idea of including a Russian character, writing an article in Pravda criticising the absence of a Russian in the series. One thing is sure - it made sense to have a Russian on board as the Soviet Union was one of the leaders in space exploration. Other characters of the multinational crew included Scotty (of Scottish heritage), Sulu (from Japan), Uhura (from Africa) and Spock, the half-human, part alien (Vulcan). All were on the same mission: ‘to explore new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilisations, to boldly go where no man has gone before', as the series states in its opening. Chekhov and the crew certainly live through many exciting adventures: mysterious illnesses, capture by aliens, time travel -even romance. In the course of the two series we get to know Chekhov quite well. We see that he has many positive qualities: he is young, good-looking and has a good sense of humour. He regularly jokes (and boasts) about Russia’s achievements. He even claims in one programme that the fairy tale Cinderella came from Russia! However, he himself was less lucky in love. While training at the Academy in the 2260s Chekhov had a romance with another Russian, Irina Galliulin. But their characters were too different (Irina criticised Chekhov for being too rigid) and disappointment followed. Chekhov's character develops in the programme and he begins to take on some of the traits of the ship’s captain. Captain James T Kirk. We understand that he has strong principles and can pay close attention to detail. He is also a loyal member of the team. As a result he is able to work himself up the ranks, working first as a junior officer, then as navigator. In the first Star Trek film he becomes lieutenant: in the second he is the commander on another spaceship. The USS Reliant. In this film Chekhov’s character is severely tested. Villain Khan Noonien Singh puts eels inside Chekhov's head in attempt to control his brain. However, our hero recovers and lives to fight another battle. The character's final appearance takes place in the year 2293 when he is a guest on board a new ship called Enterprise B. Another ship. The USS Chekhov, was named in his honour, but is destroyed at the Battle of Wolf 359. But the Star Trek legend lives on. Trekkies’ or 'Trekkers' as the fans are called, can see another film, out in 2008, or watch Star Trek webisodes online. 42 1 Pavel Andreievich Chekhov is a character in A a real-life drama based in space. В a Russian series about life in America. C a series based in the future. D a Russian TV soap opera. 2 In 1967, A the last episode of Star Trek was shown. В the first episode featuring Pavlov was shown on TV. C the first film of the series was made. D Star Trek celebrated its 40'" anniversary. 3 Chekhov joined the crew because A the Pravda newspaper demanded it. В his name was similar to a famous Russian author. с of his good looks. D the Star Trek creator wanted to have an international crew. Chekhov and Captain Kirk A were two very different characters. В disliked one another immensely. C resembled one another in many ways. D both worked as junior officers. Khan Noonien Singh A successfully used a creature to take over Chekhov’s brain. В was commander of the USS Reliant. C was a hero in Star Trek. D tried to take over Chekhov’s brain. Star Trek fans A may be angry that Star Trek has ended. В can see new Star Trek episodes on TV. C may go and see the new Star Trek film. D are mostly from Russia. Ф Use of English Complete the gaps (1-8) with a word derived from the word in bold. I like shopping. It’s 1)........ and ENJOY fun but I don’t think it’s the most important thing in the world. We need to shop for the things we need, like clothes, of course. In recent years, clothing has got so 2)..........., but the pocket money I earn from 3)............ in the supermarket at the weekends helps. When I 4)........ need something, I go to the shops, 5)........... with my sister. Last weekend, I bought a new 6)..........bag. I’d saved for weeks to buy it. A wave of 7).......... washed over me when I finally paid for it. My sister 8)........helped me buy it, so GENEROUS I’ll let her use it sometimes. EXPENSE WORK REAL USUAL SHINE EXCITE Ф Writing Read the extract from your pen-friend’s letter. His name is Matt, Write a letter to Matt, who has a new baby sister. In your letter: • tell him about your hobbies • ask three questions about his pocket money Write 100-140 words. I really like extreme eporte. Do you like eporto? What other hohhiee do you have? I'm 0Olne to wash my d^d car new. He eometimeo paye me to do choree! Listening О Listen to the speakers (1-5). Which of the comments below might each speaker make? There is one comment you don’t need to use. Speaker 1 2 3 4 5 Comment В C D E Watching sporting events on TV is important to me. I only like watching team sports. I don’t mind paying a lot to watch an event. I’m not at all interested in sporting events. I don’t like staying at home alone to watch sporting events. I don’t mind watching sports but I prefer to take part. Speaking You and your brother/sister want to buy a present for your parents’ wedding anniversary. Discuss the following options and choose the one you both like most of all. • a weekend in Rome • tickets to the theatre • two tennis racquets • a bis box of chocolates You begin the conversation and have to decide on which option (only one) to choose. Your partner will play the part of your brother/sister. Remember to: • take an active part in the conversation and be polite • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your brother/sister’s opinion and take it into account • invite your brother/sister to come up with other suss^stions • discuss all the options • come to an agreement Word Perfect 2 43 2 Progress Check 1 Fill in: cost, cash, save, afford, earn, borrow, pays, lend, spent, waste. 1 I often ....... money to my sister but she hardly ever...........me back. 2 Sam is alw/ays buying things that.........a lot and that he can’t really........... 3 I didn’t manage to.........any of my wages last week. I.........every last penny! 4 Can I........C10 to go to the cinema, Dad? 5 That new supermarket is really cheap, but they only accept........... 6 Don’t........your money on silly little things! 7 He really enjoys his Saturday job, but he doesn’t ........very much. /Points: 20 j 2 \^10X2 Fill in: pocket, household, sporting, credit, extreme, action, start, student, text, thank-you. 1 .... events 6 .... note 2 .... date 7 .... message 3 .... 8 .... 4 .... chores 9 .... card 5 .... 10 .... shot / Points: 110X2 20 3Put the verbs in brackets into the correct (to) •inf or -ing form. 1 He hates..................football on TV. He thinks it’s so boring! (watch) 2 I’m not crazy about................sport. I prefer quieter activities, (play) 3 We’d love...............and see your new house some time! (come) 4 Will you................me find a part-time job? I’m totally broke! (help) 5 I can’t stand...............compositions. I find them really difficult! (write) 6 He can’t wait...............on holiday, (go) / Points: _ 1^6X3 18 ^ Form nouns from the words in brackets. 1 Have a look at my................(collect) 2 I don’t really agree with your ................ (suggest) 3 They looked at him in..............(amaze) 44 4 ..........techniques are taught here, (relax) 5 He made a fast ............. from the injury. (recover) /points: __\ \5X1 10 } ^ a Fill in: up, off, over, out, after. 1 Why don’t you take..........a hobby instead of watching TV every evening? 2 Who do you take............. your mum or your dad? 3 Tom’s taking me ..........for my birthday. 4 Mr Jones took .......... the company when his grandfather died. 5 Take......your trousers so that I can wash them. / Points: _\ 1^5X2 10 ) b Fill in: about, in, at, of, on. 1 She is fantastic........cooking. 2 Ann is crazy.......rock climbing. 3 He isn’t interested.....Maths. 4 I’m not fond.......animals so I don’t have a pet. 5 John is really keen.....football. , I Points: _ ^5X2 10 ^ Complete the exchanges. 1 A: Would you like to have dinner together? B: I’d love to but........................... 2 A: How about going out tonight? B: That would ............................... 3 A: Don’t you agree that he spends too much? B: No, I .................................... 4 A: Don’t you think he’s trying hard? B: Of course I .............................. / Points: _ 1^4X3 12 / My score: _ Ф1 100 I Can ... • talk and write about money and spending habits • talk about hobbies and personalities ! • enquire about and express preferences : • make suggestions and reply to suggestions : • express and enquire about an opinion • write a letter to an advice column and reply to one j • write short messages I • prepare a simple survey and report the results ....I..............-............ in English Modi] Schooldays & Work Before you start... • What are you like? • What’s your favourite free-time activity? Look at Module 3 Find the page numbers for pictures 1-4. ♦ Find the page numbers for • a biography □ • aCV □ • a cartoon □ V_ • a diagram □ J Listen, read and talk about... • types of schools & school life • jobs • American high schools • endangered species Learn how to... • give/react to nev/s • ask about/express wants/intentions ♦ Practise ... • future tenses • the comparative/superlative degree • v^ord formation: personal nouns • phrasal verbs: pick • dependent prepositions • words often confused: job/work, staff/employee, salaries/wages, marks/grades ♦ Write / Make ... • a short article about your school • a paragraph about your plans for this summer • a dialogue • a CV & a letter of application • a leaflet inviting students to your school • a paragraph expressing your opinion about a child’s right to a free education • a short article about an endangered species in your country Reading Skills 1 Vocabulary Types of schools & school life Э Match the types of schools (1-6) to the descriptions (A-F). Which are the most common/uncommon in your country? What type of school do you go to? boarding school single-sex school co-educational school 4 state school 5 private school 6 specialist school 46 A A school for boys and girls. В A school you usually have to pay to go to. C A school students go to for a particular reason (e.g. to become actors). D A school for only boys or only girls. E A school owned by the government. F A school which students live in during school term. b Read the following statements. Which ones are true for your school? Students wear a school uniform. There are lots of rules. Facilities and equipment are good (e.g. libraries, science labs, sports equipment). The teachers are stria. Students are motivated. There is a selection of unusual subjects to choose from. Students sit a lot of exams. Most students take part in extra-curricular artivities (e.g. drama, sports). Students get a lot of homework. Most students live nearby. What would you like to change? Why? Discuss. ► A: I like wearing a school uniform. B: I don't. I’d rather wear something more fashionable to school... Do you look forward 1).....going to school or do you absolutely dread it? Or, perhaps you’d prefer to go to school somewhere else! This week, Gol magazine takes a look at how schools are different 2)...the world. 2 Reading аф Read the text on pp. 46-47 and label the paragraphs (A-E) with the headings below. One heading does not match. What is the main idea of each paragraph? • To and From School • School Rules • Education or No Education • Schools of Every Shape and Size • Studying Hours • Home Schooling t^udy skills Gap-filling Look at the title and read the text through to get an idea of what it is about. Read again and focus carefully on the words before and after each gap. Choose the word that fits best. Read through the complete text again to check that it makes sense. There are many types of schools in the world. Some are expensive, private boarding schools, like Rugby School in England where the game of rugby was invented! There are also some specialist schools, like drama schools, dance schools or the 40 acrobatic schools in Wuqiao, China. It might sound like fun. but. as 13-year-old Zhang Li explains. “Our training starts at 5:30 am. It’s very hard, but these skills will help me 3)____a living when I leave." There are also a wide range of school subjects at different schools. At Holden High School in the USA, subjects include comic book art, photography, song writing and yoga В At a school in the Annapurna mountains in Nepal, classes don’t start until 10 am because a lot of students have to walk for about an hour to get there. In Japan, it isn’t unusual for students to 4)....two hours or more getting to school on public transport. “It’s not so bad,” says 15-year-old Keiko from Tokyo. “I sometimes sleep or study on the train, and it’s a great way to catch 5)..with my friends.” The average school day in the UK and the US is 6.5 hours for high school students. Students in Korea and Greece, 6)......, are not so lucky! After school they attend extra classes in private schools. “On a typical day," says Jie Kim from Seoul, South Korea, “I don’t get home until midnight, but if 1 don’t study hard, I won’t 7)____into a good university.” All schools have rules, but sometimes they are really strict At Eton College, a very famous boys’ boarding school in England, the students have a smart but very old-fashioned uniform with a long jacket trousers and shirt In Japan, everyone has to participate in ‘o soji’, or the cleaning of the school, ^before they go home, whereas at SummerhiU School in England, it’s the students who 8)....the rules! So, is your school better or worse than schools in other parts of the world? No matter what your answer is, we shouldn’t forget that 300 million children in the world don’t have any schools to go to. So even if you’d like to change some things about your school you really are one of the lucky ones! Speaking 3 a Рф Choose the best word (A, 6, C or D) for each gap (1-8). 5 1 A in В from C at D to 2 A over В around C from D across 3 A win В get C take D earn 4 A pass В take C spend D be 5 A up В on C from D together 6 A therefore В however C moreover D thus 7 A get В be C go D apply 8 A put В say C make D give Portfolio: Act out an interview between a British TV presenter and a student at your school in your country.Talk about: time it starts/fmishes, how you set to school, if you wear a ur)iform, what the school rules are, etc. Writing ьШ Listen and check. Explain the words in bold. Then, make sentences using them. Cover the text and take turns to tell each other something you remember about school in the countries in the text. 6 Portfolio: Write a short article about your school (60-80 words). Write: type of school and classes, how students set there, hours, rules i Words ol Wisdom Education is the movement from darkness to light. (Allan Bloom, US philosopher) 47 Listening & Speaking Skills Vocabulary Jobs 1 Look at the job categories (1-9). being the boss I of a big company t {e.g. a businessman, у a managing director) I Add two more jobs to each. working ^ from home as a freelancer (e.g. an artist, an author, a translator) h ^ becoming a professional person (e.g. on architect, a lawyer, an engineer) having a skilled job (e.g. a plumber, a gardener, a carpenter, a mechanic, a fisherman) ^ 4 having 7 a 9-5 job in an office (e.g. 0 bankclerk,^ a secretary) becoming 6^ a famous celebrity (e.g. a singer, a dancer, ' , an actor) working 7 in the armed forces/emergency services (e.g. a naval officer, a pilot, a fire fighter) running your ® own business (e.g. a hairdresser, a* \ beautician, \ a florist) working in the medical ^ profession (e.g. a vet, a doctor, a nurse, a surgeon, a dentist) 2 Look at the jobs in Ex. 1 again. Find at least two jobs that the following people couldn’t do. “I get seasick easily.” Jane "I can’t stand being behind a desk.” Tony “I don’t want to go to university.” Pat “I’m not good at working with my hands.” Pete “I don’t want to work in the evenings or at weekends. ” Mary “I can’t stand working shifts." John “I can’t stand the sight of blood.” Sue “I can’t work for others.” Bob Find at least one type of job b which 3 Everyday English Asking about & expressing wants/ intentions Use the language in the box and the ideas in Exs. 1 & 2 to discuss, as in the example. 1 involves a lot of 8 travelling. somebody can do 9 part-time. 10 is 9 to 5. 11 is full-time. can be done 12 outdoors/indoors. is risky. 13 starts early in the morning. requires that you wear a uniform, requires shift work, pays a good salary, requires highly-qualified personnel, you can do as part of a team. asks for a lot of responsibility. Asking Responding • Would you like to • I’m going to ... ...?/What would • No, 1 wouldn’t like to ... you like to...? • 1 don’t really want to... • Do you want to...? • Yes, 1 (definitely) hope to ... • Are you going to • Yes, 1 think I’ll... ...? • No, 1 don’t think so. • Do you think • 1 don’t think I’ll... you’ll...? • I’d like/love to ... ► A; Do you think you 'll be the boss of a bis company one day? B: No, I don’t think so because I don’t think I’ll want to have a lot of responsibility. 48 Idioms Complete the idioms. Check in the Word List. • jack-of-all-trades • bring home the bacon • in the same boat • follow in her footsteps 1 My aunt is a pilot and I’d really like to... 2 The man in that shop can do anything. He’s a d Which heading best describes the dialogue? Everyone worries about finding a job when they leave school, but we’re all....... I really admire my parents. They work very hard to ....... Reading 5 . \ Ч*' Read the first and the last two exchanges in the dialogue. What is the relationship between the speakers? What is the dialogue about? Listen and check. Mr Smith: Good morning. Please have a seat. Ann: Good morning. Thank you. Mr Smith: So, Ann. What are you doing at the moment? Ann: I’m studying Business at college, but my course finishes next month. Mr Smith: 1 see. Do you have any experience as a secretary? Ann: Yes. I’ve worked for a number of different companies during my college holidays, including Barnes & Bedford, the lav/yers, last summer. Mr Smith: That’s interesting. Do you know that in this job you will have to travel a lot? Ann: Yes, and that’s not a problem at all. t enjoy travelling and 1 don’t mind working long hours or weekends. Mr Smith: Excellent! Well, 1 think that’s all I need to know. Ann: Do you mean I’ve got the job? Mr Smith: Yes. Welcome to Brown’s. Ann: Thank you! When can I start? Mr Smith: As soon as you can, after your exams. 6 Read the dialogue. What kind of job is Ann applying for? Which two adjectives best describe her: patient, hardworkins, energetic, keen, outgoing? Give reasons. Applying fora Job A Job Interview Asking for a Pay Rise 8 b Read out the dialogue. Give the dialogue a different ending. Listening 3 (,) Sarah is being interviewed for a job. Look at the interviewer’s notes below. What questions do you think he asked Sarah? Listen and check. Name: Sarah 1)..... Age: nearly 2)... Applying for: flight attendant 3). Experience: hotel 4)... QuaWes: good common sense commortcatlon skills, «liable. Available to start training: 6).... b 1К,Ф Cr* Listen again and fill in the gaps (1-6). Speaking 9 ^ Portfolio: Imagine you are applying for a part-time job as a shop assistant. Take the roles of an interviewer and a job applicant and act out a similar interview. Use the interviewer’s notes to help you. Record your interview. Say it right Givi ns & reactins to news 10 (.) Choose the correct response. Listen and check. Then read out the exchanges. 1 I’ve lost my job. a Oh dear! b Wow! 2 I’m going for a job interview tomorrow. a Oh, how so? b Good luck! 3 I got the job! a That’s great! Well done! b Oh no! 49 Grammar in Use 1 FUtUr6 tenses Grammar Reference What tense are the verb forms in bold? Match them to the uses. I’m tired. I think I’ll go to bed. I’m moving house tomorrow. I’ll help you write your CV. Look at the traffic - I’m going to be late for work again! I’m going to buy Jessie a puppy for her birthday. Enter the competition. I think you’ll do really well! This time next week, I’ll be sunbathing. I’ll have cooked dinner by the time you come back. a b c d e f on-the-spot decision promise/threat prediction based on what we see/know plan/intention fixed arrangement prediction based on what we think/ believe will happen an action finished before a certain action in the future an action in progress at a stated future time 2 Choose the correct form. Give reasons. A; The phone’s ringing! B: It’s OK. I’ll/’m going to answer it. A: What are you doing this afternoon, Kate? B: I’m meeting/’m going to meet some friends in town. A: Look at this mess! B: Don’t worry, I’m going to/’ll clean it up. A: Look at the little boy by the pool. B: Oh dear! He’ll/’s going to fall in! A: There’s no milk left. B; That’s OK. I’ll/’m going to go and buy some. A: Have you got tickets for the music festival? B: Yes, it’ll/’s going to be fantastic! A: John has grown up so fast. B: Yes. This time next year he’ll be starting/’s going to start high school. A: How long are you staying in London? B: I am going to/will have been in London for 2 months by the time I leave. 3 Answer the questions, as in the examples. What are your holiday plans for this summer? ► I’m going to spend August at a summer camp. What are you doing this weekend? ► I'm going to see my grandparents. What will you have done by the end of this year? ► I’ll have taken all my exams. 4 What will you be doing this time next Saturday? ► / will be relaxing on the beach. NOTE: We don’t use the future simple after while, before, until, as soon as, after, if, when. We use the present simple. If you are late, we'll leave you behind. (NOT: If- you will be ...) BUT I’m not sure if/when I'll come. Complete the sentences. She’ll move house when .. I’ll cook dinner as soon as He’ll call after......... They won’t leave until.... Comparative/Superlative decree 5 Grammar RefererKe Find the comparative and superlative forms in the article. How do we: form the comparative and the superlative of short/long adjectives? Which forms are irregular? Hairdressers happiest at work F According to a recent study, when it comes to happiness at work, chefs are happier than beauticians and plumbers, but hairdressers are the happiest of aJI! In contrast, architects and estate agents are unhappier than secretaries, but social workers are the unhappiest of all. Mary Brown, 37, used to be a social worker, but now she’s a hairdresser. “Tt’s so much better - more relaxing, less tiring and far saler too!” she told us. “Hairdressers get worse pay, but a social worker’s job is much harder. It’s no wonder .social work is one of the least popular professions!” 50 p(^ too Hot n T pn oor в ЫЛ nur df»i Mat bet В oor op< 6 7 8 Complete the sentences using an appropriate form of the adjectives in bold. 1 Being a teacher is ...... (rewarding) than being a shop assistant. 2 Doctors are usually...... (busy) than security guards. 3 Working in an office is ....... (safe) than working on a building site. 4 A chef normally gets paid...... (good) than a waiter. 5 Working as a waiter was........(tiring) job I’ve ever had! Ш Play in teams. Choose three jobs and make sentences to compare them. Team A SI: A fire fighter’s job is more dangerous than a nurse’s. Team В SI: A stunt man’s job is the most dangerous job of all. Word formation Read the theory box. Then, complete the advert by filling in the appropriate suffix. Forming personal nouns We use the suffixes -er (paint - painter), -ist (art -artist), -or (invent - inventor) and -ian (library -librarian) to form personal nouns. Wanted tor new ► 0) producer, 1) stage manag...., 2) choreograph....,' 3) technical direct...., 4) pian...., 5) lighting technic....s, 6) act....s, 7) sing....s, 8) art....s, 9) various music....s, 10) compos....s, 11) costume design....s 0207 '^888364 for more inforhatior. 9 Words often confused Choose the correct word. Check in the Word list. 1 I’m really enjoying my new job/work. 2 Every staff/employee got a pay rise last AAay. 3 She got good grades/marks in her school report. 4 The government announced that all civil servants’ salaries/wages will be increased. 10 11 12 13 Phrasal verbs Complete the sentences (1-4) with the correct phrasal verb, then make sentences I will....my little brother from school. You shouldn’t.....your food. Some older schoolchildren....younger ones. Can you help me.....a dress for the party? Dependent prepositions Use Appendix 1 to fill in: for, with, in, from. Then make your own sentences. Mr Smith works ► /n a factory. My dad works.......Brown & Co. He is.....charge of ten people. He can’t deal.....his problems. He’s responsible.....a team of people. Key word transformations Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words. Tom was late for school as the bus was late. time If the bus......Tom would not have been late for school. Mr Fry gave us an interesting talk on careers. given We.............on careers by Mr Fry. Mum didn’t let me go out. made Mum, ............................in. I had never tasted sushi before. first It......I had ever tasted sushi. Policemen have one of the most difficult jobs. as There aren’t many jobs ....... that of a policeman. Writing What are your holiday plans for this summer. Write a short paragraph about them. Grammar Check 3 51 1 Think of three questions you would like to ask about Chekhov. Then, read the biography and see if you can answer them. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860-1904) Anton Pavlovich Chekho^was hom in Taganrog in Russia. Vihen he was nineteen, he went to medical school in Moscow and later became a doaor. It was wWle working as a doaor that he to publish his stories in order to help support his bmih'. 1886, he had become famous as a writer of plays and short stories. His works include the play The Seaff.ill (1896) and his famous short story 'Ihe Seppe (1888). Chekhov was a very bst writer who coukl produce a story in under an hourl A typical Chekhov' .story is about the thoughts and emotioas of the charaaets. In The Darling (1899), Chekhov describes a woman. Olenka who uses other people to give her ow'n life meaning. 2 The picture on p.52 shows Olenka and Sasha. How are they related? Read to find out. 52 (^udy skills Completins a text Read the text through once. Read the list of missing sentences. Read the text again and try to match the missing sentences to the gaps. Remember to look for clues, such as reference words (it, that, he). Read the completed text again to see if it makes sense. THE DARUNG She now had her own opinions, and at supper discussed with Sasha's parents, saying how difficult the studies had become for the children at the school. But after ail, she felt a classical education was better than a commercial course, because when you graduated from school then the road was open to you for any career at all. If you chose to, you could become a doctor, or, if you wanted to, you could become an engineer. Sasha started at the school. 1 10 15 As his father was away every day inspecting cattle and was sometimes gone for up to three whole days at a time, it seemed to Olenka that Sasha was completely abandoned, was treated as if he were quite superfluous, and must be dying of hunger. So she transferred him into her part of the house and fixed up a little room for him there. Every morning Olenka would come into his room and find him sound asleep with his hand tucked under his cheek, so quiet that he seemed not to be breathing. "Sashenka," she said sorrowfully, “get up, darling. It's time to go to school." 20 He got up. dressed, said his prayers, then sat down to breakfast. | 3 | The sleep was not yet out of him. so he was a little CTOSS. "You don’t know your fables^ as you should. Sashenka," said Olenka, looking at him as though he were departing on a long 25 journey, "What a lot of trouble you are. You must try hard and learn, dear, and mind your teachers." “Oh, leave me alone, please," said Sasha. 3 d Read the extract. Seven sentences have been removed. Match each sentence (A-G) to the appropriate gap (1-7). Which words helped you decide? A Olenka followed him noiselessly. В She would fall asleep still thinking of the same things, and tears would roll down her cheeks from her closed eyes. C His mother left on a visit to her sister in Kharkov and never came back. ся fo as ся я:> ся Sen as BD Then he went down the street to the school, a little fellow wearing a large cap and carrying a satchel^ on his back. "Sashenka." she called. He looked round and she shoved a date® or a caramel into his hand. When he reached the street of the school, he turned around, ashamed of being followed by a tall, stout woman and said, "You had better go home, aunt. She stopped and stared at him until he had disappeared through the school entrance. Oh. how she loved him! Not one of her other ties had been so deep. Never before had she given herself so completely and so cheerfully as now. Her maternal instincts were all aroused. For this boy. who was not hers, for the dimples in his cheeks and for his big cap, she would have given her life and given it with tears of joy. Why? Ah, indeed, why? When she had seen Sasha off to school, she returned home quietly, content, peaceful and overflowing with love. Her face, which had grown younger in the last six months, smiled and beamed. People who met her were pleased as they looked at her. "How are you, Olga Semyonovna, darling? How are you getting on, darling?" "The school courses are very difficult nowadays,” she told people at the market. “It's no joke. Yesterday the first class had a fable to learn by heart, a Latin translation, and a problem. And she spoke of the teacher and the lessons and the textbooks, repeating exactly what Sasha said about them. At three o’clock they had dinner. In the evening they did his homework together, both crying at how difficult it was. When she put him to bed, she stayed a long time making the sign of the cross over him, muttering a prayer. And when she lay in bed, she dreamed of the far-away, misty future when Sasha would finish his studies and become a doctor or an engineer, have a large house of his own, with horses and a carriage, marry and have children. 7 And the black cat would lie at her side purring; "Mrr, mrr, mrr." ’ stories which teach morat tessons ^a schoot bag with a tong strap ® fruit 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 5 Match the highlighted words in the text with their meanings below. • rather fat • deeply • set up, organised • pushed quickly and carelessly • hard • awakened • left alone for a long time Using a dictionary, explain the words in bold. Use each word In a sentence of your own. Look at the list of emotions and feelings below. r sympathy \ irritation affection annoyance embarrassment happiness/joy sorrow responsibility dedication peacefulness Decide who felt them (Sasha or Olenka) and complete the diagram. Give reasons. EMOTIONS/ FEELINGS 6 ► sympathy FW Which part of the text best describes the picture? D How is a little fellow to do all that? E I can go the rest of the way myself. F He drank three glasses of tea, ate two large cracknels'^ and half a buttered roll. G “What a shame to have to wake him,” she thought. ' hard, brittle cakes or biscuits b О Listen and check. Portfolio: Sasha comes home one day and tells his aunt he wants to go and live vrith his mother in Kharkov. How would he say this? How might Olenka react? In pairs, write a short dialogue, then act it out for the class. Vote for the best dramatisation. 53 Writing Skills 1 Formal letters Decide which of the following features (1-8) a formal letter should have, then read the theory box and check. Find two more features in the theory box and add them to the list. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a personal, chatty style very specific greetings/endings everyday language advanced language/vocabulary set phrases short forms use of the passive lots of phrasal verbs/idioms Formal letters are characterised by: • formal greetings and endings, e.g. Dear Mr Barnes ... Vburs sincerely (when you know the person's name), Dear Sir/Madam ... Yours faithfully (when you don’t know the person’s name). • advanced/formal vocabulary/set phrases, e.g. I am writing to apply for the position of... • formal linkers/phrases, e.g. For this reason, therefore, however. • the use of the passive, e.g. I can be contacted.... • the use of full forms, e.g. I have always been interested in... (NOT: I’ve always...). Formal letters don’t use: informal greetings/ endings, everyday language/colloquial expressions, a lot of phrasal verbs/idioms, short forms or abbreviations. 5 Society Street Worthing WX3 GLR 28th April Dear Mr Harris, I am writing to apply for the position of Summer Tour Guide which was advertised in this week's edition of the 'Weekly Herald'. I am 18 years old and in my final year at sixth form college. I am considering a career in the tourist industry after I leave college. For this reason, I would like to gain some valuable experience working with tourists. I have 9 GCSEs, including Maths and English. I also have two years' experience working as a Saturday sales assistant, which I enjoyed very much. I speak some French and German and have a good knowledge of my local area. I am described by my teachers as enthusiastic, confident and reliable. I would be available for an interview at any time. I have enclosed a copy of my CV. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Eleanor Jones 2 3 d Read the letter of application above and answer the questions. 1 Who wrote the letter? 2 Why has she written it? 3 Who will read it? 4 How does it begin/end? b Match the paragraphs (1-4) with the headings below; • opening remarks/reason for writing • qualifications/experience/qualities • when available for interview/closing remarks • age/reason she wants the job Ш Read again and find examples of the features of formal letters mentioned in Ex. 1. 54 Formal - Informal style Read the letter on p. 54 again and find formal expressions to match the informal ones (1-8) below. Complete the table. 6 Informal Style 1 I want to apply for... 2 I want to work... 3 I’ve had a job as... 4 which was fun ... 5 I know the area well... 6 I’m free to talk to you ... 7 Have a look at my CV. 8 Can’t wait to hear from you. Formal Style a You are a student at York University in England. Read the rubric and find the key words. You have seen the following advert in the Weekly Herald and would like to apply. Write your letter of application. Include: why you would like the job, why you think you would be good at it. 5 i ^ Look at the CV below and complete the headings A-D with: EDUCATION, WORK EXPERIENCE, PERSONAL DETAILS, PERSONAL QUALITIES. Then fill in gaps 1-5 with information from the letter on p. 54. What further information does the CV contain? A.... 1. - j >.л.мг. 6 Society Street, Worthing ITF.IJ-PHONE 0134 34 75433 1 г>»ТС пг НШТН P2nd December 19S>8> 1 ч'4'П^л\!А1 ITY British I О j oi:.\unc.\TioNS . 1 AVr.l'if.PS 3 ic Z1 1 2005-2005 4 D. Good knnwledae of locsl area. 5...................... reliable. Part-time/weekend SALES ASSISTANT for city centre gift shop Must be trustworthy and have a friendly, sociable personality. Would suit a student. Please apply in writing to: ► Simon Willis, PO Box 234. ^ b Decide which of the following would be appropriate for a letter of application for this job. • how many brothers and sisters you have • previous work experience • how many GCSEs/other qualifications you have • where you saw the advert • what you look like • why you are interested in the job • what pets you have • your positive qualities • negative things about your personality • when you are available for an interview • when you could start work • what languages you speak • your plans for the summer • your age • what you do/what you are studying C Compare with your partner. Give reasons. 55 IV Writing Skills 7 d Read Andrea’s letter of application for the position advertised in Ex. 6a on p. 55. Is it appropriate? Why (not)? Give reasons. YKJ3 SNL 4th September f Part-Time Sales yearned-^^. ^nd moody- , «„ish my exams « ,.„fr«io „iHohearJhimy ofMuV»' , A. Lea>ry Andrea Teary b Ж Read again and find the inappropriate parts. Re-write the letter so that it is more appropriate. Discuss & write d Read the rubric and the advertisement and find the key words. Then answer the questions. You would like a summer job and have just seen an advert in the newspaper for a job that sounds perfect for you. Write a CV and a letter of application to apply for the job. WANTED: 8 56 ENERGETIC & CONFIDENT Summer Waiters/Waitresses June-August Languages & experience working with people an advantage. Send CV and letter of application to; Mr Hargreaves, The Blue Whale Restaurant, 17 White Road, Dover. 1 What are you going to write? Why? 2 Who will you write to? 3 What information will you include in each paragraph of the letter? 4 What information will you include in the CV? ^udy skills Checking your writing Always check that your writing is consistent with your purpose. In your letter of application, check that: • you have painted a good picture of yourself • dates, qualifications, experience are consistent • there is no irrelevant information included • it is easy for the reader to follow b 1глф Write your CV and letter of application (100-150 words). When you finish, check and remove any irrelevant details. ^ile> Why are you late again, Mr Smith? ^I’m sorry, Mr Jones. The train is'' always late these days. Well, if it’s late again tomorrow, you’ll have to catch an earlier one. American High Schools ULTURE 'Ж CORNER 1 2 a Read about the school system in the USA. How old are students when they: start school, so to junior hish school, so to hish school, leave schooll b How is the system similar/different to the one in your country? Draw a diagram. Read the title of the leaflet. What is it about? Look at the picture and headings and say what you think life in an American high school is like? Read to find out. Are you aged We help you get the most out of your American experience! A1).......(relax) and informal teaching style American schools encourage students to think independently and take part in class discussions. The American 2).......(educate) system also offers a great range of subjects, so you could get the chance to study American history, journalism, business studies or drama. Some high schools offer 3)......(drive) lessons too, so you could even get your American driving licence vi/hile you’re in the USA! School life If you take part in our exchange programme, you’ll experience what’s unique about an American high schooll On a typical day, you might travel to school by yellow school bus, then ctiat with friends while you put away your coat and lunch in your 4)......... (lock). You'll then have around five hours of classes! You’ll get a report card about 5)......... (two) a year. Your grades will depend on your performance in class discussions, homework and projects. Sports and extra-curricular activities Sporting activities are a major part of high school life, and your school will expect you to participate! Of course, there’s cheerleading and American football, but other popular sports include soccer, basketball and baseball. If you're not the 6).......(sport) type, there are also many other things to do such as join the school newspaper, the debating club or the ‘prom’ 7)........(organise) committee. The prom is an 8)........... (extreme) special dance at the end of the school year. • 5 or 10-month programmes • Live with an American host family ^8.С:Н.О.О].1$Ш|ЕМ * Kindergarten (age 5) Elementary School Grades 1-6 (ages 6-11) Junior High School Grades 7 & 8 (ages 12-13) High School Grades 9-12 (ages 14-17) ninth graders = freshmen tenth graders = sophomores eleventh graders = juniors twelfth graders = seniors 3 Read the text and complete the gaps (1-8) with the correct word formed from the words in brackets. Compare with your partner. Listen and check. Explain the underlined words/ phrases. Are there any words which are the same/similar in your language? Would you like to spend I a year in an American high school? What would you like/not like? Discuss. ► A: Would you like to spend a year at an American hish school? B: I don’t know. I... 5 Portfolio: Work in groups. Design a leaflet inviting students from abroad to spend a year at your school. Write about: subjects, a typical day at school, sports & extra-curricular activities. 57 Citizenshi Э ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 1 Look at the following statements. Do you agree with them? Why? Discuss. All children in the world should be able to go to school. Classes should not have more than 30 children. Teachers do a very diffioolt job and should be paid well. 3 All children should expect to be helped when they have difficulties in school. 2 5 6 58 a Look at the letter. Who is it: to? from? Where is the writer? b 4 ) Read the first paragraph. What is the letter about? What do you expect to read? Listen and check. a Read the letter. Are the children that Mrs Myles met receiving a good education? Why/Why not? b Explain the words/phrases in bold. Ш You are Mrs Da Silva or Eliane. Tell your partner about your school, your feelings and your hopes and dreams for the future. Listen to some students discussing a child’s right to a free education. What do they say about: • the benefits of going to school • the problems some children have (e.s- lack of schools/teachers etc) • who can help (e.s. sovernment, media, students etc) and how fe.g. raising money, bringins problems to people’s attention etc) Use ideas from the tapescript in Ex. 5 to write a short paragraph expressing your opinion about a child’s right to a free education. /i\y Sad Sebastia о de Jaqara, Brazil 20th April To all the pupils and teachers at Mill House Secondary School, Greetings from Brazil! I’ve been here for just a week, but already I have so much to share with you about the children and teachers I’ve met here! Sadly, conditions at the village school here are much worse than I expected. For example, there are pupils here from 7 to 11 years old, and there is only one teacher, Mrs Da Silva, and she teaches them all at the same time. For this reason, they only go to school for four hours a day. Mrs Da Silva tries really hard and she is so busy that it's impossible for her to give everyone the help they need. She is also not very well-paid and gets no support. What is more, if the children want to continue school after Year 4, then they have to go and live in Porto De Moz, the town where the nearest large school is. Unfortunately, though, this means that they have to stay with another family and get a job to pay for their rent and food because it is quite far away. An 11-year-old student called Eliane told me that’s what his brothers and sister do and he only sees them twice a year when they come home for the holidays. He wants to finish school, but he doesn’t want to leave his family. He wouldn’t have to make this tough decision if his school had more teachers. Did you know Brazil is not the only country that needs more teachers? Over 15 million teachers are needed around the world so that children can go to school and get an education. I think we should do something to help. We could write a letter to the Prime Minister or we could organise some sponsored events to raise money. Why don’t you all think of some ideas and when I come back we can put them into action? See you all in a couple of weeks! Regards, Ann Myles 1 - '«»' Look at the list of animals (1-7). What do they have in common? What is causing them to disappear: other animals, humans, loss of habitat? Listen to and read the text and check. World Wildlife Fund Endangered Species List: Pandas ] Tigers [ Whales) Elephants ) Gorillas ] 2 d Read again and answer the questions. 1 Why are beaches important for the loggerhead sea turtle? 2 What do the young turtles find when they hatch from their eggs? 3 How can people help protect the loggerhead sea turtle? Endangered Species The Loggerhead Sea Turtle j Did you know that in the last 500 years, 844 species - like the passenger pigeon, the dodo, and the golden toad - are known to have died out? Or that by the year 2100 some scientists believe that half of the world's species may be extinct? That could be one species every 20 minutes, or 27,000 a year! At the moment, experts say that up to 16,000 species are under threat. In most cases, human activity is the greatest danger to these species. One of these species is the loggerhead sea turtle, which is finding that the beaches it uses to lay its eggs are becoming increasingly popular with tourists. When the eggs begin to hatch in August, there are already thousands of humans enjoying the sun on the beaches. An area that was used by turtles for thousands of years is now the territory of sunbathers, swimmers and ice-cream vendors. Humans cause terrible damage to the eggs. Nests can be walked on by tourists, destroying the eggs. In addition, the newly-born turtles find it hard to find the sea at night with so much artificial light around. Some people, however, are trying to make a difference. Since 1982, the Sea Turtle Protection Society of Greece has done its best to protect this rare species. With help from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), it has bought a beach popular with the turtles and makes sure that tourists stay away. Every year over 500 volunteers from all over the world come to help with the society’s work for the turtles. Thanks to their help, more and more young turtles are finding their way to the sea. You can help. If you would like to become a volunteer or would like to learn about other ways you can help the loggerhead sea turtle, please check out the website of the Sea Turtle Protection Society of Greece at http;//www.archelon.gr. 3 b Use your dictionaries to explain the words in bold. Then, tell the class three things you remember from the text. Portfolio: Collect information, then write a short article about an endangered species in your country. Write: • name and type of species • habitat • threat(s) • action taken ^ceeti There is no place in nature for extinction. (Licretius, Roman poet and philosopher) 59 MODULES Listening О Listen and choose the correct answer (A, В or C) for each question (1-7). At Tom’s old school... A he had a lot of fun. В he didn’t enjoy learning. C the teachers weren’t very good. Tom says that a friend of his ... A encouraged him to change schools. В wanted to leave his school, too. C agreed to talk to Tom’s parents. At his new school, Tom likes ... A his timetable. В studying Maths. C choosing his clothes and subjects. To prepare for writing tasks, pupils ... A have discussions with their classmates. В get help from the teachers. C do fun activities. Tom says he finds his lessons interesting because... A they use computers a lot. В the teachers are interesting. C they learn in active ways. Tom says that pupils are allowed to ... A talk in class. В tell the teachers what to do. C help make the rules. The only thing Tom doesn’t like about the school is... A the long journey to get there. В having lessons outside. C missing his old friends. ТГф Reading 60 Match each profile (1-5) to a text (A-F). There is one text that you do not need to use. What job would you apply for if you ... wanted to work in the food industry? were a science student? wanted to live abroad? were interested in health and fitness? thought you could manage people? 1 2 3 4 5 В A D & A International seeks engineering graduates with five or more years’ experience who are interested in employment opportunities around the world. You must be prepared to work on any of our technical projects and have excellent written and spoken English and Spanish. Send CVs to: infc sdaint , iional.co.uK Assistants wanted for campus pharmacy at Cheshington University three evenings a week. Candidates must be well-mannered and comfortable working with a wide variety of customers. They should also have a basic knowledge of chemistry. Contact: [email protected] C Muscles is the latest of our city training centres. We are seeking a full-time attendant for our weights room. Experience of bodybuilding and fitness issues would be an advantage although full training vrill be provided. A friendly, dynamic personality and a willingness to assist is essential. CallGino on: 240-677-3215 Welsh and Sons have a vacancy for a business graduate to train as an account manager. The position is demanding. You will be in contact with top company professionals and so will also need to be confident and able to attract potential customers in the UK and France. Excellent working environment. Competitive salary. Fax CVs to: 713-432-7896 E Eduread Publishins provides educational books and CDs to over 3,000 schools around the world. Due to our recent success in entering the Chinese market, we now need to employ more staff. A minimum of three years’ experience in business and teaching is required, as well as good organisation skills and leadership qualities. You will need to travel to China occasionally. Contact Mr Flower at: [email protected][.-Liblishii-;.; v ■ Luisi’s needs Saturday staff. Candidates will have a clean, pleasant appearance and be able to work quickly and efficiently under pressure. Previous experience with handling orders is desirable. We also seek four temporary staff for our delivery service during July and August. Candidates must have a clean driving licence. Call: 341-145-5911 Я With an average annual temperature of -5.5°C, Russia is the coldest country in the world. The 1)...... winter lasts for five months, from RUSSIA November till the end of March, and causes extensive 2)....... difficulties. Throughout TRANSPORT history, the Russian v/inter has offered 3).. PROTECT to Russia by keeping away her enemies and as a result, has been referred to as ‘General Winter’ and ‘General Snow’. The average and minimum temperatures in 4)...... Russian regions differ. The severe VARY winter is in Yakutia, with temperatures falling to - 60°C. In the 5)....... regions of Russia EUROPE (west of the Ural Mountains) the winter is not as cold, with average temperatures 6)........... RARE falling below -15°C. However, it is sometimes much colder and during the winter of 2005/06, temperatures averaged from -25°C to -30°C in Moscow during the whole month of January. [Жф Use of English Fill in the gaps (1-7) with a word formed from the words in bold. Жф Writing Read the extract from your English pen-friend’s email. Her name is Lucy. Write an email to Lucy, who hasn't been feeling well. In your email: • tell her about your new school, • ask three questions about her Saturday job. Write 100-140 words. ♦ I- •. V.» 4 «•«! 1 •. =ШЕ TP Ttt My pen pal subiKt: What’s new? Are you getting used to your new school? What’s it like? Have you made any new friends? Hope everything’s OK. I’ve got a Saturday job. It’s my first day tomorrow! й.[ф Speaking You have seen an ad for a summer job in a cafe. You want more information about the job. Call the manager at the cafe and ask about; • what your responsibilities will be • if you need experience • months you can work • poy You begin the conversation. Your partner will play the part of the cafe owner. Remember to: • be active and polite • get all the information you need • decide whether to apply for the job or not WordPerfects 61 Progress Check IFill in: applied, armed, shifts, resign, freelancer, experience, participated, runs, responsibility, report. 1 Many members of my family are in the.............. forces. My dad is a soldier and my uncle is a pilot. 2 John works in a factory. He works........... 3 Do you have any...........as a waitress? 4 He has..........for the position of secretary. 5 Mr Smith..........his own business. 6 He decided to...........from his job due to health problems. 7 My mum works from home. She’s a.............. 8 Can I see your school.........card? 9 I wouldn’t like to be a doctor. It’s too much 10 Everyone...........in the school project. /points: —\ \10X2 20j 2 Fill in: public, boarding, bank, flight, pay, medical, managing, host, business, sponsored. 1 ... 6 ... school 2 ... 7 ... 3 ... 8 ... family 4 ... clerk 9 ... event 5 ... studies 10 ... {Points: —\ I -— 10 ' \10X1 у 3Fill in will/’ll, won’t or the correct form of be going to. Look at the clouds. It’s......rain. Go on, tell me. I.......tell anyone. I promise I......do it tomorrow. He.......probably be here by 10. Oh no! The car........crash into the wall. “The car is dirty." “I know. I ....wash it later." I’ve seen a job advert. I......apply. 8 I........get a taxi. I’m too tired to walk. 9 I think I........go out tonight. I don’t think I......have lunch now. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 f Points: — llOX2 20 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 Э Fill in: at, up, on, out. Will you pick.......Susan from school? Why are you picking........your food like that? Tom’s health has picked........recently. You shouldn’t pick......younger children. Can you help me pick.........a tie to match this /Points: _ \5X2 b Fill in: for, with, in, from. Jack works.........an office. Did you apply.......that job? He works.........a small company. Can you deal.........this customer, please? My uncle has just retired........his job. 10 Points: 5X2 10] 1 2 3 4 5 Form nouns from the verbs in brackets. He’s an excellent.........(act) The.........wants to see you. (manage) He wants to become an...........(art) Spielberg is a famous.........(direct) Is she the new........? (teach) / Points: \5X2 Fill in: • Thank you. • Good for you! • Oh dear! • Monday 10:00 am. • Not really. A: Please have a seat. B: ........ 10 A: When shall I start? B: ......... A: I’ve failed my exams. B: ......... A: B: I’ve got a pay rise. A: Do you have any experience as a secretary? B: ........ / Points: — ^5X4 20 I Can My score: 100 62 • talk/write about school & school life • have a job interview • talk/write about jobs/endangered species ’ • write a letter of application and a CV 4!?!!?!?!’..'°']!!?...... ... in English Earth Alert! Modii ♦ Before you start... • What’s a typical day at school like? • What would your ideal job be? Why? Look at Module 4 Find the page numbers for pictures 1 -4. ♦ Find the page numbers for • a mind map П • an adoption certificate □ L • newspaper headlines □ ♦ Listen, read and talk about.. • environmental protection • environmental issues • tropical rainforests • photosynthesis Learn how to ... • express concern/hope • discuss the weather • express agreement/disagreement Practise ... • modals • word formation: negative adjectives • phrasal verbs: run • words often confused: weather/whether, affects/effects, desserts/deserts, loose/lose Write / Make... • a quiz about how good someone is towards the environment • a letter to a friend from an expedition • a for-and-against essay • a short article about a protected area in your country • a poster/poem about rainforests I/- JUttt Reading Skills 1 Vocabulary Environmental protection What should we do to protect the environment? Use the ideas listed to make sentences. Reduce amount of water we use energy consumption burning of oil & coal rubbish use of cars paper consumption excessive packaging Reuse old tins, shoe boxes, jars and bottles writing paper fruit/vegetable peelings water old towels, sheets and clothes Recycle glass aluminium paper plastic ► We should reduce the amount of water we use. Reading 2 d Look at the title and headings in the text on p. 65. What do you think the writer’s purpose was in writing the text? What do you expect to learn from it? Read and check. 3 5 Complete the sentences with words in bold from the text. 1 There wasn’t enough water left for her to ...........the shampoo out of her hair. 2 Our teachers ......... us to use recycled paper. 3 Traffic jams ......... both air and noise pollution. 4 He .......... her birthday present in recycled paper. 5 I feel very tired; I don’t think I have the ...........to play football this evening. 6 People in our neighbourhood have started a paper recycling............ 7 My brother likes to.........comics with his friends. 8 When substances ............... they break down into different chemicals. 9 She was a wonderful teacher. It will be difficult to.........her. 10 They opened the cage and ............. the animals. Match the highlighted phrasal verbs with their meanings: put in the bin, wear, think of, lower, stop sth working, reduce. AAake sentences using them. Speaking 7b Read again and make notes under the headings reduce, recycle, reuse. Which of these things do you do in your daily life? Discuss. A: I always switch off the lights when I leave a room so as to reduce energy consumption. B: Me too. 1 also... 'w Choose the correct word (A, B, C or D) to fill in the gaps (1-8). Compare with a partner. Listen and check. 1 A Put В Do C Make D Have 2 A take В give C put D do 3 A enough В such c so D much 4 A even В still c already D just 5 A deny В reject c avoid D refuse 6 A several В few c some D any 7 A also В before c when D until 8 A less В most c more D least Writing (a quiz) 6 64 Portfolio: Design a simple quiz to find out how good someone is at reducing, recycling and reusing things. Use ideas from the text as well as your own ideas. Give your quiz to your partner to complete. Report your findings to the class. 1 You are packing your lunch for school. What do you pack? a A sandwich and a banana in a reusable container. b A sandwich in a plastic bag & a packet of crisps. ELIMINATE WASTE & PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT BI-MOM HLY NEWSLI ITRR January - February Simoly speaking, waste is anything thrown away or released into the environment. Jnforti Unfortunately, a lot of waste can end up harming the environment. You can help protect the environment by learning about and practising the 3 Rs: REDUCE, RECYCL and REUSE! We've come up with some practical ways of ioing this... CHOOSE TO REUSE It's not waste until you waste it! Think carefully about how you can reuse something before you throw it away. 1)........a compost heap in the garden with fruit and vegetable material - it will decompose and make good fertiliser for your plants. Also, if things break, try to repair them before you replace them. Remember that one man’s rubbish is another man’s treasure! If you buy a replacement for something you already have, 2)......the old item to someone who can use it. Have your jeans got holes in the knees? Make new shorts out of them or give them to someone who needs them. Don’t throw away empty jars and bottles; rinse them out and use them to store other things. TURN IT DOWN OR SWITCH IT OFF Always switch off the lights when you leave an empty room, and use light bulbs that save energy. You can also switch off the cooker a few minutes earlier - there will still be 3).heat to finish cooking the food. Why not take showers in cooler water and for shorter lengths of time? Finally, turn down the heating and put on warmer clothes if you're cold. BE A LEAN. GREEN SHOPPING MACHINE Only buy what you really need and use all of it. Thinking about buying something new? Try the 30-day rule - only buy it if you 4)..want it 30 days after you first saw it. At the supermarket, 5)......buying things you do not need by writing a shopping list before you go and making sure you keep to it. Of course, you should also take your own bags to put the shopping in. PUT PACKAGING ON A DIET First things first; buy things with simple packaging that can easily be recycled. Better still, choose products with no packaging at all! Secondly, if you are preparing a packed lunch to eat at school, take a sandwich in a reusable lunchbox, juice in a reusable bottle and a banana, rather than a sandwich in a plastic bag, or a carton of juice and biscuits which are each wrapped in silver paper and even more plastic. And finally ... think BIG! One large box of cereal, for example, uses less packaging than 6).smaller ones and is usually a lot cheaper too! SAVE ON PAPER Try to cut down on the amount of paper you use. Use a computer and proofread your writing on the screen 7).......you print it out. Use both sides of the paper and then recycle it. Remember that telephone calls and email messages don’t create paper waste. GET OTHERS INVOLVED Last but not 8)......., encourage your friends to cut down on waste too! Swap magazines, books and clothes, send them a copy of this newsletter (on recycled paper, of course!) or start a ‘Use Less Stuff!’ campaign at your school! 0 (^udy skil!s Revising Try to recall what you have read: headings, main ideas, words, grammar structures, etc. Summarise what you have learnt in your own words. This helps you remember what you have read. Think of what you have learnt in this lesson. Close your book and tell your partner. 7_____________ i Words ol Wisdom We create the world in which we live; if that world becomes unfit for human life, it is because we tire of our responsibility. (Cyril Connolly, English critic) 65 Listening & Speaking Skills 1 Cutting down trees provides wood & paper and creates space for new roads & buildings. Power stations provide electridty for our modem 1 Genetically modified (GM) crops improve the quality of food. 4 Modern transport (e.g. cars, planes) saves us time & effort. Vocabulary Environmental issues d Look at the picture. What message does it give? How is the quotation below related to it? "We never know ihe worth of water till the well is dry.” (Thomas Fuller, English historian) b Ш Match man’s actions (1-4) with their consequences (a-d), then discuss. ► A: Cutting down trees provides man with wood and paper and space for new roads and buildings. B: Yes, you’re right, but it destroys wildlife habitats and increases the amount of pollutants in the air. Everyday English Expressing concern/hope 1 66 Use the phrases in the box and the fact file to discuss, as in the example. A: I heard the other day that polar bears may be extinct in 100 years. B: That's really shocking! A: Well, maybe all is not lost. * They increase COj emissions, which cause global warming & climate change. It destroys wildlife habitats & increases the amount of pollutants in the air. They may have negative effects on the environment. It congests and pollutes our towns/cities. Introducing a topic Expressing concern I heard the other day that... They say that... Did you know that...? I read somewhere recently that... That’s (just/totally) horrible/ ridiculous/irresponsible etc. That’s (really/so) terrible/ cruel/shocking! etc. It/That doesn’t bear thinking about! Expressing hope • Well, maybe we can do something before it’s too late. • Maybe all is not lost. There’s still hope. Earth Alert! Fact File Polar bears may be extinct in 100 years. Sea levels could rise by 50 cm in the next 100 years. UK winters could become 30% wetter by 2100. The top ten warmest years since 1860 have all occurred since 1980. More than 150 acres of rainforest are lost every minute. 3 Reading ЧГ' The follovring words/phrases appear in the dialogue. What might the dialogue be about? Listen, read and check. • giraffe • money • conservation programmes • zoo • donate • endangered species • modern lifestyles • natural habitats • adoption certificate • adopted Speaking Suzy: Ahh, Vanessa, that giraffe in the picture is so sweet. Vanessa: Yes, and guess what? I’ve actually adopted him! Suzy: Adopted him! What do you mean? Vanessa: Well, when you visit the zoo, you can choose an animal you like and donate money every month to help pay for the things it needs. You know, like food, the cleaning of its enclosure, that kind of thing. Suzy: That’s a great idea! Vanessa: Also, some of the money you give goes towards the zoo’s conservation programmes. Suzy: So you get to help other endangered species as well? Vanessa: That’s right. After all, it’s our modern lifestyles that pollute and destroy the animals’ natural habitats. Suzy: I agree. It’s good to try and do something before it’s too late. Do you get anything in return for all your help? Vanessa: Oh yes, an adoption certificate and a ticket to go and visit your animal at the zoo any time you like. Suzy: That sounds cool! I think I might adopt an animal, but which one? I love them all! Vanessa: Hey, it’s your birthday soon. Why don’t I give you an adoption certificate as a gift? Suzy: Fantastic! Thanks, Vanessa! b Read again and answer the questions. Then explain the words in bold. What do you do when you adopt an animal? In what ways does your support help the zoo? What do you get when you adopt an animal? Q© Read out the dialogue. Listening a Look at the form. What is it for? What might the missing words be? b Listen and fill in the gaps (1-6). Adoption Certificate This is to certify that Harry 1)...... has adopted a(n) 2)..........tree. Details: • supports a rich variety of 3)..... • can live for over 4)........years Your personalised message: "5)............Harry! Hope you like the gift!" You also receive; 6).........membership of the ‘Adopt-a-Tree Foundation’ & regular updates from us 5 8 6 7 You are Harry. Tell your friend about the tree adoption. Use the dialogue in Ex. 3 as a model. Talk about: • type of tree you’ve adopted • what you’ve received • why you are doing this Say it right Discussins the weather Ш C J Choose the correct response, then listen and check. Listen again and repeat. 1 Strange weather we’re having for the time of year! a) I know what you mean! b) Impossible! 2 Brrr! It’s a bit chilly today! a) I know, it’s freezing! b) Don’t be silly! 3 You’re soaking wet! a) Oh no, it’s raining! b) I got caught in the rain! Idioms Complete the sentences with the words day, cloud, storm, weather. Explain the idioms. Check in the Word List. 1 John was so happy he was on ...........nine. 2 Lucy looks a bit under the ........ these days. What’s wrong with her? 3 Mary is saving money for a rainy ......... 4 It’s just a small problem - only 0.........in a teacup. Think of ten new words/phrases you have learnt in this lesson. Make sentences using them. Close your book and tell your partner. 67 Grammar in Use 1 Models Grammar Reference a Match the sentences (1-7) with their meanings (A-G). J You mustn’t drop litter in the streets. ] You can’t use your camera in here, I’m afraid. ] You have to have a licence to own an exotic pet. ] I don’t have to use my car every day. ] We should/ought to/had better cycle to school. ] You shouldn’t leave the tap running when you’re brushing your teeth. ] We must try to save energy at home and at work. A It's important for you to do so. В It's not necessary/obligatory. C You don't have permission. D It’s not a good idea - 1 don t recommend it. E It's not allowed. F It’s the law. G It’s the best/right thing to do. 2 b Which of the verbs in bold expresses: obligation/strons recommendation? lack of obligation/necessity? permission/possibility? recommendation/advice? prohibition? What are the equivalents in your language? Cl/' Choose the most appropriate modal verb to complete the dialogue. Listen and check. 68 A: We’re having an environmental awareness day at school tomorrow. B: Environmental awareness? What’s that? A: It’s a special day when we learn about all the things we 1) should/have to do to protect the environment. You know, how we 2) have to/can help to save the planet. B: That sound’s interesting. What do you do? A: Well, for a start, everybody 3) had better/should walk or cycle to school so that we save energy. And we 4) can’t7must make sure we don’t waste energy when we are there. How do you do that? To begin with, we remind everybody of what they 5) can/don’t have to do to save energy. Like turning lights off in empty rooms, you mean? That’s right. We have a rule that the last person to leave a room 6) can/must turn off the lights and close the door. Why do you 7) must/have to close the door? To keep the heat in, of course! You 8) should/can never leave doors open because heat will escape! Goodness! I never thought of that! I think we 9) had better/have to have an environmental awareness day at my school, too!_______________________________ B; A: B: A: B: A: B: 3 Use modal verbs and the verbs in the list to explain the signs. • leave • smoke • go in • recycle • svfim ©NO UTTER 1'П PHONE BOOKS ‘ 1 ONLY 1 ^MAGAZINES ЦУ CATALOGUES ► You mustn’t leave litter here. 4 Make true sentences about your country. Use modals. • car drivers/wear seat belts • you/pay for local phone calls • citizens/carry identity cards • smokers/smoke in public places • passengers/eat on public transport • teenagers/leave school at 16 ► Car drivers have to wear seat belts. 5 study the table and then complete the sentences. Present Past must/have to had to can could (general ability in the past) My dad could run really fast when he was young. was/were able to (specific ability in the past) / wasn’t able to do my homework last night. 1 was too tired. Before they built those houses, you ......see the sea from here. I was late yesterday because I..... go to the dentist. She didn’t know that she .......... take her old mobile phone to the recycling centre. When I was young, I........help my mother clean the house every day. It was difficult, but I..answer all the questions correctly in the end. т Use may/could (formal) or can (informal) to ask for the followin,: • use the telephone • go out • ask a question • read this уОМ1* MUM magazine • have some more cake yQy|' Your partner has to guess who you are talking to. ► A: Ma\/1 use the telephone? B: You are askins your neighbour. 8 your neiQtUKHir 6 Word formation Read the theory box, then complete the gaps in the headlines with the correct words. Forming negative adjectives We use prefixes such as un- (usual ■ unusual), il-(loskal - illosical), dis- (content - discontent), in-(advisable - inadvisable), ir- (responsible ■ irresponsible), mis- (informed - misinformed), im-(possible - impossible) or the suffix -less (care -careless) to form negative adjectives. 1 UK MEN ARRESTED FOR_____(LEGAL) SALE OF IVORY 2 Bl II.DERS LEAVE NESTING """«...... 4 Oil prices...... \ .. (likely) to fall 5<юп I 5 GOVERNMENTS CRITICISED FOR..... ! (RESPONSIBLE) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES Dependent prepositions 7 Fill in: of, from, to, under, about, in. Check in Appendix 1. Make sentences using the phrases. 1 Throwing waste in the sea can be harmful .........marine life. 2 A lot of coral reefs are.....threat due to rising sea temperatures. 3 More needs to be done to protect dolphins ......getting caught in fishing nets. 4 My uncle is an avid supporter .... Greenpeace. 5 I feel very strongly.....recycling. 6 Lots of exotic birds are ....... danger of extinction. 7 We shouldn’t keep animals.......captivity. 9 Phrasal verbs Study the diagram. Complete the sentences with the correct phrasal verb. on -N (be powered) away from ' (escape from) out of _u_ \ (have no more left) ^ 4 / into ^ (knock down ^^vi^ehicle) unexpectedly 1 He almost.......the neighbour's cat! 2 I hop>e we won’t ....... petrol before we get home! 3 I........Eddie in the supermarket yesterday. 4 Most cars.......unleaded petrol. 5 The robber tried to.....the police but he didn’t manage to. Words often confused Choose the correct word. Check in the Word List. What does the other word mean? Make sentences using them. 1 We will loose/lose many species if rainforests continue to disappear. 2 The weather/whether is becoming more and more unpredictable. 3 No one can ignore the affects/effects of global warming. 4 Large areas of land are in danger of becoming desserts/deserts. 10 Key word transformations Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use two to five words including the word in bold. 1 You can’t enter the premises, allowed You.......the premises. 2 It’s not necessary for shops to use so much packaging. need Shops..........so much packaging. 3 I don’t think it’s a good idea for you to eat so much junk food. avoid You........so much junk food. 4 It is illegal to drive without a licence. if You........haven’t got a licence. 5 We should walk more. good It.............to walk more. Grammar Check A 69 1 Look at the title of the text and the picture on p. 70. What do you think the extract is about? Read the biography and check. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) was a Scottish doctor and author. His mother was passionate about books and a fantastic storyteller. Arthur discovered he had a talent for telling fascinating stories. His works include science-fiction and historical novels, plays and romances, poetry and non-fiction. The Lost World (1912) was the first in a series of four novels. It is about an expedition to the Amazon Rainforest in South America where Professors Challenger and Summerlee, reporter Edward Malone and hunter Lord John Roxton encounter prehistoric animals. 2 70 d C} Read lines 1-19 of the extract. What do you think the professor has seen? What do you think will happen next? Listen and read to find out. b Match the sentences (A- G) to the gaps (1-6). There is one extra sentence you do not need to use. Compare with a partner. A Then they vanished from our sight. В August 28th - the day we saw five live iguanodons in a clearing of the Amazon Rainforest. C Crouching down among the bushes, we observed them at our leisure. D A dreadful thing has happened to us. E No; a reptile - a dinosaur. F They were enormous. G What will they say in England about this? 10 "But what do you make of this?" cried Professor Summerlee, triumphantly pointing to what looked like the huge print of a five-fingered human hand appearing among the three-toed marks. “Wealden!” cried Professor Challenger, in ecstasy. “I’ve seen them in Wealden in England. It is a creature walking upright upon three-toed feet, and occasionally putting one of its five-fingered forepaws down on the ground. Not a bird, my dear Roxton - not a bird." “A beast?” Nothing else could have left such a track." His words died away into a whisper, and we all stood in motionless amazement. Following the tracks, we left the swamp and passed through some bushes and trees. '15 Beyond was an open clearing, where there were five of the most extraordinary creatures that I have ever seen. in There were, as I say, five of them, two adults and three young ones. I 3 I 1 Even the babies were as big 20 as elephants, while the two adults were bigger than any creatures I have ever seen. They had slate-coloured skin, which had scales like a lizard's and glittered when the sun shone upon it. All five were up, balancing themselves upon ^heir broad, powerful tails and their three-tc while they pulled down branches with their small fivefingered front feet. I do not know if I can describe them to you better other than by saying that they looked like monstrous kangaroos, twenty feet in length, and with skin like crocodiles. I do not know how long we stayed gazing at this marvellous sight. A strong wind blew towards us but we were well concealed, so there was no chance of discovery. From time to time the little ones played round their parents in clumsy games, the great beasts hopping into the air and falling with dull thuds upon the earth. The strength of the parents seemed to be limitless, for one of them, having some difficulty in reaching a bunch of leaves which grew upon a large tree, put his forelegs round the trunk and tore it down as if it were a sapling*. This showed not only the strength of its muscles, but also the weakness of its brain, for the whole tree came crashing down on top of it. It yelped loudly, showing that despite its size there was a limit to what it could endure. The incident caused him to move off, followed by its partner and their three enormous infants. We saw the shimmering grey gleam of their skin between the tree trunks and their heads moving up and down high above the tree tops. 1^1 I 1 looked at my comrades. Lord John was staring intently in the direction the creatures had disappeared. The two professors were in silent ecstasy. In their excitement, they had grabbed each other by the hand and stood like two little children in the presence of a wonderful sight. Challenger's ch^ks displayed a broad SfTiile, and Summerlee’s ironic face softened in amazement. “My God!" he cried at last. “LL “My dear Summerlee, I will tell you with great confidence exactly what they will say," said Challenger. ‘They will say that you are a liar and a scientific fake, exactly as you and others said of me." “And if we have photographs?" “Faked, Summerlee, faked, they’ll say!" “And if we have specimens?" “Ah, there we may have them! The newspapers may praise us yet. I 6 I I Put it down in your diary, my young friend, and send it to your paper." 30 35 40 55 60 3 5 3 Match the highlighted words to their meanings. Use each one in a sentence of your own. 1 put up with 2 not moving 3 cried out 4 hidden 5 sparkled 6 huge 7 shine 8 extreme happiness 9 because b Use a dictionary to explain the words in bold. What are they in your language? Find words that mean big in the extract. Make sentences using them. Find ail words related to animals and list them under the headings: ► reptile / classes \ parts of body 6 7 8 \ type^ Compare with another pair. a Who/What is compared to: little children? elephants? a human hand? a lizard? great beasts? crocodiles? kangaroos? b Ш Which adjectives best describe: — the baby dinosaurs - the adult dinosaurs — the two professors and the narrator. • excited • unintelligent • playful • huge • unusual • amazed • strong • overjoyed Which parts of the text helped you decide? Explain the underlined phrases in your own words. Writing Portfolio: Imagine you are part of the expedition. Write a letter to a friend describing what you have seen. 71 Writing Skills 1 For-and-against essays Read the theory box. Where can we find this type of writing? For-and-against essays present the advantages and disadvantages (or pros and cons) of a topic. They consist of: • an introduction presenting the topic without giving an opinion. • a main body in which you state the arguments for and against the issue in separate paragraphs. Each argument is supported with justifications or examples. • a conclusion giving your opinion. For-and-against essays are normally formal. Short sentences, colloquial expressions and idioms should be avoided. They can be found in articles, in newspapers/ ^magazines and in school assignments. ^ 2 d Read the rubric and find the key words. Answer questions 1-3. You have had a class discussion about banning cars from city centres. Your teacher has now asked you to write an essay for the school magazine presenting the arguments for and against this idea. 1 What will the essay be about? 2 What style will you write it in? 3 Which of the following points could your essay include? Which are pros and which are cons? • reduce traffic jams • cars are faster and more comfortable • lower petrol costs • reduce accidents • reduce air and noise pollution • crowded public transport • public transport follows fixed routes Can you add any more ideas? b Read the essay and match the paragraphs with the headings. • writer’s opinion • arguments against & justifications • presenting the topic • arguments for & justifications Should cars be banned from city centres? !► Most people would agree that cars have made our lives much easier. They have, however, brought many problems as well. Many people now believe that there should be a total ban on cars from our city centres. Undoubtedly, this suggestion has both advantages and disadvantages. ^ There are many positive aspects to banning cars from city centres. To begin with, it would help to drastically reduce air and noise pollution. This is extremely important, especially as the carbon dioxide from car exhausts is seriously harming the environment and our health. In addition, it would probably reduce the number of accidents and generally make the city centre a more pleasant place to be. On the other hand, banning cars totally from city centres would have its disadvantages. Firstly, it would inconvenience millions of people. Cars are faster and more comfortable than public transport and do not follow fixed routes. Also, it is likely that public transport would be much more crowded. If cars were not allowed access to all parts of cities then more people would use public transport. ^ All things considered, although there are many advantages to using cars in city centres, there is no excuse for people not to use public transport more often than at present. For this reason, I strongly argue that it would be better in the long run if cars were banned from city centres. 72 (^udy skills Whtins main body paragraphs Main body paragraphs should begin with a topic sentence which introduces or summarises the topic of the paragraph. This sentence is followed by supporting sentences which provide examples or details to support the topic sentence. Topic and supporting sentences 3 Find the topic sentences in the essay on p. 72. Which sentences support them? Suggest alternative ones. 4 Match the topic sentences (1-3) to their supporting sentences (A-C). 1 There are certainly a number of good reasons for using natural gas. 2 There is no doubt that using public transport has many advantages. 3 There are, however, a few disadvantages to using solar energy. A Firstly, it is more environmentally friendly as it helps to clear the roads of cars. This, in turn, reduces air and noise pollution. В The main one is that it can be very expensive to set up such a system. Also, it is of no use at night. C First of all, it doesn’t pollute as much as burning coal or petroleum does. 5 Read the topic sentences below and write appropriate supporting sentences. Compare with another pair. 1 There are many advantages to recycling. 2 On the other hand, there are certain disadvantages to clearing forests. 6 Linkers a Look at the list of linkers in the table. Which of them can you see in the essay on p. 72? What is the purpose of each one? Replace them with suitable alternatives. [Firstly, To begin with. Secondly, Finally [consequently, Asa result. For this reason ^^^fQJ^^Also, In addition. What is more. Not only... but... 1ЯЯЯДД1 However. Nevertheless, although, but, while. On the one hand ...: On the other hand ... 1ЯЯЯГО31то sum up. To summarise. All in all. On the whole. All things considered b Choose the correct linkers. 1 There are many advantages to raising parking charges. However/Therefore, there are also/ in addition certain disadvantages. 2 Consequently/Not only do I think the rainforests should be protected, but/what is more many more trees should be planted. 3 Not only/AII in all, I am opposed to nuclear energy. 4 In addition/On the one hand, I agree with using clean fuel in cars. On the other hand/ As a result, this will inconvenience people. Expressing agreement/disagreement a Which of the following phrases can we use to express: agreement! disagreement! both! I think/believe that... I would disagree that... I am (strongly/very much/totally) in favour of. In my opinion/view,, I would argue that... I (strongly, etc) agree with/believe that. I (strongly, etc) disagree with, It seems/appears to me that... I am (totally, etc) opposed to/against... b Use the issues presented in the extracts in Ex. 8, p. 74 to express agreement/ disagreement. ► / am strongly against keeping exotic animals as pets. 73 Writing Skills Beginnings & endings 8 To make your writing more effective, you can; • address the reader directly. ff you use public transport, you will help reduce pollution. • use a rhetorical question. Is there perhaps a better way to епсоигаде people to use bicycles? • use a quotation/popular saying. As Ayn Rand once said, ‘Animals change themselves for the environment, but humans change the environment for themselves. ‘ у Read the extracts below and say whether they are beginnings or endings. What techniques have the writers used to make their writing more effective? 1 To sum up, although there are valid arguments against buying second-hand clothes, I feel that there are certainly enough arguments in favour of it. Besides, as the saying goes, 'A penny saved is a penny earned.' 2 With the wide variety of exotic pets available in pet stores, the trend seems set to increase. Are you actually doing the right thing, howev er, by taking one of these rare creatures home? 3 All in all, I believe that there ore more pros than cons to reusing household items. After oil, doesn't it moke sense to save the planet os well os save ourselves quite о large onnount of money? 9 74 Discuss Sc write : Choose any of the following and write your article (100-150 words). Follow the steps (1-7), 1 The local newspaper has asked for articles discussing the pros and cons of creating cycle lanes throughout the city. Submit your article. 2 Your school magazine has asked for articles discussing the advantages and disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos. Write your article. 3 You have seen the following notice on your school noticeboard. Articles re<\ueeted The nejct issue of our magazine will deal with the issue of recycling paper in school. If you have any ideas on the advantages and disadvantages of this, we would like to hear from you (100-150 words). Write an essay In response. Steps 1 How can you present the topic? 2 What general remarks can you make? 3 What are your arguments in support of the topic? 4 What examples/justifications come to mind? 5 What are your arguments against the topic? 6 What examples/justifications can you think of? 7 What is your general opinion? • Remember to: - begin each paragraph with a topic sentence - use appropriate linkers to connect ideas and introduce opposing ideas - put your ideas in a chart first to organise your thoughts more environmentally friendly needs a lot of people to organise it Your essay on zoos is very good, Sally. But I wonder how you and your sister wrote exactly the same essay. J ULTURE CORNER The Gieat Boiriei Reel Australia's Natural Treasure Welcome to Australia's Great Barrier Reef! The 2,000-kilometre long reef is the 0) largest (large) coral reef system in the world - it is so big that it can be seen from space! Like many other coral reefs in the world, the Great Barrier Reef is in danger. The numbers of fish and other creatures that live here have fallen 1)..........(drastic) in recent years because of pollution. We need your help to protect this unique ecosystem. Help us protect the water The sea around the reefs has been seriously harmed over the years, but you can help reverse this. Don't throw rubbish into the sea as it may contain chemicals that will pollute the water. Rubbish might also float to the surface, which isn't pretty for 2).......(any) to look at! Help us to keep the water crystal clear so that it can be enjoyed by 3)....(every). Help us protect the coral Remember that the reef is very much a 4).........(live) organism I It has been formed over thousands of years by the 5) ..........(act) of tiny creatures called coral polyps. We have to protect these creatures if the reef is to sun/ive. If you are camping on a beach, please be 6)......(care) what you do with any waste water. Washing-up liquid and bleach can be fatal to coral. If anyone offers to sell you a piece of coral, don't buy it. If you see coral for sale in a shop, tell the authorities 7)......(immediate). Help us protect the wildlife The reef is home to 1,500 species of tropical fish, over 200 types of bird and 20 species of reptile, 8).......(include) the endangered Green Sea Turtle. It is also a breeding ground for humpback whales from the Antarctic. Remember - all these creatures depend on the reef for their 9)............ (survive). Please never fish for 10).......(any)! Many species of fish are in danger of 11).........(extina) and therefore protected by law. The same goes for shellfish and other creatures. They may look 12) ........... (beauty), but remember the reef is their home. How would you feel if 13).........(some) picked you up and took you far away from your home? Please help us to conserve Australia's natural treasure so that it can be enjoyed for 14)......................(generate) to come! Look at the pictures and the headings in the text. What do you think the Great Barrier Reef is? Read the first paragraph to find out. How do you think the phrases below are related to coral reefs? Read through and check. • waste water • crystal clear water • living organism • breeding ground • humpback whales • natural treasure What advice is given to tourists? Why? Discuss. A: Tourists are advised not to throw rubbish into the sea because... 8: Yes, and... ^udy skills Working in groups When you work in groups, it is important to decide who will perform what task. Assigning group roles according to each person’s character will help the group work better. a Е.! фО© V.,* Complete the gaps in the text with a word derived from the words in brackets. Compare vrith your partner. Listen and check. b Explain the words in bold. Portfolio: Work in groups. Think of a protected area in your country. • Where is it? • What lives there? • What problems has it got? • What can tourists do to help? Collect information. Use your answers to prepare a short article for the school magazine. 75 Science ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 76 1 What do green plants need to make food? Read the definition to check. Photosynthesis [N-UNCOUNT] is the way that green plants make their food using sunlight. r„f 2 3 Write down two questions you have about photosynthesis, then read the text. Can you answer your questions? a Ф j Match the paragraphs to the headings below. Listen and check. 1 NOW FOR THE SCIENCE BIT! 2 WHAT IS PHOTOSYNTHESIS? 3 FOOD FROM THE SUN 4 A LIFE-GIVING PROCESS 5 THE LIGHT AND DARK REACTIONS b Explain the words in bold. Use the words in the box to complete the following. light energy / water / carbon dioxide / chlorophyll Photosynthesis is the production of carbohydrates from 1) ...... and 2) ...... using 3) ....... from the sun and 4).......which exists in the cells of green plants. 5 Project: Make notes under the headings in Ex. 3. Use them to explain how photosynthesis works. Energy moves along the food chain from one life form to another. Some animals eat plants to get energy. Other animals then eat these animals to obtain the energy they need. Plants, on the other hand, produce their own food using energy from the sun. They do this through a process called ‘photosynthesis’. Photosynthesis uses energy from the sun to change carbon dioxide (CO^) and water (H^O) into carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that contain hydrogen, carbon and oxygen and they are the plant’s food. To start the process, the plant absorbs carbon dioxide through tiny holes in its leaves and sucks up water from the soil through its roots. A green substance in the plant’s leaves called chlorophyll absorbs energy from the sun. The plant now has all it needs for photosynthesis to begin. There are two stages to the photosynthesis process. In the first stage, called the light reaction, light energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy. This energy is stored in a chemical called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The second stage of the process is the dark reaction. In this reaction, the plant converts the carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates. Carbohydrates provide the plant with the energy it needs in order to grow. The chemical reaction involved in photosynthesis can be/ summarised by this equation; light 6 CO, 2 + ^ '•6' •12*'6 ^ ««г Carbon Dioxide Water Sugar Oxygen 6 0, The equation shows how important photosynthesis is for life. As well as providing food for the plant from the sun’s energy, the equation shows that the reaction also produces the oxygen that animals need to breathe. Without photosynthesis, our planet could not support life as we know it. т What are tropical rainforests? Tropical rainforests grow in the hot, wet, humid places near the Equator. The plants and trees in the rainforest grow to different heights. The forest can be divided into four layers: the forest floor, the understorey, the canopy and the emergent (layer of larger trees which stick out above all the rest). Why are they important? They are important for various reasons. Firstly, they clean and renew the Earth's air supply by absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Secondly, they provide a home to thousands of animal and plant species. What grows there? South American rainforests are the home of the wild cocoa plant, from which chocolate is made. The medicines quinine and aspirin come from tree bark and cough mixture is from tree resin, both found in rainforests. Some other important products that come from rainforest plants are mahogany wood, rattan, bananas, paprika, pepper and coffee. Why are they in danger? People are destroying the rainforests at a rate of 115 square miles a day. The trees are cut down and used as building material or fuel. The land on which these forests grow is being used for homes and factories and roads. What can we do to save them? There are lots of things that we can do to help protect the rainforests. Join an organisation which tries to save the rainforests, like Greenpeace. Write letters to politicians in countries where there are rainforests, asking them to stop allowing companies to cut down the trees. Don’t buy furniture which is produced from rainforest wood. By acting together, we can really make a difference! 1 2 3 Imagine you are in a tropical rainforest. Listen to the sounds. Describe the scene. What can you see, hear, feel, taste? 4»^ Try to answer the questions in the text. Listen and check. d Read the text and answer the questions. 1 Where do tropical rainforests grow? 2 How do tropical rainforests renew the Earth’s air supply? 3 Why are tropical rainforests important to wildlife? 4 Name two medicines that come from trees. 5 Name two ways we can help protect rainforests. b Explain the words in bold. 5 You belong to an environmental protection organisation. Prepare a five-minute presentation for your class about rainforests. Project: Work in groups. Prepare a poster for the school art class entitled Save the Rainforests. Alternatively, write a poem about rainforests. Use the words rainforest, things, sings, rest and your own ideas. шееп A nation that destroys its soil destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air and giving fresh strength 'to our people. JFranblin D Roosevelt, American presi^l) 11 MODULE 4 ]ф [Reading Read the article, then choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-7. Giant pandas, found only in China, are one of the worlds nrast endangered species. There are only atwut 1600 left in the wild and another 200 in captivity. The female panda has an average of only about 7 cubs (baby pandas) in her lifetime. This is why it is extremely important that we protect these beautiful animals. In April 2006, a four-year-old male panda called Xiang Xiang was released into the wild. He was the first panda bom in captivity to be set free. This was more than 40 years after the birth of the first giant panda in captivity. Xiang Xiang, whose name means lucky', has a radio collar so scientists can follow his movements. When released, he barked like an angry dog and ran towards photographers before heading into the forest! Xiang Xiang began training to be a wild panda from the age of two. He was raised at the Panda Centre in the Wolong Nature Reserve where more than a hundred pandas live (more than half of the pandas in captivity!). Xiang Xiang's habitat training began in a five acre open space. He later went to a much larger area that was more like a natural panda habitat. There, Xiang Xiang learned to build a place to live and to eat bamboo. He started to become aggressive towards humans and make noises like a wild panda. Also, his health improved and he began to have more energy. The area around the Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest giant panda habitat in the world. Scientists will work out how many more pandas can live in this area, then they will release that number into the wild. Xiang Xiang was released into the western end of the Wolong Nature Reserve. There, he may meet other pandas. However, will they befriend him or not? If they do, then in the future pandas will be released in eight or ten different locations. The plan is to double the number of pandas in the wild by releasing around 15 each year. Conservationalists hope many more pandas like Xiang Xiang will be released back into their natural habitat. However, the giant panda’s habitat has been shrinking more and more due to deforestation for wood and farming. This is the greatest threat of all to pandas. For this reason, the Chinese government has decided to protect 28 natural areas. They have also set up centres like the Chengdu Research Base. This research base started with six pandas whose habitat had been destroyed. Today it has 33 and they plan to reintroduce some of them to the wild in the future. It is important to breed pandas and to release them into the wild. However, protecting their habitat is the most important step. This is the only way to make sure they survive. 1 Xiang Xiang was the first panda ... A not born in the wild. В released after 40 years in captivity. C that lived in the forest. D born in captivity, then released into the wild. 2 The radio collar... A tells scientists where Xiang Xiang is. В plays music. C makes Xiang Xiang bark. D takes photographs. 3 Scientists at Wolong Nature Reserve will... A reduce panda numbers. В release a certain number of pandas. C move pandas out of the area. D take more pandas into captivity. 4 Which of the following can you not find at the Panda Centre? A Over 100 pandas В Open spaces C Bamboo D Wild pandas 5 The greatest danger to pandas is A the Chinese government. В farming. C decreasing habitats. D conservationalists. 6 The Chengdu Research Base ... A is a natural environment for pandas. В has 28 safe areas for pandas. C only has 6 pandas. D has a lot more pandas than when it was first opened. 7 It is most important to ... A find more pandas. В release pandas into the wild. C protect panda habitats. D stop keeping pandas in captivity. 78 ф I Use of English :Kld British money (gokl coin) 5 The thief.......the jewellery Into his pockets and walked calmly out of the shop. 6 She......into her favourite armchair in front of the fire to read a book. 3 ......hello/goodbye 4 ......your fist to show that you’re angry 5 ......hands with someone 6 ......with fear 5 b ^^1^ Find five verbs in the text which have been used instead of ‘said’. How do they differ in meaning? C Explain the words in bold. Complete the phrases using shake or nod. Check in your dictionary. Mime their meanings. Are these gestures the same in your country? 1 2 your head to say no your head to say yes 6 7 Э Portfolio: Phileas Fogg and Passepartout managed to arrive back in London, Write a possible final paragraph of the book. b 'O Listen to the actual ending of the book. Was it anything like your ending? Think of ten new words/phrases you have learnt in this lesson. Make sentences using them. Close your book and tell your partner. 89 Writing Skills 1 Stories Ф' What can a story be about? What tenses do we normally use? Read the theory box and check. Stories can be written in the first person (l/we) about real or imaginary events that happened to us or in the third person (he/she/they) about events that happened to someone else. • A variety of past tenses are used to describe actions or events that started and finished in the past (past simple), to set the scene and to describe events in progress at a certain time (past continuous) or to give background information and describe events that happened before other past events (past perfect). • Stories always have an introduction which sets the scene (who, when, where, what happened, etc) in an interesting way, a main body that develops the storyline and a conclusion to end the story and describe the characters’ feelings. A surprising ending makes a long-lasting impression on the reader. ( Paragraph plan) : I Introduction Para 1 set the scene I Main Body Paras 2-3 events in the order they happened Conclusion Para 4 end the story, describe feelings /AlRgrfectlPipyifGrig 2 Read the story on p. 90 and answer the questions. 1 Where did the story take place? 2 Who were the main characters? 3 What was the weather like? 4 What happened in the end? 1^ Rachel and I looked out of the window as the train started moving slowly away from the platform. It was a cloudless summer day, not what you would expect after last night's storm. "I don't think you'll be needing thatl" I told Rachel, looking at her huge green and pink spotted umbrella. "It's a beautiful day - perfect for the Netting Hill Carnival." ^ It was still early when we reached Netting Hill. We wandered happily around the stalls and admired the beautifully decorated floats. By the time the parade began, thousands of people had lined the streets to watch it. People in multi-coloured costumes were dancing to the rhythm of funky Caribbean music while others were taking photographs. "Look at that costume," I shouted to Rachel, but there was no answer. I looked around but she was nowhere in sight. I had no idea what to do I ^ Just as I was beginning to panic, there was a huge clap of thunder. Minutes later, it started to pour with rain. "Oh no, that's all I need," I thought anxiously, trying to find a place to take cover from the rain. It was just then that a familiar green and pink plastic object caught my eye. It was Rachel's umbrella! Quickly, 1 moved towards it. ^ Dripping wet but relieved, we entered the first caf^ we found. "Who would have thought," I said to Rachel as I took a sip of hot coffee, "that a sudden downpour would be good luck!" "Yes," Rachel replied, smiling, "... without it you wouldn't have spotted my special umbrella, Sarah!" 90 3 5 Which paragraph(s): • develop(s) the story? • set(s) the scene? • end(s) the story? What tenses has the writer used? Number the events in the order they happened (1-10). Then, tell the story from Rachel’s point of view. A О There was a violent storm. В Q The procession began. C П The girls took a look around. D П The girls arrived in Netting Hill. E Q The girls had coffee together. F П Sarah saw Rachel’s umbrella. G СИ Thousands of people lined the streets. H СИ The girls travelled to London by train. I СИ Sarah got separated from Rachel. J СИ The girls were reunited. Setting the scene a Read the theory. Does the first paragraph in the story answer these questions? Л Setting the scene To start a story you need to set the scene. That is, to say who the main characters were, where they were, what time of year it was, what the \^eather was like and why they were there. ^ b Look at the picture. Use the words/phrases to set the scene. Compare vrith your partner. (sunny day, blue sky (' last weekend : go sailing V hire a boat 6 Adjectives/Adverbs a Read the theory box. Using adjectives/adverbs A variety of adjectives and adverbs livens up your story. Use more sophisticated adjectives and adverbs such as fabulous, wonderful, cautiously, etc instead of simple ones such as good, nice, happy, bad, big, ^ell, etc to spice up your narrative. ^ b Ш Replace the adjectives in bold in the paragraph below with more interesting ones from the list. • terrifying • deafening • pleased • relieved • comfortable /Vs soon as I got onto the plane, I sank into my nice .seat, glad to be on my way. Л short while after we had taken ofT, there was a big dap of thunder. Then the plane started rocking from side to side and we all gasped in horror. “^Ve’re losing altitude!” a passenger cried. .After a few minutes, the plane stopped shaking and everyone was OK! It was a bad experience. 7 a Complete the sentences with the following adverbs: happily, anxiously, slowly, loudly, patiently, hungrily. 1 There was a long queue for tickets at the train station, but Nathan waited......for his turn. 2 Paddy was listening to his car radio as the traffic was moving ............. along the motorway. 3 Having spent the day trekking in the mountains, Clare ate ........ in the village’s only restaurant. 4 “There’s too much snow for us to climb it today,” John thought.........as he looked at the mountain. 5 Nora screamed .......... at the sight of the huge lion. 6 Barry smiled ........when his grandchildren entered the room. b Use the phrases in bold in Ex. 7a in sentences of your own. 91 Writing Skills 8 Expressing feelings a Fill in the correct synonym or antonym from the list. Can you add more to the table? • certain • worried • frightened • calm • tired • bored • glad scared 1) Synonym Anton unafraid exhausted 2) refreshed anxious 3) relaxed angry 4) annoyed thrilled 5) excited sure 6) uncertain miserable 7) depressed b Match the adjectives (1-6) to the feelings of the speakers (A-F). Then make sentences, as in the example. 1 2 3 ► She was excited because she was going on holiday. Ы excited 0 4 exhausted Ц confused □ 5 disappointed Ц amused □ 6 upset EH 9 Using a variety of verbs a Read the theory box. What verbs are used in the story on p. 90 instead of ‘said’? Using a variety of verbs Use verbs, such as thought, begged, replied, cried, cried out, screamed, wondered, exclaimed, whispered, etc to avoid repeating said all the time. This makes your story more y^teresting to the reader.___________________^ b Use appropriate verbs to replace said. 1 “Please, help me!” she said. ► begged 2 “Don’t tell anyone,” he said. 3 “What a lovely day," he said. 4 “Over here! Hurry up!” she said. 5 “Quickly, the house’s on fire!” he said. 6 “Where is she?” he said. Linkers 10 a Read the theory box. What linkers are used in the story on p. 90? When narrating an event, use linking words to link your ideas and/or write longer, more complex sentences. You can use: • and then, and, too, also (to add points) • but, however (to express opposing ideas) • because, so (to express cause/effect) • after, before, when, until, then, after a while, eventually, finally, immediately, meanwhile (to express time) ^ b Use appropriate linkers to link the sentences below. 1 Не was walking down the street. Suddenly It started raining. ► He was walkins down the street when suddenly it started rainins- 2 She was trying to unlock the door. She was using the wrong key. 3 It wasn’t very busy around the pool. We found two sunloungers near the bar. 4 We thought we would never find help. We saw a little house in the distance. 5 We didn’t start to worry. It began to get dark and Holly still hadn’t returned. 6 I turned off my bedside lamp. There was a knock at the door. 7 I tried to pull my leg out from under the rock. It was stuck fast. 8 Andy went to look for Sam. I tried calling him on his mobile phone again. 11 Beginni ns/ending a story Read the theory box. What techniques has the writer used to begin/end the story on p. 90? Techniques to begin/end a story A good beginning is as important as a good ending. You can start your story by: • describing the weather, surroundings, people, etc using the senses • using direct speech • asking a rhetorical question (i.e. a question for which we don’t expect an answer) • addressing the reader directly • creating mystery or suspense You can end your story by: • using direct speech • describing your feelings or moods • asking a rhetorical question • creating mystery or suspense You can use more than one technique to start and end your story. Ч______________________________________________X b Match the beginnings (1-3) with the endings (A-C). Which of the techniques do each of the beginnings and endings use? Which do you find the most interesting? Why? CBeginningSy It was the last evening of the music festival and it had been raining for two days non-stop. “I've had a great time, but I'm really looking forward to going home and getting warm and dry!" I said to my friends. You know when you gel thal Jeeling ihol sninelhing terrible linbo»unbnppen?W M, Spoin loslveor, I/elt extremely nervous ond worried /or obsolutely no reoson ot oil. One afternoon while I was on holiday with my friend Dave, we went for a long walk in the hills above the town. I was just enjoying the peace and the sound of the wind rustling so/tly in the trees, when suddenly we heard a very strange noise. C Enilings © When we finally got off the plane, I felt quite calm. Once we were safe inside the airport terminal, however, I began to shake uncontrollably as I remembered how uneasy I had felt before getting on the plane earlier that day! ^ Sflfciv sipping hot tea in our new friends tent ® we/inallyTtopped shivering and began to see the funny side of what had happened. Amy looked ^ me and U laughing: “I thought we were coming to a festival Ш a disaster zone.____ © We finally arrived bade at our apartment, exhausted and gasping for breath. We were so relieved to be back, but would we ever find out what it was that we had seen? 12 Write the beginning and ending of a story entitled Nightmare at the Festival. How did you make them interesting? Compare with your partner. 93 94 Writing Skills PortiCiplCS Grammar Reference 13 Read the theory box. Find the present and past participles used in the story on p. 90. Use present and past participles to join sentences into longer ones to make your narration more exciting. I shook with anser. I ran after Toby. -* Shaking with anger, I ran after Toby. He was confused. He asked for help. Confused, ^e asked for help. ^ b Link the following sentences using present or past participles, as in the examples. 1 He was frightened. He realised he was lost in the woods. ► Frightened, he realised that he was tost in the woods. 2 He scanned the crowd. He suddenly saw a familiar face. ► Scanning the crowd, he suddenly saw a familiar face. 3 He shook with fear. He hid in the bushes. 4 He stood at the edge of the rock. He admired the magnificent view. 5 She was annoyed. She called her travel agent to complain. 6 They were thrilled. They couldn’t believe that they were really in Hawaii. 7 We feared the plane was going to crash. We were shaking. Discuss & write 14 Read the rubrics (A, B, C) and find the key words. Choose a rubric and discuss the questions (1-10) with a partner. A teenage magazine is offering a prize for the best short story beginning with the sentence: ‘It was a perfect, sunny day at the festival and it felt like nothing could go wrong.’ Write your story (120-180 words). Your school magazine is looking for short stories with the title A Disastrous Holiday. Write your story (120-180 words). C You have decided to enter a short story competition. Your story should end with the words: ‘If only we hadn’t gone to the carnival!’ Write your story (120-180 words). Creating a mental image Who were the characters? (age, relationship) What did they look like? What were they like? i When did your story take place? (in summer/ winter etc, in the morning/afternoon) What was the weather like? (chilly, cold, freezing cold) Where did your story take place? (island, home, another town etc) Why were the characters there? (holiday, visit etc) What were they doing? (information the reader needs in order to follow the story) ' 8 What events happened? (Make a plotline) 9 What happened in the end? , 10 How did the characters feel in the end? V b 4^ Now, write your story. Before handing it in, check for the following. Checklist for writing stories Story organisation • Does your story have an introduction, a main body and a conclusion? • Are the paragraphs clearly laid out? • What techniques have you used to start/end your story? • Is the sequence of events clear to the reader? Structure details • What tenses have you used? • Have you used linking words? • Have you used a variety of adjectives, adverbs, and special verbs? • Are there any spelling or grammar mistakes? • Have you punctuated your story properly? I spent all night on my story last night. That’s a lot of writing. I never said anything about writing a story. The notebook was under my pillow. The River Thames ULTURE CORNER ^ 1 Look at the leaflet. What do you think you can do, see and learn at the different tourist attractions along the River Thames? Read the tourist leaflet to find out. Take a Trip along №e Wieiinmeier WISTMINeriR P.iiaco of Wosinimue» Lo#4ton Eye ^ lamtKsch f^iacf В4ПГМ0 Power Saner There are so many things to see and do along London’s famous river. Choose one of our many boat trips, or why not get a Rambler ticket? This way, you can hop on and off as many times as you like! It’s great value for money! The London Eye Would you like to get a bird’s eye view of London, as well as having the experience of a lifetime? If so, take a 1)...... (thrill) ride on the London Eye, the big wheel built in 2000 for the millennium. The Tower of London The Tower has served many purposes in the past. It has been a prison, a medieval palace, a fortress and an arsenal. It’s an 2)... (amaze) place to visit! You can see the incredible Crown Jewels and the 3)..... (fame) Beefeaters in their 4)..(usual) costumes. ' a 19th-century London murderer The London Dungeon If you like to be scared out of your wits, this is the place for you! Go deep underground and learn about the Great Fire of London, Jack the Ripper'' and The Great Plague. You can also try to get out of a scary labyrinth of mirrors. Not an experience for the faint-hearted, but you will 5)......(thorough) enjoy telling your friends about it. Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre The original Globe Theatre burnt down in a fire started by a cannon which was fired during a 6).....(perform). The most recent Globe, which was completed in 1997, isn’t just a theatre. It runs 7)......(education) workshops and lectures for schools and there’s a permanent 8)..(exhibit) showing visitors what the theatre was like in Shakespeare’s time. Also, don’t miss... the sharks in the London Aquarium, and St Paul’s Cathedral with its incredible dome! 2 Complete the gaps (1-8) with the correct words derived from the words in brackets. Listen and check. Then, explain the words/phrases in bold. 3 Portfolio: Imagine you are a guide on a River Thames boat trip. Make notes on the tourist attractions. Use them to give your guided tour. Record yourself. ► Good mornins, ladies and sentlemen, we’re now just passing the London Eye on the left where you can ... Portfolio: Work in groups. Design an information leaflet for tourists coming to your town/city. Decide on three or four places to visit and write what someone can do/see there. Include pictures. 95 ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 1 Weather C r' Read the rhyme and listen to the music. What images come to mind? What can you see, feel, hear, smell? ‘Rain, rain, go away Come again another day.’ 2 3 96 W Match the proverbs/sayings (1-5) to their meanings (A-E). Are there any similar ones in your language? 1 It's raining cats and dogs. 2 It never rains, but it pours. 3 After the rain, comes the rainbow. A Into every life, a little rain must fall. 5 Every cloud has a silver lining. A Even bad things have something good about them. В It’s raining heavily. C Nobody can live happily all the time. D When one bad thing happens, lots of bad things happen. E Bad events are followed by happy events. {,) Read the postcard and the email. Complete the gaps (1-10) with the correct word based on the words in brackets. Listen and check. List all the activities mentioned in the texts. Which are rainy day activities? What other activities are suitable for such days? Dear Sue, Well, we’ve been in Costa del Sol/or three days now and I hate to say it but it has rained every day! I can’t believe it. Anyway, it hasn’t been all that terrible. The hotel has an .........(amaze) arcade where you can play all kinds о/ video games and stu/f so I’ve been 2)...........(spend) lots о/ time in there. And there’s also a 3).........(real) ftice cq/e on the 4)........(ofie) /loor that is perfect/or just sitting and 5).........(read). Oh, and yesterday, even though it was raining cats and dogs, John and I went and did some sightseeing. It was /un. Talk to you soon. Helen Sue Harper 12 Maple Ave New Glasgow, NS Canada B2H 5C4 □ i ■ ISuUoct [ To/1^a I iDert jPHofiy Greetings Jack / Karen Hey Jack! Greetings from 6)........... (beauty) Florida. We are having a brilliant time. We’ve been doing lots of sunbathing and surfing. The beaches are 7)...........(fantasy). It rained yesterday morning so we 8).......... (go) to a museum. Very interesting! Tomorrow we are going on a 9)..........(guide) tour of the city and then we’re going 10)..........(dance) in the evening. Are you jealous yet? We’ll be back on Tuesday. Take care, Karen 5 cv Put yourself into the picture. Where are you? Who with? What are you doing? Do you like it? Tell your partner. 6 Portfolio: You are on holiday and the weather hasn’t been very good. Send an email to a friend telling them about; • where you are • who with • what the weather is like • what you are doing there We all enjoy a day out at the beach, but these days you are likely to find much more there than just sand and sea! Many of the thousands of people that visit beaches every year leave behind food wrappers, cigarette ends, drink cans and toys like buckets, spades and beach balls. These can then be blown or washed into the sea and become marine litter. Marine litter can also come from ships, fishermen, drains and factories.This litter doesn’t just look horrible - it’s dangerous, too! Litter harms Wildlife and People Marine mammals such as seals, sea lions and dolphins are very curious animals who like to examine unusual objects in the sea.This is how they get mixed up in the litter, which causes them injury and stops them from finding food or swimming away from their enemies. Birds, fish and mammals can also confuse litter for food and eat it. Sea turtles, for example, often eat plastic bags because they look like jellyfish, one of their favourite foods.This then fills up the turtle’s digestive system,' and makes it feel full, so it stops eating and starves.^ 100,000 marine mammals and nearly a million seabirds die either from getting caught in or eating litter each year! Many of these creatures are already threatened or endangered species. In addition, litter is dangerous for people as they can cut themselves on glass or metal. Marine litter can also block boat propellers, which is dangerous and very expensive to repair. Be the Solution So ... next time you go to the beach, make sure you are part of the solution, NOT the problem! Take ALL of your litter home with you and consider taking any other litter you can see around you too. If you live near a beach, you could even organise a Beach Clean up Day. I organs in your body that break down the food you eat * dies from not eating 1 0 Listen to the sounds. Imagine the scene and answer the questions. 1 Where are you? Who 3 What’s the with? 2 What are you doing? weather like? Do you like it? In which two ways does marine litter harm wildlife? Why? How can litter harm people? List three ways we can help solve the problem. 2 How could the following be related to the scene you imagined? How are they related to the text? Listen, read and check. • broken glass • fishing net • drinks cans • plastic bags • plastic buckets & spades • beach balls • food wrappers Project: In small groups, make a leaflet about marine litter. Include how it harms wildlife and people and what we can do about it. Add pictures. Present your leaflet to the class. the words in bold. Then, tell your partner three things you remember from the text. ~.r-J 97 MODULES THE PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT Since ancient times, the pyramids at Giza in Egypt have been one of the w/orld's most popular tourist destinations. The largest of these, the Great Pyramid of Giza, or Khufu’s Pyramid, is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that still survives today. It was the tallest building in the world for almost 5,000 years - that is, until the Eiffel Tower was built in 1889. Pharaohs, the first rulers of Egypt, built pyramids to show their power to the people. The first Pharaohs built much simpler tombs called mastabas. These mastabas were square buildings with a room inside big enough for the coffin, the mummy of the pharaoh’s body and his treasures. Ancient Egyptians believed that dead people still needed their bodies and treasures, such as paintings, gold and jewels, for their life after death. Many of the pyramids were decorated inside, especially in the room where the dead pharaoh was laid. Archaeologists discovered many pictures in the tombs and mysterious writing on the walls called hieroglyphics. Invented about 5,000 years ago, hieroglyphics are the oldest form of writing. They were just simple drawings of everyday things we see and hear. The Egyptians believed that both the hieroglyphics and the tomb pictures were magical, which is why they painted them inside the pyramids. When we look at the pyramids today, it is easy to see that they were built to last for a very long time. Have you ever wondered how these great monuments were built? Many archaeologists believe that the builders first studied the stars to decide which direction the pyramid would face, as Egyptians believed the pharaohs would join the stars after death. Then, they built a small mastaba on the ground. Next, they put dirt and stones all over it, leaving a tunnel to the outside. To raise the stones to the top of the pyramid, they probably built long ramps and then rolled the stones up them. The city of Giza is on the River Nile. The Nile was also very important in the building of the pyramids as it was used to transport the stones from far away. Granite and marble, for example, were brought from Aswan, which is over 500km away. Many ships also brought limestone, used for the outside walls of the pyramids, from the city of Tura, which was just across the river from Giza. Just to give you an idea of how large the Great Pyramid is - it is the height of a modern 40-storey building, or over 145 metres. It covers an area of land the size of seven city streets. Workers used 2,300,000 blocks to build it, each weighing 2,500 kilograms (2.5 tons). It took about 36,000 workers (mostly slaves and farmers) between 20 and 30 years to build it. This means that for every minute they worked, they added three blocks to the pyramid! In conclusion, there is still a great deal of wonder and mystery surrounding the pyramids. No one knows for certain exactly when and how they were built. So far 46 of them have been found in Egypt. However, maybe there are others lying underneath the sand just waiting to be discovered. Only time will tell! г;;ф Reading Read the text, then choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-7. 1 Khufu’s Pyramid... A is the world’s most popular tourist destination. В is the tallest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. C was built about five thousand years ago. D is taller than the Eiffel Tower. 98 The mastabas... A were pyramids. В were simple places to bury dead pharaohs. C were bigger than pyramids. D contained the mothers of the pharaohs. The Egyptians decorated the pyramids with A only hieroglyphics. В only pictures. C hieroglyphics and pictures. D gold and jewels. Which of the following is not true about hieroglyphics? A They are an ancient form of writing. В Egyptians thought they were magical. C They showed everyday things. D They are painted on the outside of the pyramids. The Egyptians built the pyramids ... A a long way from the River Nile. В in order to study the stars. C next to a mastaba. D using long ramps. The limestone used came from ... A Giza. В the river. C Aswan. D Tura. The Great Pyramid of Giza ... A has 40 storeys. В looks like a modern building. C took many years to build. D was built by 2,300,000 workers. Listening Сф Use of English Complete the gaps (1-7) with the correct derivative of the words in bold. Day 9-10: St Petersburg: Arrive in St Petersburg after enjoying a 1).......sunrise breakfast while sailing down the River Neva. Visit the Peter and Paul Fortress, an old prison whose ‘guests’ have included Peter the Great’s own son Alexei, Dostoyevsky, Gorky and Trotsky. See the 2)............. Winter Palace, which includes the Hermitage Museum. Housed here are some of history’s most important 3)............ including the world’s best 4)............. of French 5).........After your unforgettable journey through this 6).......city, return to the ship for the captain’s farewell dinner and your final night on board. The 7).......morning, we will transfer you to the airport for your flight home. SPECTACLE AAAAZE PAINT COLLECT IMPRESSION HISTORY FOLLOW C; A В C D E F Listen to the speakers 1-5. Which of the comments below might each speaker say? There is one comment you don’t need to use. I prefer going on holiday in cold weather. I don’t like going on holiday. I like to relax on holiday. I don’t like flying alone. I spend a lot on my holidays. Holidays are really important to me. Speaker 1 2 3 4 5 Comment Ф Writing Read the extract from your pen-friend’s letter. His name is Ben. Write a letter to Ben, who is coming to visit you soon. In your letter: • tell him about your holiday • ask three questions about the music festival. Write 100-140 words. I hope you had a nice holiday! What did you do? What was the weather like? I’m going to a music/estival this weekend. I can’t wait! Ф Speaking You are organising a summer holiday with a friend. Discuss the following types of holiday and choose which one you’ll both enjoy the most. • backpacking around Europe • a package holiday in Italy • a cruise around the Mediterranean • camping in Russia You begin the conversation and have to decide which holiday (only one) to choose. Your partner will play the part of your friend. Remember to: • discuss all the options • take an active part in the conversation and be polite • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account • invite your friend to come up with suggestions • come to an agreement WordPerfects 99 Progress Check IFill tn: flisht, chilly, handicrafts, appallins, delayed, luggage, backpacking, cottage, craftsmen, accommodation. 1 Our holiday.........was absolutely.......... 2 We stayed in a beautiful little.......by the sea. 3 Airlines sometimes lose passengers’.......... 4 After my exams. I’m going..........around Europe. 5 We arrived late at the resort as our.........was 6 Take your coat - it’s quite........outside. 7 ........ sell .......... along the streets in Bhaktapur. ( Points: _) \10X2 20 ) 1 Fill in: agent’s, card, repellent, screen, sickness to form compounds nouns. 1 It’s boiling hot today - don’t forget to put some sun.........on! 2 Put some of this insect...........on - there are mosquitoes around here! 3 I don't travel well — I suffer from travel......... 4 Can you pick up my tickets from the travel ............please? 5 You can pay by cash or credit.......... Points: ___ 5X2 10 3Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past tense. 1 ........(see) that horror film last night? 2 I had just finished eating when Jonathan............. .......(arrive). 3 When I went to Spain last year, I......(not/fly) before. 4 It ......... (rain) heavily and the wind was howling. 5 They..........(drive) for an hour before they realised they were going the wrong way. 6 He........(finish) his packing after Susan had left. / Points: _\ \6ХЗ 18) 5 Fill in: freezing, candlelit, guided, famous, local, trekking, breathtaking, cruise, beach, first-class. 1 .... 6 ... 2 .... 7 ... 3 .... 8 ... 4 .... 9 ... dishes 5 .... landmarks 10 ... / Points: \ 10X2 20 d Fill in: by, on, around, off, in. 1 I don’t get........very well with Tom. 2 Debra’s train gets........at 6 pm. 3 I must get........now. See you later. 4 It’s easy to get .......... the city by public transport. 5 I can get........on £50 a week. b Fill in: on, in, by. / Points: 1^5X2 ■ io) 1 You can buy drinks and snacks............. board the plane. 2 I usually go to school........foot. 3 My flight arrives.........London at 10 pm. 4 I’m looking forward to going..........holiday. 5 We’ll get to the airport faster if we go.........car. / Points: __ \^5X2 10 6 Fill in: Have a nice time! — How awful! — Thanks! — Not that great actually. 1 A: We had a terrible time in Florida - there was a hurricane while we were there! B: ........ 2 A: I’m going on holiday tomorrow! B: ........ 3 A: What a fantastic suntan! B: ........ 4 A: How was your holiday? B: ........ I Can ... / Points: \^4X3 ’ My score: 12 / My score: ___\ I looj talk and write about holidays talk about holiday problems and complaints describe a bad experience and sympathise write a short story design an information leaflet for tourists talk and write about marine litter -................... in English 100 Mod Food & Health ♦ Before you start... • Where do you go on holiday? • How did you spend your last holiday? ♦ Look at Module 6 Find the page numbers for pictures 1 -4. ♦ Find the page numbers for • a rainbow I I • a celebration I I • a report I I Listen, read and talk about • food • cooking methods • problems related to diet • Burns Night • teeth & their importance • organic farming ♦ Learn how to ... • give & respond to advice • talk about health • ask about health & respond • recommend a place ♦ Practise ... • conditionals (Types 1-3), wishes • word formation: prefixes • words often confused: ache/pain, prescription/recipe, rotten/sour, treated/cured, cure/heal • phrasal verbs: g/ve ♦ Write / Give ... • a two-minute talk about improving your eating habits • a paragraph continuing a story • a healthy menu • an assessment report • a paragraph about a festival in your country • a quiz about teeth 1 2 Vocabulary Food d Which of the following items are fruits? vegetables? Find them in the picture above. What colour is each? • grope • apple • broccoli • carrot • corn • lettuce • orange • tomato • cherry • raisin • lemon • celery • melon • strawberry • blueberry • aubergine • pea • pineapple • peach • peer • raspberry • plum • watermelon • banana • pumpkin • fig • lime • cabbage 102 b Which of these words are countable/ uncountable? What are their plural forms? Cooking methods How do you eat the following foods in your country? How do you prefer them? bread fig. meat potatoes ** ^ , riots vegetables cake chicken • steamed • boiled • toasted • grilled • fried • roasted • baked • raw ► We usually eat fish grilled or fried. I prefer it grilled. 3 Choose the correct word. Check in your dictionary. 1 I want a bottle of fizzy/still water, not sparkling. 2 She loves bitter/oily chocolate. 3 Cinammon and ginger are additives/spices. 4 Let’s eat. I’m starving/greedy. 5 Fizzy drinks contain artificial/fake additives. 6 We had lamb chops for our main/basic course. Reading d List which colour foods you ate yesterday. How do you think colour is related to food? Listen to and read the text on p. 103 to find out. Read the text again. Which colour food should you eat if ... 1 you have a difficult exam to study for? 2 you are feeling very nervous about meeting someone? 3 you are worried about getting lines and wrinkles? 4 you’ve been feeling a bit sad lately? 5 you are taking part in a championship swimming match? (а) Red foods get you moving. They give you that extra @ boost when you really need it the most. What's more, eating foods in this group will protect you from many serious illnesses and can keep older people active for longer. So, have you got a big game tonight? Is it your turn to do the gardening? Then go ahead and treat yourself to one or even two of your favourite red foods. @ Orange foods are brain food. They help you keep your mind on things and really improve your powers 0 of concentration. On the physical side, foods like mangoes, oranges and peaches have lots of vitamin C. This is important because that's the vitamin that helps your body fight off infections As everyone knows, carrots are also fantastic for your eyesight. After all, you've never seen a rabbit wearing glasses, have you? Yellow foods are nature's way of helping us to stay happy. They make you more optimistic. Imagine that you're feeling a bit down in the dumps. Eat a banana and you'll feel a bit better. Eat a couple of slices of pineapple and you'll feel a smile coming on and by the time you finish your tall glass of lemonade, you'll be grinning from ear to ear! What could be easier? Enjoying yellow foods is better for you, emotionally, than hearing the best jokes in the world. Broccoli, lettuce and cucumbers are all green foods. These foods are great when you want to relax, calm yourself down or keep your emotions under control. Green foods are good for you because they contain vitamins and minerals that keep your teeth and bones strong and healthy, so next time your mum tells you to eat all your peas don't complain, just do it. Remember, mums always know what's best for you, no matter how old you are! You've had a hard day and now you just want to flop in front of the TV for a bit before you go to bed. When your tummy starts rumbling you go in search of a quick snack - but what should you eat? The best thing at this time of the day is something blue. Blue foods are soothing, both emotionally and physically, and prepare you for a good night's rest. Say goodnight with a delicious bowl of blueberries or a handful of tasty raisins. Shakespeare, Da Vinci and Picasso must have all been fans of purple foods. This is because fruits and vegetables like figs, prunes and beetroot make people more creative, if that isn't a good enough reason to eat them, then think about this ... purple foods can keep you looking young! Imagine being eighty years old, but looking as if you're forty and just about to finish writing your second best-selling novel. Bring on the purple fcюds! 5 6 Find words in the text related to the body. Compare with a partner. Add some more. a Ш Find the verbs/ phrases which mean: 1 eat or buy sth you really enjoy 2 get rid of 3 depressed and miserable 4 smiling broadly 5 looking for b Explain the words/phrases in bold. Find all the root words and create word families. ► boost (root word), word family: boost (verb), boosting, boosted etc Speaking Look at the food list you made in Ex. 4a. How healthy do you think it is? Discuss. Healthy RICH IN foods HIGH AMOUNTS FOUND IN vitamins, minerals, fibre* fruit, vegetables protein chicken, milk, cheese, yoghurt, meat, fish. carbohydrates eggs, nee, potatoes, cereal Unheaiti sugar, fat iy foods sweets, biscuits, fizzy drinks, butter, oil. V ‘parts of plants that ГТ chocolate, crisps, cakes lake food pass Quicklv through your body У 8 Portfolio: Prepare a two-minute talk about improving eating habits using a rainbow diet. In your speech: • say why we should have healthy eatins habits • mention ways a rainbow diet can help us • recommend the diet. Record yourself. Writing Work out a healthy menu for Monday. Use various colours of food/drinks. 9 ____________ i Words of Wisdom Tell me what you eat, and I’ll tell you what you are. (Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer and politician) 103 Listening & Speaking Skills Teen Diet & Health Our bandy food and health tips • Problems a overweight b underweight c lack of concentration d tiredness e tooth decay f frequent illness g indigestion h dry skin Solutions eat less & take regular exercise eat three «ell^Mlanced meals & three or to snacks per day eat lots of iron-nch foods and have a good breakfast follow a low-carbohydrate diet cut out sugary drinks & snacks eat foods rich in vitamin C avoid spicy foods & eating fast or late at night t drink more water & eat more oily fish, nuts & seeds 1 104 Vocabulary Problems related to diet a Which of the problems (a-h) above is each person (1-8) below suffering from? 1 ‘7 (/link I'm skinnier l/wn I should he.” John 2 “I feel really .sleepy during the day." Mar)’ 3 ‘7 often get stomach ache after eating." Tony 4 ‘7 think that I am fatter than I should he." Jim 5 “I've had toothache for a week now." buna 6 “My .skin is itchy.” Sue 7 ‘7 find my mind wanders in class." Andy 8 “I’m always catching colds. ” Mya b Do you ever suffer from any of these problems? What do you do? Tell the class. 2 Everyday English Advisins/Agreeing - Disagreeing Imagine you have one of the problems in Ex. 1. Use the language box and discuss, as in the example. ► A: I’m overweight! B: Have you thought about taking regular exercise? A: I've already tried that and it didn’t work. Advising Responding • Have you thought Agreeing about/What about... (+ verb • That’s not a bad idea. + ing)? • Thanks, 1 hadn’t thought of • It would be best if you (+ that. I’ll try it! past simple)... • That’s a great idea. • You might feel better if ... Disagreeing • (Don't you think) you ought • АЛауЬе you're right/lt’s a to/should ...? nice idea, but... • You’d better... • I’m not so sure/l’m not sure • It might be a good idea to ... if it’ll work. • Why don't you ...? • I’ve already tried that and it • If 1 were you, I’d ... didn’t work. Reading 3 3 Look at the sentences (A-F) from the dialogue below. Where are Emma and Susan? What’s Susan’s problem? /^usan: Sorry I’m late, Emma. I’ve just been to the dentist’s. Emma: 1).................................................. Susan: Well... I had to have a filling ... yet again! My mouth’s still feeling a bit sore. Emma: 2).................................................. Susan: Yuck! I hate tea. I’ll have a cola. Emma: 3).................................................. Susan: What do you mean? Emma: 4).................................................. Susan: Wow! Really? Emma: 5).................................................. Susan: So... it might be a good idea to cut down, then? Emma: 6).................................................. Susan: Er... OK, you win. Two teas, milk no sugar! A Now you've got the idea! So, what are you going to order? В Well, there are about ten teaspoons of sugar in each can! C Oh, lucky you! Everything OK? D Oh dear! I'll call the waiter over. You should order a nice soothing cup of lemon teal E Susan! No wonder you've got bad teeth! F Yes, really! Terrible for your teeth and even worse for your waistline! b Complete the dialogue with the sentences (A-F). Listen and check. Act out the dialogue. '^udy skills Listening Using interjections You can use interjections such as well, oh, ah, er, hmm, and exclamations such as Oh dear! Huh? Yuck\ Wow\ Right! to make your spoken English sound more natural. Find interjections/exclamations in the dialogue in Ex. 3 that express: • surprise • disgust • sympathy • hesitation. 7 Speaking 5 Portfolio: You are at a party. You’ve got indigestion. Your partner advises you on what to do. Act out your dialogue. Use appropriate interjections. Record yourselves. Say it right Talking about health 6 Match, listen and check. 1 Are you feeling any a better? b 2 You’re looking well! 3 You look a bit pale, c 4 Have you lost some d weight? e 5 I’m not feeling well. Thanks! Oh dear, 1 hope you feel better soon. Actually, I have. Much better, thanks. I am feeling a bit under the weather. 8 Listen to an interview about crash diets and choose the correct answer (A, В or C) for questions 1 -4. 1 According to Claire Martin, crash diets ... A can be harmful to teenagers. В cause teenagers to miss out on life. C are more likely to bring results. 2 Claire suggests that teenagers should eat... A slowly when full. В quickly. C only until they are full. 3 To start the day well, she advises eating ... A cereal and a piece of fruit. В a doughnut and a cup of coffee. C carrot sticks and a cereal bar. 4 According to Claire, exercising ... A is more important than diet. В is less important than diet. C is just as important as diet. idioms Choose the correct word. Check in the Word List. Are there similar ones in your language? 1 He’s looking off/on colour. Is he ill? 2 I’m so glad you’re back/over on your feet. 3 I’m afraid he has taken a turn for/of the worse. 4 You need to take exercise to get on/into shape. 105 1 Grammar in Use Conditionals type 1, 2 and3y^^n,^^^„^. Match the sentences (1-4) to their purposes (a-d). How is each type of conditional formed? Check in the Grammar Reference section. 1 If you get enough vitamins, you will stay healthy. 2 If I were underweight, I would eat more carbohydrates. 3 If I were you, I would see a dietidan. 4 If she hadn’t had to work late, she would have cooked dinner. a to show an unreal situation in the past b to give advice c to show a probable situation in the future d to show an unreal situation in the present/future 2 Compare the sentences. • If you aren’t on time. I’ll go without you. Unless you’re on time, I’ll go without you. • When John comes, we’ll have dinner together. (= John will definitely come.) If John comes, we’ll have dinner together. (= John may come.) b Write sentences in the first conditional. Use the words in brackets. 1 you eat all that chocolate/feel sick (if) ► If \/ou eat all that chocolate, you'll feel skk. you not have breakfast/not be able to concentrate (if) she see a doctor/she not get better (unless) I finish my homework/not go to the party (unless) you feel cold/put on a jumper (if) you get off the bus/see a large white building (when) 3 3 What would you do if you: 1 got lost in the jungle? 2 saw your favourite actor in the street? 3 lost your purse/wallet? 4 had a lot of money? 5 had a headache? 6 were tired? b Ш Give advice using *lf I were you____________’ 1 “I’m feeling really tired." 2 “I’ve got terribly itchy skin.” 3 “I drink a lot of coffee." 4 “I’ve put on a lot of weight recently.” ► If I were you, I'd take a nap. ^ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 He......... (not have) a headache if he had gone to bed earlier. 2 If they.......(set out) earlier, they wouldn’t have missed the train. 3 I wouldn’t have found the injection painful if the nurse........(be) gentle. 4 If he hadn’t eaten the prawns, he........(not have) an allergic reaction. In teams, continue the sentences. • If you eat more, ... • If John had enough money, ... • If I hadn’t gone to bed so late last night,... ► Team A SI: If you eat more, you'll feel sick. Team В SI: If you feel sick, you won't be able to go to football practice. Wishes ►► Grammar Reference ^ AAatch the sentences (1-4) to their purposes (a-d). 1 I wish I were on holiday, (but I am not) 2 I wish I could speak Spanish, (but I can't) 3 If only you had been more careful! (but you weren’t) 4 I wish he would stop lying, (but I don’t think he will) a wish/regret in the present expressing lack of ability b wish for a future change unlikely to happen c regret that sth didn’t happen in the past d wish/regret about a present situation we want to be different 6 106 ► If I sot lost in the jungle, I'd scream for help. Write sentences using / wish/lf only. 1 You want to buy a T-shirt, but you haven’t got enough money. ► / wish I had enough money. 7 8 2 You wanted to travel abroad, but you forgot to renew your passport. 3 You want to go to the park, but it is raining. 4 It’s been snovring for days and hasn’t stopped. 5 You want to go to China, but you don’t speak Chinese. Make sentences, as in the example. 1 I’m overweight. ► / wish I weren’t overweight. If I weren’t overweight, I could run fast. 2 I’m tired. 3 I missed the bus. 41 lost my wallet. Word formation Read the theory box. Use appropriate prefixes to complete gaps 1-5. Forming words using prefixes A prefix is added at the beginning of a word in order to form a new word. Some of them are: re- {= again) (write - rewrite), super- (= big/more) (hero ■ superhero), multi- (= many) (national - rmjltirKitional), over- (= too much) (react - overreact), under- (= too little) (estimate - underestimate), semi- (= half) (detached - semi-detached), pre- (= before) (heat -preheat), со- (= together) (operate - co-operate). If you are 1)........weight, don’t 2)........ do it when you are eating. Buy fresh fruit and vegetables, buy 3)...........grain bread, not white, and 4)...........skimmed milk, not full cream and don't 5)...........cook vegetables. 9 Words often confused Circle the correct word. Check in your dictionary. Then write a sentence with the other word. 1 He had terrible stomach ache/pain after eating a kilo of blackberries. The doctor gave him a prescription/recipe for some indigestion tablets. There’s a terrible smell of rotten/sour eggs! He was treated/cured for minor injuries. Having a milky drink before bedtime can help cure/heal insomnia. 10 11 Dependent prepositions Fill in: from, in, with, against. Make sentences using the phrases. Eating too much junk food can result .... health problems later in life. She often suffers.....bad headaches. He’s in hospital recovering ....his operation. Mike finds it hard to cope ^ .... pressure. He advised me.....eating too much sugar. Phrasal verbs Study the phrasal verbs in the diagram, then complete the sentences. 12 off (release e.g. a ■-., smell, light) 1 He.......all his books when he moved house. 2 The eggs ......a terrible smell. 3 She’s decided to ......smoking! 4 Did you........that book to Diana? Key word transformations Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use two to five words including the word in bold. 1 We won’t get a table if we don’t book early, unless We won’t get a table...........early. 2 I think you should order the lamb, were If.............order the lamb. 3 The meat was overcooked, so it didn’t taste very nice. better The meat............if it hadn’t been overcooked. 4 We didn’t enjoy our dinner because the restaurant was very busy. crowded If the restaurant........... we would have enjoyed our dinner. Grammar Check 6 107 1 What do you know about the story of Oliver Twist! Read the biography to find out. Charles Dickens (1812-1870) ^ was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, but his family moved to London _____ when he was ten. He later went to work in a factory to pay for his accommodation and support his family as his father was in prison for not paying his debts. His father’s eventual release and an improvement in the family’s fortunes helped matters, but Dickens never forgave his mother for leaving him in the factory. He first made a name for himself as a writer in his twenties with The Pickwick Papers (1836). Oliver Twist (1837-183У) is about a boy born in a workhouse for the poor. Some of the other boys make him ask for more fiKHl. As a result, Oliver is then sold. Suffering terrible cruelty, he runs away and joins a young criminal who teaches him how to steal wallets. The general theme of the novel is that of selfishness and dishonesty as most people take advantage of Oliver. Few people show him love and kindness. 2 108 , / Listen and read the text on pp. 108-109. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-5. Each mealtime, the boys ... A were happy to get one spoonful of gruel. В had to wash their bowls and spoons. C wanted to eat more. D got tired of cleaning their fingers of food. The tall boy whose father was a baker... A got hungrier than the other boys. В got used to that sort of life. C was afraid of what his hunger would make him do. D was afraid at night. Before they could eat, the boys had to ... A give their bowls to the master. В take their chairs to the table. C serve out the food. D say a prayer of thanks. T he boys at the workhouse' ate in a large Slone hall. At one end there was a aipper^, out of w hich the master ladled^ grueH at mealtimes. Each boy had only one ladlefiil and no more, except 5 on public holidays when he had two ounce.s^ and a quarter of bread. The bowls never needed washing as the boys polished them with their spoons until they shone. When they had done this, they would sit staring at 10 the copper with such eager eyes as if they could easily cat the very bricks of which it was made. Meanwhile, they licked their fingers trying to catch any stray splashes of gruel. Generally, boys have excellent appetites and so 15 Oliver and his companions suffered from slow starvation for three months. They finally got so wild with hunger that one boy. who was somewhat tall for his age and not at all used to that sort of thing becau.se his father had owned a small bakery, said to The boys decided that Oliver would be the one to... A nudge the master. В serve the gruel. C ask for another serving. D walk along the table. When Oliver asked for more, the master... A was shocked. В lost his voice. C became paralysed. D turned white with fear. his companions that unless he had another spoon of 20 gruel daily, he was afraid that one night he might eat the boy who slept next to him. He seemed to have a wild, hungry look in his eye and the others entirely believed him. A meeting was held and lots were drawn to see who should walk up to the master after 25 supper that evening and ask for more. The task fell to Oliver Twist. The evening arrived and the boys took their places. The master, in his cook’s apron, stood beside the copper with his assistants behind him. 30 The gruel was served out and a long grace* was said. After the gruel disappeared, the boys whispered to each other and winked at Oliver, while his neighbours nudged him. Oliver was desperate with hunger and misery. He rose from 35 the table and. walking towards the master with his bowl, said, ‘Plea.se, sir, I want some more.’ The master was a fat. healthy man but he turned very pale. He gazed in astonishment at the boy for 40 some seconds and then held on to the copper for support. His assistants were paralysed with wonder and the boys with fear. ‘What?’ said the master eventually in a faint voice. 45 ‘Please, sir,’ replied Oliver, ‘I want .some more.’ The master hit Oliver’s head with the ladle, held him tightly in his arms and shrieked aloud for the policeman. ' a place where the poor lived and did unpleatiam jobs for food ^oven made fnrm bricks ■’serve soup with a deep spoon that has a long handle ■* boiled oats with water ’ an old unit of weight used in Britain (1 ounce=28 grammes) ‘ prayer of thanks before eating y. ■ 'ar'V '-глТ': ^ ■ 3 3 Match the highlighted words with their meanings below. • job • amazement • cried, shouted • friends • completely • unable to move Explain the underlined words/phrases. Choose some and mime or draw their meanings. 5 Which sentence in the text do you think best describes the picture? d Find two verbs in the text which mean look. How do they differ in meaning? Read the definitions and check. glance; look at sth quickly gaze; look at sth/sb for a long time because you find it interesting stare: look at sth/sb for a long lime (rudely/hlankly) glare: look at sth/sb angrily peer look at sth very hard as you can’t see it clearly |кч:р: lake a quick look at sth, often secretly and quietly catch sight of/catch a glimpse of: sec for a short lime 6 b Use the verbs from above to say how you would look in the following situations: 1 at your neighbour through closed curtains 2 at yourself in a mirror 3 at your watch to see what the time is 4 at someone who keeps interrupting you while you are delivering a speech 5 at newspaper headlines when in a hurry 6 at someone with very unusual clothes Idioms Complete the idioms with the words in the list. Check in the Word List. Are there similar idioms in your language? tea cake water cucumber 1 He’s in serious trouble now. He’s really in hot Ann’s always calm and doesn’t worry about anything. She’s as cool as a........ You can do it. It’s easy. It’s a piece of.... You can’t change anything now. Don’t cry over spilt........ I don’t really enjoy going to the theatre. It’s not my cup of.......... 7 Portfolio: Write a paragraph to describe what you think happened when the policeman arrived. Compare with your partner’s. 109 Writing Skills 1 Reports (makins assessments) a Ш Read the comments (A-E). Which are positive and which are negative? "Ibis restaurant is popular and advance booking is essaitial." *tD— “TKe service is pro/esslonal and tKe waiters are extremely Kelp/uL’ “I think this is a great place for vegetarians.” (p)-------- ‘The food was tasteless, the service was poor and the tables were dirty." "It took ages for the waiters to bring our food. I was starving!" b Which of the comments (A-E) do you think you would find in a report? Read the theory box and check. Reports are usually written for people in authority, such as employers, head teachers etc. They state and evaluate the positive and negative qualities of a place, event etc, in order to make a judgement or recommendation. Reports always begin with who the report is for and from, the purpose of the report and the date. They include; • an introduction containing the purpose and content of the report • a main body presenting the positive and negative aspects of the place/event etc, with each point presented under a separate subheading • a conclusion summarising the content of the report and giving the writer’s general opinion and/or recommendation. Reports are usually written in a formal, impersonal style, using factual language. Present tenses, passive verbs and full verb forms are also commonly used. 2 d Read the rubric and answer the questions. You work as a food critic for a magazine called Taste It. Your editor has asked you to write a report evaluating a new indoor area with restaurants and food stalls. Write your report, including information about the food, service, prices and atmosphere. 1 What is the aim of the report? 2 Who is going to read it? 3 Which of the following must you include in your report? Check with your partner. a size of area b date it opened c quality/type of food d number of staff e comments on atmosphere f prices g location of indoor area/food hall h opening hours i type of furniture 4 What style of writing should you use? b Read the report on p.111 and check. no То: Mr David Joyce, Editor From: Rebecca Karl. Food Critic Subject: Oriental City, 399 Edgware Road. London NW9 OJJ Date: March 1)......................... The purpose of this report is to assess the good and bad points of Oriental City, a food court* in north London. 2)......................... Oriental City offers a wide range of Asian food, in particular Chinese. Japanese and Vietnamese dishes, most of which are very ta.sty. It has reasonable prices and the different dishes are beautifully presented. However, some dishes can be rather expensive. 3) ....................... The staff at Oriental City are very friendly. The self-service feature greatly adds to the eating experience as customers can order food from any of the stalls and taste food from various countries. However, as some stalls are more popular than others, customers have to queue and wait for particular dishes. 4) ....................... The beauty of Oriental City is its informal and relaxed atmosphere. Although it can get somewhat busy at times, this is unavoidable for such a popular place. 5) ....................... Despite the fact that lx)ndon has a number of ethnic food courts. Oriental City is by far the best in terms of taste, atst and service. Therefore, I would certainly recommend it to anyone who enjoys Asian food. • place with lots of restaurant.s 3 c Ш Read again and fill In the appropriate headings from the list: • Conclusion • Service • Introduction • Atmosphere • Food and Prices List the positive and negative aspects of the food court in the table. Positive Negative ^ ^ wide rattle of food 4^' Match adjectives from box A to nouns in box B. Which phrases are positive and which are negative? Which does the writer use in her report? ► slow service (nesative) cosy slow atmosphere relaxed populor tasty efficient prices helpful friendly staff warm expensive varied tasteless service high international presentation inexperienced unusual menu informal reasonable beautiful food/dishes 111 Writing Skills 5 CXetall, in ^te cf saeal wedcnesaes, it is rtn in a professional manner and both students and their parents are happy with the ireals provided. In conclusion, focilities at Joe's Diner are adequate but could be improved. The owners should make their prices more reasonable and more consideration should be given to cleanliness. (3) On the whole, the menu was considered unhealthy and unacxoptable by most members. I would strongly recommend that greater effort should be made to improve the general quality and variety of the food on offer. 6 7 Concluding Read the conclusions from three reports. Which is about: a school canteen? a sports centre cafe? a roadside cafe? Do they contain: a judgement? a recommendation? both? Read the extracts (A, В and C). Replace the words/phrases in bold with more suitable ones from the lists. • assess • the purpose of this report is 1) I've written this report to 2) give my opinion about the new restaurant Zest. 112 Э How does the writer recommend the food court in the report on p. 111? Which of the recommendations below could also be used to recommend it? a For these reasons, this particular food court comes highly recommended. b I would not recommend it for families with young children. c I would, therefore, strongly recommend a visit to this very popular food venue. d It is undoubtedly a place I would recommend to lovers of ethnic cuisine. e Therefore, I would highly recommend this place. f I would, therefore, recommend this place more to those with expensive tastes. g Consequently, I would not hesitate to recommend this food court to any Asian food lovers. h I would only recommend it to customers who prefer to serve themselves. b Think about restaurants/food courts/ other eating places that you know and give your recommendation to your partner. ► / would certainly recommend Sanjay’s restaurant to anyone who enjoys Indian food. • fashionable • for example • in addition • modern, lively • finally • attract The Station House has an upbeat, informal atmosphere. 1) What I mean is, there is 2) cool, funky music playing in the background. 3) Also, ! the decor is 4) trendy so as to 5) bring in ^ a younger crowd. 6) The last thing is, the staff are friendly and energetic. • disadvantages • all in all • highly recommend • offering • reasonable 1) So, despite a few 2) bad things, Oao restaurant is an excellent new restaurant 3) that has tasty dishes at very 4) cheap prices. I would 5) suggest it for people of all ages. Э Compare the two reports on p. 113, Which is appropriate? Why? Which model (A or B) contains: 8 short forms? a variety of adjectives? everyday vocabulary? formal linking words/phrases? passive voice? phrasal verbs/ idioms? 7 8 10 11 longer sentences? advanced vocabulary? colloquial expressions? a polite, impersonal tone? factual language? b Find examples of formal language in model A. C List the phrases in model A which mean the same in model B. 0 Е То: Mike Johnson, Food Editor From: Steve Brooks Subject: Amirit Restaurant Date: 22"“* April Introduction The purpose of this report is to assess standards at Amirit restaurant. Food Amirit offers a wide range of Indian cuisine, all of which is beautifully cooked and presented. Furthermore, it is served in style. Service The staff at Amirit are efficient, professional and polite. The service, however, can sometimes be a little slow. This can be a problem at busy times. Prices While prices at Amirit are on average higher than at other Indian restaurants, the quality of the dishes is far superior. The food merits the prices. Recommendation All in all, despite a few minor faults, Amirit provides excellent value for the standard of food which is served. I would highly recommend it for anyone who enjoys Indian food. 9 Clauses of concession ►►Grammar Reference Read the sentences (1-6). What are the highlighted linkers followed by? Complete the table. 1 In spite of offering a wide choice of dishes, the general quality of the food was poor. 2 Even though/Although the decor was a little dull, the quality of the food made up for it. 3 It is difficult to find a parking space due to the location of the restaurant. 4 Because of the popularity of this venue, it is advisable to book a table well in advance. 5 The staff were well-trained and polite, despite the service being rather slow. ► although, + clause + noun/verb + -ing + noun To: Mike Johnson, Food Editor From: Steve Brooks Subject: Amirit Restaurant Date: 22"'* April Introduction Hi! This report is to let you know how good Amirit restaurant is. Food There's so much food to choose from at Amirit! It's all cooked really well too and it looks really nice on the plates. Service The waiters at Amirit are really cool. They can take ages to bring your food, though, especially when it's busy. Prices Amirit will cost you a fortune, so it's much cheaper to go to another Indian restaurant down the road! I have to say though, it's hard to beat the curry at Amirit] Recommendation There are a few things that aren't that great about Amirit, but I guess 1 would say the food is well worth the money. Book a table there; you won't regret it! 10 3 Join the sentences using appropriate linkers. The staff were courteous and helpful. The service was slow at times. ► The staff were courteous and helpful although/even though the service was slow at times. Despite the service being slow at times, the staff were courteous and helpful. In spite of the service being slow at times, the staff were courteous and helpful. The choice on the menu was limited. The prices were quite reasonable. There wasn’t a table available for us when we arrived. We had phoned earlier to confirm our booking. Chung's is one of the most popular restaurants in town. It has a relaxed atmosphere and excellent food. 113 Writing Skills b Add appropriate linkers and complete the sentences below. 1 limited menu/we enjoyed the meal at the restaurant last night ► In spite of the limited menu, we enjoyed the meal at the restaurant last ni^ht. We enjoyed the meal at the restaurant last night even though the menu was limited. 2 high phces/the restaurant is very popular with young people 3 advertise a varied menu/the vegetarian choices were limited 4 ring the restaurant weeks before/it was quite difficult to get a good table at the weekend 5 popularity/it’s easy to find parking in the streets around the restaurant 11 How does a report differ from a formal letter? Which has/have ... • a title? • paragraphs? • subheadings? • your full name? Discuss & write • a date? • the full name of the recipient? 12 Choose one of the rubrics below, find the key words and answer the questions in the plan. Write your report (120-180 words). You work as a journalist for Nice ‘n’ Tasty magazine. Your editor has asked you to write a report on Supermac, a new fast food restaurant, assessing its general quality and saying whether you would recommend it to the readers of your magazine. You work for the Healthy Eating Society and you have been asked to report on a new health food takeaway, commenting on its good and bad points and assessing whether it would be suitable for members of the sodety. You are a class representative and the headmaster has asked you to write a report on the quality of the school canteen, assessing whether it is meeting students’ needs and making any recommendations. Plan To: Who are you writing to? From: Who are you? Subject: What are you going to write about? Date: What is the date? Introduction Why are you writing the report? AAain Body How many paragraphs will you include? What will the headings be? What are the good and bad points of each aspect? What adjectives/clauses of concession are appropriate? Conclusion What is your overall impression/judgement? What are your recommendations? 13 After you have finished writing your report, swap papers with a partner. Check for the following: Checklist for reports Organisation • Does the report follow a specific plan? • Are there subheadings? Are they clear? • Does the introduction clearly state the purpose of the report? • Do the main body paragraphs each present a separate point? • Does the conclusion summarise the report and give a judgement and/or recommendation? Language • What style is the report written in? • Are there long sentences with polite, factual language? • Which tenses are used? • Has advanced vocabulary been used? • What linkers have been used? • Are there any spelling, grammar or punctuation errors? What did the flour say when it fell over? 114 Don’t bother to pick me up. I’m self-raising. Burns Niqhi ULTURE Д CORNER U A Night for All Scots! ^Selh^Gn^ .......... 4<4ord Ы ЛиШ, Robert Burns (1759-1796) If you ever find yourself in Scotland on the night of 25th January, you're in for a treat because this is Bums Night, one of the most important and fun nights of the yearl On Burns Night, Scottish people celebrate the life of Robert Burns, Scotland's most famous poet. So what should you expect at a Burns Night supper? Well, it might be formal or informal, but it will always be entertaining I First of all, the host says a few words to welcome everyone to the supper and opens the meal with a reading of 'The Selkirk Grace'. Guests then stand as a bagpiper pipes music to welcome the star attraction of the supper - the haggis, a sheep's stomach stuffed with the sheep's heart, liver and lungs. Next, an invited reader recites Burns' poem ‘To a Haggis' and cuts open the haggis with a sharp knife. Everyone then toasts the haggis by raising their glasses and shouting: 'To the Haggis!' The main course is haggis, which is served with 'tatties and neeps' (mashed potatoes and turnip). This is accompanied bv the traditional starter, Cock-a-leekie (chicken and leek) soup and a traditional Scottish dessert such as sherry trifle or oatcakes. The evening always ends with everyone joining hands and singing Burns' world-famous song 'Auld Lang Syne', meaning 'For Times Gone By'. 1 2 0 Listen to the music. What do you think happens on Burns Night? Listen, read and check. d Read again and decide whether the following sentences are true or false. 1 Burns Night celebrations are usually formal and serious. 2 A bagpiper is the star attraction of the supper. 3 There is an alternative main course available if you don’t like haggis. 4 Burns Night doesn’t always include entertainment. 5 Everyone sings together at the end of the celebration. 3 b Explain the underlined words/phrases. Check in your dictionary. m imagine you are Scottish. AAake notes under the headings below. Use your notes to tell your partner all about Burns Night. welcome food music ending Portfolio: Write a paragraph about a special festival in your country. Include: • name of festival « • activities • food traditions involved date • reason • any other special 115 SCIENCE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 1 How are these words related to teeth? Discuss, then read and check. enamel calcium toothpaste with fluoride milk teeth permanent teeth tooth decay bacteria Teeth are made of the hardest material in the body - enamel. To develop good enamel, you need calcium - so drink milk. To keep your teeth in good condition, use a toothpaste with fluoride. Pigs have 44 teeth. Humans grow two sets of teeth in their life: milk teeth (about 20) and permanent teeth (about 32). Tooth decay is caused by the acid that the bacteria in the mouth make from the sugar we eat. 3 Look at the diagram in text B. How many types of teeth have we got? Read the descriptions (a-c) of the different types of teeth and label them correctly. (Canines ) 2d Look at the diagram of a tooth in text A. What are the words used to label the diagram in your language? b О Use the words in the diagram to complete the gaps (1-8). Listen and check. ........................ И * A tooth has two main parts. The 1)........is the part you can see • ^ and the 2)............. is the unseen part that is below the * Ф 3)...........and fastens the tooth in the 4).........The outer ^ • part of the tooth and the hardest substance in the body is • ^ 5).............Underneath this is a layer of 6)......which is • • softer than enamel but similar to bone. In the middle of the tooth is the 7)..........This contains cells, blood vessels ^ • and the nerve of the tooth. The pulp is protected by a • * ^ layer called 8)........which covers the root ^ * • ^ and keeps the tooth securely attached in^ • • the gum. _ • ••• C Read again and explain the words in bold. 116 ( ncisors ) We have three main types of teeth .............are at the front of the mouth. They are the sharpest teeth and we use them to bite food. .............are in the corners of our mouths and we use them to grasp and tear food. ............. are at the back of the mouth. They are bigger and flatter than the other teeth.We use them to chew and grind food into small pieces. C Explain the words in bold. Portfolio: Use the information on this page to make a quiz about teeth. Write ten questions. Swap with another pair, answer them and see who gets the highest score. ■ 11 — -J. “ wr . 1 2 3 «rganic farming/о/джшк Look at the dictionary entry. Are there I fPTm;i]/(phr) N-COUNT form organic farmers in your country? Do I of agriculture that uses onlv you/your family eat organic food? I natural products to help the Why/Whynot? j plants or animals grow Look at the pictures of the two farms in the text. Which is an organic farm and which is a conventional farm? How do they differ? Read the labels and check. 3 <,,■ Read the text and complete the missing words. Listen and check. Farmers use tractors, simple tools and flame ' weeders (fire, not chemicals) for weeding. organic farming? ^ Modern farming methods allow farmers to produce large amounts 0) of cheap food. There 1)....a cost to the environment, though, because intensive farming uses a lot of chemicals such 2)....... pesticides and fertilizers 3)..... damage ecosystems and destroy wildlife. It also uses a lot of energy because 4)........the amount of machinery used. Not only does the soil suffer from these methods, but the quality of the food is reduced, too. Organic farming, on 5).......other hand, aims to protect the environment while producing high quality food. Natural fertilisers such as manure and compost are used instead 6)........ man-made or chemical fertilisers. Organic farmers also use natural methods of pest control. They use ladybirds to combat greenfly 7).......burn weeds or pull them out by hand instead of using pesticides. They also use traditional farming methods such as rotating crops to different fields 8).............year to maintain the nutrients in the soil. Organic food may be a bit expensive. However, it is healthy, tasty and better for the environment. Beneficial insects such as ladybirds eat greenfly. Farmers use natural fertilizers such as manure and compost made of weeds, vegetable peelings, dead leaves etc b Answer the questions. Then explain all the words/phrases in bold. 1 How can conventional farming be harmful to the environment? 2 Why Is organic farming better for the environment? Project: Take the roles of an organic farmer and a conventional farmer. The organic farmer tries to convince the conventional farmer to go organic. Act out your dialogue for the class. Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites. (Willism Ruckelshaus, VS environmentalist) 117 MODULE 6 Listening Listen and choose A (True), В (False) or C (Not stated) for questions 1-6. 1 The restaurant has tables available on Saturday evening. A True В False C Not stated 2 The restaurant is open all day Saturday. A True В False C Not stated 3 The girl only has three friends. A True В False C Not stated 4 The girl might need to change her booking. A True В False C Not stated 5 The lunchtime menu is different from the evening menu. A True В False C Not stated 6 The girl is on a diet. A True В False C Not stated Reading Read the texts (A-F) and answer the questions (1-5). One text doesn’t answer a question. Where will you go/call if you ... 1 need to eat something quickly? 2 have a sweet tooth? 3 don’t eat meat? 4 are trying to eat healthily? 5 can’t leave the office? G The Lemon Tree Here at the Lemon Tree, we have an excellent reputation for high quality cuisine. We have a regularly changing menu, including a wide variety of exciting vegetarian choices. We also have an excellent selection of fresh salads and hot dishes to suit both vegetarians and nonvegetarians alike. You'll find us at 4, Station Road. Я Using only the finest minced beef, our tasty 'Billie Burger' was recently voted 'Best burger in town'. Come and find out for yourself! If you need to grab a bite to eat on the run, our friendly, efficient staff will make sure you're served with fresh, tasty food within minutes! 89, High Street. Finally, Zest brings you an alternative to fried, fatty fast food. Because we understand your need for fresh, wholesome and satisfying food, here at Zest we offer a delicious range of hot and cold snacks, all made from the finest and freshest, organic ingredients. Come to Zesf at 128, Castleton Road for takeaway food with a difference! We make fresh, tasty, imaginative food including sandwiches, salads, baked potatoes and more. No time for a break? Don't worry, we'll deliver them to your place of work. Call us on 020-8767463 during office hours, 8am-6pm. Relax... we'll come to you! Castle Cottage Join us for lunch at our popular, family-run restaurant famous for its Sunday roasts! Dating from the 16th century, Castle Cottage is the oldest restaurant in town, dose to the andent castle. Our main dining room has just been refurbished and we have a brand new menu. Traditional food at its best. Call 0115 8564342 to book a table. Why not treat yourself and join us for one of our famous стеат teas! Sticky Delights is an award-winning tea shop that has been serving delidous, freshly-made sandwiches, pastries and cakes for over twenty-five years. We also make wedding cakes and birthday cakes to order. Call us on 020-7874565 for enquiries. 118 □ajajE ф Use of English Ф' Speaking Read the text and choose the best word (A ,B,C or D) for each gap (1-7). Borsch Beetroot can be oocted ai>d eatei varm vd.th butter; or it can be pickled and then eaten cold; car peeled and shredded and then eaten 1) ................... a .salad, but irary pecple believe it's best served in Borsch. Borsch is a delicious vegetable эоф 2 ) .............cm be eaten hot or cold. As well as beetroot, hot Borsch can also include beans, cabbage, carrots and potatoes, or meats like chicken or beef. Cbld Borsch is usually a 3) .............. sotp, made from dioeri beeUoot with either lemon juice or st^ar to 4) ............... tothe flavour. Borsch is a popular dish in many Eastern and Central European countries, such as Russia, Poland, Germany aixl the Ukraine. Each country has its own favourite vray of preparing this food and 5) ................ has its on particular wey of spelling its name. It's Borschtsch h German, Barszch in Rilieh aid Borsch in Russian and Ukrainian. Vhatever you call, it. Borsch can be the perfech meal to warm you up 6) ................. a coild vniter дз^, cr a deli^tful snack \hen the weather's wamer. It's eaten vrith friends and family at hare or you can find it cn the A for В as C such D like A when В who C which D whose A normal В ordinary C everyday D plain A fill В give C wake D add A each В every C all D both A for В at C in D on A plenty В many C lots D much Give a 2-minute talk on food and drink. Remember to say; • what your favourite fcюd/drinks are • what food/drinks you don’t like • what you eat in a typical day • if you think your diet is healthy or unhealthy. Talk for 1.5 - 2 minutes. The class will listen until you have finished. Then, they will ask you some questions. Еф Writing Comment on the following statement; Young people these days are eating more and more unhealthy foods. Some people feel that advertising junk food on TV should not be allowed. What can you say for and against banning junk food adverts on TV? Write an essay of 200-250 words using the plan. Para 1 Introduction (state the problem) Para 2 Arguments for (with examples/ justifications) Para 3 Arguments against (with examples/justifications) Para 4 Conclusion Word Perfect 6 119 Progress Check 1FII1 in: eyesight, sprinkle, grilled, carbohydrates, concentration, recipe, raw, watermelon, rumbling, indigestion. 1 There are high amounts of ............. in rice, potatoes and cereal. 2 I’m really hungry - my tummy’s.........! 3 As you get older your.......begins to fail. 4 Don’t eat so fast - you’ll get.....! 5 I have a delicious chocolate cake......! 6 My favourite fruit is.......It’s really refreshing. 7 .......vegetables are extremely good for you. 8 .......chicken is healthier than fried. 9 1 often lack......in the afternoon. 10 I like to.....chocolate on top of my cappuccino. ^10X2 20 J Fill in: artificial, tooth, fast, fizzy, lamb, main, dry, stomach, grated, blood. 2 3 1 ... additives 6 ... 2 ... 7 ... ache 3 ... 8 ... course 4 ... 9 ... vessels 5 ... 10 ... Points: ___ 10X2 20 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1 If I...... (have) toothache, I would go to the dentist. 2 You........(not/lose) weight if you eat ice cream every day! 3 If I were you, I......(stop) eating so much junk food. 4 If you ....... (study) more, you would have passed the exam. 5 You wouldn’t have got lost if you.......(follow) my directions! 6 This soup.........(taste) better if you had added more salt. / Points: _ \6X3 18 ^ Fill in the correct prefixes. 1 People from all over the world live in Britain. It’s a very.........-cultural country. 2 ....... -skimmed milk is much healthier than full cream. 3 4 5 5 120 The vegetables are really........cooked. They are almost raw! If we all.......-operate, we’ll get this finished today. Ann’s on a diet again. She still thinks she’s..... weight. / Points: __ \5X2 10 Э Fill in: up, back, away, off. 1 Something in the fridge is giving ........... a horrible smell. 2 I’m thinking of giving.......fatty foods. 3 I give........What’s the answer? 4 Have you given......... the book you borrowed from Zoe? 5 I’m giving........ my recipe books to John. He needs them more than I do. / Points: _ 1^5X2 10 b Fill in: with, from, in, against. 1 I advise you.......going on a crash diet. 2 Peter is recovering......the flu. 3 Jane seems to be able to cope......anything! 4 Crash dieting can result....health problems. 5 John has only just recovered.......his illness. 6 Points: _____ 5X2 10 Complete the exchanges. 1 A: I’ve got indigestion! B: ........stop eating late at night! A: Have you thought about having a good breakfast? B: ........and it didn’t work. A: You look a bit pale. B: I’m feeling ........ A: I’m not feeling very well. B: Oh dear............. I Can Points: ___ 4X3 12 My score: ____ 100 talk and write about cooking methods and healthy diets talk about problems related to diet advise and agree/disagree write a report write about a festival in my country talk/write about teeth and organic farming ........................ in English Let's have fun Mod S', 'i ♦ Before you start... • How healthy is your diet? What’s your favourite restaurant? Why? ^ Look at Module 7 • Find the page numbers for pictures 1 -4. ♦ Find the page numbers for • a literature extract I I • a theatre poster I I • a film review I I ♦ Listen, read and talk about... • entertainment • types of performances • Madame Tussauds • electronic music • paper ♦ Learn how to ... • make/accept/decline an invitation • express and enquire about opinions • recommend a film/book/etc ♦ Practise ... • the passive voice • phrasal verbs; turn • word formation; compound adjectives • words often confused; audience/sroup, viewers/spectators, act/play, set/setting ♦ Write / Make ... • a survey report about popular entertainment • an account of your life as a character in a novel • a review • an article about a tourist attraction in your country • a short article about a classical composer • a presentation on how paper is made V hS -IT- ) J ‘ ) Ш m L„ir Reading Skills 1 Reading 2 a Read the title of the article and look at the picture. What do you think ‘square-eyed generation’ means? Do you think this describes today’s teens? Read and check. b ) Read the first sentence in each paragraph. What is the text about? Listen, read and check. Read the teenagers’ comments in the text on pp. 122-123. Who: 1 says they aren’t mad about something? 2 uses a certain form of entertainment as a way to relax? 3 enjoys something that many other young people enjoy too? 4 mentions actors becoming famous for something else? 5 can’t stop doing something? 3 a Explain the words/phrases in bold. Make sentences. Tell your partner. b Think of an alternative title for the article. Give reasons. Speaking 5 6 Read again and make notes about how teenagers entertain themselves. Use your notes to tell the class. Record yourself. Vocabulary Entertainment '■, ) Listen to the piece of music. Is it catchy? Can you sing along with it? Where could you hear it: theatre! cinema! TV! a What forms of entertainment do young people in your country like? Make a list. A Square-Eyed Generation? In the UK, teenagers таtch 2 to 3 hours of TV per day, video games are played by a third of 13-year-olds every day and 75% of 5 to 16-year-olds have their cwn TV. What about teenagers in your country? Are they turning into anti-sodal, square-eyed COUCh potatoes? What other forms of entertainment do they enjoy? Let's see what seme teens from around the world had to say! 7 think it's totally unfair to label today's teenagers as 'the square-eyed generation'. Sure, I like to unwind on a Friday night with a good DVD, but one of my favourite things to do is go dancing at the famous London club 'Ministry of Sound.' You just can't beat Л-the atmosphere when the music's blaring and everybody's dancing!” Suzy, 18, UK 122 ► playins video sames b Which forms of entertainment do you like/not like? Why? Use the adjectives below to support your opinion. • gripping • relaxing • exciting • pointless • interesting • a good laugh • repetitive "То be honest, a lot of Mexican teenagers do spend too much time watching TV. Teenage soap operas or 'telenovelas' like 'Rebelde' have become really popular in recent years. The theme tunes in particular are usually really catchy! Members of the cast from these soaps sometimes even go on to record albums and become music stars!" Maria, 15, Mexico 7 have my own TV in my room, but my favourite thing to do is to go out to 'karaoke' with my friends. Most Japanese teenagers love karaoke. We rent a special room where we can sing along to all the latest music. It's such a good laugh!" (j Yoko, 17, Japan "Indian TV is OK, but I can take it or leave it. I prefer to go to the cinema to see 'Bollywood'^ movies made by Indian directors. Bollywood movies are more like musicals really, with lots of singing, dancing and quite predictable storylines О about things like love and family relationships. The Indian film industry now makes twice os many films as Hollywood you know!" Sanjit, 16, India 7 have to admit that Tm a bit of a video game addict. The graphics are incredible , these days! I also like going to malls with \ my friends. I think it’s the best place to see and be seen, not just a place to spend money as many say. Anya, 18, Russia ’ Hie film industry of India. The word comes from Bombay and Hollywood. ¥ • moving • powerful • boring • educational • entertaining • sociable • anti-sodal > A: I enjoy watching soap operas. I find them relaxing and gripping. What about you? B: Welt, I prefer concerts! I find them exciting. 7 Choose the correct word. Which form of entertainment is each sentence related to: TV programmes? theatre? cinema? books? 1 9 10 The Phantom of the Opera had a very large cast/musical. You need to book/reserve in advance if you are going to attend a performance. Plays are performed on screen/stage. Have you seen Superman Returns? It got very good reviews/critics. I don’t really enjoy watching ones with subtitles/headings. Harry Potter has an unpredictable storyline/ script. Sergei Bodrov directed/starred Prisoner of the Mountains. I often sing along to the theme music/tune of soap operas. War and Peace is a best seller/office. They are remaking Anna Karenina and it is expected to become a box seller/office hit. Writing (a survey) 8 Portfolio: Prepare ten Yes-No questions about TV and other popular entertainment forms in your country and carry out a survey in your class. Write a paragraph reporting the results. Having y«s it<» 1 Do you have your own TV? 2 Do you watch TV for more than 2 hours a day? etc The results of my survey showed that about a third of the students in the class have their own TV. etc 9 Think of ten words you have learnt in this lesson. Make sentences using them. Close your books and tell a partner. ^WorlniwisdMnT^ Television has proved that people v/ill look at anything rather than each other. (Ann Landers, US advice columnist) 123 I l-L. I 1 2 3 Vocabulary Types of performances Listen to the extracts (1-4). Which of the following is each one from? an opera • a musical • a ballet • a music concert AAatch these words with their descriptions (1-8). • • orchestra * glasses • aisle • balcony »stage • curtain • usher The performance takes place on this. ► stage This comes down at the end of the performance. Seats on the same level as the stage. This person shows you to your seat. You use these to see the stage better when your seat is far away. You walk down this to find your seat. You can find cheaper seats here. This plays music during the performance. Reading d Read sentences A-F. Where are the speakers? What are they talking about? A OK, let’s risk it! В I agree! So... where are we sitting? In the stalls? C What now? D I don’t know. They might be reserved.. E Oh, my goodness, I can hardly see the stage! F Oh, that’s OK ... which row are we on? b С/ Complete the dialogue with the sentences (A-F). Listen and check. Explain the words in bold. Jo; Sandra: Jo: Sandra; Jo: Sandra: Jo: Sandra; Jo; Sandra; Jo: Sandra; Jo; This theatre is beautiful! Perfect \ surroundings for an opera! 1)........ No, the stalls were fully booked. Our seats are somewhere in the circle. 2)........ Well, let’s see ... our tickets say W10 and W11 so that’s ... err... five ... six rows up from here... Oh no! We’re in the very back row! 3) ....... Look! There’s a whole row of empty seats a few rows further down. Let’s move over there! 4) ....... I don’t think so. The performance is about to start. 5) ....... ... Ah, that’s better... Oh no! 6) ....... The man who just sat down in front of me is really tall! I can’t see a thing! 124 Speaking Q& You are at the theatre but your seats are in the back row. You want to change them. Act out your dialogue. Everyday English Making/Accepting/Declining invitations 5 Use the poster and the language box to act out dialogues, as in the example. A: I was wonderins if you’d like to come and see ‘Sleeping Beauty’ with us on Saturday? It’s a ballet. B: That would be lovely! riic Iving (леогуе Tlieatre presents ... □BE A Midsummer Night’s Dream A play by William Shakespeatv 27th June — 1st July Dancing in the Streets - musical 12 th — 16th July Sleeping Beauty -ballet 18th - 23rd Augmt Music by Tchaikovsky Madame Butterfly Pticcini's famous ofK'ra 2nd - 9th September • call the box office on 020 7 6.t8 88^5 Inviting • I was wondering if you’d like to ...? • I’m/We’re going to see ... on .../Would you like to join me/us?/Do you fancy coming along? • If you’re free on ..., would you like to go to ...? Accepting/Declining • I’d love to/That would be lovely!/That sounds like fun. Thanks!/Yes, OK. Good idea. • That sounds nice, but... sorry. • Actually, musicals/operas, etc, aren’t really my kind of thing/my cup of tea. 6 Idioms Complete the sentences with the idioms in the list. Check in the Word List. Are there similar ones in your language? • one hit wonder • hot cakes • daylight robbery i- • hard of hearing 1 My gran would prefer a front row seat as she’s........... 2 I don’t believe the tickets cost €90 for the Madonna concert. That’s........... 3 You should book your tickets well in advance, as they are selling like............ 4 I don’t think that singer will be successful. She’s a............ Listening 7 Ч J Listen to speakers 1-5. Which of the comments below might each person say? There is one comment you don’t need to use. I enjoy most types of theatre performances. I find theatre tickets really expensive. I don’t mind paying a lot to watch a performance. The theatre isn’t really my cup of tea. I’m a frequent theatre-goer. I can’t see the kind of performances I like in my town. 8 Speaker 1 I I Speaker 4 I I Speaker 2 I I Speaker 5 I I Speaker 3 I I b Which of the comments A-F do you agree with? Say it right Expressing opinions a О Choose the correct response. Listen and check. 1 A: What did you think of the ballet? B: a I didn’t like it at all. b No, it’s not my kind of thing. 2 A: How was the concert last night? B; a It was absolutely fantastic! b That sounds good. 3 A: Did you enjoy the play? B: a Well, it wasn’t bad! b Nothing special. Ь Ask and answer similar questions. 125 1 Passive voice ^ Grammar Reference Read the examples and complete the rules with: to be, past participle, person. Explain how the passive sentence is formed. We use the passive when we are more interested in the action than the 1)..........or thing who does it. We form the passive with the appropriate form of the verb 2)..........and the 3)...........of the main verb. 2 Read the examples (1-4) of the passive in bold in the text. Which tenses are they in? GET READY TO BE DAZZLED AT THE London ■MAX Cinema This 477-seat cinema 1) was opened in 1999 and has been thrilling cinema audiences ever since with magnificent 3D* shows! Visitors to the cinema 2) are promised a unique experience. Lifelike 3D images projected onto the UK’s biggest cinema screen make you feel as if you really 3) are being chased by hungry lions or transported a quarter of a million miles away to the moon! You will also experience exciting improvements that 4) have been made to the cinema, including fantastic opportunities to learn more about film and television! Don’t wait! Book tickets online for the ultimate cinema experience. You will be amazed! * 3-dimensional 3 5 Circle the correct word. Explain your choices. 1 The box office sold/were sold 15,000 tickets for the concert in an hour! 2 In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, two teenagers from rival families fall/are fallen in love. 3 Millions of video games have sold/have been sold all over the world. 4 The film sets/is set in England in the 18th century. 5 The audience applauded/were applauded wildly at the end of the performance. 6 Before 1927, films used to make/be made without sound. 3 Read the examples. When do we use by/with to introduce the agent? When can we omit the agent? ► Othello was written by Shakespeare. This dish is made with peppers. The robber was arrested tost night (by the police). b Fill in by or with where necessary. 1 This dish is made (......... four types of cheese). 2 Mickey Mouse was created (..........Walt Disney). 3 Lyn was given top marks for her essay (..........her teacher). 4 His desk was covered (..........papers). Rewrite sentences 1-6 in the passive. In which sentences can we omit the agent? Why? 1 A newspaper journalist interviewed the cast after the opening night of the play. ► The cast were interviewed by... 2 The director asked Joy to say her lines with more feeling. 6 3 The ЛАауог will open the new theatre. 4 Lots of people visit Universal Studios every year. 5 The choreographer is teaching the singers how to dance. 6 They’ve just finished filming the new James Bond film. Word formation d Read the theory box, then use a dictionary to make compound adjectives from the words in the lists. Forming compound adjectives Compound adjectives are made up of two or more words and are usually written with hyphens between them. They are often formed like this: 1 adjective, noun, or numeral + noun + -ed (srey-haired, two-faced) 2 adjective or adverb + past participle (low-paid, well-behaved) 3 adjective, adverb or noun + present participle (Sood-lookins, lons-lastins) . B^^blTOded lUJbJfetched I c breaking Td ■’consuming e centred rrOfashioned b Use the adjectives in sentences. ► That story is too far-fetched to be true. Phrasal verbs 7 Read the diagram, then fill in the gaps with the correct phrasal verb. on (start a piece of equipment # turn off) ^ down (1 decrease the volume, 2 refuse) over (1 change channels, 2 turn so the top part faces down) 8 9 1 Did Jack......at the concert in the end? 2 Let’s....the air conditioning. It’s really hot. 3 .....the radio, Simon. It’s too loud. 4 I can hardly hear the TV. Can you...it....? 5 I’m sure Emily will.....his invitation. 6 .....the lights before you go. 7 I don’t like this programme. Can you......it ....to the news, please? 8 He ...... the envelope and read the return address. Dependent prepositions Use Appendix 1 to fill in: with or for. Then make sentences. 1 Moscow is famous........its Bolshoi Theatre. 2 She impressed the audience......her performance. 3 They mistook him ....... Keanu Reeves and asked for his autograph. 4 She’s popular.....teenagers. 5 He’s got a reputation...being very friendly. Words often confused Use your dictionaries to choose the correct word, then make a sentence with the other word. 1 The audience/group enjoyed the concert. 2 200 viewers/spectators watched the game. 3 Tom wants to act/play in the school play. 4 Moscow was the perfect set/setting for the film. Key word transformations 10 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use two to five words including the word in bold. The UK release of the film will be in May. released The film.........UK in May. Children need to be with an adult to get in. accompanied Children can only get in if .........................an adult. Sarah was upset that John didn’t come to the opera. up Sarah was upset that John .......at the opera. I recommend that you see that new musical! have You really.......that new musical! People say the special effects are great. said The special effects....... great. Grammar Check 7 127 1 Listen to the music. What images come to mind? How is the music related to the picture and title of the book on p.128? What do you think the book is about? Read the biography, and check. Gaston Leroux (1868-1927) was born in Paris. He studied law and graduated in 1889. He worked as a court reporter, theatre critic and journalist. In 1905, he reported on the Russian Revolution. He began writing fiction in 1907. Leroux is best known for The Phantom of the Opera (1910). The novel was translated into English in 1911 and has been made into several films since then. The story is about Erik, a ruined genius who terrorises a Paris opera house by pretending to be a ghost. 2 4,^' How are these names related to the Phantom? Listen and read to find out. Sorelli • Jammes Giry 3 fl' 1 Read the text and choose the correct answer (A-D) for questions 1-6. Sorelli wanted to be left alone because A she was afraid of the ghost, she was preparing to resign, she was feeling confused, she wanted to get a speech ready. Sorelli’s dressing room... A was very disorganised. В was much nicer than the ballet girls’. C had no furniture. D had belonged to her mother. 128 Little Jammes... A didn’t believe in ghosts. В was sure that she had seen the ghost. C wasn’t at all afraid. D couldn’t speak about the ghost. The PHANTOM li lW 0{>£RA CHAPTER I IS IT THE GHOST? t was the evening on which the managers of the Opera were giving a last gala performance to mark their retirement. Suddenly the dressing room of Sorelli, one of the principal dancers, was invaded by half-a-dozen young ladies of the ballet, who had come up from the stage. They rushed in The ghost was... A badly-dressed. В silent. C D invisible, friendly. The story of the ghost... A spread rapidly among the ballet girls. В was ignored by the ballet girls. C was an issue from time to time. D was believed by everyone. The skin on the ghost’s face is... A loose and white. C tight and ugly. В healthy looking. D invisible. among great confusion, some laughing unnaturally, others crying in terror. Sorelli, who wished to be alone for a moment to go through the speech which she was going to make to the resigning managers, looked around angrily at the mad crowd. It was little Jammes - the girl with the upturned nose, the forget-me-not eyes, the rose-red cheeks and the lily-white neck -who explained in a trembling voice: "It's the ghost!" And she locked the door. Sorelli's dressing room was decorated elegantly. A mirror, a sofa, a dressing table and a cupboard provided the necessary furniture. On the wall hung an engraving of her mother, who had known the glories of the old Opera. But it seemed a palace to the brats of the ballet, who in their dressing rпм В X 1^******^ ■ itiijirwi I ■— I Hi Sarah! Hope you are well! Just thought I’d write and tell you about an amazing musical I saw last night, ‘Billy Elliot’. You have to go and see it! The music and dancing were just fabulous and the ... What a film! The scenery and acting in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe are absolutely fantastic and Tilda Swinton in particular gives a stunning performance as the White Witch. A great film that keeps you watching till the end! Rating: * * ** Don't miss ft! Reviews are short descriptions of TV programmes, plays, CDs, books, etc. They are normally found in newspapers, magazines, on the Internet or as part of a letter or email. They are written to inform readers and give an opinion about what is being reviewed. The style (formal, semi-formal or informal) depends on where the review is published and who will read it. Reviews include: an introduction, in which we give some background details about the type of film and the setting: a main body where we give details about the plot, main characters and comment on various features (e.g. the acting); and a conclusion with a recommendation. Present tenses are normally used. A variety of adjectives can make the review more interesting. 1 Where might you see each review? 2 Who vrill read them? 3 What style are they written in? Why? 4 What tenses are used? Give reasons. 3 Read the film review below. Which paragraph mentions: the plotl the name/type of filml the directorl what the film’s about! the writer's recommendation! the setting! the cast! the writer’s overall opinion! the special effects! 130 King Kong is Peter Jackson's breathtaking remake of the classic 1933 film about a giant gorilla. It is an action adverture film set in New York City in the 1930s that won three Oscars. ^ The plot is both gripping and terrifying. A film-maker takes his cast and crew on a boat to explore a mystery island. When they get there, they meet unfriendly natives, dinosaurs and all kinds of huge animals and insects. Those who escape head back to New York with an unwanted guest on boardi The acting is brilliant. The biggest star of the movie is obviously King Kong himself, but Naomi Watts is extremely believable as the woman King Kong falls in love with. Jack Black gives a spectacular performance as the ambitious film-maker. As for the special effects, they are absolutely fantastic! ^ All in all, King Kong Is one of the best films I’ve seen in a long while. It’s perhaps a lit long at 3 hours 10 minutes, but apart from that it’s an outstanding film. If you only see one this year, this should be it! ^ I 01АШЕ? ! ferine, Filpf I Charming and clever, The Princess Diaries' is about an ordinary American teenager who suddenly discovers she's a princess! Meg Cabot's writing is highly entertaining. From the moment I started reading the first chapter, I couldn't put it down! Re: Battlefield 2: Modern Combat Skateboy: I agree with you,Tomcat! I’m addicted! The impressive graphics really bring the battle to life. The mystery and suspense continues' tonight at 9:30 on Channel 4 with the third episode of this outstanding series. Excellent character profiles and storytelling. ff you are a fan of pop music, you'll probably enjoy dancing along to these tracks, but for me, the lyrics were just far too repetitive and completely unoriginal. Read the table below. Replace the adjectives in bold in the review in Ex 3 p. 130 with other appropriate ones from the table. CHARACTERS believable, entertaining, colourful, (un)likeable, (un)convincing thrilling, gripping, moving ictable, Г terrifying/horrifying, complicated, tragic, dull, boring ACTING/PERFORMANCE(S) spectacular, brilliant, excellent, powerful, superb, terrible, awful WRITING/SCRIPT original, realistic, simple. confusing, dull SPECIAL EFFECTS/GRAPHICS stunning, incredible, dreadful SONGS/TRACKS/MUSiaiYRICS catchy, moving, (un(imaginative, j (un (impressive, repetitive, irritating, dull, terrible, depressing 5 Read the theory. Then, use adjectives from Ex. 4 with adverbs to make sentences about films/books/CDs/performances, etc that you know. Adverbs can be used before adjectives to add emphasis. Not all adverbs and adjectives can be used together! Adverbs such as Incredibly, extremely, very describe gradable adjectives, (enjoyable, moving and poor) i.e. those that can be measured. Others, like absolutely, totally, completely describe non-gradable adjectives, (perfect, magnificent and amazing) i.e. those that can’t be measured. Note: We don’t say incredibly/ extremely/very perfect (perfect means it can’t get any better!)/very magnificent/very great/very wonderful ► I really love the Harry Potter books as the plots are extremely srippins. I don’t like Justin Timberlake’s new CD because the lyrics are very ... etc. 131 Writing Skills / 6 Recommending a Look at the recommendations below. Which are positive and which are negative? Which could be used to describe: a book? a film? a CD? a performance? all four? Recommendations • Don’t miss it! • It’s a masterpiece. • It is well worth seeing/reading. • It’s a must! Wait until it comes out on DVD. It’s sure to be a box office hit/a huge success. It’s a highly entertaining read. • This is one to avoid. • Don’t bother with this one. • I wasn’t at all impressed (with ...). • It’s bound to be a huge flop! 7 b What was the last book you read/CD you listened to/film you watched? Recommend it to your partner. Read the CD review below. Imagine you have listened to this CD and you didn’t like it. Replace the parts of the review in bold with negative adjectives/adverbs/recommendations. Compare v/ith your partner. Sw66t Poi3ioes* Bools Following the hugely successful album Power, Energy, the Sweet Potatoes fourth album, Roots, is brilliant! It includes a variety of music styles, such as pop, hip-hop. rap and funk and is by far their best CD! There are eleven tracks on the CD, each one more impressive than the last. The hit single, 'Don’t leave’, has extremely catchy and original lyrics, as do the other dance tracks on the album. ‘Do it is sure to be an exciting club tune. 132 Don't nii.ss this fantastic album! it’s sure to be a huge success! 8 Discuss & write Choose any two of the following and write your answer (100-140 words). You have been asked to write a film review for your school magazine. Include: • name/what type of film it is • what it’s about • what the acting/special effects/etc are like • if you recommend it You have received the following email from an English pen-friend: To: Jimbo@coolteens.com From: Wlzzboy@msn.com Hey Jim! How's things? I've been looking for a good book to take on holiday with me and I know you like reading! Got any suggestions? Thanks! Matt Reply to Matt’s email, recommending a good book to him. Include: • name/author/type of book, etc • plot • characters • recommendation You’ve just bought a new CD and you love itl Write a message for an Internet message board. Include: • who the artist is/what type of music it is • what it’s like (tracks, lyrics, etc) • why you like it/recommend it ULTURE "1 CORNER T London Landmarks Where in the world can you bump into Princess Diana, meet David and Victoria Beckham or gaze into Charlie Chaplin’s eyes? Only at Madame Tussauds, the London landmark that's been 1)...........(pull) in the crowds since 1835. Getting up close and personal with life-sized wax models of the 2).....(fame) is a feature of many family holidays to the capital, and having a model of yourself in the museum 3).......(have) become a symbol of success for those who seek celebrity. ^ The story began in 1777 when Madame Tussaud learned the art of wax modelling from Dr Philippe Curtius while 4).......(work) as his housekeeper, i Living in Paris. Tussaud's early models, which included Voltaire, Rousseau and Benjamin Franklin, were a great success, but when her exhibition moved to \ England in 1802 she was 5)........(able) to return because of the Franco-English 1 war. Eventually, the exhibition settled in London and it’s been a major tourist 6)...... (attract) ever since. In 1958, Madame Tussauds 7)...........(add) to its attractions with a planetarium which continues to take audiences on a voyage among the stars. Today Madame Tussauds offers a state-of-the-art experience with 8).........(interact) exhibitions designed to give 9).....(visit) the feeling that they can be anything from rock stars to world-famous footballers. Those who want to test their courage can explore the Chamber of Horrors while the more 10).........(adventure) can take a cruise with the Pirates of the Caribbean. Madame Tussauds has a fantasy for everyone. 1 2 3 Look at the title of the text and the pictures. How are they related? Read through and check. аьф Use the words in brackets (1-10) in the correct form to complete the gaps. Compare with your partner. b *4^' Listen and check your answers. Read the words in bold. Choose three and mime their meanings. 5 6 Answer the questions. • Where’s Madame Tussauds? • What can you see there? • When/How it started? Use your answers to give the class a short summary of the text. Complete the sentences with famous or popular. 1 Chocolate is very.....with children. 2 David Beckham is a......English footballer. 3 Leonardo Da Vinci, the......artist, was left-handed. 4 Igor is very.....with his classmates. Portfolio: In groups, make a similar article for an attraction in your country. Write: its name, location, what someone can see/do there, how it started. End your article with a recommendation. 133 ACROSS THE CURRICULUM MUSIC Think of the last tune you kept humming for a whole day. Chances are that it was one of the big hits. Now think about the music. Does it have an electronic sound? The use of electronic instruments has had a great effect on the development of 20th century music. Electronic instruments make use of a series of new techniques to produce sounds that are artificially generated. Such techniques include: distortion (the process of changing the original sounds by sending lots of signals to parts of an electronic system, usually used in heavy metal music); echo (the process of changing the original sounds by adding one or more repeats) and effects (the process of adding different effects). What is really impressive, though, is that with the development of music technology, you don't even need electronic instruments to make music! The latest revolution in music is happening at home. Elizabeth Sharp from Brooklyn, for example, makes music in her apartment. She calls her studio 'The Rock Closet' and she records and mixes songs for her band with the help of an Apple Macintosh computer. Modern music making is largely based on the use of computer software programs, such as Reason by Propellerhead Software. Like Elizabeth, thousands of musicians around the world are taking advantage of this cheap, powerful technology. The technology is empowering people who aren't musicians to compose and distribute their own music, armed only with their creativity and enthusiasm! Why don't you give it a try, too? 1 2 3 Listen to the sounds (A, B). Which is produced electronically? by actual music instruments? How do they make you feel? 134 J ^ Listen to the text and decide if the following sentences are true or false or whether the text doesn’t say. Then, explain the words in bold. 1 Electronic instruments were invented in the 20th century. 2 Electronic instruments make great music. 3 A lot of people make music on their computers. 4 Many people have studios at home. 5 Only musicians can use music-making software. Ш How has music technology changed music? Make notes, then tell your partner. How does the text say the following? 1 It is possible it was a famous song. 2 ... make and pass their own music round. 3 ... are using this inexpensive and important technology. 4 ... is giving power to non-musicians. 5 AAatch to form collocations. Then use them in sentences of your own. 1 hum 2 make 3 produce 4 mix a a song b a tune c music d a sound 6 3 Which of the words below are nouns and which are adjectives? What suffixes are used for each? music musical musician b Make similar word families for the following words. • electric • impression • creator 7 Portfolio: Who’s your favourite classical composer? Look in encyclopaedias or on the Internet and answer the questions. Then, write a short article about him. • Who was he? • Where/When was he born? • What did he compose? Name some of his works. • When/Where did he die? J"e-rl-W - ^ r ^ I 1 ■ ■■! и'- Paper is all around us. It helps us communicate, > create and illustrate. Our books, ne\t'spapcrs, magazines and posters are made from it. Paper is the number one material we throw away. For ever)' 100 kg of rubbish we throw away, 39 kg of it is paper. Newspapers alone take up about 14% of . landfill space. \ Paper can be glossy or matt, thin or thick. •, Most paper products arc made from trees • • although paper can also be made * • • from cloth or grass. ^ * •••••••• • •' How paper is made After the trees have been harvested, they arc taken to a paper factory. The bark and the пюts are burned and used to paniuce energy. The rest of the tree is washed and then chopped into small chips for pulping. Pulping is the chemical process that separates the wood fibres from lignin* and other wkkI parts. .'\ftcr pulping, paper is a light brown colour. Recycled paper Recycled paper is made from waste paper mi.xed with fresh w(^udy skills Understanding similes/metaphors Imagery is the use of language that appeals to the senses. When writing, include words that help the reader see, hear, smell, taste and feel what you are describing. This can be achieved by using similes (using as or like to compare two things, e.g. The deer ran like the wind) and metaphors (comparing two similar things to make us see the similarity between them, e.g. She is a mouse = quiet). These techniques help us to visualise and understand better what a writer is describing. 6 Find simiies/metaphors used in the text to describe movement and speed. Compare with another pair. ... she seemed to shoot across the room like a rocket (E). r Find examples of words which help the reader see, hear, smell, taste or feel what the author is describing. 8 9 Read the extract, then put the events in the order they happened. Check with a partner. Use your plotline to give your partner a summary of the extract. Portfolio: Imagine that you have just been on a journey in a time machine. Write a short description of your journey (100-120 words). 147 Writing Skills 1 Opinion essays Match each of the statements (A-C) with a reason (1-3). Which do you: ogree with? disagree with? What other reasons can you think of? Can you think of any opposing viewpoints? BAN MOBILE PHONES IN SCHOOLS! PUT MORE COMPUTERS IN SCHOOLS! TECHNOLOGY DESTROYS JOBS! 2 1 Technology is a part of modern life and children need to be familiar with it from an early age. 2 Fewer and fewer people are needed as more and more tasks are carried out by machines. 3 They cause disturbances in class. a Read the theory box. An opinion essay presents our personal opinion on a particular topic. An opinion essay should contain: a) an introduction, in which we introduce the subject and state our opinion clearly. b) a main body, consisting of two or more paragraphs (each presenting a separate viewpoint supported by reasons/examples) and including a paragraph giving the opposing viewpoint. c) a conclusion in which we state our opinion using different words. • Opinion essays also have a title and are normally written in a formal style. They can be found in the form of newspaper/magazine articles, school assignments etc. 148 Read the rubric. • What type of text would you write? • Who would read it? • What style would you write it in? • Which tenses would you use? • What points might you make? Read the essay and check. Your school newspaper is asking readers to write an article giving their opinion on the following statement: Students should not be allowed to bring their mobile phones to school. Mobile Phones in Schools !► For several years now, schools have debated whether or not pupils should be allowed to bring their mobile phones to school. While there are some advantages to having mobiles at school, I personally believe that it is better for students to leave them at home. ^ First of all, they can be a serious distraction in classrooms. It is impossible for teachers and students to focus on classwork if there are constant interruptions from mobile phones ringing. Moreover, students cannot listen to the teacher and concentrate fully on their work if they are sending text messages or playing games. ^ Secondly, there are possible risks to the safety and general welfare of students if they are allowed to bring their mobiles to school. There have been quite a few cases, for instance, of students being attacked and robbed of their phones on their way to and from school. In addition, the classroom should not be used as a place to show off possessions. ^ On the other hand, however, there are times when it can be useful for students to have mobiles at school. For example, some parents prefer their children to have their phones with them so that they can contact each other during the day in case of an emergency. ^ All in all, although allowing mobiles in schools can be beneficial to a certain extent, it seems to me that they are an unnecessary distraction, especially in class. 3 5 Э AAatch the paragraphs (1-5) in the text on p. 148 to the correct description (A-E) below. A Restate the writer’s opinion В Introduce the topic & opinion C First viewpoint & reasons, examples D Opposing viewpoint(s) E Second viewpoint & reasons, examples b What is the writer’s opinion? Which paragraph(s) show(s) this? Find the topic sentences in paragraphs 2-4 of the essay on p. 148. What supporting reasons/ examples does the writer give? Linkers a Put the linking words below in the correct place in the table. firstly, in addition, also, to sum up, althoush, as a result, to besin with, in contrast, for instance, all things considered, such as, apart from, in particular, for example, because, for one thing, lastly, secondly, while, what is more, all in all, since, therefore, however To list points: To add more points: To introduce opposing viewpoints: To introduce examples/ reasons: To conclude: firstly , m All things considered, it seems to me that we ыасе too moch emphasis on technfogica achievement in our educational it be awful if more traditional lessons were totally removed from the curriculum? Ш You get on the bus just wanting to enjoy a relaxing journey before your busy day, but all you can hear around you are silly ringtones and loud conversations on mobile phones. Does this sound familiar? To my mind, the best solution to this would be to totally ban the use of mobile phones on public transport. m TO sura up, while 1 agree tluu technology is Sing Z our lives ro a cerrain wuenr. m my tawrag uvu replaced by „pi,*,n "!V''Vrt Hublnrrd once mnebures ~ of fifty :,:^т:ГтетГп»^fean do .he woHr of one extraordinary man. гл Orwell once said "Me. ^^good as their technical Ha ^i them to be.” it seems m i, allows -9итепг,ь:;ГдГиГ:,Х':~ now essenrial for success In rhe «rid worf " gfudy skills л' Deciding on your opinion Before you write an opinion essay, decide how you feel about the issue. Do you strongly/partly agree/ disagree? Do you accept both sides of the argument? This will affect the way you structure your essay. 6 b Which linking words/phrases the writer has used in the essay on p. 148? Suggest alternatives. Beginnings & endings Read extracts 1-4 at the top of p. 149. Which are beginnings and which are endings? Which of the techniques (A-C) below have been used in each? A Addressing the reader directly В Asking a rhetorical question C Using direct speech/a quotation 7 What is the writer’s opinion in each extract (1-4) in Ex. 6? What phrases do they use to express their opinion? Suggest alternatives from the box below. Expressing opinions My opinion is that... • I (strongly) believe I (completely) agree/disagree that... I agree/disagree to a certain extent that... In my opinion/view,... • The way I see it,... It seems to me that... • To my mind,... I (do not) agree that... As far as I am concerned,... I am totally against... 149 Writing Skills 8 Read the statement Computers have greatly improved our quality of life. Decide on your opinion and write a suitable beginning and ending for an essay based on it. Try to include one or more of the techniques from Ex. 6. Ask a partner to check your work. a Read the rubric, then match the viewpoints (A-C) to the reasons/examples (1-6). Which of the viewpoints agree/disagree with the statement in the rubric? You have had a class discussion on the following; There should be more ICT* and fewer Art and Music lessons in schools. Now write an essay expressing your opinion and giving reasons for your point of view. * ICT = Information and Communications Technology 9 Viewpoints/Topic sentences A ICT is more useful in life than Art and Music. В ICT skills are essential for students’ future careers. C There is more to life than technology. Reasons/Examples 1 Subjects such as Art and Music help to develop balanced individuals. 2 Technology will continue to advance and we will become increasingly dependent on computers. 3 Art and Music have little or no practical use. 4 ICT skills are one of the basic requirements for employment in any company these days. 5 A knowledge of ICT is essential for many everyday tasks such as using the Internet to compare prices of products or shop online. 6 Art and Music encourage creativity and imagination. 150 b Choose a topic sentence (A-C) and write a paragraph. Exchange with a partner and compare. 10 Discuss & write Read the rubrics below and find the key words. What information do they give you about: • the situation you will write about • the imaginary reader • the style of writing • the specific topics Your school has been using laptops for classwork for the past year. Another school is thinking of introducing computers to its classrooms too. Write an article for their school newspaper, giving your opinion and reasons/examples (120-180 words). A local newspaper has asked for opinions on the following statement: We no longer need libraries - we can just download books from the Internet. Write an essay for the newspaper, stating your opinion and giving reasons and examples (120-180 words). b Choose one of the topics and follow the steps to write your essay. Step 1: Think of ideas. Step 2: Organise your ideas in a chart, i.e. viewpoint 1 - examples/reasons, etc. Step 3: Think of a title and topic sentences. Step 4: Write your essay. 1 а Read the advert below. What new invention is it advertising? What does it claim that it can do? b Can you guess when it was invented? By whom? Look at the timeline on the right and check. 2 3 -■antti ^ атмп ^6 !> • 0 \.. The Baird Company presents to the public the very latest nuiTvel - Television - the science of seeing through wire and wireless. It is amizing that a person sitting before the Baird transmitter can be seen thousands of miles away. Not a photograph, but an actiml moving inmge of the subject can be .seen and heard in any home Jilted with the Baird ‘Televisor receixnngapparatus.’ йф Cr' Read the timeline and complete the gaps (1-12) with the correct form of the words in brackets. Listen and check. Explain the words/phrases in bold. Then use the timeline to present these British inventors to the class. Portfolio: Find information about an inventor from your country. Write a short text. Write: • name of person • what he/she was • what he/she invented and when (40-60 words). ULTURE # CORNER 0 RTTISH INVENTIONS QMEh /йс/ше/ ^а/чн/atj is the 1)....(invent) of the electric motor. Without this, we would not have the 2).......(technology) appliances we take for granted today. Faraday's face used to be on the British £20 note from 1991 to 2001. СШМ Уеог^е r 3) ...... (design) a steam train locomotive called the 'Rocket'. It was a great success and encouraged the 4) ......(grow) of railways, which played a very important part in the 5) ......(Industry) Revolution in the late 18’*’ and early 19‘^ centuries. Many the items we use today were invented during that time. G/ia/^eei Шаб/Hicje (Шу is considered by most to be the 'Father of Computing'. By 1834, he had invented the 'analytical engine' which established the 6) ............ (base) principles of computing. Although he never completed any of his 7).......... (computer) machines, his detailed 8)......(draw) were used to build a model of his Difference Engine No. 2 at the London Science Museum. It was completed in 1991, and it performed mathematical 9).........(calculate) very accurately. ошн ^ f/^uf/ч/ worked hard to transmit the first real television images, a dream of many 10)...... (science) for decades before. His first TV set' could be made from everyday objects such as a biscuit tin, cardboard and string! Later, others 11)....(take) Baird's ideas and 12). (slow) developed TV as we know it today. 151 Science ACROSS THE CURRICULUM d И We make things hotter by adding energy to them. This energy can come from electricity, friction, light or chemical and nuclear reactions. When two objects come into contact, they exchange energy until they are as hot as each other. Heat is the flow of energy between objects. It’s easy to imagine that hot objects contain heat, but we can only understand how hot something is by how it affects other things. You know a fire is hot because it warms your cold house, and you realise your soup is hot when it burns your tongue. Generally speaking, temperature is a measurement that we use to describe the sensation of feeling warm or cold from an object. The molecules inside most things are constantly moving and when something gets hotter, the molecules move faster. So, the temperature of an object depends on the average energy of the movement of the molecules within it. We experience temperature every day. When it is hot outside we feel hot, when it is cold outside we feel cold. Temperature does not depend on the size or type of the object. It is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance. СЗаШ' tT^Ynperature Heat is a form of energy that flows from something that's hot to something that's cold, whereas temperature is a measurement of how hot or cold something is. Heat is measured in joules, while temperature is usually measured in degrees (Celsius or Fahrenheit). 1 2 ©i) *4 J What is the difference between heat and temperature? Discuss. Listen and read text A and check your answers. d Think of two questions you can ask about thermometers. Listen and see if you can answer your questions. b Read text В and decide if sentences a-d are T (true) or F (false). Compare with your partner. Explain the words in bold. a Thermometers measure heat, b The liquid becomes bigger when it is cooled, c The Celsius scale was invented before the Fahrenheit scale. d Boiling point on the Fahrenheit scale is 212 degrees. 3 ■ff Anders Celsius Thermometers measure temperature by using materials that change in some way when they arc heated or cooled. In a mercury or alcohol thermometer, the liquid expands as it is heated and contracts when it is cooled, so the length of the liquid column increa.ses or decreases depending on the temperature. Temperature is measured in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. In the early years of the 18'^ century, Gabriel Fahrenheit created the Fahrenheit scale. He set the freezing point of water at 32* F and the boiling point at 212° F. Later, in 1743, Anders Celsius invented the Celsius scale, determining the freezing temperature for water to be 0°C and the boiling temperature to be 10l)°C. This scale is used throughout science and in mo.st countries. Make factual statements using the two scales. Г “F »C Water boils 212 100 Room temperature 72 23 Water freezes 32 0 ^ .Absolute zero ^ -459 -273 1 ► Water boils at 100”C or 212"F. Ask and answer questions based on 5 152 the texts. Project: Work in groups. Collect information about different types of thermometers, then write a short paragraph for each. Present your project to the class. 1 2 Look at the pie chart. Which energy sources does the world use the most to produce electricity? a Look at the pictures, title and subtitles in the text. Think of two questions you would like to ask about alternative energy. Read the text and see if you can answer them. What else did you learn from the text? b Read again and complete the gaps (1-10) with the correct word formed from the words in brackets. Listen and check, then explain the words in bold. 64% of the electricity we need comes from 1)...........(burn) fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal. These resources pollute and are not 2)........(renew), so once we have burned 3)...............(they) all up, there will be no more. This means that the world MUST find and use alternative sources of energy ... FAST! This alternative energy needs to use no fuel and aeate no waste or 4)...........(pollute). Sun (solar power): Enough of the sun's energy 5).........(hit) the Earth every minute to power the world for a whole year! In sunny countries, solar cells can be put on rooftops to convert sunlight 6) ......(direct) into electricity. We could even build solar power stations like Solar One in California. This uses the sun's heat to make steam, which then drives a ........(generate) to produce electricity. Wind (wind power): We can use the power of the wind by 8) (build) wind turbines. These are tall towers with a big propeller on top. The wind blows the propeller, which turns a generator in order to create electricity. If we build a number of wind turbines together in a 9).......(wind) place, _ we can make a 'wind farm' and 1 produce quite a lot of electricity! Water (hydroelectric power): A dam can be used to trap a large area of water, like a reservoir or a lake. This water then flows through tunnels in the dam, turns turbines and drives generators to create electricity. Hydroelectric power stations can produce a lot of power very 10).....(cheap). 3 4 Make notes on the text, then use them to give a two-minute talk about alternative energy. Project: Work in groups. Find out which sources of energy are used to make electricity in your country/area. Present your findings to the class. MODULE 8 [Мф Reading AAatch the texts (1-6) to a heading (A-G). There is one extra heading that you do not need to use. Did Martians Exist? Danny’s Diary One Man’s Mission 3 Big Business 3 It Couldn’t Be Easier After-School Fun Calling Planet Earth (!) To go to sleep and wake up listening to your favourite music just follow these simple steps. First, set the timer on your MP3 player to the number of minutes you want the music to play for and it will automatically turn off after that. To wake up to music, simply set the alarm clock in the usual way and select the music option as well. Need a па» mobile phone but ° ^ ® environment? Well now you can! B.omob and So have just the phone for you with its b'odegradable cover. If you damage the casing of your rnobile. the simply plant it in the garden and within a few weeks you will have a beautiful sunflower instead of a damaged case. So. instead of adding to environmental pollution, why not buy the latest biomobile. Order now on; 0845 8754509 -------- ■ — ' - ^0' What a day - definitely not a good one! Mobile phone battery died and so missed important call from Ben Dropped iPod* walking upstairs after morning break at school, then realised I'd left my locker key at home so couldn t get books out of it! Just when I thought nothing else could go wrong, Mr Burton gave up heaps of science homework to do! Hope tomorrow's a better day! Calling all computer whizz kids! Fancy making your own web page, surfing the Net or perhaps just playing games? The school Computer Club meets every Monday from 4 to 6pm. Anyone welcome. Join us this Monday! For more information, please contact: Mr Welsh, Head of IT Department. Martin Cooper was born in Liverpool in 1958. He wanted people to be able to carry their phones with them anywhere. In 1973, he developed the first working mobile phone, the Motorola Dyna-Tac. On 3rd April, he made the first mobile phone call to a rival of his whilst walking in the streets of New York. In 1992, he set up a company to make mobile phones which would be as reliable and cheap as traditional phones. I® r Scientisis are testing out a robot that they hope «tana on Mars. They are using the rocky slopes the El Teide volcano on the holiday island ot enenfe m the Canary islands to test the slx-wteeled robot because the conditions are a bit Ike those on the Red Planet. The scientists hope to use the vehicle in the Mure to Bnd out it there is or ever was, life on Mars. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Listening Listen and choose A, В or C. 1 The boy wants to keep photos on his iPod®. A True В False C Not Stated 2 The shop sells three different kinds of iPod®. A True В False C Not Stated 3 The boy has a big music collection. A True В False C Not Stated 4 The boy thinks the iPod® mini is expensive. A True В False C Not Stated 5 The iPod® mini comes in only pink or blue. A True В False C Not Stated 6 The shop will call the boy when his iPod® arrives. A True В False C Not Stated 154 ф Use of English ?лф Writing Complete the gaps (1-7) with the correct word formed from the words In bold. Leonardo da Vinci By now you have 1)....... read PROBABLE The Do Vine/ Code or seen the film. But who 2).......was Leonardo EXACT da Vinci? Well, he was born in 1452 in Italy. He is most 3)... for FAME his 4)......... the Mono Lisa. Da PAINT Vinci was also an 5)...... who INVENT designed a helicopter, a submarine and a parachute centuries before they were made. Leonardo thought that by understanding how each part of a machine worked, he could change them and then put them together in 6)...... ways. In DIFFER this way he could improve 7).......machines or create new EXIST ones. He drew his ideas so well that 500 years later his sketches have been used to make perfect working models. Comment on the following statement: Computers in schools can make life easier for both teachers and students. Some feel, however, that they can be a distraction too. What can you say for and against using computers in the classroom? Write 200-250 words using the plan. Para 1 Introduction (state the problem) Para 2 Arguments ‘for’ with examples/reasons Para 3 Arguments ‘against’ with examples/reasons Para 4 Conclusion Ф Speaking You are discussing with your flatmate where to put the new widescreen TV you have bought together. Discuss with him/her where you would like to put it and decide on one place you both agree on. Choose from the following: • the living room • the kitchen • the spare room • the basement You begin the conversation and have to decide on which place (only one) to choose. Your partner will play the part of your flatmate. Remember to: • discuss all the options • take an active part in the conversation and be polite • come up with ideas • give good reasons • find out your friend's attitudes and take them into account • invite your friend to come up with suggestions • come to an agreement Word Perfect 8 155 Progress Check I Fill in: invented, disital, stores, hooked, social, cracked, charge, portable, guarantee, renewable. 1 He’s really.........on computer games. 2 John bought a new..........DVD player. 3 He.........all his documents on his laptop. 4 My PDA helps me organise my.........life. 5 The lens on my camera is.......... 6 The product is no longer under........ I’m afraid 7 This comes free of......... 8 Faraday.........the electric motor. 9 I want to buy a........camera. 10 Some resources are not Points: 10X2 20 3 2 Fill in: power, techno, solar, store, social, take. Industrial, picture, electric, alternative. 1 .......information 2 .......life 3 .........message 4 .......for granted 5 .........power 6 .......freak 7 Revolution 8 .......circuit 9 .......energy 10 .......station ( Points: __ \10X2 20 Report what these people said. 1 ‘The plane leaves at 4 pm.’ (she) 2 ‘Hand in your essays on Friday.’ (the teacher) 3 ‘Someone broke in last night and stole our stereo.’ (they) 4 ‘Don’t waste your money on useless gadgets.’ (my parents) 5 ‘V/e can’t understand where the money has gone.’ (the students) 6 ‘Wait until the summer before you decide.’ (they) / Points: __\ ^6X3 18 ) ^ Form verbs from the words in brackets. 1 They are going to........security, (tight) 2 The firm wants to ......... its customer base. (vdde) 3 It’s wise to.......the filing systems. It makes life easier, (computer) 4 The new computer system v/ill..........staff to access accounts quickly, (able) 6 156 5 Technicians want to ........... the safety of all documents, (sure) / Points: __ \5X2 10 ^ a Fill in: about, on, up, back. 1 Technological advances have brought ........... many changes. 2 Too much sun brought..........my headache. 3 She brought...........the books she had borrowed. 4 They were brought...........in the countryside. 5 The photographs brought............memories of our childhood. / Points: __ 1^5X2 10 b Fill in: on, under, out of, at, in. 1 I wasn’t sure.........first, but now I love my new camera. 2 I bought a new TV............. pressure and now I’m not sure. 3 Our phone has been............order for a week. 4 John is always........the computer these days. 5 I couldn’t decide which one to buy so.......... the end, I didn’t get either. f Points: __ \5X2 10 Complete the exchanges. A: Could I exchange this lead for a different one? B: Of course. That’s......... 2 A: Could you check if you have this in stock? B: Yes............ 3 A: .........? B: The strap is broken. 4 A: Would it be possible to speak to the manager? B: Yes, just ......... I Can / Points: ___\ \4X3 12 / / My score: 100 • talk and write about high tech gadgets • write a diary entry • report technical problems and respond • make and respond to polite requests • write a description of a journey back in time • write an opinion essay • talk and write about inventions • talk about alternative energy in English 157 Word Perfect Module 1 ( People & Character ^ Э Fill in the adjective to complete the table. 1 Noun Adjective beauty beautiful aggression dream self fun passion Verb Adjective care caring act create trust annoy fear b Use the words from the table to complete the sentences 1-12. 1 I enjoy making things because I’m a(n) ............person. 2 Stop being so ........ and try to think of others for a change. 3 My best friend is a very...and kind person. 4 John is always angry. I wish he wasn’t so 5 The dog next door barks all the time. It’s so 7 8 9 10 11 12 He is very ........... about football. He watches every game he can. The bride looked........in her wedding gown. The little boy was.........of monsters. She had a..........faraway look on her face. He paid the man before the job was done. He is very.......... Jack is always telling jokes. He’s so........ He is very...........He rides his bike, runs and plays sports. 2 158 Fill in: chat, grab a bite, watch, hangins out, surf, do, catch, send, run, check out, go. 1 A: What are you doing this weekend? B: I’m.........with my friends at the mall. 2 A: How do you spend your free time? B: I like to.......online. 3 A: I have to call my mum and ask her if I can go. B: Why don’t you.........her a text message? 4 A: What should we do tonight? B: I’d like to.......a DVD. 3 5 A: These shoes look nice in this magazine. B: Yes, but you should ............. window shopping and see them yourself. 6 A: How will you find the information you need? B: I can.........the Internet and find it. 7 A: Do you do any voluntary work? B: Yes. We.........errands for elderly people. 8 A: How do you spend your weekends? B: I ........a lot of voluntary work at the hospital. 9 A: Do you have plans for Friday night? B: I am going to..........the new Bond film at the Odeon. 10 A: I need a new winter coat. B: You should..........the shops in town. 11 A: I am hungry. B: Shall we.........to eat? Fill in: loyal, patient, moody, dishonest, jealous. 1 John cannot be trusted. He is very.......... 2 He goes to all of his teams’ matches. He is a .............fan. 3 Sara is a good teacher. She is very.......... and kind. 4 She never says anything nice to her. I think she is.........of her. 5 One minute she is happy and the next she is sad. She is quite.......... Fill in the verbs fit, suit, try, match, go with in the correct form. A: Look at that lovely skirt. B; The grey one? A: Yes. I think I’ll 1).........it on. B: It’s a 10. I’m sure it will 2).............. you perfectly. A: You're right. It’s perfect. B: Why don’t you take the jacket that 3).........it. A: I think I will actually. B: Yeah, you should. It will 4)..........your grey blouse. A: Yes, I think grey 5)...........me, doesn’t it? WordPerfect Module 2 ( Shopping 1 Match the shops to the products. Can you add to the list? I. Lii_ ] florist’s a a packet of LiL J nev«agent’s envelopes Lli_ ] baker’s b an 18^^ century mirror |4| 1 antiques shop c a digital camera |5| 1 stationer’s d an evening dress IaL ] delicatessen e a loaf of bread И1 J greengrocer’s f minced meat |8l J boutique g a magazine ”1 h cheese/pate hi 1 electronics shop i a bunch of roses iioL 1 butcher’s j grapes 2 Fill in: lend, spent, earned, save, waste, cost. 1 Can you tell me how much these two books will........me? 2 I am happy I’ve.........enough money to go on a nice holiday this year. 3 We would have to .......... a long time to afford that car. 4 Could you ......... me some money to pay for this now? I promise to pay you back! 5 He.........most of his money last weekend at the fair. 6 There is nothing I want to buy and I don’t want to..........my money. 3 Fill in: cash, credit, afford, pay, cost, waste, borrow, student. 1 A: Come out with us tonight, will you? B: Sorry, I cannot........to go out tonight. 2 A: Do you like my new watch? B: Wow! It must have.........you a fortune. 3 A: Good morning. I would like to........this cheque, please. B: Yes, of course. Sign it on the back, please. 4 A: Why have you not bought a new car yet? B: I would have to........the money and I don’t want to do that. 5 A: How would you like to pay for this? B: I will use my........card, please. 6 A: How many bills do you pay every month? B: I pay for my rent and my.......loan. 7 A: Let me...........for dinner. B: Thank you. 8 A: I would like to buy two mirrors. B: One is enough. Don’t .......... money on something we don’t need. Fill in the gaps with the phrases below. • make ends meet • digging deeper into their pockets • catching up quickly • can’t afford to splash out • pocket money • shopping spree • handing out • household chores 1 My parents give me..........every week. 2 The number of girls playing video games is ............to the number of boys playing. 3 Many teenagers are ............. to pay for all the things they want. 4 AAany parents are .......... more and more money to their teenagers each month. 5 Some people are working two jobs to ............these days. 6 I think children should do .......... to help their parents and earn a little extra money. 7 He went out on a..........and got everything he wanted for himself. 8 My parents..........yet spend a lot of money on extra things for my sister and me. 159 Word Pettect Module 3 ( Education & Careers у Fill in the gaps with the correct word: motivated, private, activities, trainins, uniform, attend, rules, sit, strict, public. 1 Students must wear a school........every day. 2 It is important for everyone to follow the..... 3 This school is known for its discipline and.....teachers. 4 Students are very.......to do well at this school. 5 Do you use a bicycle or the.......transport system? 6 He has to......extra classes at the weekend. 7 She goes to a very expensive........school abroad. 8 When do you.........your exams? 9 The students are encouraged to participate in extracurricular ............ 10 Every morning we begin with physical.............at acrobatic school. 2 Fill in: experience, resisn, freelance, applied, responsibility, shifts. 1 A: Have you found a new job yet? B: No, but I have........to several companies. 2 A: I have a new part-time job at the car factory. B: How many...........a week will you work? 3 A: He does not like working for that company at all. B: You should tell him to.........and find a new job. 4 A: Have you ever thought about working from home? B: Yes, I was thinking about being a........artist. 5 A: Have you worked in the medical profession before? B: Oh yes, I have years of.......... 6 A: Are you interested in managing a business? B: I don't know if I am ready for that much.......... 3 d Match the words to form phrases. 160 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 bank flight communication managing naval emergency previous 8 start a b c d e f 8 h В services director date clerk skills attendant officer employer b Use the phrases in Ex. 3a to complete the sentences below. 1 She just got a job as a paramedic with the.......... 2 Sarah has been promoted to ............of the company. 3 He wants to be a ............. because he enjoys travelling. 4 What is the .......... of your new job? 5 I had to talk to the ......... about my savings account. 6 I have excellent ......... and can speak three languages. 7 My brother is a ....... in the Merchant Navy. 8 She had a reference from her 4 Complete the text with: skills. participate, pro/ession, companies, apply, training, interview, attended, responsibility, j experience. I Finishing school is a very busy, exciting time for people. Everyone wants to find a good Job and begin working in their chosen 1)..........The first step is to find a suitable vacancy and 2)..........for the position. If you are called for an 3).......... you will be asked what 4)............you have and where you 5)............ school. They may ask If you have any previous 6)..........In that type of work. Many large businesses and 7).......... will require their new employees to 3).......... in a special 9).......... course before they are given the 10)..........of working on their own. Word.Perfect Module 4 ( Environment у 1 Э Match the words to form phrases. 1 energy a peeiings 2 power b transportation 3 global C station 4 excessive d habitats 5 vegetable e heap 6 compost f consumption 7 conservation g effects 8 negative h warming 9 modern 1 packaging 10 wildlife i programme 8 9 10 Use the phrases in Ex. la to complete the sentences below. The invention of........has created a lot of traffic congestion. Temperatures are rising all over the planet because of.......... My local zoo runs a........for most of their endangered species. Whenever I cook I always put the .......... into a separate bin just for organic waste. Tell me about the ......... poisonous gases have on the environment. There is more than one nuclear........near where I live. We should all try to protect the........ in the areas we live. Do you know you can put eggshells on the ........? What is the........level of this oven? There is always .......... when you buy electronic items. 2 Fill in: repair, packed, decompose, adoption, compost, rubbish. 1 There are many animals up for ........... at the city zoo. 2 We need to .......... the engine so the car runs properly. 3 Have you.........your lunch for school today? 4 Do not put things in the........bin that can be recycled. 5 You can put things that .............., like vegetable peelings, onto the........heap. 3 5 Fill in the words come, dump, pass, raise, sponsor, take in the correct form. 1 The government.................a law against hunting. 2 Our school................£1570 for charity. 3 You can be fined for...............rubbish. 4 We need to.................action. 5 When you.................an animal you help the zoo care for it. 6 The new hunting laws will ................... into effect in January. Fill in: come up with, throw away, switch off, turn down, put on, cut down on. 1 Make sure you........... all the lights before you leave. 2 You should .......... a jumper rather than turn the heating on. 3 Don’t..........those glass bottles. They can be recycled. 4 We must try to ............. the amount of electricity we use. 5 I like to........the heating at night. It helps me to sleep better. 6 We must...........a way to use less paper. Use the words in their correct form to complete the gaps. • replace • congestion • campaign • encourage • energy • ban • switch • emissions For many years the traffic in our town has been getting busier and busier. It has become a huge environmental problem because of all the carbon 1)........... produced by the vehicles. One group of environmentalists have started a 2).........to do something about rt. They want to 3)........... certain vehicles from the roads during times of high 4)........ and 5).......... people to use public transport. They want people to understand that by 6).......from a form of transport that uses a lot of 7)........and 8)........it with one that uses less, they will be doing their part to help save the planet. r Word Perfect Module 5 Holidays 1 Circle the odd word. У 1 1 ancient, exotic, medieval, well-preserved ruins 2 five-star, luxury, package, prestigious hotel 3 sandy, shaded, deserted, crowded beaches 4 rocky, packed, snow-capped, high mountains 5 traditional, local, healthy, nasty cuisine 6 homely, modern, dirty, crowded streets 7 open-air, indoor, hotel, exotic swimming pool 8 trendy, expensive, hired, souvenir shops Э Match the words to form phrases. 1 delayed a scenery 2 cracked b festival 3 trekking c mirror 4 hired d procession 5 spectacular e flight 6 local f (a) guide 7 candlelit g town 8 travel h excursion 9 annual i dishes 10 ancient j brochure b Use the phrases from Ex. 2a to complete the sentences below. 1 Would you get a........... that explains the details of the holiday? 2 My friend and I ......... and went hiking in the Swiss Alps last summer. 3 The town celebrates spring with an........... 4 I noticed you have a........in your bathroom. 5 You have to taste some of the..........when you travel to different places. 6 The passengers had to wait in the lounge for hours because of a........... 7 We went for a walk in a beautiful area and saw some............ 8 While we were in Egypt we visited the ruins of an........... 9 Our holiday package offered a daily.......... if you wanted to participate. 10 We watched a beautiful...........that started at the church and went down to the waterfront. 3 d Fill in: agent, repellent, viruses, fUsht, peaks, chilly, sickness, handicraft. 1 ........weather 5 .......delays 2 insect........ 6 .......tools 3 travel........ 7 snowy........... 4 nasty......... 8 travel........ b Use the phrases from Ex. 3a to complete the sentences. 1 You could see the...........of the Swiss Alps from our hotel window. 2 People should have a flu jab to protect themselves from ........... when they are travelling in winter. 3 People were experiencing a number of due to the bad weather. 4 I need some..........to protect myself from these mosquitoes. 5 We had..........for a couple of days but the rest of the time it was sunny. 6 She doesn’t enjoy flying because she suffers from........... 7 You should ask your......... to give you an itinerary of your holiday. 8 He is a cabinetmaker, so he has a very expensive set of........... 3 Fill in: rent or hire. 1 6 a villa 2 7 3 interpreter 4 8 a tuxedo 5 b Fill in: miss or lose. 1 5 a game 2 6 a dinner 3 a bus 7 an 4 some money opportunity 162 Word.Perfect Module 6 1 ( Food____________________________^ Fill in the gaps with the following words: infections, eyesight, physically, handful, optimistic, soothing, complain, emotions. 1 I am ........... that my first ^ attempt at baking a cake will be successful. 2 The man did nothing but ......... all night about the slow service and the bad food. 3 You must get enough vitamins so your body can fight off......... 4 She took a nice .......... bath after a long day at work. 5 A balanced diet and regular exercise will keep you.......... fit. 6 Try not to let your.........get in the way of making the right decision. J 7 He took a .......... of peanuts T 3 I want to buy a local..........and try cooking some of the dishes. 4 This juice tastes odd because of all the..........it has. 5 Ann has cut out junk food and............. 6 I’m having......with boiled potatoes for dinner. 7 Try to lose weight slowly, don’t go on a....... 8 She likes to eat..........as part of her healthy lifestyle. d Circle the odd one out. 1 black, raw, instant, filtered coffee 2 healthy, strict, special, fresh diet 3 spicy, traditional, artificial, vegetarian dish 4 grilled, raw, bitter, oily fish 5 boiled, scrambled, fried, instant eggs 6 fake, cold, sparkling, still water b Cross the odd one out. 1 a bag of shopping, potatoes, water, apples 2 a box of chocolates, cakes, flour, cereal 3 a bottle of water, wine, soup, milk 4 a tin of sardines, peas, sugar, biscuits 5 a packet of crisps, apples, peanuts, sweets _ Which of the foods in the pictures are fish? seafood? oysters and ate them on his way out. ^^^oysters 8 Carrots are good for your A ........ because they contain mussels У Л Vitamin A. 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d Match the words to form phrases. recipe grilled a exercise reguter b additives ” c book C Fill in: well-balanced 1 A: crash e dfinks B: grated f fish A: artificial g rneals L sugary ^ cheese B: 3 A: b Use the phrases in Ex. 2a to B: complete the sentences below. 4 A: 1 Taking can keep you in B: good shape. 5 A: 2 Would you like some on B: your pasta? sardines Do you know eating vegetables makes you healthier? 163 Word Perfect Module 7 ( Films/media/performances у 1 Complete the boxes with: ballet, cinema, concert, dance, opera, painting, sculpture, theatre, storytelling, printmaking, poetry reading. ^Fine arts ^Performance arts 2 3 Fill the gaps to complete the exchanges: couch potato - / have to admit - it’s such a good laugh • can’t beat -1 can take it or leave it - antisocial 1 A: Did you enjoy the new film last night? B: Well,.........it was rather good. 2 A: I got this computer game for ten pounds. B: You just.........a good price like that. 3 A: Shall I tell the children that joke again? B: Oh yes........... 4 A: What is wrong with her? Why is she sitting by herself? B: Oh never mind, she is just being.......... 5 A: Have you noticed how much weight he has gained? B: Well of course, he doesn’t do any exercise. He is a............. 6 A; Do you like to go ice-skating in the wintertime? B: Not really.......... a Fill in: ballet, audience, predictable, fully, spectacular, catchy, release, blaring. 1 2 3 4 booked cheering scenery new 5 .......dancer 6 .......music 7 .......tune 8 .......storyline b Use each phrase from Ex. 3a to complete the sentences. 1 To be a........you must train for many years. , ' P' 2 I would have a terrible headache if I had to listen to that ............all day long. 3 Tom enjoyed the film, even though it had a very........ 4 I was glad we bought our tickets in advance because the play was soon........... 5 The theme song to the film was quite a.......... 6 Do you know where I can buy U2’s ........7 7 The singer came out onto the stage to play for the.......... 8 The theatre built the most.........for their latest production. Fill in: suspense, practical, unoriginal, frequent, repetitive, unwind. 1 2 Susan is a........cinema-goer. He wanted to be...........and do something useful with his day off. She took a bath to help her..........after a long day at work. The story was..........and similar to others he had read, so he decided to find a new one. Tom loves reading mysteries that are full of 5 164 6 I don’t like songs with a.........beat. Circle the odd one out. 1 evil, catchy, likeable, believable character 2 clever, thrilling, terrifying, blaring plot 3 gripping, dull, awful, pointless performance 4 original, realistic, repetitive, catchy tune 5 moving, glamorous, stunning, simple costumes 6 amazing, tragic, exciting, dull effects 7 talented, brilliant, confusing, dreadful actor Word.Perfect Module 8 ( Technology 1 d Fill in the gaps with the correct word. • recorder • software • social • techno • charged • guarantee • power • digital freak certificate computer 4 solar......... 5 fully......... 6 voice......... 7 ........pictures 8 ........life b Use the phrases from Ex. la to complete the sentences below. 1 AAake sure the battery in your camera is 2 He has a lot of friends and a very active 2 3 You can leave a message on my........and I will call you back. 4 I think the quality of.....and photography is improving all the time. 5 Take the.........out of the box and put it somewhere safe in case we need it. 6 There are a number of ........... packages that you can use to edit your home movies. 7 We have cut down on our heating bills by switching to......... 8 He is such a .........! He has every new gadget that is available. Use the phrases to complete the sentences. • hooked on • on the move • to the extent • apart from • it goes without saying 1 I am quite happy with our new house....... it not having a garden. 2 He is such a busy child. He is constantly ............doing something. 3 She is a teenager so.......she can be a bit moody sometimes. 4 He is......... playing video games with his mates. 5 She cannot use the computer ......... that she would like. 3 Fill in the table. Which of these gadgets are you more likely to use at home or at work? • MP3 player • video mobile phone • TV • digital camera • dictaphone • PDA • radio cassette player • camcorder • laptop • Walkman® Home \Worlt Complete the exchanges with the words below. • invented • digital • charge • portable • renewable • solar • player • alternative 1 I think it is time to.....the battery in my mobile phone. 2 We have three..........cells on the roof to help heat our home. 3 Our city is trying to use as many ......... energy sources as possible. 4 Do you know who..........mobile phones? 5 Let’s watch a film in the garden. I'll bring my ............DVD player. 6 Can I borrow your MP3.......... please? 7 I would like to get a........clock with an alarm on it. 8 We have to do something to encourage the use of........resources. Fill in: discover, experiment, invent, research, in the correct form. 5 1 A: Who...........the Hawaiian Islands? B: It was Captain James Cook, wasn’t it? 2 A: What did you do after your PhD? B: I did some.........on artificial intelligence. 3 A: You shouldn’t..........with electricity. It is dangerous. B: Don’t worry. I know what I’m doing. 4 A: Did you know that fireworks were........... by accident. B: You must be kidding! 165 Grammar Check Module 1 ( Present tenses 1 Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, present continuous, present perfect or the present perfect continuous. 1 A: What............(you/do) at the moment? B: I...............(play) a computer game. 2 A: How long .......................(it/take) you to get to school? B: Ten minutes on the bus, but tomorrow my dad......................(give) me a lift. 3 A: Your mum ................(cook) very well. B: Yes. Actually, she....................... (make) a cake right now. 4 A: You look tired. What .................... (you/do)? B; I ...........(work) in the garden all day. 5 A: ................(you/want) to come over to my house to watch some DVDs? B: No. Sorry. I ...............(not/finish) my homework yet. 6 A: ..............................(you/come) shopping with me today? B: I’d love to, but I............(not/have) any money. 7 A: What time ................(train/ieave)? B: There ..........(be) one in five minutes. 8 A: I ..............(see) Tina this afternoon. B: Really? Can I come? I ................... (not/see) her for ages. 9 A: ..............................(you/play) computer games all afternoon? B: No. I ...............(tidy) my room and I (walk) the dog as well. 10 A: ........................(you/like) sports? B: Yes. We ..........................(play) football every Saturday. 11 A: What ..........................(you/do) and where is your sister? B: I ..............................(listen) to music and Ann ........(surf) the Net. 12 A: ....................(you/work) this week? B: No, it...............(be) my week off. 2 166 13 A: Let’s go to the park. It.................. (not/rain) now. B: Really? It....................(rain) since this morning. 14 A: I ............(think) about going to the cinema.......................(you/want) to come? B: I’d love to. What........................ (you/think) is a good film to see? 15 A: I’m hungry. I ................(not/eat) anything since lunchtime. B: Well, I...............(make) a sandwich. Shall I make you one too? 16 A: They..................(have) a party this Saturday. B: Really? They ................(not/tell) me anything. 17 A: How ......................(the film/end)? B: In the end, Superman .................... (save) the world. 18 A: The rate of unemployment................. (rise) these days. B: That’s true. It...............(get) harder and harder to find a job. 19 A; She ....................(always/complain) about everything. B: Yes it ...............(be) very annoying. 20 A: I ..............................(not/see) Sue for ages. How is she? B: She’s fine. She ...................(work) as a shop assistant now. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuous. 1 She’s angry. Her lunch is not ready yet. She .....................for her lunch, (wait) 2 There’s no ‘For Sale’ sign in front of the house. They.........................the house, (sell) 3 We’re leaving for Spain tomorrow. We ......................our tickets, (book) 4 He started work in the garden two hours ago. He ..............................trees in the garden for the last two hours, (plant) 5 She is still waiting for Steve. Steve .......................yet. (not/come) 6 Paul is unhappy. He didn’t do well in his test. Paul.........................his test, (fail) 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or present continuous. 1 A: She (see) her lawyer tonight. B: I .. (see). I hope he can help her. 2 A; They .... (think) of buying a new car. B: I 3 A; I B: Why . (you/not/have) tomorrow off? 4 A: Why (you/taste) the soup? B: It (taste) too salty, I think. 5 A: How much B: I don’t know. They (weigh) it at the moment. 6 A: Sally (look) for a bigger flat. B: It (look) as if her sister is coming to stay with her. 7 A: Why (he/be) so noisy today? B: I don’t know. He calm and well-behaved. 8 A: The singer B: Yes, I’ve heard about it. He (appear) to have a bad cold. 5 Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, present continuous, present perfect or present perfect continuous. Date To; 1 Sammy15@hotmail.co.uk From: | LisaLee@aol.com Subject:! news Hi! How are you? I 1)............... (not/hear) from you for a while. I 2)...........(guess) you 3)...............(study) for your exams for the last few weeks like me. I 4)...........(sit) most of them. I 5)..............(sit) the last one this Friday. I 6).......... (think) that I 7)........... (do) quite well. My friends and I 8).........(throw) a big party to celebrate this weekend. We 9)....................(already/hire) the village hall. 10)...........(you/make) any plans for Saturday night yet? If not, why don’t you come? It 11).............(start) at 8 pm and you can stay at my house. Paula and Eve 12).................... (stay) too so it'll be fun. Let me know. Write back soon. Love, Lisa Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words. 1 It’s been five years since we visited Spain. for We........................ .............five years. 2 I’ve never met such a nice person before. ever She is the nicest ....... .................met. 3 Have you made any plans for the weekend yet? doing What ................... .........this weekend? 4 This is the first time I have sent a text message. never I....................... .....message before. 5 I have got an appointment with my doctor today. seeing I...................... .................today. 6 Tom listens to music all the time, he’s really into it. likes Tom .................... .........all the time. 7 What are you doing on Saturday night? busy ......................... .....on Saturday night? 8 Jane is not at home. has Jane ..................... .................out. 9 Do you know what the new internet cafe in town is like? to Have ...................... .........internet cafe in town? 10 Carl started learning English six years ago. been Carl .................... .............six years. Grammar Check Module 2 C -ing form/(to) infinitive у 1 Put the words in brackets into the correct infinitive form or the -ing form, 1 A: Do you want me .................... (give) you a lift? B: No, thanks. I’d rather.................... (walk). 2 A: Would you like me ................. (cook) dinner tonight? B: OK, but how about.................(make) something light, like soup? 3 A: Do you fancy...............(watch) a DVD? B: Good idea. Let me ................ (make) some popcorn. 4 A: I don’t remember .................. (lock) the door. B: There’s no point ................ (worry) about it. I’ve locked it. 5 A: Don’t forget..............(call) the doctor to make an appointment. B; Oh yes. Thanks for...............(remind) me. 6 A: It’s no use ............... (try) to park there. The space is too small. B: You’re right. I’ll have............(drive) around the block again. 7 A: I was glad..............(hear) you passed your exams. B: Yes. I was the only one in my class .................(pass) all of them. 8 A: We’d better................(go) now. B; Can’t we...............(stay) a bit longer? 9 A: Please let me ................ (go) to the party. B: Sorry, you must ...............(study) for the exam. 10 A: Do you know how .................... (play) the piano? B: No, but I’d like...........(learn) one day. 2 Tick (/) the correct sentence, as in the example. 1 a Playing a sport is good for you. b Play a sport is good for you. ..... 2 a I’m looking forward to see him............. b I’m looking forward to seeing him.......... 3 3 a You should read more. b You should reading more. 4 a I’d like going shopping this afternoon. b I’d like to go shopping this afternoon. 5 a My teacher made me stay after school. b My teacher made me to stay after school. 6 a Would you mind to help me with my homework? b Would you mind helping me with my homework? 7 a I’d better to take a taxi home, b I’d better take a taxi home. 8 a How about to go to the theatre this Saturday? b How about going to the theatre this Saturday? 9 a Did she admit breaking the vase? b Did she admit to break the vase? 10 a It was nice of you to lend me the money. b It was nice of you lending me the money. Fill in with the correct infinitive form or the -ing form. 4^ LJ| : Pole ____________у , fVkrtf I I To: I doug58@hotmail.co.uk From: [ kathy66@aol.com Subject:] Party 168 Hi. How are you? Would you like 1) ............... (come) to my party next weekend? I’ve been meaning 2)...........(invite) you for weeks but I’ve been so busy 3) ............ (make) arrangements that it almost slipped my mind. Anyway, I’d love for you 4) ............ (come). Of course, you can 5) ..........(bring) a friend and don’t worry about 6) .......... (find) a place 7) ........... (stay) because you’re welcome 8).............(spend) the night at my house. Also, my dad could 9).......... (pick) you up at the station, if you like. Please reply as soon as you can 10)............(say) that you’ll come. Love, Kathy Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. 1 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 If you can’t fix it yourself, I suggest....... ......(call) a plumber. There’s no use .................. (try) to talk to him, he won’t listen. Tom is really looking forward to ............. ......(go) on holiday to Spain this summer. Jane spends a long time ...................... (talk) on the phone every day. Mark enjoys.............(listen) to pop music. I don’t know how................(drive) a car. I am happy................(hear) that you’ve settled into your new school. There’s no point in..............(complain). He won’t listen to you. Let’s...................(eat) out tonight. You should..............(pay) more attention in class. I can only................ (hope) everything turns out well. This year Jack plans................... (buy) a house. Tm tired of .................. (do) the same exercise. I suggest ................(ask) for help. I can’t stand................ (listen) to jazz music. 5 Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or -ing form. 1 A: I’ll never forget....................(visit) Moscow. It was fantastic. B; Yes, you were having such a good time that you forgot....................(send) me a postcard! 2 A: I hate .......................(ask), but would you do the cleaning? B: Sure, but remember, I hate ................ (wash) the dishes. 3 A; The car needs ....................(wash). B: I know. I wanted ....................(take) it to the car wash but I didn’t have time. 4 A: I’m sorry ....................(call) so late but I need a favour. B: That’s OK. I’m sorry for not............... (answer) the phone quicker. 5 A: Let’s not stay in. I’d prefer.............. (eat) out tonight, wouldn’t you? B: You know me, 1 always prefer............. (eat) out to cooking. 6 A: Did he go on ......................(talk) all afternoon at the meeting? B: No, he actually went on ................. (invite) us all out for dinner. 7 A: Anne is afraid ....................(tell) her parents about the trip. B: I know. I’m afraid of ................... (ask) them too. 8 A: I meant.............................(call) you last night but I got home quite late. B: That’s OK. I know your job often means ...................(work) late. 9 A: Why don’t you try .................(take) an aspirin? B: I think I’ll try........(get) some rest. 10 A: Let’s stop .............(eat) something. B: Again! You should stop .................. (eat) so much. 11 A: I regret ......................(announce) that the exhibition has finished. B: Really? I regret ...............(not/go) last weekend. 12 A: You didn’t remember ..................... (post) the letters. B: I don’t remember you...............(ask) me. 6 Complete the sentences. 1 I’m used to.......... 2 I used to ........... 3 I’m keen on ......... 4 I hate .............. 5 I’d love ............ 6 I’d prefer........... 7 My parents let me.... 8 I can’t stop......... 9 I regret ............ 10 I don’t mind........ 169 Grammar Check Module 3 I Future tenses у 1 2 Fill in will or the correct form of be going to. 1 A: Is Lucy coming to school tomorrow? B; I’m not sure. I.........call her and ask. 2 A: Why are you taking the car keys? B: I..........drive John to the gym. 3 A: Have you done your homework yet? B: No, I..........do it now. 4 A: What does Ray want to do when he leaves school? B: He..........go to medical school. 5 A: I’m struggling vrith this Physics problem. B: I..........help you. 6 A: Ken and Laura are sitting their exams next week. B: Oh, I’m sure they ............ pass with flying colours. 7 A: Here, you can use my pen. B: Thanks. I ........... give it back in a minute. 8 A: Has Mr Harrington given out the results yet? B: No, he ........... hand them out in the next lesson. 9 A: What are your plans for tomorrow? B: We...........have dinner with the Smiths. 10 A: Jim looks extremely tired, doesn’t he? B; Yeah! He..........fall asleep any minute. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous or the future perfect. 1 A: Imagine. This time tomorrow I ........... ......(sit) by the pool enjoying a coffee. B: You’re so lucky. 2 A: Do you think ............................ (they/finish) by tomorrow? B: Yeah, I’m sure they will. 3 A: Have you tidied your room yet? B: No, but I ........................(do) it by the time you get home. 3 170 4 A: I haven’t seen Tim in ages. B: I................(see) him later tonight. Would you like me to give him a message? 5 A: The Jones are coming in an hour. B: Don’t worry. I........................... (finish) cooking by then. Use an appropriate future tense to respond to the following situations, as in the example. 1 Your mum says she has got a headache. ► I'll get you a painkiller. 2 Your friend can’t solve the problem. I...... 3 You’re going to the supermarket. Your mum wants a loaf of bread. I ................... 4 Your friend wants to buy a sandwich but he hasn’t got any money with him. I ........... 5 Your dad wants to plant some trees in the garden. I................................... Choose the correct answer. 1 I’m sure Thomas.........a great scientist one day. A will become В will be becoming C will have become 2 Henry and Jane.........house soon. A vrill have moved В are going to move C will move 3 I think John........today. A will have come В will come C is going to come 4 ........me with my homework, please? A Are you going to help В Will you be helping me C Will you help 5 This time next month, we.........in the sun. A will be relaxing В will have relaxed C are going to relax 6 Oh no! There’s no milk. I.......get some. A will have gone В will go C am going to go 7 I’m sure they........here before 9 o’clock. A are going to be В will have been C will be 8 Sam.........by the time we get there. A will have left В is going to leave C will be leaving 5 6 Complete the second sentence so that It means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use up to five words. 1 She has the intention of selling her car. going She ..........................her car. 2 Tomorrow it will be a year since we have moved here. lived Tomorrow we ...............for a year. 3 He will still be writing his English essay at 2 pm. finished He ......his English essay by 2 pm. 4 Jack is planning to go to Japan next year, going Jack............to Japan next year. 5 The first thing Tm going to do when I get there is call you. soon I’ll call you..................there. 6 I have a doctor’s appointment tomorrow, seeing I.........................tomorrow. 7 They plan to finish building the house by April, built They..........................by April. 8 She won’t have finished cooking when we get home. still She.............when we get home. 9 He won’t leave until you arrive. before He will wait for.................... leaving. 10 Tomorrow will be my sixth week here. for I ..................six weeks tomorrow. Comparative & Superlative forms Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative forms, adding any necessary words 1 A: Wowl Your new uniform is nice. B; Yeah. I think it’s........(smart) school uniform around. 2 A: How do you like my new couch? B: It’s great. It’s far......(comfortable) your old one. 3 A: What are your new neighbours like? B: Unbearable. They are ............ (noisy) people I’ve ever met. 4 A: I just love your new flat. B: Me too. It’s much................(cosy) the last one. 5 A: Thanks for all your help. B: Don’t mention it. It’s..............(little) I could do. 6 A: Fred is very friendly, isn’t he? B: Yes, he’s.................. (sociable) boy in the class. 7 A: We won! This is a wonderful day, isn’t it? B: It sure is! It’s................(good) day of my life. 8 A: How was your holiday? B: It was................. (bad) holiday I’ve ever had. 9 A; Mrs Lynch is very nice, isn’t she? B: Yes, she’s................. (nice) teacher in the school. 10 A: You look very happy. B: These results are...............(good) any I’ve ever had. 7 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use up to five words. 1 It was the least expensive hotel we could find, cheapest It was .....................find. 2 Glasgow University is not as prestigious as Cambridge University. less Glasgow University is ................ Cambridge University. 3 Andy is faster than any of the students in the class. the Andy ............................student in the class. 4 As I practise, I get better. more The ............................I get. 5 Mary and Ann are both equally friendly. as Mary is ...................Ann. 6 John is more hard-working than Bill. than Bill is..........................John. 7 Raymond is taller than Patsy. as Patsy..................Raymond. 8 I’ve never seen such a patient teacher. the He.......................I’ve ever seen. 171 Grammar Check Module 4 ( Modal verbs 3 1 Choose the correct word. 1 Could/Should you turn on the light? It’s getting dark in here. 2 You must/may be joking. No one could eat so many cakes. 3 I think you might/ought to see a dentist. 4 It’s Sunday tomorrow. You mustn’t/needn’t wake up early. 5 Should/May I borrow the car tonight, please? 6 That mustn’t/can’t be his mother. She looks so young. 7 I might/can come later but I’m not sure. 8 You must/ought to be very tired. Do you want to sleep for a while? 9 I have to/could go to the bank. I’m out of money. 10 You must/ought to respect the elderly. 2 What do the modal verbs in bold express? • prohibition • absence of necessity • obligation • necessity • possibility • asking for permission • negative logical assumption • request • advice 1 You mustn’t dump rubbish here. ► prohibition He ought to cycle to work more often. He can’t have failed the exam. We should plant more trees in the neighbourhood. You needn’t come to work in the morning. You must fill out this form first. We have to reduce waste. 8 May I have your name, please? 9 I think it might snow soon. 10 Could I turn the light off, please? 2 3 4 6 7 Fill in: must, mustn’t, can, can’t, needn’t, or have to. 1 A: Would you like to come out with us tonight? B: Oh, I can’t. I ............. study for my exams. 2 A: You............... feed the animals in the zoo. B: I’m really sorry. 3 A: Guess whatl I’ve just won a holiday to Bali. B: No way! You...............be joking. 4 A: I’m not feeling well. B: You.............see a doctor. 5 A: Look! It’s Frank. B: It.............be. He said he was staying in tonight. 6 A: This article says people are wasting far too much electricity. B: That’s why we...............all try to save energy in the home. 7 A: You...............go now if you want to. B: Thanks. See you tomorrow. 8 A: How about a game of chess? B: Sorry, but I...........finish my homework first. 9 A: Would you like me to pick you up later? B: No, you.............bother. I’ll get the bus. 10 A: Excuse me, sir. You................ use your mobile phone in here. B: Oh, I’m sorry. Write sentences to explain what each sign means. 172 5 6 Choose the correct answer. 1 Can I use a calculator during this exam? A I’m afraid not. В No, you needn’t. 2 May I use your phone? A Yes, you must. В Yes, of course. 3 Is that Bob over there? A It can’t be. В I know. 4 Do you think it vrill rain? A Not really. В It might. 5 Could I have a moment to prepare? A Certainly. В Yes, you might. 6 Stop that! You mustn’t feed the animals. A No, I mustn’t. В I’m sorry. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets, as in the example. 9 10 It’s forbidden to park here, (mustn’t) ► You mustn't park here. I don’t think he is at home, (can’t) It’s a good idea to use natural fertilizers, (ought) It’s allowed to take photographs here, (can) Maybe they’ll turn up later, (might) Please help me clean up. (could) It’s advisable to turn your TV off when not watching it. (should) It’s not necessary to water a cactus very often, (have) It’s forbidden to enter this area, (mustn’t) There’s a chance that it will snow tomorrow, (may) 7 Read the following situations and write how you would respond to each, using modals. 1 Your friend has an awful toothache. What do you tell her? ► ... “You ought to see a dentist." ... 2 Your friends invite you out but you’ve got lots of homework. What do you say? 3 You see a sign which reads ‘No Swimming’ and your friends are getting ready to dive into the water. What do you tell them? 4 You see an injured dog on the street on the way home from school. What do you suggest to your friend? 8 The window is open in the classroom and you’re cold. What do you ask the teacher? John tells you that Pat failed an exam but you find it hard to believe. How do you reply? Your friends invite you to a party. You’re not sure if you will go but you probably will. What do you say to them? You see a man throwing rubbish on the beach. What do you tell him? Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use up to five words. 1 Putting recycling bins in every classroom would be a good idea. should We .................................. in every classroom. 2 It’s possible that he’s Paul’s brother. be He....................................... brother. 3 It isn’t necessary to take the car every day. have You ...........................the car every day. 4 Coral reefs will probably survive if we act to protect them now. may If we act now, ......................... 5 It’s not a good idea to drink that water. It may be polluted. should You ................................. It may be polluted. 6 It’s against the law to fish here. must You .......................It’s illegal. 7 Something must be done to protect the monk seal. need We.........................protect the monk seal. 8 You don’t have permission to take your dog on the train. can’t You.......................on the train. 9 I think you’re right but I’m not totally convinced. be You .......................right. 10 Leaving the tap running wastes water. should You .......................running. It wastes water. 173 Grammar Check Module 5 1 2 ( Past tenses______________________^ Put the verbs into the past simple or the past continuous. 1 A: Where..........................(you/be) last v^eek? B: I .................(relax) on the beach most of the v^eek, actually. 2 A: Have you ever been to India? B: Yes, 1 ....................(go) there last summer. 3 A: Why.............(you/notycome) last night? B: Because 1 .................(study) for my exams. 4 A: How.....................(be) your holiday? B: Awful! It .............(rain) the whole time. 5 A: How did you meet? B: When we ...............(walk) along the beach. 6 A; Where ......................(they/spend) their last holiday? B: They...............(want) to go to Spain but in the end they...................... (decide) on China. 7 A: What....................(happen) exactly? B: We.................(drive) along when this man........................(jump) out in front of the car. 8 A: What ..................(you/do) this time last Monday? B: I..................(watch) TV while John ...........................(cook) dinner. 9 A: ................(Jack/practise) his guitar again last night? B: Why?...............(you/try) to call him? 10 A: ................(you/arrive) on time for the meeting yesterday afternoon? B: No, actually. We..................(miss) our flight. Change the verbs into the past simple or past continuous and join the sentences using as, when, or while, as in the example. 1 Harry/watch/TV. He/fall/asleep. (while) ► Harry fell asleep while he was watching TV. 3 2 Maria/leave/work. She/meet/Jimmy. (as) 3 They/hike up the hill. The volcano/erupt. (when) 4 Ftoland/swim. He find/an injured turtle, (while) 5 Clara/speak on the telephone. The doorbell/ ring, (when) 6 Tom/have a coffee. He/read a magazine, (while) Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past perfect continuous. 1 They.......................(travel) all night and were exhausted. 2 We...................(book) our flight weeks before we left. 3 They.................(wait) for hours before their flight was announced. 4 Lionel..........................(already/be) to Nepal twice before he got married. 5 How long........................(you/look) for Jess before you found him? 6 The guide ...........(organise) everything well in advance, so our trip went smoothly. 7 They ......................(look forward) to this holiday for years before they finally managed to do it. 8 It.........................(snow) for hours and no planes were able to take off. Join the sentences using the words in brackets. Use the correct tense. 1 I asked for an alarm call. I went to bed. (before) 2 We arrived at the airport. We rented a car. (when) 3 I got the message. I called her back, (as soon as) 4 They got there. The museum had closed, (by the time) 5 First, she unpacked. Then she called room service, (after) 174 5 6 Complete the sentences about yourself. 1 During my last holiday, I ........... 2 This time last Sunday, I............. 3 Two years ago, while I .............. 4 When I was seven years old, I ....... 5 On my last birthday, I............... Join the sentences using a/reody, for, just, because, since, so, when, white. 1 Matthew was a hours and my eyes writing an email hurt. 2 We missed our 1 b finished the meal. flight 1 c AAary was reading a 3 We got to the \ у magazine. cinema ^d when his computer 4 1 had been crashed. studying e 8 in the morning 5 By the time 1 got and had sore feet. there they had f as the film was 6 1 couldn’t come starting. last night 8 we had to wait for 7 Ken had been the next one. walking h 1 had to help my 8 1 was watching parents with TV something. 1 8 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use up to five words. 1 Although it was very late. I couldn’t sleep, even I couldn’t sleep ................. very late. 2 It was the first time Danny had been to Asia, never Danny......................before. 3 Mark waited until everyone arrived before he started the meeting. until Mark didn’t start the meeting '] ..................arrived. 4 They unpacked once they arrived at the hotel soon They unpacked as ................. at the hotel. 5 When we got to the party there was no food left. eaten By the time we got to the party they...............................food. Brian finished his work and left the office. after Brian left the office.................... his work. It started raining during his tennis match. when It started raining ....................... tennis. She didn’t start eating until Greg had arrived. before She waited until Greg................... eating. When he arrived they had finished eating. time By ....................they had finished eating. Fill in Qian, or the where necessary. Saint Petersburg is also known as 1).....'Venice of the North' and there's no mystery why. With its many beautiful buildings built along its numerous canals, it surely is 2)..picturesque and majestic city. There are also more than 400 bridges crossing its canals thanks mainly to 3)..... urban project begun in 1703 under 4)......Peter the Great. 5).....walking tour is 6)......great way to see 7)..... city's monuments. Start at 8)........... Petrogradskaya (metro Gorkovskaya) and go across 9)..... Troitsky Bridge from where you'll get 10) .... great view of the central part of 11) .... city including 12).......... Spit of Vasilyevsky Island, 13).... Admiralty Tower, St. Isaac's Cathedral and Peter and Paul Fortress. Cross the bridge and you'll find yourself in one of 14).....most charming neighbourhoods you could imagine full of 15)......... museums, monuments, and architectural masterpieces. You shouldn't miss 16).....Palace Square. It is one of 17).....most grandiose squares of the city with its 18)....Winter Palace, the royal residence of all 19)..... Russian Emperors except 20)......Paul. From here you . should ju.st wander around and you won't be short of surprises. Grammar Check Module 6 ( Conditionals/Wishes у 1 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 If I v^ere you, I...................(eat) less chocolate and more fruit. 2 She..................(not/go) to the dentist tomorrow if she can cancel her appointment. 3 Nicole will lose weight if she.............. (exercise). 4 We will leave without her if she............ (arrive) late. 5 I vnsh I ..............(have) more time to cook a better meal. 6 If he were scared, he .................(call) us to go over to his house. 7 She wouldn’t have missed the play if she ........................(leave) on time. 8 Todd goes to bed early if he................ (work) the next morning. 9 If I ................(be) you. I’d keep quiet about the accident. 10 Angelina won’t come if she ................. (not/get) a lift from her mum. 11 Kevin.........................(read) a book if there is nothing good on television. 12 ...............(you/help) us when you finish? 2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 A: The weather is nice today. B; If it continues like this, we......(go) to the beach. 2 A: She went to the supermarket. B: If she buys tomatoes, I ........(make) my secret tomato sauce. 3 A: Mark’s suggestions are rather unclear! B: If he..............(be) here with us, we would be able to ask him to clear it up. 4 A: I’m sorry, but my parents came around on Saturday morning. B; If they............(not/come) we would have gone to the country. 5 A: I forgot my books at school! B: If I lend you mine...........(you/help) me with my homework? 3 6 A: I played the lottery yesterday, but I didn’t win anything. B: If you had won, what ..........(you/do) with the money? 7 A: My tooth hurts! B: If it still hurts in the morning, I ..... (call) the dentist. 8 A; Jennifer left her house an hour ago. B: If she gets here soon, tell her I........ (not/need) to see her anymore. Complete the sentences using conditionals type 2 or 3, as in the example. 1 If I knew you were coming over, ► / would have cooked dinnei. 2 If the plane were delayed, ................... 3 If the dentist was available. 4 If Oliver hadn’t spoken. 5 If Jess had been on time, 6 If you start exercising... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 If only I ...............(not/break) my leg skiing yesterday! 2 I vflsh you ........(be) here with me now. 3 I feel sick. If only 1..............(not/eat) that second bowl of ice cream. 4 I can’t remember all the ingredients. I wish I .......................(write) down the recipe. 5 I v/ish I ...............(remember) to buy milk. Now I have to go out again. 6 If only Phil ..................(stop) playing that awful music. 7 Melina wishes she .............(not/forget) her mum’s birthday. 8 Sofia wishes she ..............(think) of the answer sooner. 176 5 Rewrite the following sentences to express either an unreal situation in the present, a regret about a past event or a desire for a situation or someone’s behaviour to change. 6 1 I don’t know how to cook. ► / wish I knew how to cook. (unreal situation in the present) Bobby spends all his time on the Internet. James forgot to tell me about the exam. My brother annoys me all the time! I can’t swim. I lost my wallet yesterday. I am not going on holiday this year. I overslept this morning. 7 Write sentences, as in the example. 1 You want to study Law in Italy, but you don’t speak Italian. ► / wish I knew how to speak Italian. If could speak Italian, I would study Law in Italy. 2 You wanted to surprise your family with dinner, but you overcooked the chicken. 3 You wanted to take dance lessons, but you didn’t sign up for the class on time. 4 You wanted to go on holiday, but you didn’t save enough money. 5 You can’t go up the Eiffel Tower because you are afraid of heights. 6 You want to see a movie, but have nobody to go with. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words. 1 I don’t think it would be a good idea to lie to your parents. were If I ...............lie to your parents. 2 Vince would like to go to New York if he had some time off work. wishes Vince ......................off work to go to New York. 3 It’s a shame you broke your leg. You would have come skiing with us. broken If......................your leg, you would have come skiing with us. 4 There was a snowstorm and that’s why the flight was delayed. 8 9 would If there hadn’t been a snowstorm ...........................left on time. 5 It’s a pity that I missed the play. I would have really enjoyed it. wish I .................the play. I would have really enjoyed it. Countable/Uncountable nouns -Quantifiers Look at the nouns and write C for countable and U for uncountable. 1 flour 2 chair 3 money 4 salt 5 love 6 friend 7 book 8 bowl of sugar 9 snow 10 furniture 11 pair of scissors 12 shoe Circle the correct item. 1 A: Is there any/many room to sit down? B: There is a little/few room here on the couch. 2 A: How many/much sugar does the recipe say? B: Not many/much, just half a cup. 3 A: Have you got any/few salt? B: Yes, there is lot/some in the cupboard. 4 A; How many/much money do you have left? B: Just a few/a little. 5 A; How many/much cups of water did you add? B: A lot/few. Concession 10 Underline the correct words. 1 Despite/Even though he left earlier than usual, he was still late. 2 As much as/Yet I enjoy crime novels, the one you lent me was awful! 3 She is an excellent cook although/however she rarely cooks for us. 4 He continues to eat unhealthy food even though/in spite of the doctor’s warning. 5 They came although/despite the rain. 6 Leslie is very neat whereas/as her sister is quite messy. 177 Grammar Check Module 7 ( Passive voice у 1 Complete the exchanges using the passive voice. 1 A; The soundtrack for this film is great. B: Yeah! It ............. (write) by Ennio Morricone. 2 A: Didn’t you bring your guitar with you today? B: No, it............(repair) at the moment. 3 A; Have you seen Braveheartl B: Of course. It............. (direct) by my favorite actor, Mel Gibson. 4 A: ............. (their new album/release) yet? B: No, it’s due out next month. 5 A: When is the film coming out? B: I think the premier .............. (show) next Friday at the Palace Cinema. 6 A: Did you hear what happened to Max? B: Yes, he.............(just/injure) in a car accident. 7 A: Isn’t Kins Arthur a great film? B: Fantastic. Did you know it ............... (shoot) entirely in Ireland? 8 A; Why is the cinema closed? B: It............(repaint) at the moment. 9 A: Why didn’t Jane come to the party last night? B: I don’t think she .............. (invite), actually. 10 A: Could you send the tickets to my house? B: Yes, they.............(deliver) by courier tomorrow. 11 A: Where’s your DVD player? B: Oh, it.............(still not/fix). 12 A: Do you remember who starred in Gangs of New York! B: Yes. Daniel Day Lewis. He ................ (award) an Oscar for the leading role. 2 Complete the text with the passive form in the correct tense. У i; The Globe Theatre The Shakespeare Globe Trust 0) vv.js founded (found) in 1970 by Sam Wanamaker and 1)............. (dedicate) to the experience and international understanding of Shakespeare in performance. The Globe Trust wanted to celebrate the playwright's work and decided to construct a new theatre in London in his name. In 1993, the construction of the Globe Theatre began and it 2)..........(complete) by 1997. Today, Shakespeare's Globe Theatre 3)..........(develop) for the enjoyment and exploration of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in performance. It 4)..........(make up) of three sections: The Globe Theatre where plays 5).......... (perform). Globe Education which helps students understand Shakespeare's scripts in relation to the stage for which they were written, and Shakespeare's Globe Exhibition which 6)..........(create) to inform the public about Shakespeare and his contemporaries who worked in theatre. Over the last few years, Shakespeare's Globe 7)............ (visit) by around 750,000 people per year. It is a great project, but more money 8)...........(need) to complete the programme. 3 Rewrite the newspaper headlines as complete sentences, as in the example. i: Ij Cinema Complex to be = = opened in main square :€ u«iiwwood legend atter car Jarrticr avvarded Oscar film И—- = Star Wars album ^ to be released soon 178 ► 1. A new cinema complex will be opened \ in the main square. = Actor Jules Venny ^ arrested for speeding ■--------- yesterday _____ 4 Read the text and put the verbs into the correct passive form. A press conference 1).......(hold) this morning at the Regency Hotel by actor Ken Briggs’ agent. It 2).. (announce) that the actor would not be starring in the sequel to Revenge. Specific reasons 3).....(not/give) but it seems that Briggs 4)........ (not/choose) by Paramount Pictures who are looking to replace him with a new face. The company’s decision may be a breach of contract and some sources say that negotiations 5)........ (take place) between the two parties at the moment. It 6).......(not/know) who is going to replace him and Paramount Pictures may have to deal with disappointed fans. A second conference 7).....(hold) tomorrow morning and Briggs’ agent said that an interview 8)......(give) by the actor over the coming days. 5 Answer the questions using the words below. A 1 Has the soundtrack been recorded yet? Yes, the CDs/deliver/tomorrow. ► Yes. the CDs will be delivered tomorrow. A: Has the role been accepted yet? Yes, the role/accept/Jake Hans. Do you think there will be lots of fans? Sure! All seats/fill/opening night. Has the set been prepared yet? No, the location/not choose/yet. A: Have the costumes been delivered? No/they/make/at the moment. Will all the actors be at the party? Well/all invitations/send/last Friday. В В: A В A В A В: A: В: 6 Fill in by or with. 1 The film was a ... ....Ken Loach. directed b ... 2 The DVDs are a ... made b ... 3 The package a ... was opened b ... .....Mrs Harris. 4 The set was a ... Jean. made b ... scrap metal. 5 The film was a ... Warner. paid for b .. company money. 7 Change the question from the passive into the active. 1 Who was Jurassic Park directed by? 2 Why hasn't the set been finished yet? 3 Who will be chosen for the main role? 4 When will the play be performed? 5 Where will the film be shot? 6 Who will the star be replaced by? 7 Why was the cinema closed down? 8 Who was the soundtrack composed by? 9 How much was the actor paid? 10 When will the film be released? ^ Change into the passive. Warner Movies is shooting a sequel to Zombies in the Nordfold Woods area. Jason Delore is playing the main role, but many locals are playing minor roles in the film. The film has created hundreds of short-term jobs and local companies are providing services for the cast and crew. Waner Movies says they will release the movie soon. 9 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use up to five words. 1 They are building the set now. built The set ........................now. 2 They chose Sean Penn as the main actor. was Sean Penn ............main actor. 3 They will send the invitations tomorrow. sent The invitations............tomorrow. 4 The actor broke his leg during a stunt. broken The actor’s..............a stunt. 5 They will perform the play six times. be The play ..............six times. 6 Henry was composing the film score. composed The film score .............Henry. 7 They gave Brendan a copy of The Lord of the Rinss. was Brendan................a copy of The Lord of the Rings. 8 My gran made this cake. by This cake..................gran. 9 A fire completely destroyed the cinema. was The cinema .....................a fire. 10 They are selling tickets for the concert now. being Tickets......................the concert now. Grammar Check Module 8 ( Reported speech j 1 Fill in the gaps with say or tell in the correct tense. “I ran into Tom the other day at the internet cafe,” 1)......... Grant. “He 2)....... me that he had found a really interesting job in London and I 3)....... him I was delighted for him.” “I am happy to hear it too,” 4)........ Lara. "Did he 5)....... you when he was leaving?” asked Kate. "Yes, he 6)........ he would be leaving next Sunday,” said Grant. “He also 7).......that he was having a party on Saturday night and he 8)........me to ask you to come.” 2 Turn the following statements into reported speech. 3 180 1 “He doesn’t know the latest news,” she said. 2 “I can store 2GB of music on this,” said Troy. 3 “We have been using this software for a year,” said Nick. 4 “I’ve always loved photography,” said Jane. 5 “He will copy the CD for me, ” Orla told May. 6 “I am considering a career in showbusiness,” Ken told his dad. 7 “I downloaded the program for you,” said Owen. 8 “I can’t get this device to work,’ said Fran. 9 “You mustn’t press this button,” said Bob. 10 “I was playing video games all night,’ said Steven. Rewrite the orders in reported speech. 1 “Don’t forget to recharge the battery," David told Jude. 2 “Remember to bring my MP3 player back,” Elizabeth said to me. 3 “Be quiet!” she told him. 4 “Turn your computer on,” said the teacher. 5 “Don’t tell anyone what I said,” Kate told Nora. Match the speech bubbles a-f to the sentences 1-6. Then, complete the sentences using reported speech, as in the example. Where is the post office? О Can you please help me? Would you like me to order a takeaway? Could you speak up? 'why don’t we play a video game? G О Where did you buy yours? IT n [I [I I had a letter to send, so I asked her where the post office was. We were both bored, so I... My guests were getting hungry, so I... I wanted to buy a mobile phone, so I... I couldn’t hear him, so I... I was having problems with my computer, so I... 5 6 Relatives Fill in: who, which, where, when. 1 AAartin is a DJ.....plays music at weddings. 2 The Eiffel Tower, .......is in Paris, is a popular tourist attraction. 3 That’s the dog.......barks all night long. 4 I saw the play........you recommended. 5 The little boy........you tutor passed his exam. 6 The bookstore........I shop, has closed down. 7 That day........you called I was away on holiday. Fill in the relative pronoun, adding commas where necessary. Write D for defining, ND for non-defining and whether the relative can be omitted or not. 1 The university where he studies has got an excellent reputation. 2 My computer teacher.......... name is Mr Lynch is very nice. 3 This MP3 player.........I got for my birthday is very expensive. NO 4 The students..........designed the device won an award. 5 The flat..........he lives has got all the modern conveniences. 6 Bill Gates.........owns Microsoft is a very rich man. 7 The software program............ I bought is very sophisticated. 8 My neighbour...........is a scientist earns a lot of money. 9 The shop..........I bought my digital camera has closed down. 10 I prefer the mobile.......has got the radio built in. 7 8 Fill in: who, which, whom, whose, when, where or why. Say whether they can be omitted or not. 1 A: Is this the book (which) you forgot last time? B: Yes, it’s mine. 2 A; Do you know the doctor...........office is on Elm Street? B: Yes, I’ve been going to him for years. 3 A: Where did you find that game? B: I bought it at the store........they sell used computers. 4 A; When do you want to meet? B: Can we meet............the film finishes? 5 A: Can you give me a reason ............ you did that? B: I’m sorry. I can’t explain it. 6 A: Do you remember the girl ............ we saw last week at the park? B: The one...........car had broken down? 7 A: My aunt.............is a journalist works in France. B: Isn’t she the one..........was here last May? Combine the sentences using relatives. 1 That’s the man. He installed my phone. ► That’s the man who installed my phone. Greg’s new digital camera doesn’t work. It cost him a fortune. Here’s an ad for the laptop. I think I’ll buy it. This is the laptop. I bought it from a friend. I’m reading The Time Machine. It was written by H G Wells. My friend bought a new MP3 player. It stores up to 5GB of music. This is Mr Key. He’s my Physics teacher. The CD-ROM was delivered today. I ordered it weeks ago. 9 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use up to five words. 1 Mr Jackson sold eighty laptops last month, by Eighty laptops ................. last month. 2 Who sent the text message? sent Who..........................by? 3 My friend Julie lives nearby. who Julie...................nearby. 4 They delivered the DVDs on time, delivered The DVDs................on time. 5 We ate at a very nice restaurant last night, where The restaurant ..................... last night was very nice. 6 The technician repaired the TV yesterday. by The TV ......................... the technician yesterday. 7 A famous engineer designed the software, designed The software .................... famous engineer. 8 Mike’s digital camera can store up to 600 photographs. He just bought it. which Mike’s digital camera............... can store up to 600 photographs. 9 They will announce the winner of the competition next week. announcedThe winner of the competition ...................next week. 10 Students can log in if they have a password, who Students .......................can log in. 181 Letter from the Editors Welcome to Spotlight on Russial ' Our names are Ann and Bill and we want to welcome you to this edition of Spotlight on Russia. We are both Year 11 students from Ridgeway Secondary School in Liverpool, England. We are very lucky to be living and studying in Russia this year as part of a student exchange programme. Spotlight on Russia has invited us to work for the magazine as Guest Editors. This year we will be travelling across this amazing country and learning as much as we can about Russian culture, geography, environmental issues, free-time activities and much more. We'll share our impressions of life in Russia with you and we hope you’ll tell us more about the different aspects of life in your great country! Please send us your ideas about places we should see and things we should do while we are here. You can contact us by email at bill&anne.spotlightonrussia.ru Remember, teens from all over the world read this terrific magazine, so this is a great opportunity to let people know about your country! We hope you enjoy our articles. 1 Careers Russian teenagers and their career plans 2 Fame Evgeni Plushenko, the Olympic champion 3 Schools Unusual Russian schools 4 Travel A voyage up the Volga 5 Environment Lake Baikal 6 Food Typical Russian dishes 7 Arts The Bolshoi Theatre 8 Space Russian space exploration 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What would you like to do when you leave school? Have you made any serious plans? How do Russian teenagers see their career prospects? Spotlight on Russia talks to some Russian teenagers about their career plans. “My ambition is to become a diplomat because politics and travel have always fascinated me. My favourite school subjects are English and History, so I think my career plan makes sense. I used to think it would be impossible to pursue such a career, but I found out what I needed to do and I realised that it’s within my grasp. I'll have to go to university, of course, which means I’ll have to do well in secondary school. I don’t mind, though, because now I know what I really want to do with my life.” “I find it difficult to make up my mind about the kind of career I want as there are so many things I’d like to do. These days, there aren’t any jobs for life, so I know I’ll have to take a few risks and adapt to a changing world. But whatever happens. I’m determined to find a job I really love. I believe in that old Chinese proverb: “Rnd a job you enjoy, and you’ll never work a day in your life." “I love art and design. However, wouldn’t like to be a professional artist. Instead, I’m considering becoming a hairstylist. That way I could combine my creative talents and earn a regular income. My training will involve working in a well-known salon in Moscow and attending specialist seminars abroad. One day I’d like to open my own salon, and I hope I can use my experience and talent to make it one of the most fashionable places in Moscow." Arkady (15) “I haven’t thought much about what want to do after school. I’ve been too busy enjoying myself. I’m only 15, so think there’s plenty of time for me to consider my options. People say I’m a caring and considerate person, so think a job helping people in a nonprofit organisation would suit me best. I’m going to find out more about that.” Spotlisht on Russia would like to know what its readers have in mind when it comes to careers. Have you thought about your future job? Let us know what your plans are. • In pairs, talk about jobs you like. ^ • Collect information about your dream career and write an article about it. feme Evgeni Plushenko is an Olympic Champion, World Champion, European Champion, Grand Prix Champion and National Champion. Spotlight on Russia finds out what it takes to be ... Name: Date of Birth: Birthplace: Family: Pets: Hometown: Home Club/Coach: Evgeni Viktorovich Plushenko (Zhenya) З''’ November, 1982 Solnechni in the Khabarovsk region in Siberia (moved to Volgograd when he was 3) Father - Viktor; Mother - Tatiana: Sister - Elena A bulldog called Golden and a Persian cat St Petersburg (moved from Volgograd when he was 11) Yubileiny Sport Club; Alexei Nickolaevich Mishin Best Personal Scores: 258.33; Short - 90.66; Free Skate - 167.67 (Olympics 2006) A Champion It was my dream when I was 4. I saw a competition and said to my mum, 7 have to be there. ’ I said that I wanted to be an Olympic champion. Now I have all the titles and I am really very happy. Y oung Evgeni began life next to the railroad in a house his father built. He was a sickly child and, after Evgeni spent three months in hospital with double pneumonia, his parents decided to move to Volgograd. When Evgeni joined his first skating group, his health quickly improved, but being the youngest meant he still had many difficulties to overcome. He used to cry when he fell on the hard ice, unable to get up again. However, Evgeni persevered and won his first competition when he was seven at the Crystal Skate Tournament in Samara. Evgeni was obviously very talented, but his career almost ended in 1993 when the local ice rink closed. Although he was only eleven years old, Evgeni was Evgeni Plushenko determined to pursue his dream even if it meant living alone in St Petersburg. Training with Alexei Mishin, young Evgeni ignored the teasing from older kids as he learned how to perform the quad toe loop and the Biellmann spin. In 1998, fifteen-year-old Evgeni won the World Junior Championships and finished З"* in the Senior World Championships. A string of victories followed, and by 2006, Evgeni had won every major championship except one. Having recovered from a serious injury, Evgeni finally won the Olympic gold medal in Turin, setting new personal bests for each phase of the competition. The dream has come true, but where will he go from here? For a true champion like Evgeni Plushenko, victory is only a beginning. Write to Spotlisht on Russia about your favourite sporting hero. Tell us what you most admire about your hero and don’t forget to send in any pictures you have. • With a partner, discuss what yoiT most admire about Evgeni Plushenko" • What do you think he will do next? • Would you like to be an ice skater? Are schools in Russia all the same? What kind of unusual schools are there in the country? Spotlight on Russia looks at three untypical schools. EVDODEMES “A school of peace for the diplomats of tomorrow. ” The diplomats of tomorrow On June 2006, Children's Day, the 'European House for the International Co-operation of Children' (Evdodemes) announced the establishment of three residential schools in the Gelendzhik, Moscow and Leningrad oblasts. Based on the idea of 'children's diplomacy', these schools hope to unite nations and peoples. The idea behind Evdodemes is that the children of today are the key to a peaceful future. While depressing reports of wars are a common feature on our TV screens and fill our newspaper columns, the school's aim is to educate children in a culture of peace and harmony. Apart from traditional school subjects, the students of this unique school will attend classes in negotiation and communication skills, as well as in the art of diplomacy and etiquette. They will also learn about the culture and history of other countries. All this will help promote the main aim of Evdodemes, which is to help children make friends with other children from different religious, linguistic and racial backgrounds. How could your school be innproved? What’s your idea of a perfect school? Send Spotlisht on Russia your thoughts and ideas. In pairs, discuss which of the schools above you would like to attend. Collect information about an extraordinary school in your area and write an article about it. .Altai Krai Regional Crisis Centre for Men Helping * young male teenagers to help themselves. A special course for young men In the Siberian city of Barnaul, a special programme has begun. Set up by the Altai Krai Regional Crisis Centre for Men and supported by the annual Man-Ecology-Heatth Exhibition, this new course has devised a number of ways to help male teenagers with problems. Participants learn how to assert and respect themselves. They go on camping trips, which are designed to improve their health, that include mountain hiking and campfire singsongs. Back in the city, informal meetings called ‘evening couch parties’ allow teenagers to sit around and talk in a relaxed atmosphere. All of these activities help them to realise who they are and what makes them special. A school for everyone On Horoshevskoyc Avenue in Moscow, a new type of school will open shortly. What makes this school unique is the fact that it is not only intended for students, but it is designed for the needs of local citizens as well. Therefore the school will have an educational and a social purpose. During the day, students will make u.se of the school’s gyms, Internet facilities and concert halls, while in the evening these will be open to local residents of all ages. The school will be equipped with the latest technology, and every classroom will have computers and widescreen digital monitors. Travel Thousands of tourists travel up and down the Volga every year. It’s Europe’s longest river and many consider it to be the national river of Russia, but what can one hope to see there? Spotlight on Russia goes on ... We began our journey in the historic city of Volgograd with an inspirational trip to Mamayev Kurgan to see the enormous statue, The Moiherland Calls. This city witnessed the full horror and heroism of World War II and the statue celebrates the enduring spirit of the Ru.ssian people. Then, we headed back to the centre, which has risen from the ashes to become a major crossroads of transportation, and strolled along the promenade by the river before boarding our boat to begin the adventure of a lifetime. Over the next few days the boat stopped at many small villages, and we sailed pa.st Saratov, Samara and Simbirsk. In every village there were small shops and street vendors selling clothes, matryoshka dolls and amber jewellery. It was a great chance to see rural life in Russia, and the people we met were incredibly hospitable. Back on the boat, we loved chatting with our new-found friends from all around the world. The third day of our trip brought us to Kazan, where the Volga meets the Kazanka River. Kazan is half Ru.ssian, half Tartar and completely charming. In the upper part of the city, we visited the Kazan Kremlin, where we saw the amazing Annunciation Cathedral and the mysterious leaning Soyembika Tower. Then, in the lower part of the city, we visited some magnificent Maslim mosques. As the river carried us further, Nizhny Novgorod came into view, standing on a high hill where the Volga meets the Oka River. The red brick towers of the grand Kremlin dominate the skyline and the Archangel Cathedral lies within its historic walls. From there we visited many of the city’s famous abbeys, such as the Monastery of the Caves and the Annunciation Monastery. We sailed onwards to Kostroma - a city that's almost as old as Moscow. The streets fan out from the central square, and we marvelled at the medieval peasant homes and the golden domes of the Ipatiev Mona.stery. The Epiphany Cathedral, with the 10"' century Byzantine icon, Our Lady of St Theodore, was also truly remarkable. Finally, our voyage brought us to Yaroslavl. The IT*’ century red brick churches were delightful with their brightly tiled exteriors and fantastic frescos. At the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery we saw many wonderful religious icons as well as the original manuscript of the Russian literary treasure, 'The Lay of Igor’s Host. All too soon it was time to leave, but as we caught the train back to Moscow we knew that we had taken a journey that would live in our hearts forever. Which cities on the Volga have you visited? Tell your partner which cities you would like to visit. What do you think makes a city a great place to visit? What’s your favourite place in the area where you live? Which places would you advise a tourist to see? Send in photographs or drawings of your favourite places with a short explanation of why you like them so much. We’ll put the best on our website for the whole world to see! It’s one of the most famous lakes in the world and it’s one of Russia’s greatest landmarks. Spotlight on Russia turns its attention to... Lake Baikal Lake Baikal, in eastern Siberia, is a miracle of nature. It’s the deepest lake on Earth and it contains more water than all the Great Lakes of America put together. It's also the oldest lake on Earth and, after more than 25 million years. Lake Baikal is still growing at a rate of 2 cm a year. However, facts and figures fail to describe the breathtaking beauty of Baikal. The water is crystal clear, and when you can see the shimmering stones on the bottom of the lake it's hard to believe they're so deep down. But then this tranquillity can easily become a tempest. As the lake changes its mood, the wind rises and huge waves begin to roll across the surface. Lake Baikal is surrounded by some magnificent mountain ranges, such as the Primorsky, Baikalsky and Barguzinsky. More than 300 rivers flow into Lake Baikal and only one river, the Angara, flows outwards. Of the 22 islands in the lake, the most famous is Olkhon Island, where they say the sun shines brightly for more than 300 days a year. Olkhon is a place of legend and wild spirits, and it's home to the famous Shamanka, Is there an area near you that is particularly beautiful? What makes it so special? What do people do there? Send Spotlisht on Russia some drawings or photographs of your special place. where shamans used to live in times gone by. This environmental treasure also contains a wealth of biodiversity. Most of the 2,635 species of animals and plants discovered in and around Lake Baikal cannot be found anywhere else in the world. The lake is also the only breeding ground for the Baikal Seal and the Omul fish, on which they feed. In 1996, Baikal was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The total area of the site is 8.8 million hectares, which includes the lake’s surface, three resen/es, and two national parks, Pribaikalsky and Tunkinsky. Today, this precious Russian jewel is threatened by the industry around its shores. We can only hope that future generations will be able to come here and enjoy Lake Baikal as much as we do. In pairs, discuss what you find most impressive about Lake Baikal. What would you like to do there? How can people help to protect this fragile environment? What Kind Of Food Do Russians Like? Here’s an email sent to the Spotlisht on Russia website. Spotlight on Russia gets hungry > [ » i E. и / u a. g g « It * Dear Spotlight on Russia, Hi! I’m Brian Rogers from Barnsley in the UK. My favourite food is fish and chips, but my mum says we should try something different. What kind of food do Russians like? Read the replies from our website. .©Internet Explorer Spotlight on Russia ZT 1^.. Here in Russia, we have lots of different soups like borsch, solyanka, and okroshka, but my favourite is the shchi that my mum makes. It's a cabbage soup with carrots and spicy herbs in it. I don't like shchi with meat, but if you add a little smetana (a kind of sour cream), it tastes delicious with rye bread. Antonina (15), Volgograd The pelmeni that my dad makes are fantastic. Pelmeni are a type of dumpling that are usually made with a minced meat filling made from 45% beef, 35% lamb and 20% pork, but my dad says he has his own secret recipe. They can be frozen until you want to eat them. You just boil them till they float and then wait 2-5 minutes more before serving them with sour cream or mustard. Raisa (15), Barnaul I love Maslenitsa because I love Blini. They're pancakes and there's one week of the year when we eat lots of them. You can cover them with butter and eat them with sour cream or caviar, but don't try eating them with both because it tastes disgusting. Valentin (14), Kazan I'm a real meat eater and I love shashlyk, a kind of shish kebab. You can buy a shashlyk in restaurants, but I like getting one from street vendors who roast them on skewers over wood or charcoal. Roman (15), St Petersburg I've just learnt how to make Katlyeti. You put milk, chopped onions, ground beef and pork in a bowl and mix them thoroughly. It's a good idea to dust your hands with flour before you roll the mixture into patties because this stops everything from getting too sticky. Then you just pop the patties into a frying pan and cook them. Everyone in my family likes my Katlyeti. Polina (13), Moscow 8 • In pairs, discuss your favourite foods and why you like them. • Do you know how to make any meals? • Which foreign foods do you like? Spotlisht on Russia is conducting a survey. Write in and tell us what your favourite food is. Do you (or your parents) have a special way of preparing it? Send us some pictures of your favourite food, too. It’s one of the most famous theatres in the world and one of the most beautiful. Spotlight on Russia asks, is there anything more delightful than... I \ Ballet at the r \ Bolshoi? * trip to the Bolshoi Theatre is an /\ incredible experience, even before the A. ^performance begins. The theatre is a masterpiece of Russian neoclassical design. It seats over two thousand people in a realm of hanging chandeliers, gold decoration and red velvet furnishings. The Bolshoi has a history that’s almost as dramatic as one of its performances. The original theatre was Prince Uru.ssov’s Public Opera and Ballet Theatre, commissioned by Catherine the Great in 1776 and backed by the Englishman Michael Maddox. The first disaster struck in 1805 when fire damaged it beyond repair. The architect, Osip Bove, designed a new building which opened in 1825. However, disaster struck again in 1853 when the theatre caught fire and the blaze raged What is your favourite ballet? Why not send Spotlisht on Russia some pictures of a ballet you would like to see? for days. Almost all the interior was destroyed, but the outer walls remained more or less intact. The interior of the building was rebuilt in 1856 by the architect Albert Kavos. The Bolshoi has always been associated with ballet, and it’s the home of the Bolshoi Ballet troupe. It has hosted some of Russia’s mo.st famous performances and celebrated premieres by some of the best composers. Glinka’s opera, A Life for the Tsar, premiered here on 7‘" September, 1842, and Richard Wagner conducted a series of concerts here in 1863. In 1877, Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake was first performed here, and it remains a popular favourite. This century works by the composers Prokofiev and Shostakovich, as well as the 1960s hit, Spartacus, by Aram Khachaturyan were also performed at the Bolshoi Theatre. TTie Bolshoi ballerinas, actors and opera singers may tour the world, but there’s no better place to see the Bolshoi 'Fheatre Company than right here in Moscow. In pairs, discuss why you would like to visit the Bolshoi. Discuss any ballets you have seen. Would you like to be a ballet dancer? Russians have been exploring it since the 1950s and achieved a number of firsts on man’s final frontier. Spotlight on Russia finds out more about Russian space exploration Russia is no stranger to space. Since the 1950s, Russians have been exploring space and have achieved a spectacular number of firsts. In: 1957 1957 Sputnik 1 vv^ the first satellite in space Laika was the first animal to orbit the Earth Yuri Gagarin was the first person in space Valentina Tereshkova tvas the first woman in space I Aleksei Leonov was the first person to walk in space Svetlana Savitskaya was the first woman to walk in space L j '• Russia’s space programme continues to set itself new targets. At present it has three main aims. The first is to send three manned missions to the moon by 2015. The second objective is to build a permanent base on the Moon to tap its energy resources. And, last but not least, its third goal is to dispatch a Russian crew to Mars, also known as the ’Red Planet', between 2020 and 2030. Of course, space travel does not come cheap. While the Russian government has given $2 billion to the programme, private investment is also needed. Some money has been raised through offering tourist trips into space. Russia was the first country to offer this type of travel, and to date four people have travelled as tourists into space, each paying $20 million for the privilege. With its many firsts, Russia has been a pioneer in space exploration and has earned its place among the stars. Apart from technology and investment, the space programme needs cosmonauts. Do you aspire to new heights? 10 Imagine you want to tell your English pen-friend about Russia’s history in space. Use the information in the text to tell the class. Write to us about your favourite Russian space hero or heroine. Would you like to be a cosmonaut? Explain why (not). Spotlisht on Russia would like to know what its readers think of space exploration. Where would you like to go in space? What would you like to do there? Send in your suggestions and we’ll put the best ones on our website for the whole world to see. nt Module 1 Module 2 1 < > Look at the picture and the title of the song. What do you think the song is about? Listen, read and check your answers. 1 Toaefher for eve^ People say a good friend's hard to find -N But I have found a friend who's good and kind You're always there for me, like a good friend ought to be You always seem to know what's on my mind You're everything I look for in a friend The only one on whom I can depend Whenever Tm with you, I know I can get through I hope we'll be together till the end When I need help. I always turn to you You always know exactly what to do Whenever things go wrong, you're loyal and you're strong That's how I know our friendship's real and true What makes a good friend according to the singer? a How important is friendship to you? b Do you think it’s better to have a lot of casual friends or a few close friends? Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • Friends are flowers in the garden of life. • A friend in need is a friend indeed. • The best mirror is an old friend. Look at the title of the song. How could it be related to the words and phrases below? Listen, read and check your answers. • make ends meet • health • riches • cash • greed • wealth you need • want more • shopping spree • survive • friends and family The Greatest Things in Life ЭГ6 РГвб) u We all work hard to make ends meet Buy clothes to wear and food to eat But very soon, we all want more And money's all we're living for Sometimes it's fun to just splash out But that's not what life's all about The greatest things in iife are free You can't buy iove on a shopping ^ree Happiness is not for saie You won't find heaith on a cut price raii They have no prices, iow or high They're riches money just can't buy Even the richest man alive Needs пгюге than money to survive If you have friends and family Then you're as rich as you can be Forget your cash, forget your greed For you have all the wealth you need 2 3 According to the singer, what can’t we do with money? Do you think you would be happier if you suddenly became very rich? How do you think your life would change? Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • A fool and his money are easily parted. • A full cup must be carried steadily. • A great fortune in the hands of a fool is a great misfortune. SSI Module 3 Module 4 1 Q Look at the pictures and the title. What do you think the song is about? Listen, read and check your answers. 1 A place in the The world is waiting for you With chances round every turn Exciting options to choose Important lessons to learn So find your place in the world The place that's perfect for you Where you can use your best skills And do things you love to do Your whole life stretches ahead So much to do and to see So make the most of your life And be who you want to be 2 3 SS2 d What advice does the singer give? b Do you agree with the singer’s advice? Why/ Why not? Q& What are your dreams and ambitions for the future? Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • A place for everything, and everything in its place. • A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. • Different strokes for different folks. w' Read the title of the song. In what context do you expect to find the phrases below? Listen, read and check your answers. • hear it every day • throw it all away • endangering our lives • our planet won’t survive THIMK 6REEN Our planet is in trouble We hear it every day And yet, we all continue To throw it oil away We're threatening our future Endangering our lives If we don't take some action Our planet won't survive Think Green! To save the planet! Think Green! Do all you can! Think Green! For all our children! Think Green! For the race of man! Recycle all your rubbish Don't buy things you don't need Don't kill our perfect planet To satisfy your greed If we all pull together Something can be done If we think green and act fast The war will soon be won 2 3 Э Why does the singer think the world will die? b How does the singer think we can save our planet? Do you think humanity will find a better way forward? Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • Things done cannot be undone. • If you’re not part of the solution, then you’re part of the problem. • Actions speak louder than words. • All the flowers of tomorrow are in the seeds of yesterday. Module 5 Module 6 1 C ) Look at the picture and the title. What do you think the song is about? Listen, read and check your answers. I f day, the sanie routine What you need’s a change of scene 'Take a trip to pasture’s neu’ Just be free and just be you We all need to get away f{elax, chill out on holiday We all need to hare some fun Kick back, hang out in the sun •Take some time to change the view Jlolidays are good for you In the mountains, by the sea Be just where you want to be 2 3 Why does the singer think holidays are necessary for people? a Tell your partner about the kind of things you like doing on holiday. b What would be the perfect holiday for you and your partner? Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. • He lives long who lives well. • Live for today for tomorrow never comes. 1 W Look at the picture and the title. What do you think the song is about? Listen, read and check your answers. are Keep your body in its prime To treat it badly is a crime Exercising is the key To living your life healthily Look after yourself every day Be good to you in every way Danger's waiting everywhere Stay fit, stay healthy; just take care Make sure you stay at your best Make the time to have a rest Relax your body and your mind Leave your troubles hr behind 2 3 Why does the singer think it’s a good idea to exercise regularly? d Do you exercise regularly? Why/Why not? Discuss. b What kind of exercise do you think is the most effective? Discuss. Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • Healthy body, healthy mind. • Health is better than wealth. • No pain, no gain. SS3 Module 7 Module 8 1 *4,^' Look at the title of the song. How could it be related to the phrases below? Listen, read and check your answers. • get the breaks • got what it takes • stardom • worldwide fame • celebrity 1 Perhaps you could be famous If you’d only got the breaks I’m sure you could be anything ’Cause you’ve got what it takesj Perhaps you could have stardom If your dreams do all come true But I believe you’re wonderful Just because you’re you It really doesn’t matter If people know your name It doesn't make a difference If you don’t have worldwide fame The only thing that matters Is who you really are If you are happy with yourself Then you’re a superstar Perhaps you think celebrity Would make your life complete Just think of all the things you’d do The people you could meet Perhaps you think you’d be important If you were a star But I believe you’re wonderful Just the way you are 2 3 Why does the singer think fame is not so important? SS4 rV;.. Would you like to be famous? What for? Why(not)? Proverbs Explain the sayings. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • The sun shines upon all alike. • Life is made up of little things. • He is rich who is satisfied. Look at the title of the song. How could it be related to the phrases below? Listen, read and check your answers. • rocket science • gadget • new machine • fresh and new • knowledge at our fingertips • march into the future fl UJhole Neill LUorld It isn't rocket science; it's easy to see Why everybody's mad about technology Each electronic gadget, each new machine Can make our lives much better than they've ever been We're living in a time when things are fresh and new It seems that there is really nothing we can't do So we march into the future, every boy and girl The computer age is here and it's a whole new world Computers make a difference to the world at large With knowledge at our fingertips, we're all in charge With one touch of a button we can access all And find the answers to all questions, great and small 2 3 Why does the singer think computers and technology are useful? a Ш Which is your favourite gadget/ electronic device? Why? b Which gadget/electronic device do you want most? Why? Quotations Explain the quotations. Are there similar ones in your language? Choose one from below and give an example from personal experience to illustrate its meaning. • “When all else is lost, the future still remains." - Christian Nested Bovee • “You can never plan the future by the past.” - Edmund Burke • “I do not fear computers. I fear the lack of them.’’ - Isaac Asimov Grammar Reference Section MODULE 1 Present Continuous Present Simple Form; the main verb (V/Vs) Spelling person singular affirmative) • Most verbs take -s in the third person singular. / talk • he talks • Verbs ending in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -o take -es. / miss - he misses, I fish - he fishes, t match - he matches, t mix - he mixes, 120 ■ he goes • Verbs ending in consonant + у drop the -y and take -ies. / fry - he fries BUT Verbs ending in vowel + у take -s. I pay - he pays Use We use the present simple for: • daily routines. We take a lunch break at 1:30 in the afternoon. • repeated actions. She goes to the gym every Wednesday. • habits. He always takes the train to work. • reviews/sports commentaries/dramatic narrative. Meryl Streep acts beautifully in this film. • timetables/programmes (future meaning). The play starts at 8:00. • in exclamatory sentences. Here comes Elaine! • permanent states. He teaches Law at the university. Time expressions used with the present simple: every hour!day/week/month!summer/year, etc, every morning/evening, etc. Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of frequency tell us how often something happens. always (100%), usually (75%), often (50%), sometimes (25%), never (0%) Use Adverbs of frequency go before the main verb but after the verb to be and after auxiliary verbs. She’s always late for everything. They never go out on Mondays. He has never travelled abroad. Form: verb “to be” (am/is/are) + main verb + -ing Spelling of the present participle • Most verbs take -ing after the base form of the main verb, build - building, smell - smelling • Verbs ending in -e drop the -e and take -ing. bake - baking, sunbathe - sunbathing • Verbs ending in vowel + consonant which are stressed on the last syllable double the consonant and take -ing. sit - sitting, stop - stopping BUT discover - discovering Use We use the present continuous for: • actions happening now, at the moment of speaking. We are watching TV now. • actions happening around the time of speaking. We are painting the kitchen today. • fixed arrangements in the near future, especially when we know the time and the place. I’m going shopping with Tania this afternoon. • temporary situations. She is living with her grandparents at the moment. • changing or developing situations. She is getting thinner and thinner. • frequently repeated actions with always, constantly, continually expressing annoyance or criticism. She’s always complaining. NOTE: The following verbs do not usually have a continuous form: have (= possess), like, love, hate, want, know, remember, forget, understand, think, believe, cost, etc. I remember our holiday in Italy. Time expressions used with the present continuous: now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, these days, today, tomorrow, next month, etc. Present Simple vs Present Continuous • We use the present simple for permanent states. Richard speaks Polish. BUT • We use the present continuous for temporary situations. She’s washing her hair now. • We use the present simple for repeated actions. She wakes up at 6:00 every morning. GRl Grammar Reference Section BUT • We use the present continuous for actions happening around the time of speaking. He’s working really hard these days. Stative Verbs Stative verbs are verbs which describe a state rather than an action, and do not usually have a continuous form. These verbs are: • verbs of the senses (appear, feel, hear, look, see, smell, sound, taste, etc). It sounds fantastic. • verbs of perception (believe, forget, know, realise, remember, understand, etc). / realise how difficult it is. • verbs which express feelings and emotions (desire, detest, enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer, want, etc). Sarah enjoys cooking. • and some other verbs (be, belong, contain, cost, fit, have, include, keep, matter, need, owe, own, weigh, wish, etc). The dress costs £500. Some of these verbs can be used in continuous tenses, but with a difference in meaning. PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS 1 think she’s a lovely girl. (= believe) 1 am thinking about moving to Canada. (= am considering) He has a hamster. (= owns, possesses) She is having a difficult time at work. (= experiencing) He is having lunch now. (= eating) He is having a bath. (= taking) You can see the volcano from the hilltop. (= it is visible) I’m seeing Lisa in the afternoon. (= am meeting) The chicken tastes salty, (it is/has the flavour of) Paul is tasting the soup to see if it is warm enough. (= is testing) The perfume smells flowery. (= has the aroma of) She is smelling the roses. (= is sniffing) She appears to be having a great time. (= seems to) Paul is appearing in a new theatre production (= performing) The trousers fit perfectly. (= they are the right size) Tim is fitting a new door in the garage. (= is attaching/installing) NOTE: The verb enjoy can be used in continuous tenses to express a specific preference. Jack really enjoys reading crime novels, (general preference) BUT He’s enjoying the party very much, (specific preference) The verbs look (when we refer to somebody’s appearance), feel (experience a particular emotion), hurt and ache can be used in simple or continuous tenses with no difference in meaning. She looks very beautiful. = She is looking very beautiful. Present Perfect Form: present tense of “have” + past participle of the main verb We form the past participle of regular verbs by adding -ed to the verb, complain - complained Use We use the present perfect: • for actions which started in the past and continue up to the present. He has worked as a salesman for two years. (= He started working as a salesman two years ago and he still works as a salesman.) • to talk about a past action which has a visible result in the present. Look at Tom. He’s sad because he has failed his exam. • for actions which happened at an unstated time in the past. The action is more important than the time. He has talked to Maria. (When? We don’t know; it’s not important.) • with “today”, “this morning/afternoon/week”, “so far”, etc when these periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking. He has drunk two cups of coffee today. (It is still the same day.) • for recently completed actions. She has done the shopping. (The action is complete. The shopping is now done.) • for personal experiences/changes which have happened. She has cut her hair short recently. • to put emphasis on a number. She has been to the gym seven times this week. Time expressions used with the present perfect: just, already, yet, for, since, ever, never, etc. GR2 Grammar Reference Section Present Perfect Continuous MODULE 2 Form: present tense of ‘'have” - been + main verb -f -ing -ing forrn Use We use the present perfect continuous: • to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present. He has been rearranging the Uving room since Frida}/. • for an action which started in the past and lasted for some time, (t may still be continuing, or have finished, but it has left a visible result in the present. She's happy because she's been listening to her favourite CD all day. ■ to express anger, irritation or annoyance/criticism. She has been using my computer without asking me. • for repeated actions in the past continuing to the present. He has put on weight because he's been eating junk food every day since last month. Time expressions used with the present perfect continuous; since, for, how long (to put emphasis on duration). Present Perfect vs Past Simple We use the past simple for: • an action which happened at a stated time in the past. Liz watched a film yesterday. (When? Yesterday. The time is mentioned.) • an action which started and finished in the past. Paul had on earache for a week. (He doesn’t have an earache any more.) We use the present perfect simple for: • an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. Liz hos watched a film. (We don’t know when.) • an action which started in the past and is still continuing in the present. Paul has lived here for two years. (He stilt lives here.) Have gone to/Have been to/Have been in • She has gone to work. (She's on her way to work or she’s there now. She hasn’t come back yet.) • He has been to Berlin. (He has visited Berlin but he isn’t there now. He has come back.) ■ They have been in Athens for eight months. (They are in Athens now.) The -ing form is used: • as a noun in the function of the subject. Exercising is good for your health. • after the verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, continue, deny, fancy, go (for activities), imagine, mind, miss, practise, prevent, quit, save, suggest. Vbu should avoid eating junk food. • after the verbs love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to express general preference, Brian prefers living atone. ! would like to eat Chinese food tonight. • after expressions such as: be busy, it’s no use, it’s no good, it’s (not) worth, what’s the use of, can’t help, there’s no point (in), can’t stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble, etc. ! have difficulty (in) understanding what he says. • after the verbs spend, waste, lose (time, money, etc.). He spends an hour playing the guitar every day. • after the preposition to with verbs and expressions such as: look forward to, be used to, in addition to, object to, prefer (doing sth to sth else). She prefers walking to driving to work. • after other prepositions. I was thinking of calling John. He apologised for being late. • after the verbs hear, listen to, notice, see, watch and feel to describe an incomplete action. I saw Paul waiting for the bus. (I only saw part of the action.) BUT We use the infinitive without to with hear, listen to, notice, see, watch and feel to describe a completed action. I didn’t see Paul get on the bus. (The action was completed.) Note: be/get used to + -ing form I'm used to working very hard. BUT t used to work very hard, (t don't any more.) Infinitive The to-infinitive is used: • to express purpose. She went fo the supermarket to buy some cheese. • after certain verbs that refer to the future (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, want, etc). ! expect him to be here. I want you to come. GR3 Grammar Relerence Section • after would like, would prefer, would love, etc to express a specific preference. / would love to come to your party. • after adjectives which describe feelings/emotions (happy, glad, sad. etc), express willingness/ unwillingness {eager, reluctant, willing, etc) or refer to a person's character, and the adjectives lucky and fortunate (clever, kind, etc). t was sad to hear you were not feeling welt. NOTE: With adjectives that refer to character, we can also use an impersonal construction. It was kind of you to lend me your laptop. • after too/enough. She’s old enough to watch the film. • with it + be + adjective/noun. It was moving to see him again after so many years. • after be + first/second/next/last etc. She was the first person to call me on my birthday. • after verbs and expressions such as ask. decide, explain, find out, learn, want, want to know, etc when they are followed by a question word. She asked me when to get the tickets. • in the expressions to tell you the truth, to be honest, to sum up, to begin with, etc. To sum up. the government needs to take measures to deal with unemployment more effectively. Note: If two to-infinitives are linked by and/or, the to of the second infinitive is omitted. I would love to go to Paris and see the museums. • after certain nouns. It’s my honour to take part in this festival. • with so + adjective + as. Would you be so kind as to help me with the door? • with ‘only’ expressing an unsatisfactory result. She drove all the way to the mall only to find it wos closed. • in the expressions for + noun/pronoun + to -inf. It was very unusual for John to speak so rudely. Note: Dare expressing having the courage to do something is used with an infinitive with or without to. I don’t dare (to) tell him the truth. Dare expressing a threat, a warning or anger, is used with an infinitive without to. Don’t you dare talk to me like that. Dare expressing a challenge is used with a to-infinitive. / dare you to dive into the sea from the cliff. The infinitive without to (also called bare infinitive) is used: • after modal verbs. Sally can speak Portuguese fluently. • after the verbs let. make, see, hear and feel. They let him travel on his own. BUT We use the to-infinitive after be made, be heard, be seen, etc (passive form). She wos seen to steal goods from the greengrocer's. Note: When see, hear and watch are followed by an -ing form, there is no change in the passive. I heard her crying in her room. She was heard crying in her room. • after had better and would rather. You had better put a jacket on. Note: Help can be followed by either the to-infinitive or the infinitive without to. She helped me (to) carry the desk. Differences in meaning between the to-infinitive and -ing form Some verbs can take either the to-infinitive or the -ing form with a change in meaning, • forget + to-infinitive = not remember She forgot to buy milk. ^ forget -ing form = not recall I’ll never forget visiting London for the first time. • remember to-infinitive = not forget Did you remember to call Maria? • remember -ing form = recall / remember meeting her in Paris. • mean to-infinitive - intend to I apologise. I didn't mean to upset you. • mean -ing form = involve Being о good doctor means devoting your life to helping others. • regret -*■ to-infinitive = be sorry to (normally used in the present simple with verbs such as say, tell, inform) / regret to inform you that your application has been rejected. • regret -^ -ing form = feel sorry about / regret hurting your feelings. • try -t- to-infinitive attempt, do one’s best I tried to convince her that everything would be alright. • try + -ing form = do something as an experiment you should try exercising more often. • stop - to-infinitive = stop temporarily in order to do something else While I was driving to work, I stopped to buy a sandwich. • stop -^ -ing form = finish doing something / stopped drinking coffee months ago. • go on -1- to-infinitive (= finish doing sth and start doing sth else afterwards) 5he did the washing up, then went on to tidy up the kitchen. GR4 Grammar Reference Section • go on + -ing form |- continue doing sthi She went on talking for hours. • want + to-infinitive (= wish) I want to travel to Africa. want * -ing form |= sth needs to be done) Л1у car wants cleaning. • be sorry * to-infinitive [= regret.) I was sorry to hear you haven’t been feeling well. • be sorry for t -ing form (- apologise for) I’m sorry for being so abrupt with you. • hate - to-inf (= not like what one is about to do) I hate to disappoint you but he’s not coming. hate -b -ing form (= feel sorry for what one is doing) / hate troubling you, but could you help me with this? • be afraid to-inf (= be too frightened to do sth; hesitate) She wos too afraid to travel on her own. • be afraid of -^ -ing form [= be afraid that what is referred to by the -ing form may happen) When exercising, I’m afraid of injuring my back. Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form without a change in meaning • begin, continue, intend, start - to-inf or -ing form We don’t normally have two -ing forms together. She began talking/to talk. NOT: She is beginning talking. • advise, allow, encourage, permit, require - object to-inf He odvrsed me to stay indoors. • advise, allow, encourage, permit, require -ing form He advised taking two tablets. • be advised, be allowed, be encouraged, be permitted, be required - to-inf I was advised to take two tablets. • need, require, want -ь to-inf/-ing form/passive inf You need to mow the lawn. The lawn needs mowing. The lawn needs to be mowed. Expressing Preference To express general preference we use: • I prefer + noun/-ing * to + noun,'-ing I prefer vegetables to meat. I prefer painting to drawing. • I prefer + to-infinitive -i rather than -t- bare infinitive I prefer to go out rather than stay at home on a Saturday. To express specific preference we use: • I’d prefer -ь to-infinitive (* rather than -ь bare infinitive) Td prefer to go to a restouront frofher thon eot in). • I'd prefer noun (- rather than + noun) Would you like some tea? I'd prefer a glass of water, thank you. • I’d rather -^ bare infinitive (-^ than bare infinitive) I'd rather go to the concert than stay at home. MODULE 3 Future Simple Form: will * main verb Use Wc use the future simple: • for predictions about the future, (usually with the verbs: hope, think, believe. expect, imogine, etc; with the expressions: I’m sure, I’m afraid, etc; with the adverbs: probably, perhaps, etc) i believe he'll have to cancel his trip. He’ll probably be late. • for promises, 1 promise I won’t forget you. • for on-the-spot decisions. !’m so tired. I’ll take a break. • for threats. If you don't study hard, you will fail your exams. • for hopes, fears, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, requests, comments, etc especially with: expect, hope, believe. I’m sure. I’m afraid, probably etc. I’m afraid she will be busy tomorrow. • for things we are not yet sure about or we haven’t decided to do yet. Maybe I’ll go to the cinema later. NOTE: ‘Shall’ I/we is typically used in the interrogative form when making suggestions, offers and asking for advice. Sho/f we go out later? Time expressions used with the future simple: fomorrow. the day after tomorrow, next week? month/year, tonight, soon, in a week/month/year, etc. Future Continuous Form: will be * present participle of the main verb Use We use the future continuous: • for actions which will be in progress at a stated future time. This time next week Tit be sonbathing in Barbados. GR5 Grammar Reference Section • for actions which will definitely happen in the future as a result of a routine or arrangement. She will be driving to Cheshire tonight. • when we ask politely about someone’s plans for the near future. Will you be watching the show tonight? Future Perfect BUT We use will to make predictions based on what we think and imagine, I think she’ll become a great writer. to talk about things we are sure about or we have already decided to do in the near future. They are going to build a bridge here, (it has been decided.) Form: will + have + past participle of the main verb Present Simple With future meaning Use We use the future perfect: • for an action which will be finished before a stated future time. She will have written her essay by 7 o'clock. Time expressions used with the future perfect: before, by, by then, by the time, untii/till. By the time she gets home, she wilt have driven for four hours. Time words The future simple is not used after while, before, until, as soon as. after, if, by the time or os. We use the present simple or present perfect instead. I’ll go out after I finish/have finished doing my homework. (NOT: after t will finish) When (= At what time?) used as a question word can be followed by the future simple. When (- at the time) used as a time word is followed by the present simple. When will you go to Japan? (when - question word) I’ll call you when I finish work, (when = fime word) Other ways to express future Be going to going to - bare Form: verb to be (am/is/are) infinitive of the main verb Use We use be going to: • to talk about our future plans and intentions. She’s going to go shopping tomorrow, (she’s planning to...) BUT We use will for on-the-spot decisions. I'm thirsty. I think i'll have a glass of water. • to make predictions based on what we see or know. There are black clouds in the sky. It looks like it is going to rain. Timetables/programmes The bus arrives at 2 o’clock in the morning. Present Continuous with future meaning Fixed arrangements in the near future ! am relaxing at home this weekend. (It’s planned.) Comparatives - Superlatives • We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. We use the superlative to compare one person or thing with others of the same group. We often use than after a comparative. He’s taller than me. • We normally use the before a superlative. We can use in or of after superlatives. We often use in with places. He's the tallest in our class. it was the most difficult question of all. Formation of comparatives and superlatives from adjectives and adverbs • With one-syllable adjectives, we add -(e)r to form the comparative and -(e)st to form the superlative, sweet - sweeter - the sweetest NOTE: For one-syllable adjectives ending in vowel ■t- consonant, we double the consonant. big ■ bigger ■ biggest • With two-syllable adjectives, we form the comparative with more + adjective and the superlative with most + adjective. helpful - more helpful - most helpful NOTE: For two-syllable adjectives ending in consonant + y, we replace -y with -i and add -er/ -est, happy - happier - happiest • With adjectives with more than two syllables, comparatives and superlatives are formed with more/most. interesting - more interesting most interesting NOTE: clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, sholfow, simple. GR6 Grammar Reference Section stupid can form their comparatives and superlatives either with -er/-est or with more/most, simple-simpler/more simple-simplest/most simple • With adverbs that have the same form as their adjectives [hard, fast, free, early, late, hi^h, low, deep, iong, near, straight) we add -er/est. hard - harder hordest • All other adverbs e.g, quickly, slowly, easily take more/most. • Irregular forms: good/well - better - best much - more - most far - farther/further - farthest/furthest bad/badly - worse - worst many/lots ■ more - most little - less ■ least NOTE: We can use elder/eldest for people in the same family, jMy eider/ofder brother got married last week. Types of comparisons • as + adjective + as shows that two people or things are similar in some way. in negative sentences we use not as/so ... as. John is os short as Kevin. • less + adjective + than expresses the difference between two people or things. The opposite is more ... than. I think that Philosophy is (ess interesting than Maths. • the least + adjective + of/in compares one person or thing to two or more people or things in the same group. The opposite is the most ... of/in. Fiona is the least creative person in my class. • much/a lot/far/a little/a bit/slightly + comparative expresses the degree of difference between two people or things. They moved to a siishtly larger house. • comparative + and + comparative shows that something is increasing or decreasing. The weather is getting warmer and warmer. • by far + the + superlative emphasises the difference between one person or thing and two or more people or things in the same group. Liso is by far the most intelligent person in my class. • twice/three times etc/half as ... (positive degree) ... as She did twice as wed as Jill in the written test but she failed the oral exam. • the same ... as She shores the same viewpoint as Mr Paxman. • look/sound/smell/taste + like She looks like о fairy princess. the + comparative the + comparative The harder you study, the better marks you wUl get. Like - As • Like is used; a) for similarities. He works like a dog. (He isn’t a dog.) b) after/eel/look/sme/l/foste/sound + noun. It/eels like heaven, c) with nouns, pronouns or the -ing form to express similarity. It’s like old times again. • As is used: a) to say what somebody or something really is (jobs/roles). She works as a clerk. (She’s a clerk.) b) after accept, be known, class, describe, refer to, regard, use. He’s known as the friendliest person in the school, c) in the expressions: os usuol, os ... os. as much, such as, the same as. Certain species, such as the sea turtle, are in great danger. d) in clauses of manner to mean 'in the way that'. I’ll do as you please. MODULE 4 ModaLs Can/could, may/might, must/[had to], ought to, shall/should, will/would; • don’t take -s , -ing or -ed affixes. • are followed by the bare infinitive. • come before the subject in questions and are followed by not in negations. • don’t have tenses in the normal sense. When followed by a normal bare infinitive, they refer to an uncompleted action or state (i.e. present or future); when followed by the bare perfect infinitive, they refer to a completed action or state. Obligation/Duty/Necessity • Must: Expresses duty/strong obligation to do sth, shows that sth is essential. We generally use must when the speaker has decided that sth is necessary (i.e. subjective). I must contact the school for further information. • Have to: Expresses strong necessity/obligation. We usually use have to when somebody other than the speaker has decided that sth is necessary (i.e. objective). He said that we have to be at the train station by 7:00. • Had to is the past form of both must and have to. • Should/Ought to expresses duty, weak obligation. We should cfeor away the mess in the kitchen. GR7 Grammar Reference Section Absence of necessity ■ Don’t have to/Don’t need to/Needn’t: It isn't necessary to do sth in the present/fiJture. Vbu don’t have to dress, formally today. You don’t need to go if you don’t want to. You needn’t wear your best clothes. • Didn’t have to: It wasn’t necessary to do sth. We don’t know if it was done or not. He didn’t have to invite everyone to the party. (We don’t know if he invited everyone. I Permission/Prohibition • Can/May: Are used to ask for/give permission. May is more formal than can. Can/May I use your phone, please? Yes, of course, you can/may. • Mustn’t/Can’t: It is forbidden to do sth: it is against the rules/Law; you are not allowed to do sth. You mustn’t/can’t park here. Possibility • Can + present infinitive: General/Theoretical possibility. Not usually used for a specific situation. Going to the gym can be boring. • Could/May/Might + present infinitive: Possibility in a specific situation. She should take a map with her. She might get lost. NOTE; We can use can/could/might in questions BUT NOT may. How difficult can it be? • Could/Might/Would + perfect infinitive: Refers to sth in the past that was possible but didn’t happen. He could have come with us. if he hodn’t missed the train. Note how the forms of the infinitive are formed: Present simple; (to) play Present continuous: (to) be playing Present perfect simple; (to) have played Present perfect continuous: (to) have been playing Ability/lnability • Can expresses ability in the present/future. I can speak Italian fluently, • Could expresses general repeated ability in the past. I could sing quite well when I was younger. • Was(n’t) able to expresses lin)ability on a specific occasion in the past. I was(n’t) able to find alt the answers to the questions. • Couldn’t may be used to express any kind of inability in the past, repeated or specific. ! couldn’t read or write when I was four. I couldn’t/wasn’t able to speak to him yesterday. Logical Assumptions/Deductions ■ Must = almost certain that this is/was true He isn’t at work. So he must be on his way home. John hasn't come yet. Something must have defoyed him. • May/Might/Could = possible that this is/was true The computer is out of order. It may be broken. They were lucky. They could have been killed. • Can’t/Couldn’t = almost certain that this is/was impossible That can't be Ion.' Ian has blue eyes and blond hair. Jim couldn’t have cooked dinner. He’s been at work since mornir)g. Criticism • Could: You could at least be polite to her. (present) Vbu could at least have called to cancel it yesterday, (past) . Should: He should call us back. She should have told us. (but she didn’t) • Ought to: You ought to be more careful. Offers/Suggestions • Can: Can l/we give you a hand? • Would: Would you like a cup of tea? • Shall: Shall I give you a lift? • Can/Could: We can go out. We could watch TV. Probability • Will; He wf/f co/f me tonight. (100% certoin) • Should/Ought to: The weather should/ought to get better tomorrow. (90% certain: future only: it’s probable) Advice Should: general advice Vbu should stop smoking. Ought to: general advice You ought to abide by the rules. Shall: asking for advice Shall I enter the competition? Certain verbs or expressions can be used with the same meaning as modals. These are: need (- must}, had better (= should), have (got) to (= must), be able to (= can), used to (= would). I’ve got to see the doctor. Will you be able to help me? GR8 Grammar Reference Section Participles Present participles (verb +ing) describe what somebody or something is. It was an excitins story. iWhat kind of stor\/ was )t? Exdtingj Past participles (verb +ed) describe how somebody feels. We were excited by the news. (How did we feel about the news? Excited.) MODULE 5 Past Simple Form; A regular past form ends in -ed. Some verbs have an irregular past form. [See list of Irregular Verbs) The past simple is the same in all persons. The only exception is the past tense of "be”. Spelling (Past Simple affirmative of regular verbs) • We add -d to verbs ending in -e. / wave - I waved For verbs ending in consonant + у we drop the -y and add -ied. I cry - I cried • For verbs ending in vowel + y. we add -ed. I pray - I prayed • For verbs ending in one stressed vowel between two consonants we double the last consonant and add -ed. I skip - I skipped • For verbs ending in -1. we double the -I and add -ed, I travel - t travelled Use We use the past simple for: • actions completed in the past. Bruce called Tina yesterday morning. • actions which happened at a specific time in the past. She went to the gym at 7 o'clock. (When? At 7 o'clock.) • past habits. We often travelled to London when we were students. • past actions which happened one immediately after the other. She woke up, put some clothes on and ran out of the house. • completed past actions not connected to the present with a stated or implied time reference. Henry James wrote many novels. (Henry James is dead: he won’t write any more novels period of time now finished - implied time reference; Time expressions used with the past simple: yesterdoy, yesterday morning/evening, etc, last ni^ht/week, etc, two weeks/a month ago, in 1988, etc. Past Continuous Form: past form of the verb to be (was/ were) - main verb + -ing. Use We use the past continuous; • for an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We do not know when the action started or finished. At 7 o’c/ock yesferdoy morning, we were driving to the airport. • for a past action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action). He was listening to music when the doorbell rang. • for two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions), I was tidying up while John was ironing. • to give background information in a story. The wind wos howling and dark clouds were gathering in the sky. Paul was standing ... etc Time expressions used with the past continuous: while, when, as, all day/night/morning, yesterday, etc. Past Simple vs Past Continuous • We use the past simple for an action which happened at a stated time in the past. Fay rang Susan at 1 o’clock in the morning. BUT We use the past continuous for an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We don’t know when the action started or finished. At 3 o’clock in the afternoon, he was taking a nap in his room. • We use the past simple for actions which happened one after the other in the past. First she packed her bags and then she ordered a taxi. BUT We use the past continuous for two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions). She wos watering the plants while he was painting the garage. GR9 Grammar Reference Section • We use the past continuous to show that someone was interrupted in the middle of an action. We use the past simple to talk about an action that interrupted it. Molly was walking back home when it began to rain. Past Perfect Form: had + past participle of the main verb Use The past perfect is used: • for an action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past. Tom had tidied up alt the rooms before the children returned from school. • for an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past. He had won first prize, so he felt ecstatic. NOTE: The past perfect is the past equivalent of the present perfect, a) He had missed the piane. so he was very upset. (The event ‘had missed’ the plane happened in the past, and the result 'was very upset’ was visible in the past, too,) b) He has missed his plane, so he is very upset. {The event 'has missed’ the plane happened in the past, and the result ‘is very upset’ is still visible in the present.) NOTE: We can use the past perfect or the past simple with before or after without any difference in meaning. She went out with her friends after she (had) returned from school. She (had) returned from school before she went out with her friends. Time expressions used with the past perfect: before, after, already, for, since, just, tilt/until, when, by, by the time, never, etc. Past Perfect Continuous Form: had + been main verb + -ing The past perfect continuous is used: • to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past before another past action or a stated time in the past, usually with since or for. She had been waiting for days before he called her. • for an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past. She had been working hard for hours, so she was very tired. (She spent many hours working and the result of the action was visible in the past.) NOTE; The past perfect continuous is the past equivalent of the present perfect continuous, a) She had been resting for hours, so she felt very relaxed. (The action ‘had been resting’ lasted for some time in the past, and the result ‘she felt relaxed’ was visible in the past.) b) She has been resting for hours so she feels very relaxed. (The action ‘has been resting’ started in the past, and the result 'feels very relaxed' is still visible in the present.) Time expressions used with the past perfect continuous: for. since, how long, before, until, etc, A/An (Indefinite article) The (definite article) • A/An is used with singular countable nouns to talk about indefinite things. There's a girl swimming in the sea. • The is used with singular/plural nouns, countable & uncountable ones, to talk about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for the second time. The boy in the red T-shi’rt is my cousin. There’s a car outside. The car is Bill's. • A/An or the is used before singular countable nouns to refer to a group of people, animals or things. A dog is a domestic animat, (all dogs) The tiger is a wild animal, (all tigers) • The is never used before a noun in the plural when it represents a group. Dogs are domestic animals. (NOT: The dogs are domestic animals.) ■ A/An can also be used instead of “per” meaning “one”. She goes to the theatre three times a/per month. It can also be used with names, money (a pound), fractions fa quarter), weight/measures fan inch), whole numbers fo million), price/weight (£4 a litre), frequency ftwice a month), distance/fuel f90 mi/es a go//on|, distance/speed (40 km an hour) and some illnesses fo cold, a fever, (a) toothache, (a) sfomoch ache, but NOT flu, pnemonia of tonsillitis, etc. I The is used before; • nouns which are unique (the moon, the sky, the stars) • names of theatres (the Globe) • names of cinemas (the Odeon) • names of hotels (the Ritz) • names of restaurants fthe Terrace) GRIO Grammar Reference Section • names of museums and picture galleries (the Museum of Chiidhood, the Tate GalleryJ • names of newspapers and some magazines (the Daily Telegraph, the Economist; • names of rivers, seas and oceans (the Thames, the Black Sea, the Atlantic Ocean) • names of mountain ranges (the Alps) • names of groups of islands (the Dodecanese) • names of deserts (the Gobi desertT • names of musical instruments in the phrases like “to play the flute/pioano, etc” • names of families, the Smiths • nouns: the President, the Prince of Wales when they mean people. BUT “The" is omitted before titles with proper names (Queen Elizabeth il) or the same nouns when they mean positions of jobs. (He became president of the country.) • with substantivised adjectives denoting categories of people used as plural nouns (the blind, the elderly, the rich, etc) • historical references/events, the French Revolution, the Second World War No article is used before: • proper nouns. Amy, Rufus, etc. • names of sports, games, activities, days, months, holidays, colours, drinks, meals and languages (not followed by the word "language"). / love tennis. Can you speak French? • names of countries (France, Greece), names of cities (Manchester), names of streets (Bond Street BUT the high street), parks (Central Park), individual mountains (Mount Everest), names of islands fCorsJco, Corfu but NOT groups of islands: The British isles, the Maldives,), continents (Africa), lakes (Lake Baikal BUT the Baikal). • two-word names whose first word is the name of a person or place (Glasgow Airport BUT the White House). • pubs, restaurants, shops, banks & hotels which have the name of their founder and end in -s or -’s Jim's Cafe, Harrods, etc. • bed, church, college, court, hospital, prison, school, university when we refer to the purpose for which they exist. He goes to church every Sunday. BUT: We have to be at the church at 9:00. Some - Any No & Their Compounds Some, any and no are used with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns. We need some eggs and some butter. • We use some and its compounds (somebody, someone, something, somewhere, etc) in the affirmative. She needs some time. • We also use some and its compounds in the interrogative for offers or requests. Would you like some cake? Can I have some milk with my tea, please? • We use any and its compounds (anyone, anything, etc) in interrogative sentences. Hos anyone called? • Not any is used in negative sentences. There isn’t any fruit in the bosket. • Any and its compounds can also be used with negative words such as without, never, rarely. / have never met anyone like him. • When any and its compounds are used in affirmative sentences, there is a difference in meaning. You can say anything you want to the journalist, (it doesn't matter what) Anyone can take part in the competition, (it doesn’t matter who) • No and its compounds are used instead of not any in negative sentences. They haven't got any money./They’ve got no money. They didn’t buy anything./They bought nothing./There wasn't anybody in the room./ There was nobody in the room. NOTE: We use a singular verb with compounds of some, any and no. There is someone in the room. Every - Each • Every is used with singular countable nouns. It refers to a group of people or things and means “all, everyone, everything”, etc. Every student has a library card, (everyone) • Each is used with singular countable nouns. It refers to the members of a group separately. Each visitor was given a day pass, (each visitor separately) . Every one and each (one) can be followed by of. We normally use each when we talk about two people or things. We use every when we talk about three or more people or things. She owns two flats and she decorated each (one) of them beautifully. Paul has written many novels. Every one of them has been a best seller. A few/few - A little/little A few and few are used with plural countable nouns. A little and little are used with uncountable nouns. GRll Grammar Reference Section • A few means ‘not many, but enough’. We have a few apples. We can make an apple pie. Few means ‘hardly any, almost none’ and can be used with very for emphasis. There were (very) few visitors in the museum. • A little means ‘not much, but enough’. It's a little cold - would you like me to close the window? • Little means ‘hardly any, almost none’ and can be used with very for emphasis. We have (very) little time left. We must hurry up. A lot of/Lots of - Much - Many • A lot of/Lots of are used with both plural countable and uncountable nouns. They are normally used in affirmative sentences. There are a lot/lots of opportunities for young graduates. The of is omitted when a lot/lots are not followed by a noun. There’s lots/a lot going on in town today. • Much and many are usually used in negative or interrogative sentences. Much is used with uncountable nouns and many is used with plural countable nouns. There aren’t many books on the shelf. Did you spend much money in the sales? MODULE 6 Conditionals: type 0/1 Type 0 conditionals are used to express a general truth or a scientific fact. In this type of conditional we can use when instead of if. IF-CLAUSE MAIN CUUSE If/When + present simple present simple If/When polluted water is not filtered, it can be dangerous for our health. Type 1 conditionals are used to express a real or very probable situation in the present or future. When the hypothesis comes before the main, clause, we separate the two parts with a comma. When the main clause comes before the if-clause, then we do not use a comma to separate them. NOTE: With type 1 conditionals we can use unless + affirmative verb (= if + negative verb). She will not speak to him unless he apologises. (If he doesn’t apologise, she will not speak to him.) Conditionals: type 2 & 3 • Type 2 conditionals (unreal present) are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the present, and therefore, are unlikely to happen in the present or the future. We can use either were or was for and person singular in the if-clause. We can also use the structure If t were you, ... to give advice. IF-CLAUSE MAIN CUUSE If + past simple/ past continuous would/could/might + bare infinitive If t had a good voice, I would become a singer. If Paul was not working today, we could go to the beach. If I were you, I would stay in tonight. Type 3 conditionals (unreal past) are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the past. They are also used to express regrets or criticism. IF-CUUSE If + past perfect/ past perfect continuous MAIN CUUSE would/could/might + bare perfect infinitive If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exams. If he hadn’t been studying that hard, he wouldn’t have passed his exams. Conditionals are usually introduced by if. Other expressions are: unless (= if not), providing, provided (that), as long as, on condition (that), but for + -ing form/noun, otherwise, or else, what if, supposing, even if, only if. Unless she starts studying harder, she’s going to fait her exams. Get up now or else you’ll miss your appointment. NOTE: When only if begins a sentence, the subject and the verb of the main clause are inverted. Only if you are dressed formally, will you be allowed in. When the if-clause precedes the main clause, we separate the two clauses with a comma. If you are feeling tired, you must rest. BUT: You must rest if you are feeling tired. In conditionals type 2 in formal English we normally use were instead of was after “if" for all persons. GR12 Grammar Reference Section If he were/was here, thinss would have been different. • We do not normally use will, would or should in if-clauses. If you stay up late, you can get into trouble. (NOT: if you will stay) However will, would or should can be used in if-clauses to make a request or express annoyance, doubt, uncertainty or insistence. If she should need help, ask her to call me. (doubt/uncertainty - I doubt that she will need help.) If you will stop arguing, we will find a solution, (request - Please stop arguing.) Omission of ‘if’ If can be omitted in if-clauses. In this case should (cond. type 1), were (cond, type 2) and had (cond. type 3) come before the subject. If he should pass the exam, he will apply to university. -> Should he pass the exam, he will apply to university. If I had known, I would have told you. Had I known, I would have told you. Wishes • We can use wish/if only to express a wish. Verb form + past simple/past continuous / wish 1 was not working right now. (but 1 am) If only 1 were going to the concert tonight, (but I’m not) to say that we would like something to be different about a present situation + past perfect 1 wish 1 had studied harder, (but 1 didn't) If only 1 hadn’t been so foolish, (but 1 was) to express regret about something which happened or didn’t happen in the past + subject + would bare inf. 1 wish you wouldn’t be so rude to your sister. If only you would stop arguing. to express: • a polite imperative • a desire for a situation or person’s behaviour to change NOTE; If only is used in exactly the same way as I wish but it is more emphatic or more dramatic. • We can use were instead of was after “wish” and "if only”. I wish I was/were young again. MODULE 7 The Passive Voice Form: We form the passive with the verb to be in the appropriate tense and the past participle of the main verb. Read the table: ACTIVE PASSIVE Present Simple Mary makes tea. Tea is made by Mary. Present Continuous Mary is making tea. Tea is being made by Mary. Past Simple Mary made tea. Tea was made by Mary. Past Continuous Mary was making tea. Tea was being made by Mary. Present Perfect Simple Mary has made tea. Tea has been made by Mary. Past Perfect Simple Mary had made tea. Tea had been made by Mary. Future Simple Mary will make tea. Tea will be made by Mary. Future Perfect Simple Mary will have made tea. Tea will have been made by Mary. Infinitive Mary has to make tea. Tea has to be made by Mary. Modal Verbs Mary may make tea. Tea may be made by Mary. We use the passive: • when the person/people doing the action is/are unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context. The food was cooked. (We don’t know who cooked it.) The shirt is being washed. (It’s unimportant who is washing it.) The criminal has been arrested. (It’s obvious that the police arrested the criminal.) • when the action itself is more important than the person/people doing it, as in news headlines, GR13 Grammar Reference Section newspaper articles, formal notices, advertisements, instructions, processes, etc. Trespassers will be prosecuted. • when we want to avoid taking responsibility for an action or when we refer to an unpleasant event and we do not want to say who or what is to blame. Hundreds of people were injured in the train crash. • to emphasise the agent. The flowers were sent by the Queen herself. • to make statements more formal or polite. My bas has been ruined. (More polite than saying ‘you've ruined my bag’.) Changing from the active to the passive: • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence. • The active verb remains in the same tense but changes into passive form. • The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent, and is either introduced with the preposition by or is omitted. Subject Verb Object ACTIVE Liz painted a portrait. PASSIVE Subject A portrait Verb was painted Agent by Liz. Only transitive verbs (verbs that take an object) can be changed into the passive. Active: Paul swims every day. (intransitive verb; no passive form). NOTE: Some transitive verbs {have, exist, seem, fit, suit, resemble, lack, etc) cannot be changed into the passive. This colour suits you. (NOT: This colour is suited K« I 11/^1 i I f We can use the verb to get instead of the verb to be in everyday speech when we talk about things that happen by accident or unexpectedly. He got hit by a truck. By + the agent is used to say who or what carries out an action. With + instrument/material/ ingredient is used to say what the agent used. This photograph was taken by my brother. It was taken with a digital camera. The agent can be omitted when the subject is they, he, someone/somebody, people, one, etc. People have discovered the truth. (= The truth has been discovered.) The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person, or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence. The novel was written by Graham Greene. • With verbs which can take two objects, such as bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, sell, read, offer, give, lend, etc, we can form two different passive sentences. Philip will send Sarah a gift, (active) Sara will be sent a gift, (passive, more usual) A gift will be sent to Sarah by Philip, (passive, less usual) • In passive questions with who, whom or which we do not omit by. Who gave you this book? Who were you given this book by? • Hear, help, make and see are followed by a to-infinitive in the passive. She made me lie. -»I was made to lie. NOTE: Hear, see and watch can be followed by a present participle in the active and passive. We saw her stealing. »She was seen stealing. MODULE 8 Reported Speech Direct speech is the exact words someone said. We use quotation marks in direct speech. Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in reported speech. The word that can either be used or omitted after the introductory verb (say, tell, etc). Say - Tell • say + no personal object She said (that) she was very happy. • say + to + personal object She said to me (that) she was very happy. • tell + personal object She told me (that) she was very happy. • we use say + to-infinitive but never say about. We use tell sb, speak/talk about instead. Ann said to wake her up at 3:00. He told them/spoke/talked about the meeting. hello, good morning/aftemoon, etc, something/ nothing, so, a prayer, a few words, no more, for certain/sure, etc. the truth, a lie, a story, a secret, a joke, the time, the difference, one from another, somebody one’s name, somebody the way, somebody so, someone’s fortune, etc. a question, a favour, the price, after somebody, the time, around, for something/somebody, etc. GR14 Grammar Reference Section Reported Statements • In reported speech, personal/possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning of the sentence. Helen said, “I’m having a party." (direct statement) Helen said (that) she was having a party, (reported statement) • We can report someone's words either a long time after they were said (reporting the past) or a short time after they were said (up-to-date reporting). Up-to-date reporting The tenses can either change or remain the same in reported speech. Direct speech: Stella said, “I’ve ordered pizza. ” Reported speech: Stella said (that) she had ordered pizza. Reporting the past The introductory verb is in the past simple and the tenses change as follows: DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH Present Simple -*• Past Simple "1 want to learn Japanese. ” She said (that) she wanted to learn Japanese. Present Continuous -+ Past Continuous “We are watching a film.” They said (that) they were watching a film. Present Perfect -»• Past Perfect “1 have brushed my teeth. ” She said (that) she had brushed her teeth. Past Simple -> Past Simple or Past Perfect “1 mowed the lawn. ” She said (that) she mowed/had mowed the lawn. Past Continuous Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous “He was playing the piano. ” She said (that) he was playing/had been playing the piano. Will -> Would "/ wilt meet you at 7.00.” She said (that) she would meet me at 7:00. • Certain words and time expressions change according to the meaning as follows: now ► then, immediately today ► that day yesterday ► the day before, the previous day tomorrow ► the next/following day this week ► that week last week ► the week before, the previous week next week * the week after, the following week ago ► before here ► there Tenses do not change in reported speech when: • the reporting verb (said, told, etc) is in the present, future or present perfect. • “I can’t speak French,” he says. -* He says (that) he can’t speak French. • the speaker expresses general truths, permanent states or conditions. “The sun sets in the west,” Mr Thom said. Mr Thom said that the sun sets in the west. • the reported sentence deals with conditionals type 2/type 3, wishes or unreal past. “I wish I was a film star,” he said. -» He said he wished he was a film star. • the speaker is reporting sth immediately after it was said. “The view is breathtaking,” he said. -» He said that the view is breathtaking. Reported Questions • Reported questions are usually introduced with the verbs ask, inquire, wonder or the expression want to know. • When the direct question begins with a question word (who, where, how, when, what, etc), the reported question is introduced with the same question word. “Where are you from?” she asked, (direct question) She asked me where I was from, (reported question) • When the direct question begins with an auxiliary (be, do, have) or a modal verb (can, may, etc), then the reported question is introduced with if or whether. He asked, "Do you want a ride to school?” (direct question) He asked me if/whether I wanted a ride to school, (reported question) • In reported questions, the verb is in the affirmative. The question mark and words/expressions such as please, well, oh, etc are omitted. The verb tenses, pronouns and time expressions change as in statements. “Could you give me a hand, please?” he asked. (direct question) GR15 Grammar Reference Section GR16 He asked me whether I could give him a hand. (reported question) Indirect questions • Indirect questions are used to ask for advice or information. They are introduced with: Could you tell me ...?, Do you know ...?, I wonder I want to know I doubtetc and the verb is in the affirmative. If the indirect question starts with I want to know .... I wonder ... or I doubtthe question mark is omitted. Direct question “Where is the library?” Indirect question Do you know where the library is? Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions • Reported commands/requests/suggestions are introduced with a special introductory verb (advise, ask, beg, suggest, etc) followed by a to-infinitive, an -ing form or a that-clause depending on the introductory verb, “Be careful,” he said to me. He advised me to be careful, (command) “Please, don’t go,” he said to me. • He begged me not to go. (request) “Let’s watch a film,” he said. * He suggested watching a film, (suggestion) “You’d better take an aspirin,” he said. -* He suggested that I (should) take an aspirin, (suggestion) Reported Orders • To report orders or instructions, we use the verbs order or tell + sb + (not) to-infinitive. "Be patient!" she said to me. (direct order) She told me to be patient, (reported order) "Don't go!" he said to her. (direct order) He ordered her not to go. (reported order) Modal Verbs in Reported Speech Note how the following modal verbs change in reported speech v4ien the reported sentence is out of date, will/shall • would, can • could (present reference)/would be able to (future reference), may • might/could, shall •» should (asking for advice)/ would (asking for information)/offer (expressing offers), must -► must/had to (obligation) (‘ must remains the same when it expresses possibility or deduction), needn’t • didn’t need to/didn’t have to (present reference)/wouldn’t have to (future reference). Would, could, used to, mustn’t, should, might, ought to and had better remain unchanged in reported speech. Direct Speech He said, "I will always remember you. ” He said, “I can’t see you. ’’ He said, “We can visit you soon. ” He said, “It may rain. ” He said, “What time shall we call her?” He said, “Shall I buy this car?” He said, “Shall I give you a hand?” He said, “You must send him a reply." He said, “She must be upset. ” He said, “She had better be nice to me. ” He said, “You needn’t worry. ” He said, “You needn’t come that early tomorrow. ” He said, “They should give me a receipt. ” Reported Speech He said (that) he would always remember me. He said (that) he couldn’t see me. (present) He said (that) they would be able to visit me soon, (future) He said (that) it might rain. He asked what time we would call her. (information) He asked (me) if he should buy that car. (advice) He offered to give me a hand, (offer) He said (that) I had to send him a reply, (obligation) He said (that) she must be upset, (deduction) He said (that) she had better be nice to him. He said (that) I didn’t have to/didn’t need to worry, (present) He said (that) I wouldn’t have to go that early the next day. (future) He said (that) they should give him a receipt. Introductory verb Special Introductory Verbs Direct Speech Reported Speech to-inf + agree “Yes, I’ll call • He agreed to call you. ” me. demand “Show me • He demanded to be everything!" shown everything. offer “Would you •» He offered to help like me to me. help you?" promise “I’ll be nicer •» He promised to be to Jenny. ” nicer to Jenny. refuse “No, 1 won’t • He refused to join join you. ” me. Grammar Reference Section Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech threaten claim “Turn down the music or I’ll call the police. ’’ “1 saw her crying. ’’ -»He threatened to call the police if 1 didn’t turn down the music. тНе claimed to have seen her crying. advise + sb + “You should ■» He advised me to-inf drink some to drink some water. ’’ water. allow “You can wear • He allowed me my jacket. ’’ to wear his jacket. ask “Please, close • He asked me to the door. ’’ close the door. beg “Please, please •• He begged me listen to me. ” to listen to him. command “March!” • He commanded the soldiers to march. encourage “Go ahead, • He encouraged open the door. ” me to open the door. forbid “You mustn’t ■» He forbade me park here. ” to park there. instruct “Press the •• He instructed button and wait me to press the for the button and wait message to for the message appear. ’’ to appear. invite sb “Would you like • He invited me to come to my to go to his party?" party. order “Stop shouting • He ordered me immediately. ’’ to stop shouting immediately. permit “You may go • He permitted now. ” me to go. remind “Don’t forget to • He reminded take the keys me to take the with you." keys with me. urge “Eat your • He urged me to food." eat my food. warn “Don’t go out in •• He warned me this rain. ” not to go out in that rain. want “I’d like you to ••He wanted me be quiet. ” to be quiet. -ing form + “You ate my ••He accused me accuse sb of sandwich. ’’ of eating his apologise for sandwich. “I’m sorry t •» He apologised disappointed for you. ’’ disappointing me. admit (to) boast about/of complain to sb about/of deny insist on suggest that-clause + agree boast claim complain deny exclaim explain inform sb promise suggest ‘Tes, / broke the vase." “I am taller than you. ” “I have a headache." “No, I didn’t use your card. ” “You must take care of yourself. ” “Let’s cook dinner. ” ’^Yes, that is a Sorgeous dress. ’’ how + explain to sb I’m a great painter. ’’ “I know everything. ’’ “You always lie to me. ” I’ve never met her.’’ ‘It’s splendid!’’ “It’s not difficult at all. ’’ “You will be given a test. ” “/ won’t do this again. ’’ “You ought to find out more about this. ’’ » He admitted (to) breaking/ having broken the vase. »He boasted about being taller than me. »He complained of having a headache. »He denied using/having used my card. • He insisted on me/my taking care of myself. •He suggested cooking dinner. •He agreed that it was a gorgeous dress. •He boasted that he was a great painter. •He claimed that he knew everything. •He complained that I always lied to him. •He denied that he had ever met her. •He exclaimed that it was splendid. •He explained that it was not difficult at all. •He informed me that! would be given a test. •He promised that he wouldn’t do that again. *He suggested that I find out more about that. “This is how you write it. ’’ ►He explained to me how to write it. GR17 Grammar Reference Section Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech wonder where/what/ why/how + clause (vdien the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the reported question)________ vrtjnder + whether + clause how + to-inf (when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the verb) He asked himself, "How can I win the award?" He asked himself, "Where is Paul?" He asked himself, "Why is she so upset?" ► He wondered how he could win the award. ^ He wondered where Paul was. ► He wondered why she was so upset. He asked ' himself, "Shall I SO home?" ► He wondered whether he should so home. He asked himself, "Where am I headins to?” He asked himself, "What should I tell them?” He asked himself, "How can I stop this?” > He wondered where he was headins to. • He wondered what he should tell them. > He wondered how he could stop that. Reporting Conversations or Dialogues Everyday conversations and dialogues are a mixture of statements, commands and questions. To report these we use: and, as, adding that, and he/she added that, explaining that, because, but, since, so, and then he/she went on to say, while, then etc or the introductory verb in the present participle form. Exclamations such as: Oh!, Ouch!, Oh no! etc are omitted in reported speech. Direct Speech Reported Speech “Oh, it's a sf^ot day. Shall we so to the park?" he said. I can't eat this," she said. "It’s too salty." "Let’s call Brian,” he said, "t want to find out what happened." He said that it was a sreat day and suss^sted soins to the park. She said that she couldn’t eat it because it was tcю salty. He suggested that they should call Brian, explainins that he wanted to find out what happened. Exclamations - “Yes/No” short answers -Question tags • Exclamations are replaced in reported speech with exclaim, thank, wish, say, cry out in pain etc, give an exclamation of surprise/horror/disgust/delight etc. The exclamation mark becomes a full stop. Exclamatory words such as Oh!, Eek!, Wow!, Oh!, Oh dear!. Well! etc are omitted in reported speech. “Assh!” she said at the sisht of blood. ■* She save an exclamation of horror at the sisht of blood. • Yes/No short answers are expressed in reported speech with subject + appropriate auxiliary verb or subject + appropriate introductory verb. "Will you forsive me?” he said. "No," she said. •* He asked her if she would forsive him but she said she wouldn’t, or He asked her if she would forsive him but she refused. • Question tags are omitted in reported speech. An appropriate introductory verb can be used if we want to retain their effect. "She is out shoppins, isn’t she?” he said. • He wondered if she was out shoppins. Relative clauses Relative clauses begin vrith a relative pronoun or a relative adverb. We use: • who(m)/that to refer to people. The sirl who/that lives next door to Jan is my cousin. • which/that to refer to things. The shop which/that has just opened in Wendover Street is lovely. • whose with people, animals and objects to show possession. She’s the sirl whose father is a pilot. That’s the car whose interior was destroyed by fire. Who, which and that can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause. You met a woman. She’s my auntie /Лагу. i The woman (who) you met is my auntie Mary. Who, which or that is not omitted when it is the subject of a relative clause. A sirl lives next door. She’s a famous actress. The sirl who'hves^^tioor is a famous actress. GR18 Grammar Reference Section Relative Adverbs Relative Pronouns We use: • when/that to refer to a time. That was the year (when/that) we got married. • where to refer to a place. The restaurant where we had dinner yesterday is very expensive. • why to give a reason. The reason (why) she was late is still unclear. Defining - Non-defining clauses • A defining relative clause gives necessary information which is essential to the meaning of the main clause. We do not put it in commas. It is introduced with who, whom, whose, which or that. The bank which was burgled last week has reopened. (Which bank? The one which was burgled last week.) • A non-defining relative clause gives extra information which is not essential to the meaning of the main clause. We put it in commas. It is introduced with who, whom, whose or which (but not that). Cate Blanchett, who stars in ‘The Lord of the Rings', is a great actress. (The relative clause adds information about Cate Blanchett. If we omit it, the meaning of the main clause does not change.) • In non-defining clauses we can use which to stand for the main clause. She has to wake up at 6 every day which she doesn’t like, (‘which’ refers to the fact that she has to wake up at 6:00.) Subject of the verb of the relative clause (cannot be omitted) Object of the verb of the relative clause (can be omitted) Possession (cannot be omitted) used for people who/that That’s the girl who is a famous actress. who/whom/ that The man (who/ whom/that) you spoke to is my brother. whose That’s the boy whose father is a pilot. used for things/ animals which/that / heard a song which/ that was written by Justin Ttmberlake. which/that The book (which/that) you borrowed is mine. of which/ whose That’s the book of which/ whose (the) first page is missing. Whom, which and whose can be used in expressions of quantity with of (some of, many of, half of, etc). She got a lot of job offers. Most of them were from investment banks. She got a lot of job offers, most of which were from investment banks. That can be used instead of who, whom or which but it is never used after commas or prepositions. She’s the girl who/that plays the piano very well. The person to whom you were speaking is my brother, (‘that’ is not possible) GR19 Irregular Verbs Infinitive Past Past Participle Infinitive Past Past Participle leave left left lend lent lent let let let light lit lit lose lost lost make made made mean meant meant meet met met pay paid paid put put put read read read ride rode ridden ring rang rung rise rose risen run ran run say said said see saw seen sell sold sold send sent sent set set set sew sewed sewn shake shook shaken shine shone shone shoot shot shot show showed shown shut shut shut sing sang sung sit sat sat sleep slept slept smell smelt (smelled) smelt (smelled) speak spoke spoken spell spelt (spelled) spelt (spelled) spend spent spent stand stood stood steal stole stolen stick stuck stuck sting stung stung swear swore sworn sweep swept swept swim swam swum take took taken teach taught taught tear tore torn tell told told think thought thought throw threw thrown understand understood understood wake woke woken wear wore worn win won won write wrote written be was bear bore beat beat become became begin began bite bit blow blew break broke bring brought build built burn burnt (burned) burst burst buy bought can could catch caught choose chose come came cost cost cut cut deal dealt dig dug do did draw drew dream dreamt (dreamed) drink drank drive drove eat ate fall fell feed fed feel felt fight fought find found fly flew forbid forbade forget forgot forgive forgave freeze froze get got give gave go went grow grew hang hung (hanged) have had hear heard hide hid hit hit hold held hurt hurt keep kept know knew lead led learn learnt (learned) been born(e) beaten become begun bitten blown broken brought built burnt (burned) burst bought (been able to) caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt (dreamed) drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got (gotten) given gone grown hung (hanged) had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known led learnt (learned) GR20 Word List This Word List has been compiled to help you make the most of your course. The highlighted words are the ones which need to be learned as active vocabulary which is necessary to the level of the course. The rest of the vocabulary in the Word List will make it easier for you to understand the material in this coursebook. All phonetic transcriptions have been taken from Collins COBUILD Dictionary. MODULE 1 1a active /gktiv/ (adj) активный annoying /on^iiQ/ (adj) раздражающий, надоедливый band /bsnd/(n) музыкальная группа bargain /bgi'^gin/ (n) товар со скидкой boring /Ьапг)/ (adj) скучный care /кез7 (v) заботиться, проявлять интерес city centre /sui sentoV (n) центр города computer game /kampig-tyoeim/ (n) компьютерная игра designer label /dizaina' leib’l/ (n) дизайнерская марка, лейбл dream /drum/ (v) мечтать email /tmeil/ (n) электронная почта, электронное письмо enjoy /intfeD!/ (v) любить, наслаждаться enjoyable /тФэ1эЬ^1/ (adj) приятный fanatic /fangtiW (n) фанат, поклонник fascinated /f^smeitid/ (adj) очарованный fight /fait/ (V) драться fortnight /fa'tnait/ (n) две недели gig /gig/ (n) выступление «не в записи, вживую* horse riding /hot's raidny (n) катание на лошади mobile /moubail/ (n) мобильный телефон national /ngefon^l/ (adj) народный, общенародный paragliding /psroglaidny (n) парапланеризм passion /pagpn/ (n) страсть, страстное увлечение pastime /pgtstaim/ (n) развлечение, времяпровождение relaxing /nlsksiiy(adj) расслабляющий rock climbing /гвк к1шппо/ (n) скалолазание screen /skritn/ (n) экран send /send/ (v) отправлять skateboard /skeitboi'd/ (n) скейтборд spend /spend/ (v) проводить teenager /litneicfeo'/ (n) подросток text message /tekst mesicty (n) sms, короткое текстовое сообщение Phrasal Verbs check out (phr v) осматривать hang out (phr v) тусоваться look forward to (phr v) c нетерпением ждать чего-то Phrases all-time favourite (phr) на все времена, пользующийся неизменным успехом be crazy about (phr) быть без ума от чего-либо, кого-либо be into fashion (phr) увлекаться, следить за модой can’t stand (phr) не выносить catch а film (phr) попасть на фильм, в кино chat online (phr) разговаривать в режиме онлайн, через сеть Интернет do extreme sports (phr) заниматься экстремальными видами спорта do voluntary work (phr) выполнять добровольную работу get angry (phr) рассердиться, вспылить go clubbing (phr) ходить в развлекательный клуб go for а sporty look (phr) стремиться иметь спортивный вид go on trips to the countryside (phr) отправляться за город go window shopping (phr) разглядывать витрины grab a bite (phr) перекусить keep fit (phr) поддерживать форму run errands (phr) выполнять поручения surf the Net (phr) просматривать сайты в Интернете take а look (phr) взглянуть the great outdoors (phr) великолепная природа waste of time (phr ) пустая трата времени 1b aggressive /sgresiv/ (adj) агрессивный angry /aogri/ (adj) злой cancel /ksns^l/ (v) отменять caring /к£2по/(adj) заботливый comedy /kcmsdi/ (n) комедия creative /krisyiv/ (adj) творчески одаренный, креативный dedicated /d£dikeind/(adj) преданный dishonest /discmst/ (adj) нечестный express /ikspres/ (v) выражать fair /fea'/(adj) справедливый feel /ii;!/ (v) чувствовать feeling /ttlir)/ (n) чувство forget /fs'gei/ (v) забывать hurt /ha;'!/ (v) обижать jealous /феЫ (adj) ревнивый loyal Лэ1з1/ (adj) верный mean /mi;n/ (adj) недоброжелательный moody /muidi/ (adj) неуравновешенный, капризный patient /psijfnt/ (adj) терпеливый rent /rent/ (v) брать напрокат respected /nspektid/(adj) уважаемый selfish /selfif/ (adj) эгоистичный, самолюбивый supportive /sapjs'tiv/ (adj) поддерживающий кого-либо, лояльный sweet /swi;t/ (adj) милый trusting /tr^siio/ (adj) доверчивый well-meaning /wclminig/ (adj) действующий из лучших побуждений WL1 Word List Phrasal Verbs let down (phr v) разочаровывать, подводить Idioms a pain in the neck (idm) зануда, невыносимый человек get off one’s back (idm) отстать, оставить в покое get on one’s nerves (idm) действовать кому-либо на нервы give someone the cold shoulder (idm) оказывать холодный прием like a bear with a sore head (idm) разъяренный, разозленный see eye to eye (idm) сходиться во взглядах с кем-либо Words often confused careful/caring осторожный/заботливый mean/well-meaning недоброжелательный/действующий из лучших побуждений respected/respectful уважаемый/почтительный, вежливый supporting/supportive поддерживающий что-либо/поддерживающий кого-либо 1с arrogant /sr9g3nt/(adj) высокомерный, надменный comic /kemik/ (n) комик courage /клпс(у (n) мужество dare /desV (v) рисковать excite /iksaity (v) волновать fear Ifisft (n) страх fiction /ftkpn/ (n) выдумка, вымысел fix Ifiksl (v) чинить, ремонтировать honour /nnoV (n) честь, благородство invitation /invuciPn/ (n) приглашение mystery /nustari/ (n) тайна pickpocket /pikpokii/ (n) вор-карманник power /раиэ7 (n) сила, мощь sunburnt /5лпЬз:'п1/ (adj) загорелый, обгоревший на солнце taste Itsistl (v) пробовать university /jii;niv3;'sui/ (n) университет Phrasal Verbs look after (phr v) присматривать, заботиться о ком-либо look down on (phr v) смотреть свысока look forward to (phr v) ожидать c нетерпением look out for (phr V) думать о, быть осторожным с look up (phr v) искать что-либо (в списке, справочнике) Phrases be in а hurry (phr) торопиться do the shopping (phr) делать покупки WL2 eat out (phr) обедать в кафе, не дома have lunch(phr) обедать Id appear /эры'/ (v) появляться appearance /эрыгэпз/ (n) внешность attractive /atrijktiv/ (adj) привлекательный awkward /2;kw9'd/(adj) неуклюжий, неловкий baby face /beibi icis/ (n) детское лицо best known /best noun/ (adj) хорошо известный bloom /blpjm/ (V) цвести brighten /brjut^’n/ (v) радовать, наполнять радостью broad /br^d/ (adj) широкий cheerfully /t/12'ftjli/ (adv) бодро, весело colt /kuuli/ (n) жеребенок comfortable /kAmfl3b''l/(adj) удобный, комфортный comical /копик’!/ (adj) смешной, комичный content /кэтсп1/ (adj) довольный crackle /кгдк!/ (v) трещать, потрескивать dark /daTc/(adj) темный decide /disaid/ (v) решать delicate-looking /dglikot lukiij/ (adj) изящный disturb /distil)/ (v) тревожить, беспокоить effect /ifgki/ (n) эффект excellently /£ks3bntli/ (adv) превосходно, отлично experience /ikspiarians/ (n) опыт expressive /ikspresiv/(adj) выразительный fade /feid/ (v) обесцвечивать, выгорать fierce /fia's/ (adj) жестокий, лютый funny tf&nil (adj) смешной furniture /fi'nitfa'/ (n) мебель heart /hi't/ (n) сердце kind /kaind/ (adj) добрый knit /ПЦ/ (v) вязать lamp /Iffimp/ (n) лампа lecture /Igktfa'/ (v) читать нотацию, поучать light /lait/ (V) зажигать limb /Urn/ (n) конечность manner /тагпэ'/ (n) манера, поведение mindful /maindftjl/ (adj) заботливый, внимательный neck /пек/ (n) шея obvious /nbvi3s/ (adj) явный, открытый, прямой pale /pfiil/ (adj) бледный peaceful /pi-sful/ (adj) спокойный, умиротворенный plain /pl£in/(adj) простой, обыкновенный pleasant /plez^nt/ (adj) довольный plump /р1йгпр/ (adj) полный, пухлый polite /рэ1ш1/ (adj) вежливый provide /prsvaid/ (v) обеспечивать quietly /kwaiatli/ (adv) тихо rapidly /rfipidli/ (adv) быстро rarely /reaHi/ (adv) редко reflect /riflekt/ (v) отражать regular /regjolo'/(adj) обычный remind /rimaind/ (v) напоминать round /raund/ (adj) круглый sharp /Гш'р/ (adj) острый shoulder /JoyldaV (n) плечо shy //ш/ (adj) стеснительный, тихий Word List sight /salty (n) вид, зрелище sketch /skgij? (n) описание в общих чертах, набросок slender /slgndsV (adj) стройный, тонкий slippers /slipa'z/ (n pi) тапочки smooth /smuicV (adj) ровный, гладкий stiff /siif? (adj) упругий thick /Oik/ (adj) толстый thoughtful /02;tful/ (adj) задумчивый timid /timid/ (adj) робкий, неуверенный tongue (n) язык trust Лгд51/ (v) доверять twilight Awailait/ (n) сумерки, полумрак vain /vein/ (adj) тщеславный, самодовольный venture /ventfoV (v) отважиться, решиться voice /vais/ (n) голос wide /waid/(adj) широкий worn out Мх'п ant/ (adj) изношенный, потертый Phrasal Verbs cut in (phr V) вмешиваться grow up (phr V) становиться взрослым, вырастать shoot up (phr V) быстро расти sweep up (phr v) выметать Phrases in my opinion (phr) по-моему, на мой взгляд take care of (phr) заботиться о think highly of (phr) быть высокого мнения о 1е absolutely /sEbsnli!;tli/(adv) абсолютно advice /advais/ (n/v) совет, советовать apology /эрс1э<(>1/ (n) извинение chance /tfains/ (n) шанс congratulate /kangratfuleit/ (v) поздравлять crowd /kraud/ (n) толпа dull /da,l/ (adj) скучный especially /isp£)®li/(adv) особенно exciting /iksaitiiV (adj) волнующий, захватывающий explore /iksplaiV (v) исследовать fantastic /fientastik/ (adj) фантастический gang /gso/ (n) команда, банда graduation /gradjuaipn/ (n) окончание учебного заведения hard /hfli'd/ (adj) трудный, тяжелый information /infa'meipn/ (n) информация miss /mis/ (v) скучать private /pnuvit/ (adj) частный probably /ргцЬэЬИ/ (adv) вероятно reply /riplai/ (n) ответ shopping centre //BpiosentoV (n) торговый центр sports facilities /spa^ts fasilitiz/ (n pi) спортивные сооружения suggestion /ssdicstpn/(n) предложение traffic jam /irdifik фжтУ (n) автомобильная пробка tutor /tju;i.'»7 (n) репетитор, наставник Phrasal Verbs get on (well) with (phr v) ладить c кем-либо show around (phr v) сопровождать кого-либо куда-либо Phrases be broke (phr) остаться без денег be up to sth (phr) заниматься чем-либо drop sb a line (phr) написать строчку 1 haven’t heard from you for ages (phr) не слышал ничего от тебя уже сто лет keep in touch (phr) поддерживать отношения Culture Corner 1 affordable /ofai’dab"!/ (adj) доступный, no средствам baggy /bggi/ (adj) мешковатый (об одежде) bother /Ьвдэ'/ (v) беспокоить, волновать brand name /brand neim/ (n) фирменная марка, бренд cheap /йр/ (adj) дешевый colourful /клЬВД (adj) красочный, цветной designer outfit /dizaina^ailtfit/ (n) одежда от дизайнеров expensive /ikspgnsiv/ (adj) дорогой fashion /I'sspn/ (n) мода fashionable /fepnab"’!/ (adj) модный hood /hod/ (n) капюшон individuality /indivicfeualiti/ (n) индивидуальность influence /influsns/ (v) влиять inspiration /inspnsipn/ (n) вдохновение jeans /ditnz/ (n pi) джинсы logo /lougoo/ (n) логотип modern /mndaWladj) современный multi-cultural /nulti кд1Уэгэ1/ (adj) многонациональный reasonably /itzanab’li/ (adv) довольно rip /rip/ (v) рвать(ся) second-hand /sekandhgnd/ (adj) подержанный stick /stik/ (v) придерживаться style /stall/ (n) стиль sweatshirt /swetj’3:’t/ (n) спортивная кофта tend /tend/ (v) стремиться top designer /tap dizainn7 (n) ведущий дизайнер trainers Лгипэ^г/ (n pi) кроссовки trend Лгепс1/ (n) тенденция, веяние trendy /trgndi/ (adj) ультрамодный view /vjuy (n) взгляд well-known /wei поил/(adj) известный well-dressed /wsldrest/(adj) нарядный, элегантный wet /wet/ (adj) мокрый Phrasal Verbs fall off (phr V) падать, сваливаться keep up with (phr v) идти в ногу, поспевать за Phrases hit the shops (phr) опустошать магазины pick up bargains (phr) дешево купить stand out in a crowd (phr) выделяться из толпы the other way round (phr) иначе WL3 Word List Across the Curriculum accept /aksept/ (v) принимать apply /aplai/ (v) обращаться (за работой) brave /breiv/(adj) смелый bully 1Ьц\\1 (v) издеваться, грубо обращаться counselling service /kaunsalio sx^v]sl (n) консультационная служба discrimination /diskaminmPn/ (n) дискриминация education /ecfeuk(aPn/(n) образование employer /implaiaV (n) работодатель employment /implaimant/ (n) работа, служба feel /fi;!/ (v) чувствовать guest speaker /ggst spi;ka7 (n) приглашенный лектор helpline /hclplam/ (n) телефон доверия housing /hayziry (n) дом hurt Ih^’V (adj) обиженный, оскорбленный illegal/|Шд='1/(adj) незаконный nervous In^’vxl (adj) беспокоящийся, нервничающий placement agency /pluismant eidssnsi/ (n) агентство no трудоустройству position /pazifn/ (n) должность protect /pratekt/ (V) защищать race /reis/ (n) раса reluctant /п1дкюту (adj) неохотный responsibility /nspEnsibiliii/ (n) обязанность right /|Щ1/ (n) право silence /sgilans/ (n) молчание, безмолвие suffer ШэЧ (v) страдать suspect /saspski/ (v) подозревать, предполагать tease /itz/ (v) дразнить, подтрунивать tomboy /tembai/ (n) баловница, девочка-сорванец trousers (n pi) брюки upset Mpsst/(adj) расстроенный youth (n) юность, молодость Phrasal Verbs give up (phr V) сдаваться, отказываться keep on (phr v) продолжать laugh at (phr v) смеяться над Phrases a problem shared is a problem halved (phr) одна голова хорошо, a две лучше be made redundant (phr) быть сокращенным (о работе) highly qualified (phr) высококвалифицированный Going Green 1 accessories /aksesonz/ (n pi) аксессуары chasing arrows rtjsisig terouz/ (n) стрелки, расположенные по кругу (логотип использования вторсырья) clothes /Ыоцбг/ (п) одежда complete /кэтрШи (v) завершать conserve /kansx'v/ (v) сохранять, сберегать consume /kansjurmy (v) потреблять display /displei/ (v) показывать eliminate /ihmmeit/ (v) ликвидировать, устранять factory /fffiktri/ (n) завод, фабрика fleece jacket /flks (feektt; (n) куртка из флиса food IfwiI (n) еда, пища force Kai^sl (n) сила glass /gtas/ (n) стекло landfill /Igndfil/ (n) свалка loop /1шр/ (n) круг, кольцо manufacture /majnjufsEktfoV (v) производить material /шэщпэ!/ (n) материал metal /met=l/ (n) металл paper /peipaV (n) бумага persuade /pa^sweid/ (v) убеждать plastic /plastik,/ (n) пластик precious /prsfas/(adj) ценный, драгоценный process /ptouses/ (n) процесс product /protUkty (n) продукт recycle /rtsaik’l/ (v) повторно использовать i recycle bin /itsaiksl bin/ (n) мусорное ведро I recycling truck /ri:saiklio trak/ (n) мусоровоз ' represent /ripnzgnt/ (v) представлять resources /nz2;7siz/ (n pi) ресурсы rubbish /r&bij/(n) мусор sort Isx'U (v) сортировать waste Avcist/ (n) отходы wonder /wAndaV (v) задаваться вопросом wood Iwudl (n) дерево I Spotlight on Exams ability /sbiliti/ (n) способность I adventure/adventfaV (n) приключение advertisement /advx^ismant/ (n) реклама amazing /ameizio/ (adj) удивительный, поразительный annoy /эпэ1/ (v) раздражать I army /ami/ (n) армия I article /g;7ik^l/ (n) статья bead /bed/ (n) бусина beauty tips /bjicti 4PS/ (n) рубрика «Как стать красивой» beautifully /bjmuftjli/ (adv) красиво book review /Ьцк rivjyy (n) обзор книги bravely /breivli/ (adv) смело capital /кжрп=1/ (n) столица chain /tfein/ (n) цепь, цепочка chatroom /fetru;m/ (n) чат conquer /квокэ7 (v) завоевывать contribution /kEntnbjuJ’n/ (n) вклад cool /кш1/ (adj) крутой culture /кд1^э7 (n) культура different/difrant/(adj) различный disadvantage /disadvainticty (n) неудобство disguise /disgaiz/ (n) маскировка, изменение внешнего вида drown /drann/ (v) тонуть empire /empaia7 (n) империя excerpt /eks3:'pi/ (n) отрывок, выдержка government /givo'nmant/ (n) правительство WL4 Word List great /greiu' (adj) замечательный, восхитительный high-heeled /haihkid/ (adj) на высоких каблуках honesty /omsti/ (n) честность horoscope /horaskoup/ (n) гороскоп kingdom /kiodom/(n) царство local /ipuk’l/ (adj) местный magazine /majgoztn/ (n) журнал memorable /тсшэгэЫ!/(adj) незабываемый movie star /mu,"vi staV (n) кинозвезда news report /njjjtz npa't/ (n) выпуск новостей organisation /2;'g3nuiz£ipn/ (n) организация password /p4tsw3:'d/ (n) пароль patience /psiPns/ (n) терпение personality /pi'sonslitiy (n) личность radio programme /rsadiou prouancm/ (n) радиопрограмма rare /г£27 (adj) редкий recognise /rekagnaiz/ (v) узнавать rejection /ncfekj’n/ (n) отказ relationship /nlgjipnjip/ (n) отношения rescue /ruskjuV (v) спасать respect /nspfiki/ (v) уважать romantic /roomajnuk/ (adj) романтический rule /ги;1/ (n) правление sailor /ssilaV (n) моряк science /sai^ns/ (n) наука society /sasaiiii/ (n) общество successful /sskscsful/ (adj) успешный tour Лиз7 (v) путешествовать tradition Arodipn/ (n) традиция trustworthiness Aristwa^'dinos/ (n) надежность, добросовестность unsure/йп)ш'/(adj) неуверенный war /w^V (n) война whale /*‘w£il/ (n) кит worried /wand/(adj) обеспокоенный Phrasal Verbs bring up (phr V) воспитывать end up (phr V) оканчиваться fill in (phr V) заполнять find out (phr V) выяснять meet up (phr v) встретиться Phrases have a fight (phr) драться make fun of (phr) высмеивать, дразнить sense of humour (phr) чувство юмора tell the truth (phr) говорить правду MODULE 2 2a afford /afs'd/ (v) иметь возможность amount /amaunt/ (n) количество best seller /best sela7 (n) имеющий наибольший спрос, бестселлер bill Л>11/ (n) счет borrow /bjjrou/ (v) занимать, одалживать console /kpnsoul/ (n) игровая приставка consumer /kansji!;ma7 (n) потребитель crazy /kreizi/ (adj) сумасшедший, безумный deliver /diliva7 (v) доставлять earn lii'nl (v) зарабатывать extreme sport /ikstitm spz'il (n) экстремальный вид спорта fare /Г£27 (n) плата за проезд favourite /fcivant/ (adj) любимый gliding /glaidiry (n) планеризм grades /gnad/7 (n pi) оценки guess /gcs/ (V) догадываться, угадывать hobby /hpbi/ (n) хобби, увлечение household chores /haiishould ifa'z/ (n pi) домашние обязанности involve /mvplv/ (v) включать lazy /leizi/ (adj) ленивый lend /Ipnd/ (v) давать взаймы massive /mssiv/ (adj) огромный, солидный mobile phone /mgubail Гццп/ (n) мобильный телефон odd Ipdl (adj) нерегулярный, разовый overtake /ouvo^eik/ (v) перегонять parachuting /ршгэ/шту (n) парашютный спорт pay /pel/ (v) платить pocket money /ррка mini/ (n) карманные деньги resist /nzist/ (v) устоять, воздерживаться от чего-либо retailer /itteilo7 (n) розничный торговец sales assistant /seilz asistant/ (n) продавец-консультант saver /seiv37 (n) бережливый человек shopping spree //epio spny (n) поход no магазинам spender /spendo7 (n) расточитель, транжир student loan /stjttd^’nt Ipun/ (n) кредит на обучение survive /so'viuv/ (v) выживать technology rteknnlDctsi/ (n) технология traditional Arsdifan^l/ (adj) традиционный video game /vidiou gejm/ (n) видеоигра Phrasal Verbs catch up (phr v) догонять, наверстывать cut up (phr V) испортить, разрезать hand out (phr v) выдавать save up (phr v) копить, скопить splash out (phr v) выплескивать, разбрасывать Phrases by cheque (phr) оплата чеком by credit card (phr) оплата кредитной картой dig deep in one’s pocket (phr) тратить больше in cash (phr) наличными make ends meet (phr) сводить концы с концами 2b action shot /skp*n/Dt/ (n) фотография движущегося объекта adventurous /ardvi^ntforas/ (adj) авантюрный, любящий приключения aerobics /carpubiks/ (n) аэробика ambitious /aimbifas/ (adj) честолюбивый, активный WL5 Word List archery /а;'Уэп/ (n) стрельба из лука board game /ba;'d geim/ (n) настольная игра bruise /britz/(n) синяк cautious Iks^xl (adj) осторожный, осмотрительный community centre /kamjitmti sentsV (n) культурно-спортивный центр determined /dii3;'’mmd/ (adj) решительный fishing (n) рыбная ловля fit /fit/ (adj) в хорошей физической форме football /liitbD:!/ (n) фут^л gardening /ga^d’nny (n) садоводство imaginative /im^dsinativ/ (adj) одаренный воображением martial arts lmeiT\ fli'ts/ (n PO боевые искусства outgoing /atrtqotniV (adj) общительный, дружелюбный quiet /kwaiat/ (adj) тихий, спокойный relaxed /nlskst/ (adj) спокойный, уравновешенный reserved /nzai'vd/ (adj) замкнутый, сдержанный sensitive /sgnsitiv/(adj) чувствительный skydiving /skaidaivny (n) затяжные прыжки с парашютом snowboarding Isnm bai'diiy (n) сноубординг sociable /soufab’l/ (adj) общительный strong /strEo/ (adj) сильный tennis /tgnis/ (n) теннис white-water rafting /•’wait wata'ritftiiy (n) сплав на плотах Phrasal Verbs come along (phr v) идти вместе slide down (phr v) скользить вниз Phrases be off to (phr) отправляться, уходить fly a plane (phr) управлять самолетом have a great time (phr) отлично проводить время Idioms play a joke on sb (idm) сыграть над кем-нибудь шутку play it cool (idm) не терять самообладания play it straight (idm) говорить прямо 2c accommodate /skcmsdeit/ (v) размещать, устраивать achieve /aiTtv/ (v) достигать act /aekt/ (v) действовать agree /эдпУ (v) соглашаться amaze /smeiz/ (v) удивлять cash /ка£|/ (n) деньги, наличность collect /kalskt/ (v) собирать, коллекционировать compete /kampti/ (v) соревноваться, соперничать depend /dipend/ (v) зависеть educate /£ф»кеи/ (v) обучать neighbour /пиЬэ7 (n) сосед neighbourhood /neib3'hud/(n) окружающий район, квартал recover /пкдуэ7 (v) выздоравливать select teilfikt/ (v) выбирать suggest /s.Kbfist/ (v) предлагать unforgettable /^nfa'getab’l/ (adj) незабываемый Phrases be on time (phr) успевать work long hours (phr) работать допоздна work overtime (phr) работать сверхурочно Phrasal Verbs get on (phr V) преуспевать, продвигаться take after (phr v) быть похожим take in (phr v) ушивать take off (phr v) снимать (одежду) take out (phr v) пригласить за свой счет take over (phr v) принимать должность от другого take up (phr v) приступить, взяться Words often confused win/earn (v) выиграть/заработать lend/borrow (v) давать в долг/брать в долг spend/save (v) тратить/копить wages/salanes (n) заработная плата (задень, за неделю)/заработная плата (в месяц) 2d aloud /olaud/ (adv) вслух bang /basty (n) треск, грохот become /bik^m/ (v) становиться bell lbs,li (n) звонок bit /bit/ (n) кусочек, частица charm /tfjtW (n) обаяние, привлекательность convenience /ksnvinians/ (n) удобство cross IkTQsl(adj) сердитый, раздраженный I darken /dai’kan/ (v) омрачать ^ dreadful /drsdful/ (adj) ужасный, страшный I electric /ilcktnk/(adj) электрический estate agent /isteit eicfeont/ (n) агент no недвижимости exactly /igzsktii/ (adv) точно explain /iksplein/ (v) объяснять extremely /ikstitmli/ (adv) чрезвычайно famous/f£imas/(adj) известный French window /frgntf windoo/ (n) двустворчатое окно до пола, дверь в сад funnily /ГлшШ (adv) смешно, забавно heap /11Й)/ (п) куча, уйма inexperience /inikspi2ri3ns/(n) неопытность intention /im£nfn/(n) намерение interestingly /intrastigli/ (adv) интересно, занимательно invent /invent/ (v) изобретать last /Iffist/ (v) длиться, продолжаться large /Ifli’di/ (adj) большой lovely/lAvli/(adj) прекрасный loving /1дУ1о/ (adj) любящий means /mtnz/ (n) средство merry /meri/ (adj) веселый model engine /niBd’l gncfein/ (n) модель двигателя mumps /m^mps/ (n) свинка (мед.) WL6 Word List novel /nEv’l/ (n) роман nursemaid /na;'smeid/{n) няня nursery /ni'sori/ (n) детская комната occasion isksxs’nl (n) случай, повод ordinary /^'dinri/ (adj) обычный pantomime/pffintDmaim/(n) пантомима passage /passicty (n) коридор perfect /pai'likty (adj) совершенный, безупречный perfection /ps'l'ekj’n/ (n) совершенство poem /pQuiniy (n) стихотворение poetry /pQuitri/ (n) поэзия popular /pEpjubV (adj) популярный present /pnzcnt/ (v) дарить pretty /pati/(adj) приятный, милый prove /pntv/ (v) доказывать publish /p^blijy (v) издавать railway /reilwei/ (n) железная дорога refurnish /ridx'nij? (v) переоборудовать reliable /п1шЬ’1/(adj) надежный suburban /$эЬз:'Ьэп/(adj) пригородный suddenly /sad^nli/ (adv) внезапно, вдруг support /sopEl't/ (v) поддерживать suppose /sDpQip/ (V) полагать tender Aendo'/ (n) вагонетка c углем tiled Aaild/ (adj) выложенный плиткой unjust/дпфд81/(adj) несправедливый well-loved Avel l^vd/ (adj) всеми любимый Phrasal Verbs get over (ph v) перенести, преодолеть go off (phr v) взорваться grow up (phr V) повзрослеть make up (phr v) составлять, придумывать turn out (phr V) оказываться Phrases over and done with (phr) полностью законченный pay calls (phr) наносить визиты 2e apology /opElatfei/ (n) извинение, просьба о прощении diary entry /daisri emri/ (n) запись в дневнике drama club /drjtmo к!дЬ/ (n) драматический кружок equipment Akwipmant/ (n) снаряжение, оборудование fit /Гр/ (V) подходить, быть впору gift /gift/ (n) подарок hire /haisV (v) брать напрокат jewellery /cfeuiflri/ (n) ювелирные изделия postcard /pcustka'd/ (n) почтовая открытка practice /pi^ktis/ (n) тренировка present /prcz’ni/ (n) подарок reminder /nmainda'/ (n) напоминание sailing /seiliiy (n) парусный спорт size IsiizJ (n) размер sound /saundy (v) звучать tennis racquet Asms nskit/ (n) теннисная ракетка Culture Corner 2 athletic /asGietik/ (adj) спортивный audience/a;di3ns/(n) публика championship /tfgmpianjip/ (n) чемпионат I charity /ifainii/ (n) благотворительность i comment /kcmcnt/ (v) комментировать ' competitor/кэтрешэ7(п) участник соревнований j director /daircktaV (n) руководитель event /ivcnt/ (n) соревнование I horse racing /ha's reisirj/ (n) скачки ! majority /macfennti/ (n) большинство member /mcmba'/ (n) член offer /в1'э'/ (v) предлагать ‘ presenter /pnzcnta'/ (n) ведущий, диктор prize Ipmzl (n) приз, награда queue /kjgy (v) стоять в очереди race ItsisI (n) гонка race course /reis ka's/ (n) ипподром rower /пшэ'/ (n) гребец rowing /roun)/ (n) гребля runner /гдпэ'/ (n) бегун serious /siarias/ (adj) серьезный smart /sma't/ (adj) изящный, нарядный spectator /spcktcita'/ (n) зритель train Arein/ (v) тренироваться 1 winner/wino'/(n) победитель Phrases get out of breath (phr) выдохнуться, выбиться из сил , raise money (phr) зарабатывать деньги take part in (phr) принимать участие take place (phr) проходить, происходить Across the Curriculum address /adrcs/ (n) адрес change /tfcinпэ1У (adj) подходящий, уместный available /aveibb’l/ (adj) доступный chatty /feti/ (adj) разговорный (о стиле) confident /konfidaniy (adj) уверенный consider /kansidsV (v) рассматривать, думать о enclose /mklouz/ (v) вкладывать, прилагать feature /tLifs'/ (n) характеристика, особенность gain /®ап/ (v) получать, приобретать identify /aidentifai/ (v) определять impatient /impeifnt/ (adj) нетерпеливый industry /indastri/ (n) отрасль экономики nationality /nsfanaliti/ (n) национальность personal /pai^san^iy (adj) личный, индивидуальный personality /pai'sansliti/ (n) особенности характера, личность previous /pitvias/ (adj) предыдущий qualification /kwclifikeipn/ (n) квалификация specific /spisifiky (adj) особый, особенный suit /sm/ (V) подходить trustworthy rtT4Stw3:W (adj) надежный, заслуживающий доверия unnecessary /Annesosri/ (adj) ненужный, излишний valuable лагииэЬ’!/ (adj) ценный Culture Corner 3 business studies /bi/nisst^diz/ (n) экономическая наука, бизнес cheerleading /ijianiidiry (n) поддержка любимой команды committee /kamxii/ (n) группа, комитет discussion /diski^’n/ (n) обсуждение driver’s licence /draiva^z lais’ns/ (n) водительское удостоверение (права) driving lesson /d^vio les'n/ (n) урок вождения elementary school /shmentri sku;!/ (n) начальная школа expect /ikspskt/ (v) ожидать, рассчитывать WL10 freshman /Crej'man/ (n) учащийся 9-ro класса (в США) high school /Нш«ки:1/ (п) старшая школа independently /mdipfindantli/ (adv) самостоятельно, независимо journalism /cbai’nalizsm/ (n) журналистика junior /cfeuinioV (n) учащийся 11-ro класса (в США) informal /шГа'т=Ч/ (adj) без формальностей, простой kindergarten /kindo'go;4'’n/ (n) детский сад range /reincfe/ (n) спектр school bus /sku;l b&sl (n) школьный автобус senior /si:nj37 (n) учащийся 12-ro класса sophomore /зфто:'! (n) учащийся 10-го класса (в США) style /stall/ (П) стиль Phrasal Verbs put away (phr v) оставлять, откладывать Phrases get the chance (phr) получать шанс get the most out of (phr) взять как можно больше от Across the Curriculum benefit /bfinifit/ (n) преимущество brief /bitf? (adj) краткий, короткий busy /bizi/ (adj) занятой conditions /kandiPnz/ (n pi) условия event /ivfint/ (n) мероприятие, событие impossible /impEsib’l/ (adj) невозможный media /midip/ (n pi) средства массовой информации sponsored /spsnsaW(adj) организованный, финансированный спонсорами support /'sppa't/ (n) поддержка, помощь tough /1л(7 (adj) нелегкий, трудный well-paid /wgl pgid/ (adj) хорошо оплачиваемый Phrases lack of (phr) недостаток чего-либо, кого-либо put into action (phr) приводить в действие Going Green 3 action /^kfn/ (n) действие, мера artificial/fli'tifiPl/ (adj) искусственный damage /d^micfe/ (n) урон, вред hatch /h$y? (v) вылупляться human activity /hjii;mDn tektiviii/ (n) деятельность человека Increasingly /inkitsiqli/ (adv) все больше и больше nest /ngst/ (n) гнездо newly-born /nju;ii ba;'n/ (adj) новорожденный protect /pratgkt/ (v) защищать protection /protgkj’n/ (n) защита rare /rea7(adj) редкий society /sasaiati/ (n) общество sunbather/Siinbeiday (n) загорающий territory /tgratri/ (n) территория volunteer /vElanti37(n) доброволец Word List Phrasal Verbs die out (phr v) вымирать, постепенно исчезать Phrases do my best (phr) делать все возможное lay eggs (phr) откладывать яйца make a difference (phr) делать мир лучше (здесь) under threat(phr) под угрозой Spotlight on Exams basic /beisik/ (adj) основной bodybuilding /bndibildirj/(n) бодибилдинг competitive /kampgutiv/ (adj) основанный на конкуренции, соревновании cuisine /kwiztn/ (n) кулинарное искусство, кухня customer/кд51это7(п) потребитель desirable /diziuarob’l/ (adj) желательный efficiently /ifipntli/ (adv) разумно, рационально essential /isenfl/ (adj) важнейший, необходимый extensive /ikstensivy (adj) большой, значительный fitness Ifitnssl (n) фитнес graduate /gi^dsuai/ (n) выпускник учебного заведения issue /isjuV (n) проблема, вопрос manage /таетф/ (v) управлять occasionally /экшэпо!!/ (adv) иногда, время от времени prepare /рпреа7 (v) готовить, подготавливать project /prpifeckt/ (n) проект quickly /kwikli/ (adv) быстро region /ri;cb=n/(n) регион seek /si:k/ (v) искать technical /tcknik’l/ (adj) технический vacancy /veikonsi/ (n) вакансия well-mannered Avgl msno'd/ (adj) воспитанный, c хорошими манерами willingness /wihrmDs/ (n) готовность, желание, охота Phrases under pressure (phr) под давлением MODULE 4 4a aluminium /alsminiam/ (n) алюминий cage /keicfe/ (n) клетка campaign /ksmpein/ (n) кампания, акция carefully /ksa'fuli/ (adv) аккуратно, осторожно chemicals /кепнк'Ч// (n pi) химикаты coal /кш1/ (n) уголь compost /kpmpDst/ (n) компост, удобрение consumption /kansampp’n/ (n) потребление cooker /kukaV (n) кухонная плита create /kriejty (v) создавать decompose /dkkamppyz/ (v) разлагаться, гнить encourage /mkAricty (v) воодушевлять, побуждать energy /cnyn/ (n) сохранение crop /кгЕр/ (n) сельскохозяйственная культура decrease /dikils/ (v) снижать, уменьшать donate /douneit; (v) жертвовать (деньги) effort 1фЧ1 (n) усилие electricity /ilektnsiti/ (n) электричество emission /imiPn/ (n) выброс enclosure /inklout.T7 (n) загон, огороженное место endangered /mdeincfeyd,' (adj) находящийся в опасности genetically modified /cfeinutikli mudifaid/ (adj) генетически модифицированный global warming /gloub"’! w^'mio/ (n) глобальное потепление habitat /habitat/ (n) среда обитания improve /impngv/ (v) улучшать increase /mkrls/ (v) повышать lifestyle /laifstail/ (n) образ жизни modern lmndэ^nl (adj) современный natural /па1/агЧ/ (adj) естественный WL11 Word List negative /negaiiv/ (adj) негативный oxygen /Dksictjan/ (n) кислород power station /paya'steiPiV (n) электростанция programme /рпшдггетУ (n) программа quality /kwnliii/ (n) качество species /spyiz/ (n) вид(ы) transport /titensp.-):'t/ (n) транспорт wildlife /waildlaif/ (n) дикая природа Phrasal Verbs cut down (phr V) вырубать (деревья) Phrases in return for (phr) в оплату за, в обмен на 4с avid /ajvid/ (adj) ярый captivity /kaeptiviti/ (n) неволя cycle /saik’l/ (V) ехать на велосипеде danger /deincfea7(n) опасность drop /drop/ (v) бросать extinction /iksiiokfn/ (n) вымирание, вырождение identity card /aidcniiti ko;'d/ (n) удостоверение личности litter ПцаЧ (n) мусор, отходы marine life /тэгкп lailj (n) живые ресурсы моря necessary /nesisari/(adj) необходимый obligatory /эЬЦдэит/ (adj) обязательный own /ищи/ (v) владеть passenger /paesimfeaV (n) пассажир permission /рэ'пцрп/ (n) разрешение, позволение phone call /faun ksM (n) телефонный звонок recommend /rekamend/ (v) рекомендовать seat belt /sj;t belt/ (n) ремень безопасности Phrasal Verbs run away from (phr v) убегать от run into (phr v) натолкнуться run out of (phr v) исчерпать, закончиться run over (phr v) переехать, задавить Words often confused weather (n)/whether (conj) погода/ли affect (v)/effect (n) влиять/результат, эффект dessert Idizx’xJ (n)/desert /deza'i/ (n) десерт/пустыня loose (adj)Zlose (v) свободный, просторный/терять 4d amazed /ameizd/ (adj) удивленный, изумленный amazement /amgizmam/ (n) удивление, изумление branch /Ьгшпф (n) ветвь broad /brad/ (adj) широкий bunch /Ьдпф (n) связка, охапка cheek /ifi;k/ (n) щека clearing /kliarny (n) очистка clumsy /kl^mzi/ (adj) неуклюжий comrade /kDmreid/ (n) товарищ, компаньон crash Ikqsil (v) рушиться, падать WL12 creature /kritfaV (n) создание describe /diskraib/ (v) описывать detective /diiektiv/ (n) сыщик, детектив dinosaur /dainasaV (n) динозавр discover /diskAvaV (v) обнаруживать discovery /diskavari/ (n) открытие display /dispigi/ (v) показывать, выражать ecstasy /ekstasi/ (n) экстаз, бурный восторг encounter /inkayntaV (v) встретиться, наталкиваться endure /mdiooV (v) вынести, вытерпеть enormous Imo^masl (adj) громадный, огромный excited /iksmtid/(adj) взволнованный expedition /ekspidifn/ (n) экспедиция extraordinary /iksirs^dsnri/ (adj) необычный fake /feik/ (n) мошенник, обманщик fascinating /f^sincitio/(adj) очаровательный, обворожительный glitter /gilts'/ (v) блестеть, сверкать grab /grsEb/ (v) хватать, захватывать historical /histiink*l/(adj) исторический hop /|1Щ)/ (v) прыгать, подпрыгивать huge /hjitdv (adj) огромный incident /insidsnt/ (n) случай, происшествие include /mkliud/ (v) содержать, включать intently /intenili/ (adv) пристально, внимательно ironic /airunik/ (adj) ироничный liar /Igio'/ (n) лжец limitless /Iimitiss/ (adj) безграничный lizard /liz3'd/(n) ящерица loudly /iaudli/ (adv) громко monstrous /monstrss/ (adj) чудовищный motionless /mouPnIas/ (adj) неподвижный muscle /тду’1/ (n) мышца overjoyed /oyvs'thojd/ (adj) счастливый passionate /pafonot/(adj) страстный play /pl£!/ (n) пьеса playful /plejful/ (adj) игривый, шутливый point /pant/ (v) указывать praise /pttiz/ (v) хвалить, прославлять prehistoric /prihistErik/ (adj) доисторический reptile /rgptail/ (n) рептилия sapling /stEplirV (n) побег scale /skeil/ (n) чешуя scientific /saiantifik/ (adj) научный shimmer /Jims'/ (v) мерцать, переливаться sight /sail/ (n) поле зрения skin /skin/ (n) кожа, шкура slate-coloured /slejt k^ls'd/ (adj) синевато-серый soften IsjiPnt (v) смягчаться, успокаиваться specimen /spesimm/ (n) образец storyteller /staritgls'/ (n) рассказчик strength /streoe/ (n) сила strong /strt>o/ (adj) сильный swamp /swpmp/ (n) болото talent Aslant/ (n) талант thud IQdidI (n) глухой стук track rtrsk/ (n) след triumphantly AraiAmfontli/ (adv) c триумфом trunk /triok/ (n) ствол Word List unintelligent /Anmtehcfe^nty (adj) глупый, неумный vanish /viEniJ? (v) исчезать weakness /wjiknos/ (n) слабость whisper /’’wispaV (n) шепот Phrasal Verbs put up with (phr v) мириться c 4e access /akses/ (n) доступ accident /aksidnnt/ (n) авария, несчастный случай aspect /aspekt/ (n) сторона, аспект ban /ban/ (n/v) запрет, запрещать car exhaust /ka'igzast/ (n) выхлопные газы crowded /kiaidid/ (adj) переполненный drastically /diastik'li/ (adv) решительно, резко environmentally friendly /mvaiaranment’li frendli/ (adj) экологически чистый excuse /ikskjas/ (n) оправдание generally /clanrali/ (adv) обычно, как правило inconvenient /inkanvtnisni/iadj) затруднительный, неудобный route/rat/(n) маршрут strongly /strarjli/ (adv) резко, решительно suggestion /s3c(5sstpn/ (n) предложение system /sistom/(n) система total /tout’ll (adj) абсолютный, полный totally /tQut’li/ (adv) полностью, абсолютно undoubtedly /Andaiitidli/ (adv) несомненно, безусловно Culture Corner 4 authorities /э.-евпи7У (n pi) администрация bleach lb\W (n) отбеливатель conserve /kansaiw/ (v) сохранять contain /kontem/ (v) содержать coral reef /knrol itP (n) коралловый риф crystal clear /krist’l kliaV (adj) кристально чистый extinct /ikstiokt/ (adj) вымерший fatal /f£it=4/ (adj) губительный, смертельный float /flpyt/ (v) плавать, держаться на поверхности form (v) образовываться, формироваться harm /hjtW (v) наносить вред, вредить humpback whale /lumpba;k •’weil/ (n) горбатый кит organism /a^ganizom/ (n) организм reverse Invx'sl (v) изменить (ситуацию) shellfish /JglfiJ/ (n) моллюск surface Isx'ffsl (n) поверхность unique /jirnik/ (adj) уникальный Across the Curriculum absorb 1оЬгх’Ы (v) поглощать carbohydrate /koiTJouhaidreit/ (n) углевод carbon dioxide /ко;Ттэп daipksaid/ (n) углекислый газ chemical reaction /кепнкэ! riajkfn/(n) химическая реакция chlorophyll /kJorolil/ (n) хлорофилл convert 1кэт%'\1 (V) преобразовывать equation /ikwei5=‘n/ (n) уравнение ' food chain /tird tfcin/ (n) пищевая цепь hole /haul/ (n) отверстие I hydrogen /haidr3cb’n/(n) водород I life Лш1/ (n) жизнь obtain /3bi£in/ (v) добывать, получать photosynthesis /foutoosinOasis/ (n) фотосинтез plant /plg;nt/ (n) растение reaction /rigkfn/ (n) реакция root /ru;t/(n) корень ' soil /sail/ (n) почва stage /stei(fe/ (n) стадия store /sta;7 (v) хранить, запасать i sunlight/5дп1ш1/(п) солнечный свет J tiny/taini/(adj) крошечный Phrasal Verbs suck up (phr V) всасывать, поглощать Going Green 4 allow /э1ан/ (v) разрешать, позволять ' atmosphere /stmosfioV (n) атмосфера i canopy/кжпф1/(n) поросль молодых деревьев company /кдтрэп!/ (n) компания I cough /kn(7(n) кашель divide /divaid/ (v) разделять emergent /imsr^cfe’nt/ (n) верхушки деревьев equator /ikweiiaV (n) экватор fuel /0ы:э1/ (n) топливо grow /дгщ/ (v) расти height /halt/ (n) высота I hot /hot/ (adj) жаркий humid /hjii;mid/(adj) влажный land /Igend/ (n) земля I layer/lsis7(n) ярус medicine /ingds^'n/ (n) лекарство mixture/mikstJo7(n) микстура I organisation /ai^gonaizeipn/ (n) организация ' politician/pElinpa'(n) политик rainforest /rginlbnsi/ (n) влажный тропический лес I renew /nnjuy (v) обновлять resin /rezin/ (n) смола tree bark Ait boiTd (n) древесная кора tropical /trupik’l/ (adj) тропический understorey/And.Vst3:ri/(n) подлесок , Phrasal Verbs stick out (phr v) торчать, высовываться Phrases make a difference (phr) сделать мир лучше (здесь) Spotlight on Exams average /жч-апф/ (n) средняя величина bark /Ьш'к/ (V) лаять befriend /bifrsnd/ (v) подружиться, относиться дружески WL13 Word List birth /Ьз:^0/(п) рождение boar Ibsfi (n) кабан breed /bitcl/ (v) разводить, выводить bright /biBity (adj) яркий camouflage /кжтзПаз/ (v) маскировать collar/knb'/(n) воротник conservationist /kEnsa'vgiPnisty (n) борец за охрану природы cub /кдЬ/ (n) детеныш deforestation /dLiansteipn/ln) вырубка леса, обезлесение double /(1дЬ=1/ (V) удваивать elk /£1к/ (п) лось female /itmcil/ (adj) женский follow IMovI (v) отслеживать, следить giant /фшэт/(adj) гигантский hunt /Ндт/ (V) охотиться impressive /imprgsiv/ (adj) впечатляющий, выразительный indigenous /mdicfeinos/ (adj) местный, локальный length IIcqOI (n) длина lifetime /laiftamV (n) жизнь, продолжительность жизни location Лоикехрп/ (n) место loud /litud/ (adj) громкий lucky ibtkil (adj) удачливый male /meil/ (adj) мужской movement /mu:vm3nty(n) перемещение, передвижение panda /piindo/ (n) панда photographer /ГзшдгэГэ7 (n) фотограф predator /prsd3t37 (n) хищник prey /ргеУ (n) добыча, жертва primarily /ргштэгз17 (adv) главным образом roar /г2;7 (n) рев scientist /saisntist/ (n) ученый shrink //rioW (v) сокращать Siberian tiger /saibiarisn t3ig37 (n) амурский тигр stealthily /sislOili/ (adv) украдкой, крадучись step Isiepi (n) шаг stripe /strdip/ (n) полоса threat /QrsU (n) угроза vision /vi3"n/ (n) зрение wild Availd/ (adj) дикий truly Aryjli/ (adv) действительно unfortunately /Anfa^/unstiy (adv) к сожалению Phrasal Verbs come together (phr v) объединиться set up (phr V) создавать sneak up (phr v) подкрасться незаметно Phrases set free (phr) отпускать на волю MODULE 5 5a ancient /ein/nm/ (adj) древний annual tenjusiy (adj) ежегодный WL14 backpack /Ь^кржк/' (n/v) рюкзак, участвовать в туристическом походе barber /Ьо1'Ьз7(п) парикмахер base ,'beis/ (v) основываться beach ШИ (n) пляж beggar /Ьедз7 (n) нищий, попрошайка breathtaking /breetgikjij/ (adj) захватывающий дух brochure /ЬгоиГз7 (n) брошюра, рекламный буклет camp /кщтр/ (v) устраивать стоянку, разбивать лагерь candlelit /kajnd^llit/ (adj) освещенный свечой climb /klaim/ (v) подниматься, взбираться coast /kfiyst/ (n) побережье comfort /кдтГз'1/ (n) удобство, комфорт contest /kcntest/ (n) состязание, соревнование countless /kauntiss/ (adj) бесчисленный crack IkrskJ (V) трескаться craftsman /krgrftsmsn/ (n) ремесленник delay /dilgj/ (v) задерживать, откладывать delicious /dilifss/ (adj) очень вкусный drum /drim/ (n) барабан escape /iskeip/ (v) убежать, избавиться, избежать excursion /ikskaiV^fn) экскурсия extend /ikstsndy (v) длиться определенный период времени festival /festival/(n) фестиваль foggy /fugi/ (adj) туманный handicraft /hjendikroifV (n) изделие ручной работы incredible /mkrgdib’l' (adj) невероятный leaflet /ШПэ7 (n) проспект, брошюра magnificent /miegnilissnt/(adj) великолепный, роскошный nasty /nflisii/ (adj) опасный, мерзкий package holidays /pskicfe hplideiz/ (n) отдых c полным комплексом услуг parade /psriad/ (n) парад, шествие pavement /peivmsni/ (n) тротуар peak /реку (n) вершина pottery /рв1эп/ (n) глиняные изделия, керамика procession /ргз5£рп/ (n) процессия, шествие prolong /pQlEo/ (V) продлевать rocky /rcki/ (adj) скалистый scenery /5ёпэпУ(п) пейзаж, вид shade Ifsxdl (n) тень (область, куда не попадает солнце) shadow /Jisdou/ (n) тень (от какого-либо предмета) sleeping bag /slepiobjeg/fn) спальный мешок snowy /snoi/i/ (adj) снежный, покрытый снегом souvenir /siuv3ni37 (n) сувенир spectacular /spektskjul37 (adj) захватывающий, эффектный sunrise /5дпгшх/ (n) восход солнца, заря teahouse /ti;haus/ (n) чайный домик temple Aemp^iy (n) храм trail /irgjiy (n) тропа, дорога traveller Лп£уэ1э7 (n) путешественник trek /irgky (V) пересекать, идти пешком vendor /v£nds7 (n) торговец virus /vai3r3s/ (n) вирус Word List Phrasal Verbs kick off (phr v) начинать, давать старт put up (phr V) устанавливать (палатку) wake up (phr v) просыпаться Phrases in the distance (phr) вдалеке, на расстоянии 5b airline /еаПаш/ (n) авиакомпания appalling /3po;liiy (adj) ужасный disappointed /dis.Tp2iniid/(adj) разочарованный fetch /feij? (v) сходить, съездить за чем-либо guided tour /дш4)к1 im'l (n) экскурсия, организованная поездка hostel /hnst’l/ (n) турбаза, общежитие luggage /I^gicfe/ (n) багаж mosquito /maskttou/ (n) комар nightlife /naitlaif? (n) ночная жизнь passport Ipsspy.'U (n) паспорт rude /riKd/ (adj) грубый satisfied /sstist'aid; (adj) удовлетворенный sightseeing tour /saitsino tusV (n) осмотр достопримечательностей Staff maid (n) персонал suntan /Sinuen/ (n) загар Phrases boiling hot (phr) очень жаркий for a start (phr) для начала go on a cruise (phr) отправиться в путешествие, круиз go wrong (phr) не получаться, сорваться have а nice time (phr) хорошо провести время look on the bright side (phr) быть оптимистом to make matters worse (phr) ухудшить положение дел What an absolute nightmare! (phr) Какой кошмар! Idioms heavy heart (idm) камень на сердце, с тяжелым сердцем hit the road (idm) отправиться в путь off the beaten track (idm) в стороне от большой дороги, в глубинке port of call (idm) порт захода (куда заходит круизный лайнер) 5с border 1Ьу:^6эЧ (п) граница cover /клуэ7 (v) занимать, покрывать credit card /kredii koi'd/ (n) кредитная карта crowd (n) толпа disqualified /diskwalifaid/ (adj) дисквалифицированный guide book /gaid byk/ (n) путеводитель hair dryer /h^' draioV (n) фен insect repellent /insckt np&bnt/ (n) средство против насекомых northern /па'бэ'п/ (adj) северный I realise /rLaluiz/ (v) понимать, осознавать shine //шп/ (v) светить, сверкать, блестеть sickness pill /siknas pil/ (n) таблетка от укачивания sun glasses /s^n glgisiz/ (n) солнцезащитные очки sunscreen /&Anskri;n/(n) солнцезащитный крем sunbathe |&^nЪe\BI (v) загорать tidy /taidi/ (v) прибирать, приводить в порядок traveller's cheque /trgvala'z ifek/ (n) дорожный чек uninhabited /лптЬщЬдЩ/ (adj) незаселенный vast ^flisiy(adj) огромный, громадный Phrasal Verbs find out (phr V) выяснять get around (phr v) передвигаться, перемещаться get by (phr V) сводить концы с концами get in (phr V) прибывать get off (phr V) уходить, уезжать get on (with) (phr v) ладить (c кем-либо) make up (phr v) составлять pick up (phr v) заехать за, забрать Words often confused miss/lose (v) пропускать/терять transfer/crossing (n) передвижение/пересечение transport/travel (n) транспорт/путешествие bring/fetch (v) принести/сходить за 5d arrival /эгщу’1У (n) прибытие, приезд astonishment /astpmjmont/ (n) удивление, изумление bare /bcaV(adj) голый bet /bet/ (n) пари carpet bag /кш'рп b&gl (n) саквояж case /keis/ (n) чемодан clearly /kliali/ (adv) отчетливо, ясно cloak /klyyk/ (n) накидка, плащ collapse lks\xpsl (v) рухнуть departure /dipg;''tr37 (n) отъезд descend /disgnd/ (v) спускаться despair /dispga7 (n) отчаяние, безысходность due /djuy (adj) обязанный, должный enquire /inkwaia'/ (v) спрашивать, узнавать eyebrow /aibrau/ (n) бровь grin /grin/ (n) усмешка mackintosh /mskmtDj/(n) плащ, макинтош master /mg;sty/ (n) господин, хозяин mud /niid/(n) грязь native /neitiv/ (adj) родной pioneer /ршэпш'/ (n) первопроходец, пионер plead /plid/ (v) просить purchase /pai'ifis/ (v) покупать, приобретать shake /jtak/ (v) трясти, качать shut //л1/ (v) закрывать, запирать slip /slip/ (v) засовывать soil IsoiV (n) почва, земля spread /sprgd/ (v) расплываться (о лице) steamer /stcmo'/ (n) пароход WL15 Word List stockings /stBkioz/ (n pi) чулки stout /siauty (adj) прочный, крепкий timetable rtaimieib^l/ (n) расписание trouble ЛглЬ"’!/ (v) тревожить, беспокоить valet /vffilei/ (n) слуга weigh Mei/ (v) отягощать Phrasal Verbs hold up (phr v) выставлять, поднимать well up (phr V) навернуться (о слезах) Phrases have in mind (phr) держать в голове set foot (phr) ступать ногой 5e admire/odmaia'/(v) восхищаться airport terminal /ea'p3:'t ix'mm'l/ (n) здание (терминал) аэропорта altitude /gltitjuid/ (n) высота amused /3mju;zd/(adj) удивленный, изумленный annoyed /anaid/ (adj) недовольный, раздраженный anxious /шок/os/ (adj) волнующийся, беспокоящийся anxiously /шок/osli/ (adv) тревожно, c волнением apartment /opa;4moni/(n) квартира bored Ibz’dI (adj) скучающий, незаинтересованный calm /кшт/ (adj) спокойный certain /sa:'t°n/(adj) уверенный, точный chilly l^iia (adj) прохладный cloudless /klaudlos/(adj) безоблачный confused /konfju;zd/ (adj) смущенный deafening /defomo/ (adj) оглушающий, очень громкий decorate /dskorcii/ (v) украшать delighted /dilaiiid/ (adj) довольный, счастливый depressed /dipngsiy (adj) подавленный, угнетенный disaster /dize;sto7 (n) катастрофа, несчастье drip /drip/ (v) капать, стекать exhausted /igz2?tid/(adj) истощенный familiar /fomdio'/ (adj) знакомый float /floift/ (n) украшенная платформа (здесь) frightened /Гщц^пс!/ (adj) напуганный gasp /gasp/ (v) ахнуть, вздыхать gigantic /фа1дшп11к/(adj) гигантский glad /gl£d/ (adj) радостный happily /hffipili/ (adv) счастливо, весело hungrily /hAognli/ (adv) жадно, как голодный miserable /mizarab’l/ (adj) несчастный panic /ршшк/ (v) впадать в панику, терять голову patiently /peipmli/ (adv) терпеливо platform /р1ш1Гд‘/т/(n) платформа pleased /pljp;d/ (adj) довольный refreshed /пГг£Я/ (adj) отдохнувший relieved /nlL-vd/ (adj) облегченный reunite /njanait/ (v) воссоединяться, собираться вновь scan /skffin/ (v) осматривать scared /skea'd/ (adj) напуганный, испуганный scream /skiim/ (v) вопить, визжать separate /scpareit/ (v) отделять, разделять shiver /JivdV (v) дрожать, трястись sip Isipl (v) потягивать, пить маленькими глотками slowly /slouli/ (adv) медленно stall /sta;!/ (n) лоток, прилавок storm Istz'mJ (n) буря, ураган suddenly /s^d^nli/ (adv) внезапно, неожиданно sunlounger /sAnlanncfeoV (n) шезлонг sure //uaV (adj) уверенный terrified /tenfaid/ (adj) напуганный, ужаснувшийся thrilled /Oald/(adj) взволнованный, возбужденный tired /tais^d/ (adj) уставший unafraid /дпэГгшс!/ (adj) бесстрашный uncertain /Ans3;'t’n/(adj) неуверенный, неточный uncontrollably /4пкотгоо1эЬ'’Ш (adv) неудержимо uneasy /Anizi/ (adj) непростой unpredictable /Anpndiktob^l/(adj) непредсказуемый violent /vaialani/ (adj) жестокий wander /wcndaV (v) бродить, блуждать wildly /waiidii/ (adv) дико Phrases a clap of thunder (phr) удар грома catch a flight (phr) успеть на самолет freezing cold (phr) очень холодный go for a walk (phr) гулять pour with rain (phr) идет дождь take a look (phr) взглянуть take a sip (phr) отхлебнуть Culture Corner 5 arsenal /a^san’l/ (n) склад оружия, арсенал Beefeater /btfliDV (n) служитель охраны лондонского Тауэра, бифитер boat trip /bout tnp/ (n) прогулка на лодке dome /dpum/ (n) купол faint-hearted /feint ha^ud/ (adj) трусливый, нерешительный fortress /fffi'tns/ (n) крепость labyrinth /1шЬтп0/ (n) лабиринт lecture /lekt/oV (n) лекция medieval /mcditvol/ (adj) средневековый millennium /milcni3m/(n) тысячелетие mirror /miraV (n) зеркало palace /рш1|5/ (n) дворец permanent /px'manant/ (adj) постоянный prison /paz^n/ (n) тюрьма scary /skcari/ (adj) страшный, пугающий visitor/vizit37(n) посетитель workshop /wailc/np/ (n) мастерская Phrases get a bird's eye view (phr) посмотреть c высоты птичьего полета great value for money (phr) разумное использование средств have the experience of a lifetime (phr) испытать нечто незабываемое WL16 Word List hop on and off (phr) садиться и сходить scared out of your wits (phr) испуганный до потери сознания serve а purpose (phr) подойти, сгодиться take а ride (phr) прокатиться Across the Curriculum arcade toTccid/ (n) галерея игровых автоматов brilliant /bnlianty (adj) блестящий, замечательный cafe /ksfei/ (n) кафе interesting /mtrasiio/ (adj) интересный museum /mjuxtanv (n) музей stuff /st^f? (n) оборудование, оснастка sunbathing /s^nbcidio/fn) солнечная ванна surfing /saiTiiy (n) серфинг Phrases do some sightseeing (phr) осматривать достопримечательности go on a guided tour (phr) отправляться на экскурсию в сопровождении экскурсовода Going Green 5 beach ball /btyba;!/ (n) большой надувной мяч block /Ь1ск/ (v) блокировать bucket 1Ь\Ы1 (n) ведерко cigarette end /sigargi end/ (n) окурок confuse /kanfiHiz/ (v) смущать, приводить в замешательство curious /kiuarias/ (adj) любопытный digestive system /daufeestiv sistam/ (n) пищеварительная система dolphin /dnifm/ (n) дельфин drain /drein/ (n) канализация drink can /dnok ks.nl (n) алюминиевая банка endangered species /indeind5o'd.spiJ'iz/(n pi) вымирающие виды enemy/enomi/(n) враг examine /igzsrnm/ (v) изучать, обследовать fisherman /й(э^тэп/(п) рыбак food wrapper /fu;d rapaV (n) оберточная бумага для пищевых продуктов horrible /hnnb’l/ (adj) ужасный, противный injury /шфэп/ (n) повреждение, вред jellyfish /cfeelifij? (n) медуза likely /laikli/ (adj) возможный, вероятный mammal /тгет'Ч/ (n) млекопитающее marine litter /шэгйп liia7 (n) морской мусор organise /a^ganaiz/ (v) организовывать propeller /prapfiloV (n) винт sand /sgnd/ (n) песок sea lion 1st 1шэп/ (n) морской лев sea turtle /sLiai't’l/ (n) морская черепаха seal lst\J (n) тюлень, морской котик solution /saluiPn/ (n) решение spade /spcid/ (n) лопата starve /stst'v/ (V) голодать, страдать от голода stop /siDp/ (v) останавливать threaten /Gret’n/ (v) угрожать toy /13!/ (n) игрушка Phrasal Verbs fill up (phr V) заполнять Spotlight on Exams archaeologist /ffiTtialatfeisi; (n) археолог coffin /кпПп/ (n) гроб death /dgO/ (n) смерть direction /dairgkfn/(n) направление dirt id^’xlin) грязь drawing/dranyln) рисунок farewell /fea'^wgl/ (n) прощание farmer Ifs'mo'l (n) земледелец form Ifx’mJ (n) форма granite /grgmt/fn) гранит hieroglyphics /haiaragliliks/ (n) иероглифы jewels /cfeuiolz/ (n) драгоценности journey Idsx'nll (n) поездка limestone /1шт5Юип/(п) известняк magical /mjgcbik-’l/ (adj) магический, волшебный marble /то;^!/ (n) мрамор monument /manjumant/ (n) памятник mummy /тдт1/ (n) мумия pyramid /piramid/ (n) пирамида ramp Irsmpl (n) уклон, скат ruler /гш1э7 (n) правитель slave /sleiv/ (n) раб square /skwe37 (adj) квадратный stone /stQun/ (n) камень survive /sa'vaiv/ (V) выживать tomb /tu:m/ (n) могила, мавзолей tourist destination /tuanst destmeifn/ (n) место, привлекательное для туристов transfer /iraensf3;7 (v) перевозить transport /tncnspo:'!/ (v) перевозить, перемещать treasure /иазэ7 (n) сокровище, драгоценности tunnel /!дп’1/ (n) туннель wonder /w^iid37 (n) чудо Phrasal Verbs roll up (phr v) катить, скатывать MODULE 6 6a additive /sdiiiv/ (n) приправа apple /аер’1/ (n) яблоко aubergine /оиЬэ'зкп/ (n) баклажан baked /bgiki/ (adj) печеный banana /Ьзпшпэ/ (n) банан biscuit /biskit/ (n) печенье bitter /Ьцэ7 (adj) горький boiled /b3jld/ (adj) вареный boost Ib&U (n) стимул, энергия brain /Ьг£1п/ (n) мозг bread /bred/ (n) хлеб WL17 Word List broccoli /brokali/ (n) брокколи butter /bitaV (n) сливочное масло cabbage Iksbuti (n) капуста cake IksikJ (n) пирожное carrot /ksrat/ (n) морковь celery /sglari/ (n) сельдерей cereal /siarial/ (n) злаки, крупа cheese /й2/(п) сыр cherry /tferiy (n) вишня chicken /ftkin/ (n) курица chocolate /йгк1пУ (n) шоколад cinnamon /Sinamon/ (n) корица complain /kamplgin/ (v) выражать недовольство, жаловаться concentration /kcns^ntnaTn/ (n) сосредоточенность corn /ка'п/ (n) кукуруза creative /krieitiv/ (adj) творческий, творчески одаренный crisps /kpsps/ (n pi) чипсы cucumber ЛдщклтЬэ'/ (n) огурец emotion /imouPn/ (n) эмоция, чувство emotionally /impujan^li/ (adv) эмоционально eyesight /aisait/ (n) зрение fibre /faiby/ (n) клетчатка fig /fig/ (n) инжир fish /fif/ (n) рыба fizzy /fizi/ (adj) газированный flop /Пср/ (v) плюхнуться fried n'mdl (adj) жареный fruit /fru;i/ (n) фрукты ginger /фтфэ7(п) имбирь grape /дг£1р/ (n) виноград greedy /gitdi/ (adj) прожорливый, жадный grilled /gald/ (adj) жареный на гриле grin /grin/ (v) широко улыбаться handful /h$ndftil/ (n) горсть illness /ilnas/ (n) болезнь imagine /imgcfem/ (v) представлять (себе) lemon /1етэп/ (n) лимон lemonade /lemsniad/ (n) лимонад lettuce /lens/ (n) салат-латук lime /Iaim/(n) лайм main course /mein ka:'s/ (n) основное блюдо mango /msogou/ (n) манго meat /mtt/ (n) мясо melon /melon/ (n) дыня milk /milk/ (n) молоко minerals /minorolz/ (n pi) минеральные вещества oil /ail/ (n) растительное масло oily /aili/ (adj) сливочный optimistic /Dptimistik/ (adj) оптимистичный orange /2ппс(з/ (n) апельсин pea /piy (n) горох, горошина peach /рШ (n) персик pear /pea'/ (n) груша physical /fizik^l/ (adj) физический physically /fizik’li/ (adv) физически pineapple /painsep^l/ (n) ананас I plum /р1дт/ (n) слива potatoes /poteitouzV (n pi) картофель protein /proutkn/ (n) белок pumpkin /рдтркш/ (n) тыква raspberry /razbri/ (n) малина raw /гг/ (adj) сырой rice imsi (n) рис roasted /roustid/ (adj) жареный rumble /глтЬ’1/ (v) урчать slice /slais/ (n) ломтик soothing /siseiiy (adj) успокаивающий spice /spais/ (n) специя steamed /sti;md/ (adj) приготовленный на пару still /sill/ (adj) негазированный (о воде) strawberry /stta;bri/ (n) клубника sweet /swiit/ (n) конфета toasted Aoustid/ (adj) зажаренный tomato /tamg;too/ (n) помидор treat Aitt/ (V) угощать tummy /lAmi/ (n) живот vegetables /verfetsb'lz/ (n) овощи vitamin /уцэтт/ (n) витамин watermelon /waia'melon/ (n) арбуз wrinkle /rigk’l/ (n) морщина yoghurt /jogs'!/ (n) йогурт Phrases I do the gardening (phr) заниматься садоводством I feel down in the dumps (phr) находиться в унынии 6b doughnut /douHAt/ (n) пончик indigestion /indict^fn/ (n) расстройство желудка itchy /itfi/ (adj) зудящий mind /maind/ (n) разум nut /П41/ (n) орех overweight /ouvs'weit/ (adj) полный (о человеке) pale /psd/ (adj) бледный seed Istdl (n) семечко skinny /skini/ (adj) очень худой, тощий sleepy /slipi/ (adj) сонный sore /sa'/ (adj) болезненный, причиняющий боль spicy /spaisi/ (adj) острый (о еде) stomach ache /st\msk eik/ (n) боль в желудке sugary /Jugori/ (adj) сладкий teaspoon Ai;spu:n/ (n) чайная ложка tiredness rtaia'dnss/ (n) усталость tooth decay Aik0 dika/ (n) разрушение, гниение зубов toothache /iu;0eik/ (n) зубная боль underweight /ando'weit/ (adj) неполновесный, c недостаточным весом waistline /weisiiam/ (n) талия well-balanced /welbslonst/(adj) сбалансированный Phrasal Verbs call over (phr v) позвать, вызывать cut down (phr V) сокращать cut out (phr v) исключать WL18 Word List Phrases catch a cold (phr) простудиться Idioms off colour (idm) нездоровый on one’s feet (idm) выздороветь, оправиться после болезни get oneself back into shape (idm) привести себя в порядок take а turn for the worse (idm) измениться к худшему 6c dietician /daiatiPiV (n) диетолог gentle /{feint^l/ (adj) мягкий, добрый grain igraxnl (n) зерно headache /hedeik/ (n) головная боль injection /mdjgkfn/ (n) укол, инъекция jumper /сЬдтрэ7 (n) джемпер jungle /сЬдод’!/ (n) джунгли painful /pfcinful/ (adj) болезненный prawn /ро;п/ (n) креветка purse (n) кошелек skimmed /skimd/ (adj) обезжиренное (о молоке) wallet /wplit/ (n) бумажник Phrasal Verbs give away (phr v) дарить, отдавать give back (phr v) возвращать give off (phr V) выделять, излучать give up (phr v) бросать (привычку), отказываться put on (phr v) набирать (вес) Words often confused ache/pain (n) тупая, ноющая боль/ страдание, боль prescription/recipe (n) рецепт (медицинский)/рецепт (кулинарный) rotten/sour (adj) тухлый/кислый treat/cure (v) лечить/излечивать, вылечить cure/heal (v) излечивать/исцелять 6d accommodation /akomadeij^n/ (n) жилье appetite /apitait/ (n) аппетит apron /£1ргэп/ (n) передник assistant /ssistanu (n) помощник bakery /bgikari/ (n) пекарня, булочная brick /Ьпк/ (n) кирпич, брусок companion /кэшржп)эп/ (n) товарищ copper /кррэ7 (n) медь criminal /каппп’1/ (n) преступник cruelty /krjrslii/ (n) жестокость debt /det/ (n) долг dishonesty /dispnisti/ (n) нечестность drawn /drain/ (adj) нерешенный eager I'lgs'l (adj) страстно желающий, жаждущий eventual /iventfual/ (adj) окончательный finger /ftoga7 (n) палец forgive /fa'giv/ (v) прощать fortune /fai’tjuin/ (n) удача, судьба gaze igsxiJ (v) уставиться, пристально глядеть glance /giflins/ (v) взглянуть glare /gl£27 (v) свирепо смотреть grace /greis/ (n) молитва gruel /gruial/ (n) каша hunger /Ьдочэ7 (n) голод improvement /impru;vrnant/ (n) улучшение kindness /kaindnas/ (n) доброта ladle /leid’i/ (n) половник ladleful .leid^’lfoV (n) полный половник lick Ш (v) лизать, облизывать matter /гп!Е1э7 (n) значение nudge /пдсЬ/ (v) подталкивать own /рип/ (v) владеть paralyse /psralaiz/ (v) парализовать peep /piip/ (v) заглядывать, подглядывать peer /pia7 (v) вглядываться polish /pelijy (V) полировать prayer /ргса7 (n) молитва selfishness /sglfijnss/ (n) эгоизм shriek //itk/ (v) орать, выкрикивать splash /splaP (n) капелька stare /sts27 (v) пристально смотреть, таращить глаза starvation /stoi'vsiT’n/ (n) голодная смерть stray /strEj/ (adj) случайный task /task/ (n) задание, дело theme /0i;m/ (n) основная мысль, сюжет totally /tQs/t^iy (adj) полностью, абсолютно whisper /''wisp37 (v) шептать wink /wiijk/ (v) подмигивать workhouse /w3;Tdiaus/ (n) мастерская, работный дом Phrases catch a glimpse of (phr) увидеть мельком catch sight of (phr) заметить, увидеть take advantage of (phr) воспользоваться чем-либо Idioms a piece of cake (idm) пустячное дело as cool as a cucumber (idm) абсолютно спокойный cry over spilt milk (idm) что сделано, то сделано in hot water (idm) в заботах, в хлопотах it’s not my cup of tea (idm) это не по мне I 6е I adequate /aedikwai/ (adj) соответствующий j assess IssssI (v) оценивать, давать оценку I background /bskgraund/ (n) фон book IbukI (v) заказывать, резервировать booking /bykiij/ (n) резервирование, бронирование I билетов choice /tfais/ (n) выбор cosy /koyzi/ (adj) уютный decor /deik.T.7 (n) оформление, декор dish /diJ7(n) блюдо WL19 Word List consequently /konsikw.-mtli/ (adv) следовательно, в результате efficient /ifipnty (adj) эффективный, действенный effort 1ф'и (n) усилие essential /issnfiy (adj) необходимый fault /failt/ (n) недостаток funky /fioki/ (adj) в стиле «фанк* (о музыке) furthermore (adv) кроме того helpful /helpful/ (adj) услужливый, полезный inexperienced /]nikspi2ri3nst/(adj) неопытный international /inio^ngfon’l/(adj) международный limited /limmd/ (adj) ограниченный menu /menju:/ (n) меню point /paint/ (n) особенность popular /pEpjubV (adj) популярный popularity /pspjulgcnii/ (n) популярность presentation /prcz'nteiPn/ (n) презентация, представление price IpmsI (n) цена professional /ргоГеГэп’!/ (adj) профессиональный purpose /ра;фэя/ (n) цель queue /kjit/ (v) стоять в очереди reasonable /itzonab'l/ (adj) умеренный, сносный regret /rigrst/ (v) (со)жалеть report /ripa;"t/ (n) доклад representative /ngpnzeniMiv/ (n) член, представитель restaurant /rgstaront/ (n) ресторан school canteen /sku;l kaemj;n/ (n) школьная столовая service /sai^vis/ (n) обслуживание standard /stsndyd/ (n) норма, стандарт superior /su-piariaV (adj) превосходный tasteless /teistlas/ (adj) безвкусный tasty Agjsti/ (adj) вкусный trendy Arendi/ (adj) ультрамодный unacceptable /дпэкзапэЬ’!/ (adj) неприемлемый unavoidable /^nsvaidsb’l' (adj) неизбежный unhealthy /лпИеЮ!/ (adj) нездоровый upbeat /йрЫп/ (adj) жизнерадостный value /vgljiu/ (n) цена varied Nssndl (adj) различный, меняющийся variety ^эшш/ (n) разнообразие various /v£2rias/ (adj) разнообразный vegetarian /у£фк£2пгп/ (n) вегетарианец venue A'cnjuV (n) место warm /wa'nV (adj) теплый wide /waid/ (adj) широкий Phrases cost a fortune (phr) влететь в копеечку I would strongly recommend (phr) я бы настойчиво рекомендовал in advance (phr) заранее, заблаговременно it takes ages (phr) на это уйдут годы on offer (phr) в наличии, в меню on the whole (phr) в общем, в целом well worth the money (phr) стоящий этих денег WL20 Culture Corner 6 accompany /эк,лтрэп1/ (v) сопровождать bagpiper /bsgpaips'/ (n) волынщик celebrate /sglibrcit/ (v) праздновать entertaining /eni94£iniiy (adj) развлекательный, забавный entertainment /entD'teinmam/(n) развлечение, увеселение haggis /hggis/ (n) шотландское блюдо, бараний рубец, начиненный потрохами со специями heart /hfli'i/ (n) сердце host /hpust/ (n) хозяин, хозяйка knife insaO (n) нож liver 1\1уэЧ (n) печень lung /1ао/ (n) легкое mashed /m£fi/(adj) размятый, растертый oatcake /psitkeik/ (n) овсяное печенье pipe /paip/ (v) играть (на волынке) poet /ршп/ (п) поэт recite /nsait/ (v) читать вслух и наизусть Scottish /skEiiJ/ (adj) шотландский sharp /Ja'p/ (adj) острый I sherry trifle /feri traifl/ (n) бисквит, пропитанный вином ' starter/stfl;'t3V(n) закуска I supper /$йрэ7 (n) ужин I toast/tQiisi/(v) говорить тост I tradition rtradipn/ (n) традиция I turnip Aai^nip/ (n) репа I welcome /wglkam/ (v) приветствовать Phrases be in for a treat (phr) быть угощенным I ! Across the Curriculum acid /ssid/ (n) кислота I attached /atgtft/ (adj) прикрепленный bacteria /baektisris/ (n pi) бактерии ^ bite /bait/ (v) кусать, надкусывать blood vessel /ЬЫ ves^l/ (n) кровеносный сосуд calcium /ksIsisnV (n) кальций canine /kcinam/ (n) клык cell /s£l/ (n) клетка cementum /simentom/ (n) цемент chew /tjji/ (V) жевать, пережевывать crown /kraun/ (n) коронка dentin /dentin/ (n) дентин enamel /msm'l/ (n) эмаль fasten tffss’nl (v) прикреплять fluoride /fluaraid/ (n) фтор grasp /grasp/ (v) хватать, зажимать grind /graind/ (v) перемалывать, толочь gum /длпт/ (n) десна human /hjamsn/ (n) человек incisor /msaiza'/ (n) резец jaw bone Idux bpun/ (n) челюстная кость layer /leioV (n) слой main /mgin/ (n) основной, главный milk teeth /milk ti;0/ (n pi) молочные зубы Word List molar /П10у1з7 (n) коренной зуб nerve /naiV (n) нерв outer /ау1э7 (adj) внешний, наружный part /рй1^1/ (n) часть permanent teeth /рз;'тэпэт tLe/ (n pi) постоянные зубы pulp /рй1р/ (n) пульпа, мякоть зуба root /гцс/ (n) корень securely /sikjiiali/ (adv) надежно tear /leaV (v) рвать toothpaste /tu;0peist/ (n) зубная паста unseen l/^nsi:nl (adj) невидимый Phrases in good condition (phr) в хорошем состоянии in the middle (phr) посередине Going Green 6 beneficial /bsmliPl/ (adj) полезный combat /kombict/ (v) бороться crop Ikmpi (n) урожай ecosystem /ikousistam/ (n) экосистема environment Лпч'шэгоптэш/ (n) окружающая среда farmer Ka'ms'l (n) фермер fertiliser /fgj'ulaizaV (n) удобрение field /lyd/ (n) поле flame /tleim/ (n) пламя greenfly /grtnllaiy (n) тля insect /insekty (n) насекомое insecticide /msekttsaid/ (n) препарат для уничтожения насекомых, инсектицид intensive /imenstv/ (adj) интенсивный ladybird /Ieidib3:^d/ (n) божья коровка machinery /mafynari/ (n) техника, машины maintain /meinisin/ (v) поддерживать man-made /тшп meid; (adj) сделанный человеком manure /manjuaV(n) навоз method /mgOad/ (n) метод natural /natfaral/ (adj) натуральный, естественный nutrient /njvytriant/ (n) питательное вещество organic farming Wganikfe'miiy (n) органическое земледелие peelings /pyligz/ (n pi) кожура, очистки pest control /pesi kamroul/ (n) борьба c вредителями pesticide /pestisaid/ (n) пестицид, ядохимикат plant /ploini/ (V) сажать produce /prsdjiys/ (v) производить reduce /ndjiys/ (v) снижать, уменьшать richness /alfnas/ (n) плодородие, богатство rotating /гошушо/ (adj) сменяющий одну сельскохозяйственную культуру за другой spray IspTSil (V) распылять, опрыскивать tool Ли;1У (п) инструмент tractor /ir^ktaV (n) трактор weed /wild/ (n) сорняк Spotlight on Exams beef /bill? (n) говядина beetroot /bytiui/ (n) свекла castle /kflis’l/ (n) замок, дворец deliver /dilivaV (v) доставлять diced /daisi/ (adj) нарезанный кубиками fast food /fflisi fiyd/ (n) еда на скорую руку fatty /fsti/ (adj) жирный fresh /frgl? (adj) свежий grab /grab/ (V) хватать, схватить ingredient /ingrydiany' (n) составная часть, ингредиент lemon juice /leman cfeiys/ (n) лимонный сок minced /minst/ (adj) рубленый pastry /piastri/ (n) кондитерские изделия peeled /pyld/ (adj) очищенный pickled /pik=ld/ (adj) маринованный reputation /repjingifan/ (n) репутация salad /sxiad/ (n) салат sandwich /sisnwicty (n) бутерброд, сэндвич selection /silekj’n/ (n) выбор shredded //redid/ (adj) резаный soup /sjyp/ (n) суп suit /su.1/ (V) годиться takeaway food /tgjkawei lu;d/ (n) еда на вынос (с собой) wedding cake /wedirt keik/ (n) свадебный торт wholesome /houlsam/ (adj) полезный, здоровый MODULE 7 7a addict /jgdiki/ (n) раб привычки, фанатик admit /odmit/ (v) признавать album /аШэпт/ (n) альбом anti-social /igmisaiiri/ (adj) антиобщественный best seller /best sel37 (n) хит продаж, бестселлер blare /Ь1£27 (v) громко играть box office /toks cfis/ (n) театральная касса cast /kjtst/ (n) труппа, актерский состав catchy /kisyV (adj) легко запоминающийся, привлекательный cinema /simma/ (n) кинотеатр critic /kritik/ (n) критик direct /daireki/(v) режиссировать, руководить съемками educational /ecfeoktaJan’l/ (adj) образовательный generation /фепэг!ц|’п/ (n) поколение gripping /gripiiy (adj) захватывающий heading /hgdio/ (n) заголовок incredible /inkr£dib'"l/(adj) невероятный label /leib’l/ (v) прикреплять ярлык, относить к mall ImzV (n) торговый центр moving /miuvny (adj) волнующий, трогательный musical /mjiuzik’l/ (n) мюзикл pointless /painilas/ (adj) бессмысленный predictable /pridiktab^'l/ (adj) предсказуемый record /nka'd/ (v) записывать relaxing /nl^ksiri/ (adj) расслабляющий repetitive /npetitiv/ (adj) повторяющийся reserve /riz3;'v/ (v) резервировать, бронировать review /nvjit/ (n) обзор script /skript/ (n) сценарий square-eyed /skwcoraid/ (adj) c квадратными глс1зами WL21 Word List stage /stfiicfe/ (n) сцена star /яш7 (v) играть главную роль storyline /st2:rilain/ (n) сюжетная линия subtitle /sAbtait"’!/ (n) субтитр theatre /0ьэ1э7 (n) театр tune /tju;n/ (n) мелодия, мотив unfair /йпГеа7 (adj) несправедливый unwind /anwgind/ (v) расслабиться, развеяться Phrasal Verbs sing along (phr v) петь вместе Phrases couch potato (phr) лентяй, домосед (it’s such) a good laugh (phr) это так весело take it or leave it (phr) все равно, безразлично you can’t beat the atmosphere (phr) ничто не может сравниться 7b aisle /ail/ (n) проход между рядами balcony /bslkani/ (n) балкон ballet /bslci/ (n) балет booked /bykiy (adj) зарезервированный, забронированный curtain iksiVnl (n) занавес empty /empti/ (adj) пустой, свободный fully /fuli/ (adv) полностью further (adv) дальше music concert /n^jiuzik kpnsa'^t/ (n) музыкальный концерт opera /врэгэ/ (n) опера orchestra /^Tustra/ (n) оркестр performance /pa'fai^mans/ (n) представление play /plei/ (n) пьеса row/гои/(n) ряд seat /sit/ (n) место stalls /st^lz/ (n pi) партер surroundings /saraundioz/ (n pi) обстановка, место usher 1фЧ (n) билетер Phrases be about to (phr) собираться, намереваться oh my goodness (phr) боже мой Idioms a one hit wonder (idm) певец-однодневка be hard of hearing (idm) плохо слышать it’s daylight robbery (idm) грабеж средь бела дня sell like hot cakes (idm) быть нарасхват air-conditioned /saTondipncl/ (adj) оборудованный кондиционером applaud loplzdJ (V) аплодировать chase /tfeis/ (v) преследовать, гнаться choreographer /кспЕдгоГэ7 (n) хореограф director /dairgkt37 (n) режиссер WL22 far-fetched /fc'fetft/ (adj) неестественный, неправдоподобный, невероятный film /film/ (n/v) фильм, снимать (фильм) lifelike /laiHaik/ (adj) словно живой magnificent /maigmCsant/ (adj) великолепный, I изумительный mayor /m£27 (n) мэр i mouth-watering /maiiGwatanri/ (adj) аппетитный multi-storey /mdliistoiri/ (adj) многоэтажный project /ргзфекЦ (v) демонстрировать, проецировать 1 promise /pnemis/ (v) обещать record-breaking /rgka'd breikiij/ (adj) бьющий рекорды red-blooded /rsd blidid/ (adj) сильный, энергичный I show //on/ (n) шоу self-centred /selfsfinis’d/ (adj) эгоистичный I sound /saund/ (n) звук ' television /teliv^’n/ (n) телевидение I time-consuming /taim ksnsjitmio/ (adj) требующий I времени I ultimate /^Itimst/ (adj) последний Phrasal Verbs I turn down (phr v) убавлять (громкость), I отказывать(ся) turn off (phr V) выключать I turn on (phr V) включать I turn over (phr v) переключать (каналы), переворачивать Phrases I all over the world (phr) no всему миру I fall in love (phr) влюбиться, полюбить Words often confused audience/group (n) аудитория/группа viewer/spectator (n) телезритель/зритель act/play (v) играть (в театре)/играть set/setting (n) съемочная площадка 7d absence /sbs’ns/ (n) отсутствие badly-dressed /bsdli dr£si/ (adj) плохо одетый brat /brffit/ (n) ребенок, дитя cellar /selaV (n) подвал chorus /kairas/ (n) xop claim /klfiim/ (v) заявлять complexion /kamplekj’n/ (n) цвет лица court reporter /k^'t пр^ЧэУ (n) судебный секретарь dare Idsz'l (v) рисковать, посметь dressing-table /drgsio teib’l/ (n) туалетный столик elegantly /sligsnili/ (adv) элегантно, изящно engraving /ingi^ivig/ (n) гравюра extraordinarily /iksti^’dnanli/ (adv) необычайно, удивительно flee /fliy (v) убегать, исчезать frame /freim/ (n) остов, каркас furniture 1Тх’пфЧ (n) мебель gala /да;1э/ (n) гала-представление Word List genius /cbLnias/ (n) гений ghost /gousiy (n) привидение glory /gl^ri/ (n) слава, триумф grow /grou/ (v) расти history /histari/ (n) история ignore /ignaV (v) игнорировать, не замечать ink /юк/ (n) чернила invade /mveid/ (v) занимать, захватывать invisible /invizib’l/ (adj) невидимый joke /(fcouk/ (n) шутка legend /Ificfe’nd/ (n) легенда lock Лвк/ (n) локон, пучок волос opera house /врэгэ haus/ (n) оперный театр palace /pslis/ (n) дворец passage /piEsufe/ (n) коридор, проход peculiar /pikjuiliaV (adj) особый, отличный от других plainly /р1ипШ (adv) отчетливо, ясно pretend /pmend/ (v) притворяться, разыгрывать из себя proportion /ргэр2;(Рп/ (п) пропорция pupil /piu:pil/ (n) зрачок quarrel /kwnral/ (v) ссориться resign /nzain/ (v) отказываться от должности, уходить в отставку retirement /ntai3'mont/(n) отъезд, отставка ruined /ntmd/ (adj) загубленный rush /гд|7 (v) вбегать, врываться shadow /jifidou/ (n) тень shake //eik/ (v) трясти, дрожать silent /sailant/ (adj) тихий, безмолвный skeleton /skslit^n/ (n) скелет skull /skit/ (n) череп smack /smgW (v) смаковать, наслаждаться spectre /spcktaV (n) призрак, видение speech /$рШ (n) речь stage designer /stcicfe dizains'/ (n) театральный декоратор staircase /stea'keis/ (n) лестница stalk /stak/ (V) скрытно передвигаться superstitious /sjipo'siifss/ (adj) суеверный terrorise rterDraiz/ (v) устрашать, вселять страх theatre critic /etots' kriuk/ (n) театральный критик translate /iraenzlaib' (v) переводить trembling /tremb’Iiij/ (adj) дрожащий, прерывающийся undertaker /^nds'ieiks'/ (n) сотрудник похоронного бюро unnaturally /лппжУэгэШ (adv) неестественно upturned /aptsr'nd/ (adj) вздернутый vanish /vanijy (v) исчезать, скрываться из виду Phrases at ease (phr) непринужденный drop with a moan (phr) плюхнуться кряхтя in terror (phr) c ужасом 7e addicted /adiktid/ (adj) пристрастившийся, склонный battle Ajst’l/ (n) битва, сражение believable /bili-vab"!/ (adj) вероятный, правдоподобный book blurb /buk blai'b/ (n) аннотация книги charming /iffli'miry (adj) очаровательный, обгштельный complicated /kEmplikeitid/ (adj) сложный convincing /kanvinsiij/ (adj) убедительный dreadful /dredful/ (adj) ужасный, страшный fabulous /fffibjubs/ (adj) потрясающий, невероятный graphics /grsfiks' (n) графика (компьютерная) irritating /imenio/ (adj) раздражающий laughable /Isufob'’!/ (adj) смешной, забавный, смехотворный likeable /laiksb’l/ (adj) привлекательный, милый lyrics /links/ (n) слова, стихи (песни) masterpiece /mgists'pLs/ (n) шедевр message board /mgsicfe ba'd/ (n) форум (о сайте) i original /эпфэп’!/ (adj) оригинальный outstanding /autstsndiiy (adj) знаменитый, выдающийся I princess /prinses/ (n) принцесса ! realistic /itshsuk/ (adj) реалистичный I remake /rj;mcik/ (n) новая версия, римейк stunning /ь(дтг)/ (adj) оглушительный, сногсшибательный i successful /saksesful/ (adj) успешный ' suspense /saspens/ (n) неизвестность, беспокойство, напряжение terrifying ЛспГапг)/ (adj) ужасающий, устрашающий track /1г^к/ (n) композиция, трек tragic /и$ф1к/ (adj) трагичный unconvincing /^nkanvinsin/ (adj) неубедительный unimaginative /дшшафпацу/ (adj) лишенный воображения unimpressive /Animprssiv/ (adj) невпечатляющий unlikable /лЫшкэЬ'’!/ (adj) непривлекательный unoriginal /лпаафт’!/ (adj) неоригинальный video game ^tdiou geim/ (n) видеоигра Culture Corner 7 capital /kffipit’l/ (n) столица exhibition /eksibipn/ (n) выставка explore /ikspla;'/ (v) исследовать fantasy /fjgniszi/ (n) фантазия footballer /йдЬэ:1э'/ (n) футболист housekeeper /hauskkpa'/ (n) домохозяйка landmark /Iffindmcrlc/ (n) достопримечательность life-sized /laifsaizd/ (adj) в натуральную величину model /mfid’l/ (n) модель, макет I state-of-the-art /stmt nf Oi ai't/ (adj) новейший, I современный voyage ^2lufe/ (n) путешествие I wax/wgeks/(n) BOCK wax modelling /wa>ks me