Учебник Английский язык 9 класс Рабочая тетрадь Афанасьева Михеева

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ч ова «■ h. a Mu jfee «a. Английский язык 5-й год обучения ^аб о^а я ^егр £ V V . vl .^. -• № С #т^ —л о. в. Афанасьева. И. В. Михеева, К. М. Баранова Английский язык г Новый курс ^ английского языка ДЛЯ российских школ 5-й год обучения класс Рабочая тетрадь 2-е издание, аереотипное МОСКВА D р О ^ а 2011 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А94 Афанасьева, О. В. А94 Английский язык. Серия «Новый курс английского языка для российских школ *. 5-й год обучения. 9 кл.: рабочая тетрадь / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева, К. М. Баранова. — 2-е изд., стереотип. — М. : Дрофа, 2011. — 188, [4] с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-358-09138-2 Рабочая тетрадь является составной частью УМК для 9 класса, созданного известными специалистами в области преподавания английского языка О. В. Афянагьепон и И. В. Михеевой. Она предназначена как для самостоятельной работы учащихся дома, так и для работы в классе. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 ISBN 978-5-358-09138-2 ООО ♦Дрофам, 2010 Contents Unit 1. Mass Media: Television Listening +............................................ 5 Reading +.............................................. 9 Speaking +............................................ 16 Writing +............................................. 18 Just for Fun ......................................... 32 Test 1 ............................................... 33 Project Work 1........................................ 37 Unit 2. The Printed Page: Books, Magazines, Newspapers Listening +........................................... 39 Reading-^............................................. 43 Speakings............................................. 51 Writing +............................................. 53 Just for Fun ......................................... 71 Test 2 ............................................... 73 Project Work 2........................................ 79 Unit 3. Science and Technolog>’ Listening +........................................... 79 Reading +............................................. 84 Speaking + ........................................... 93 Writing-^............................................. 95 Just for Fun ........................................ 110 Test3 ............................................... Ill Project Work 3....................................... 117 Unit 4. Teenagers: Their Life and Problems Listening i-......................................... 118 Reading +............................................ 121 Speaking +........................................... 128 Writing + ........................................... 129 Just for Fun ........................................ 145 Test 4 .............................................. 146 Project Work 4....................................... 150 3 и nit 5. Your Future Life and Career Listening + ..........................................152 Reading + ............................................156 Speaking +............................................164 Writing +.............................................165 Just for Fun..........................................183 Test 5................................................184 Project Work 5 .......................................189 Unit 1. Mass Media: Television Word Box addicted, an addict, asleep, to broadcast, a cartoon, to cater, cruel, cruelty, current, to depress, depressed, depression, to enlighten, equal, to fail, a failure, to forget, to humiliate, humiliating, to imagine, imagination, to interrxipt, interruption, instead, a kid, to light, major, minor, a novel, to offer, to present, a quiz, (a) right, rude, rudeness, to serve, (a) service, serious, to spread, a society, (a) shame, to spy, to spoil, a spy, (a) threat, threaten, threatening, unforgettable, violence, violent to be ashamed, to break down, to be on, to stand for Listening + 1, Listen to the text “The War of the Worlds”, ISl [Д]» mark each sentence “T” for true, “F” for false^ “NS” for not stated. l)The text describes an event that happened in 1938 in the USA. 2) Orson Welles was a novel writer. ^ National Examination Format формат ЕГЭ. — предлагаемое задание имеет 3) Orson Welles turned a science fiction story by H. G. Wells into a radio show. 4) He presented the story as a musical with a lot of dance music. 5) Some policemen spoke on the radio about the Martian inva- sion. 6) A lot of listeners who believed that Martians had really land- ed on the Earth began to call the radio, l__i 7) Orson Welles’ programme sounded like a news broadcast. 8) Orson Welles told journalists that he was surprised that so many people had believed his hoax4 2. Listen to five texts (1—5), ]Si ^nd match them with the right categories (a—f). One category you don’t need to use. a) Guidebook b) TV review c) Girl’s story d) Biography e) Amaizing fact f) Information about a shop Texts 1 2 3 4 5 extra Categories 3. Listen to the text “Mr Bean”, [3J, and choose the right item to complete these statements. 1) Mr Bean is________________ a) a film star b) a film director c) a film character d) the pseudonym of Rowan Atkinson * hoax [hauks] — розыгрыш 2) Atkinson got his education in a) one university b) two universities c) three universities d) American universities 3) Rowan Atkinson and Richard Curtis together. a) played in different films b) studied electrical engineering c) performed sketches d) wrote humorous texts 4) The Blackadder television series has _ a) one b) two c) three parts. d)four 5) Blackadder, the leading character of the series, lived in the ________________centuries. a) 15, 16, 17, 18 b) 17, 18, 19, 20 c) 16, 17, 18, 19 d) 15, 16, 18, 20 6) Mr Bean has become popular------------------ a) in many countries b) in a few countries c) in English-speaking countries d) in Great Britain and the USA Statements 1 2 3 4 5 6 Items .. J 4. You will hear information about five famous films about travelling. % [4]. Match the names of these films (1—5) with the statements below (a—e). 1) Pirates of the Carribean, at World’s End 2) The Motorcycle Diaries 3) Around the World in 80 Days 4) Easy Rider 5) Thelma & Louise a) This film is famous for the music that sounds in it. b) The text about this film mentions the name of the film director but no names of actors. c) This film deals with unreal events. d) This film tells an escape^ story. e) The characters of this film come from different countries. Films 1 2 3 4 5 Statements 5. Listen to the text “Ewan McGregor”, (SJ [5], N and fill in the information gaps in the state-^ ments below. 1) Ewan’s parents live in_____________ 2) His home town Crieff is a very place for the actor. 3) Ewan’s lifestyle is not like many other 4) Ewan McGregor and Charley Boorman completed their__________day motorbike ride in the year 5) The ride began in London and finished in 6) Ewan’s training included learning survival 7) The name of the motorbike ride was the Long 8) By making the ride Ewan and Charley wanted to help the * an escape [I'skeipJ — побег, бегство 8 9) After the ride Ewan and Charley wrote a book and produced a set of programmes 6. % Reading + Read the texts (a—e) from a TV Film Guide and match them with their descriptions (1—6). One description you don’t need to use. 1) This film is made after a famous book classic. 2) In this film people have to defend their planet from creatures from outer space. 3) This film tells a melodramatic love story. 4) This film is made by an American actor and film director. 5) This film is good to be watched both by children and grownups. 6) In this film the main characters find themselves in a vei^ difficult and dangerous situation. a) National Velvet Good-natured family entertainment with Elizabeth Taylor starring as the girl who doesn’t want to give up her dream to ride her horse in the Grand National. A famous classic, co-starring Mickey Rooney as an ex-jockey. b) Independence Day Action, drama, comedy. This blockbuster directed by Ronald Emmerich has all the three as well as special effects and a star-studded cast. Will Smith, Harry Connick Jr., Bill Pullman and Jeff Goldblum fight with the invading aliens who are trying to make the Earth their own. c) The Edge Action adventure starring Anthony Hopkins as a billionaire businessman and Alec Boldwin as a famous photographer who have to struggle together to survive in the Alaskan wilderness after their plane crash. Elle Macpherson and Harold Perrineau also star. d) The Lost World Claude Rains stars in this enjoyable version of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel about an egocentric professor who leads an expedition into Amazonian forests to prove that dinosaurs still exist. Though the film was made in 1960, the tale hasn’t lost any of its magic. 9 е) The Rookie Clint Eastwood has made many memorable films, but unfortunately this isn’t one of them. He plays a veteran cop who joins forces with a new recruit to hunt down the car thief responsible for the death of his former partner. Charlie Sheen also stars. Texts 1 2 3 4 5 extra Descriptions 7. Read the text and write 5—7 questions on it. British Sitcoms* From the 1960s to the 1990s, the British comedy scene was flooded with sitcoms, many of which became classics. The first of these, “Steptoe and Son”, was about a young man and his difficult father, whose personal habits were like those of a pig. Other classics of the period include “Dad’s Army” (1968), about British soldiers in the Home Guard^. They are unable to defend a meat van, to say nothing of a country. Many people believe that the sitcom “Fawlty Towers” (1975) starring John Cleese is the best ever British comedy. The hotel manager Basil Fawlty has a stressful relationship with his Spanish waiter, Manuel, who speaks very bad English. Manuel seldom understands what is asked of him. One time Basil even says, “Pleasel Try to understand before one of us dies!” “Blackadder” starring Rowan Atkinson, was also a great hit and is still quoted by many people. * a sitcom ['sit,kDiTi] — a television or radio series about a particular group of characters who deal with situations in a humorous way ^ Home Guard — (in the Second World War) the citizen army formed at home to help to defend Britain in case of attack from abroad 10 8. % Read the text and mark each sentence after it “T” for irue^ “F” for fals€j “NS” for not stated. Martin and Osa: Pioneers of Documentary It was in the days of silent film that Osa and her husband Martin Johnson became famous for their adventure documentaries. This young woman bravely faced the dangers of the South Seas and Africa. When the film “Among the Cannibal Isles of the South Pacific” was first shown in New York in July 1918, it became a sensation, and Osa became an overnight star. It was one of the first films made by her husband Martin Johnson, and the American public saw Osa as she posed with a smile beside the cannibal chief Nihapat and his black warriors. Thanks to Martin and Osa, the American public learned about untamed corners of the Earth. Their films were more than documentaries. They were adventure movies that combined tension, humour and thrill. Osa became one of America’s best-loved heroines. The Johnsons were a perfect team. Osa, an excellent shot, covered Martin’s back when he was risking his life doing camera work. Osa saved her husband’s life, more than once, from angry lions and rhinoceroses. With her help, Martin was able to capture the beauty and power of African wildlife like nobody else. Together, they were the pioneers of the documentary. Osa Leighty met Martin in 1910, when the young filmmaker had just returned from a sea voyage with the famous American 11 writer Jack London. Osa was then just 16 years old, ten years younger than Martin. She felt she had met her Prince Charming. For a girl like her, born in a small sleepy town, which she had never left, the idea of travelling to distant parts of the planet looking for dangerous adventure was really exciting. The son of Swedish immigrants, Martin, began his career working in his father’s photography shop. But he never wanted to spend his life there. As soon as he saved some money, Martin travelled to London and lately aboard Jack London’s ship to Hawaii, Tahiti, Bora Bora, Fiji, and other exotic places. During the trip he photographed practically everything he put his eyes on. When Martin returned home, he decided he had to go back to the Pacific; all he needed was money. To finance his trip, Martin decided to start a show combining his slides with music and dance. Sixteen-year-old Osa got a job as a singer on the show. The story goes that Martin fell in love with Osa as soon as he saw her. When he asked her to marry him, she agreed without hesitation. Martin and Osa spent the next seven years taking Martin’s show about the Wild West. They had to sleep in cheap motels and live out of suitcases^ but they were always true to their dream. So when they had got all the money they needed, they set off for the Solomon Islands. That was their first expedition, their first step to fame. 1) In their first documentaries Martin and Osa showed natives of Africa and the South Seas. 2) In their films one could hear their interviews with the na- tives. 3) Martin and Osa got a lot of money for their first documentary. 4) The American public found their films not only educational but also exciting. • live out of suitcases — жить на чемоданах 12 5) Martin and Osa were excellent partners in work. 6) Osa went lion hunting together with men. 7) Osa and Martin met aboard Jack London’s ship. 8) Martin had done some travelling before he met Osa. 9) Because she was a good singer, Martin wanted Osa to be in his show. 10) Martin and Osa toured the western states to make some new films. 9. Read the text and choose the right item to complete the statements after it. \ The Best and Worst Kid’s Shows The average American kid watches 23 hours of TV each week. No wonder parents sometimes feel like pushing TV out of a window. How do you know which shows will enchant your children and which will only hypnotise them? Who has time to sit down and screen them all? Relax; we’re here to help. For this special Parents’ Guide, we selected a panel of experts — TV critics, researchers, child-development specialists to pick the best and worst of everything currently on TV. Of course, you will always be the top expert when it comes to making your child TV-smart. There is one piece of advice: watching together and talking about what’s real and what’s make-believe is the best way to raise viewers who will grow up to make wise choices — even when they’re home alone. Like the children who watch them, a new generation of kids’ shows need your attention. And with cable television, parents are constantly confronting new choices. The good news: some of the new programmes sound very promising. A number of new programmes feature groups of kids who are all about the same age. Through their encounters, young viewers pick up life lessons. Cartoons are undergoing a new trend, too. Several series are adapting well-known literary material to animated format. “Shakespeare — The Animated Tales” translates the drama- 13 list’s plays into half-hour cartoons. Such stars as Bette Midler and Ringo Starr provide voices for animated versions of “Bedtime Stories”. Even educational shows explore new approaches. Disney’s “Adventures in Wonderland” places language lessons within the context of Lewis Carroll’s story. The programme “Beyond Belief” takes the young viewers around the world in search of the unbelievable but true. Kids are also going to get their own news show. Linda Eller-bee hosts “Nick News,” a magazine spotlighting current events. 1) The text is written for a) children b) their parents c) teacher d) children and their parents 2) The critics are going to write about___________________ a) good TV shows for kids b) good TV shows for kids and grown-ups c) good and bad TV shows for kids d) good and bad TV shows for kids and grown-ups 3) As a result of their parents’ help children should learn a) a lot of new things b) to understand what is real and what is make-believe c) what to do when they are home alone d) to choose the best programmes on TV 4) Some new programmes____________________________ a) are likely to be very good b) have successful sound tracks c) are for children of the same age d) will be broadcast on cable television 5) There will be some on TV. a) adventures b) translations _ in animated cartoons shown 14 c) traditional stories d) novelty 6) One of the programmes is designed to teach children some facts about-------------------------------------------- a) their mother tongue b) William Shakespear’s biography c) pop-stars d) the natural world 7) From the programme “Nick News” children will learn about a) new magazines b) unbelievable facts c) Linda Ellerbee d) what is happening in the world 10. Read the text and complete it with the phrases (a—g) below. % a) This scans the screen. b) Live television programmes show you what is happening as it happens. c) Baird showed his set in 1926. d) These pass into the TV set. e) Scientists have been interested in the idea of television since the 1880s. f) Now nearly every home has one. g) These tiny flashes of colour build up the picture on your screen. Television Television is a way of sending sound and pictures through the air. (1) Although John Logie Baird was the first to show how television worked, his success was based on work by many other scientists from all over the world. (2) The first television service opened 15 in 1936 in Britain. Colour television began in the United States in 1956. At first, all television was black and white. Few people owned television sets because they were very expensive. (3)--------------------------------------------------------------- Television works by changing light waves into electric signals. This happens inside the TV camera. A picture of what is happening in front of the camera forms on a special screen behind the lens. Behind the screen is an electron gun. (4) It moves from left to right to cover each part of the picture. Each part is turned into an electric signal which is made stronger, then sent to the transmitter as radio waves. They are picked up by home TV antennas and changed back into electric signals. (5) _________________________________________ The TV screen is covered with tiny chemical dots. In a colour set, these are arranged in groups of three: one red, one blue, one green. At the back there are other electron guns. These fire a beam of electrons to scan the screen just as the camera gun does. As each electron hits the screen, it lights up a dot. (6) You do not see lines of coloured flashing lights. because the electron gun moves too fast for the eye to follow. What you see is a picture of what is happening in the television studio. (7) Most programmes are recorded on film or videotape and sent out later. Speaking 4- 11. Speak to your friends about modern TV programmes and mention % 16 the programmes you like why you like them the programmes you dislike why you dislike them what you’d like to change to make television better 12. А new television channel has just been opened. Work in pairs and N discuss the fact with your friend who has already watched it but you ^ haven’t. Speak to your friend and find out • what the target audience for the channel is • at what time the channel works • what kind of programmes they show (educational, entertainment, political films, quizzes, etc.) • if your friend likes it and why 13. Work in pairs. You and your friend are talking about which profes- \sion on television is more interesting. Try to come to some decision and discuss the jobs of • a news announcer • an editor • a cameraman • a script-writer • a director • a show host 14. Say what you can about one of your favourite TV programmes. 15. Organize a talk about the influence of television on young children. Work in two groups. The first group is to speak about good influence and the second one speaks about bad influence that television may have. Try and work out some general conclusion. Good influence Television gives children information and widens their scopes. Television keeps them at home. It makes children happier by showing kind and funny programmes. Bad influence Television affects children’s brains. It affects children’s eyes. It teaches children vio lence and frightens them. 2 17 Writing + 16. Read the text and complete it with the derivatives of the words on the right. % News of Science and Technology a) American and (1) -------------(2)s are developing a new kind of television. A special device will allow -(3) s to smell what is on the screen. The device will send out _______________(4) ultra- sound signals to the brain and we’ll be able to smell a dish on a .(5) programme. b) British first-ever (6) s are working on the ------------(7) taxi. It will be slower than airliner but faster than a helicopter. It will take you just four minutes to get from the centre of London to Heathrow Airport. The -(8) machine will be ready soon. c) Three (9) universities and NASA are going to plant trees on Mars. These are .(10) trees, of course. They grow very__________ on the mountain of Mexico, Orizaba Peak. Because of the high places they grow — with little oxygen and extreme cold — they are — ----(12) for the project. (11) Japan science view harm cook science fly usual Mexico specify ideal suit 18 17. Complete the sentences using the words derived from those in brackets. % 1) “It has been said that democracy is the worst form of (govern) ____________ except all the others that have been tried.” {Winston Churchill) 2) “By swallowing evil words (said)_____________, no one has ever harmed his stomach.” {Winston Churchill) 3) In London there are lost corners and (explore) places, they (real) make the city a (live) museum. 4) London can offer you the mix of people, the mix of (enter- tain) ., the mix of (act) -S. 5) Hitchhiking is a (complete) it is not a (guide) unique way of tour (travel)_____________ where you are herded into a coach full of tourists and then taken round notable (history) 6) The most (remark) sites. journey is possibly that of Yuri Gagarin, a Russian (cosmos) man in space. and the first 7) Using computer programming, music (produce) _____________s and DJs have more control over the sounds. changing them in ways that would be (possible) to do at a concert. 19 8) It was very hard to be Churchill’s secretary. He dictated directly to the typewriter and his (patience) _______________ could make typing for him very, very difficult. 18. Complete the sentences with the right forms of the words in brackets. % l)In (she) album “A Girl Like Me” the singer wanted to say what a lot of young (woman) ____________ would like to say but don’t know how to express (they) 2) During the course of the (eighteen) century an Englishman, James Cook, completed not one, but three trips around the world. The (one) trip uncovered the East coast of Australia and placed the New Zealand Islands firmly on the map. 3) F a t h e r. Look, I told you before. I’m not going to buy you a set of drums. It’s useless to ask (I) for (they) Son. But Dad, I promise I’ll only play (they) while you’re sleeping. (Joke) 4) “You call that music?” I suppose this phrase has been uttered from parents to (child) time. since the beginning of 5) The little boy’s behaviour is at its (bad) he’s with strangers. 6) You will learn to speak English (good)- when as you grow (old) 20 7) We missed the 5 o’clock train so we caught the (near) one. 8) In Britain there are several working steam railways, the (fa- mous) __ Railway. of which is undoubtedly the Bluebell 9) Those who live near the coast go to the beach to enjoy (they) on a hot summer day. 10) Did anyone help (she) (she)-------------? or did she do it all by 19. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete these sentences below. % 1) Audrey Hepburn was married twice, but of her wedding dresses can be compared to the one she gave to an unknown girl. b) none c) neither d) not a) no 2) Though I’ve never done sports and never really wanted to, I have some friends who are very fond of them, a) extra b) extreme c) external d) extremist 3) Soon the pence and the pounds will look selves. (English proverb) b) at c)before them- a) for 4) Trouble rides a----- a) quick b) fast d) after horse. (Italian proverb) c) brief d) swift 5) advice to a fool. (Irish proverb) a) Neither give cherries to pigs nor b) Eighter give cherries to pigs or c) You give cherries to pigs and d) Both give cherries to pigs and 21 6) Diana is very__________: she always says what she means. a) frank b) honest c) outgoing d) brave 7) relax, a) In Christmas Day people tend to stay at home and b) At c)By d) On 8) John Moor works____ a) like b)on _ a lawyer in the City, c) as d) — 9) This is a busy street, there_________ traffic in it. a) are many b) is many c) are much d) is much 10) What a) — _____unexpected answer! b)an c) a d) the 20. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete the text. ^ The Mysterious “Q Did you know that the man who (1) James Bond was a secret agent himself? Before he started writing the James Bond Stories, Ian Fleming worked for British Naval Intelli- gence. (2). —---------his career, Fleming met many important people and he used some of them as models for the (3). in his books. 22 If you’ve seen James Bond films, you remember “Q”. His (4)____________ is to make different spy gadgets that are dis- guised as (5). objects like a pen or a toothbrush. “Q is based on a (6)------------ person (7)----------- Charles Frasier-Smith created all kinds of gadgets for British spies to use. (8). ___________those gadgets were shoelaces that could be used as saws, pens that shot poison darts and hollow golf balls that were used to hide (9)____________to prisoners of war. He (10). __________more than 300 companies to make the gadgets in secret. Fleming wrote Fraiser-Smith into the novels as Major Booth- royd, (11). films. name was changed to “Q” in the Bond And the mysterious James (12). based on Admiral John Godfrey. boss, “M”, is 1) a) discovered c) wrote b)invented d) made 2) a) while c) as long as b) along d) during 3) a) people c) characters b) heroes d) representatives 4) a)job c) profession b) destiny d) ambition 5) a) every'day c) small b) mere d) unimportant 6) a) real c)factual b) realistic d) true-to-life 7) a) under the name c) of the name b) in the name d) named 8) a) between b) within c) among d) 23 9) а) massages 10) а)rented b) hired 11) a) who 12) a) Bond b) masages b) which b) Bond’s c) messages c) engaged d) employed c) who’s c) Bonds’ d) mesages d) whose d) Bonds’s 21. Complete the text with the right forms of the verbs in brackets. Seeing the Future One morning in 1974, a woman called Lesley Brennan (watch)*. a film on television when she (hear)^ ___________a news story. It was about an explosion at a factory at Fixborough, near her home in the north of England. The in the explo- story said that many people (kill)®_____________ sion. At lunchtime she (tell)*______________two friends about the terrible news. But later she discovered that the explosion (happen)® (hear)®__ around 5 p. m., several hours after she about it. A man called Morgan Robertson (write)^. about a very big ship, the Titan, which (sink)®. a book af- ter hitting an iceberg. The book (appear)® in 1898, fourteen years before the real ship Titanic (go)*®___________ down in the icy waters of the North Atlantic. Actually, after each terrible accident, some people say they knew it (happen)** . Train or plane passengers often say that they (choose)*® not to travel on that day, but they can- not usually explain why. 24 about Winston An even stranger story (tell)*®_______________ Churchill, who (escape)*"*________________death in 1940, during the Second World War. The Prime minister (get)*® ______________into his car and (choose)*®_________________to sit on the opposite side of his usual one. While the car (drive)*'*' ______________ through a narrow street, a bomb (explode)** but (not creish)®® side. .. The car (go)*® over on two wheels because it was heavy on that Abraham Lincoln (have)®* dream he (walk)®®_______________ a dream. In his through the White House and (see) 23 a dead man. He asked who it was and (tell)®^ it was the president. A few days later he (shoot)®® and (kill)®® at the theatre. Magicians say that there (be)®’^ many ways to see the future. They look at cards, tea leaves, or a glass ball, and or what kind of career tell you who you (marry)®*__________ you (make)®®_____________Some of them have more success than others. The greatest was probably the sixteenth century French doctor, Nostradamus. You can still (read)®®________ his mysterious writings and decide for yourself what you think. 22. Use the verbs in brackets either in Present Progressive Passive or in Past Progressive Passive. 1)1 know that a very important problem (discuss) ____________behind these doors at the moment. 2) It’s early 25 morning. The shops and the offices (open) .. 3) Only yesterday at this time a film (shoot) on this site. 4) When the man saw that his old house (destroy)--------------, he turned away: he couldn’t look at the scene. 5) While the story ____________, the children couldn’t take their eyes off (tell) ----------- the story teller. 6) Today an international summit meeting (hold) house (build) in the British capital. 7) While the new the family had to stay with their friends. 8) Don’t worry, your cat (look) 9) I felt very clearly that something (do) after. wrong. 10) What tune (play) ______________? I can’t recognize it. 11) Where there used to be a desert now gardens (plant) ____________12) At that moment my favourite comedy (show) _____________ on TV, so I decided not to answer the phone. 13) Can you see that man in the green car? I have a feeling that we (watch) ____________14) While the programme (make) ____________, they had to rewrite half of the script. 15) We had to take a longer way because the road we usually take (repair) 23. Use the verbs in Present Perfect Passive or in Past Perfect Passive. 1) We didn’t know that the new programme already (broad- cast) (forget) . 2) I hope that our little misunderstanding ___3) I’m so angry because my party (spoil) rupt) by Max’s rudeness. 4) After the speaker (inter-_____he stopped to collect his thoughts. 5) I actu- 26 ally felt quite depressed after the threatening news (announce) ------------6) May I invite you to the banquet room where -? 7) By early some food and refreshments (serve)_____________ June all the exams (pass)_____________and we could at last en- joy our holidays. 8) Jim looks so happy. Do you know that he just (offer) do you think, you (spy) the leading role in a film? 9) How long. on? 10) The novel I (give) is just another spy story. 11) The film that was on was not new: it (show) many times before. • • ^ ■ « ft ft ft ft V V ^ ft ft ft V.* ftJ V-/ ft V» • A ^ ft 12) I can imagine how unhappy and humiliated you feel because of all the cruel and unfair words that (throw)_________________into your face. 13) All the books (close) __________________, kids? Now you’re going to write a quiz. 14) At the beginning we all felt rather tense as ice (break) yet. 15) When I woke up, breakfast already (cook) and coffee (make). 24. Make these sentences passive. 1) We watch current news on television every evening. 2) I think they have already forgotten those sad events. 3) We will cater for kids of different ages. 4) I knew the bad news had depressed everybody. 5) Our team is playing their most important match today. 6) When we returned home, our parents were discussing something excitedly. 7) — May 1 help you, sir? — No, thanks. They are already serving me. 8) They eat fresh fruit and vegetables every day. 9) We all hoped that we had written the quiz well. 10) 1 hear that they are making a new full-length cartoon based on Russian fairy tales. 11) By 10 o’clock they had turned down the music and switched off the lights. 12) At that moment the teacher interrupted my story. 13) They were broadcasting the new documentary at 7 o’clock 27 yesterday. 14) Television has already spread the information. 15) By 2003 this author had written two major novels. 25. Complete the sentences. Use Passive Voice. 1) Listen! My favourite music (to play) 2) Don’t worry! The fire (to put out) 3) Come later. The shop not (to open) 4) Bring your friends. A big party (to organize) 5) Don’t be silent. The question (to ask) 6) Try again. The necessary help (to give) 7) Don’t forget. Your favourite film (to broadcast) 8) Just imagine! The famous show (bring)______________ 9) Please don’t interrupt. My story should not (to interrupt) 10) Be serious. Such things (not to laugh at) 11) Taste this apple. It (to grow)___________ in my garden. 12) Hands up! You (to arrest) 26. Complete the sentences with function words where necessary. l)My street is brightly lit 2) There is nobody in this class equal street lights. _ James in his 28 knowledge of history. 3) What’s television to- night? 4) Such cars were 5) May I offer current use in the 1940s. is a new novel ten stand ____ you a hot strong cup of tea? 6) This my favourite author. 7) Initials of- a person’s name. 8) Air pollution is a threat everyone’s health. 9) I would prefer to be out with my friends instead watching this boring ___________his rude film. 10) Strangely, John felt no shame__________ words. 11) The old man said that his youngest son had brought shame spy their family. 12) Paparazzi often famous people to take pictures of them. 13) I didn’t notice how I had got addicted serial. 14) This TV programme caters this new teenagers. 15) I’ll never forget the humiliation of failing________my first exam. 16) The news of the first space flight spread ____________ the world in no time. 17) There is something wrong with my washing machine. I’m afraid it may soon break _____________18) The rain became heavier and then turned a shower. 19) Could you turn the tel- ly, please? I’d like to listen to the news. 20) Please turn ____________this music: it’s depressing me. 27. Cross out the wrong word to complete the sentences. 1) Animal Planet is an extremely popular TV (serial/series). 2) Sheep have lambs, cows have calves, and goats have (kids foals). 3) What do you think the police (is/are) doing near our 29 house? 4) I can’t understand why you are feeling so (depressed/ depressing). 5) Sh-sh-sh. The baby is (fast/quickly) asleep. 6) This James Bond film has (been/gone) on for a week or so. 7) It’s only a (major/minor) problem, don’t take it so seriously. 8) Who is (presenting/introducing) the new novel? 9) Never call people names: it’s (cruel/rude). 10) Nowadays there are a lot of (tests/quizzes) on television. 11) When Peter’s television broke (down/out), he couldn’t find anything to occupy himself with. 12) Why, you should be (ashamed/humiliated) of your-selfl 28. Write the same in English. Л.1) Провалить экзамен; 2) серьёзная угроза; 3) осветить комнату; 4) вместо моего друга; 5) равные права; 6) испортить вечер; 7) чудесный роман; 8) шпионить за тайным агентом; 9) унизительно для человека; 10) удовлетворять интересам всех. В. 1) В тот момент диктор программы новостей говорил о те кущих событиях. 2) Я не могу представить себе, что проис- 30 f ходит. Просвети меня. 3) Нам не нравится видеть насилие и жестокость на экранах наших телевизоров. 4) Я не имею представления, что означают эти буквы. 5) Ты чувствуешь себя подавленным, несчастным? Посмотри этот весёлый мультфильм, и тебе станет легче. 6) Сейчас в кинотеатрах идёт новый фильм. Посмотри его. Думаю, он тебе очень понравится. 7) Я не могу забыть мой первый визит в театр. Это было настоящее волшебство. 8) Когда машина сломалась, мой друг предложил мне свою помощь. 9) У Майкла пристрастие к быстрой езде. Он может быть настоящей угрозой на дорогах. 10) Вы не стыдитесь своих слов? Они были грубыми и жестокими. 29. You are correcting your opponent. Write suitable arguments. l)Opponent. I never watch news on TV: I think it is boring, Y о u. I beg to differ. 2) О p p о n e n t. If you have television, you don’t need any oth er entertainments. You. You’re quite wrong, you know. :n 3) Opponent. There are no good films on at the moment. You____________________________________ 4) Opponent. I find TV guides quite useless. You____________________________ 5) Opponent. I have never seen a really good serial. You.___________________________________________ 6) О p p о n e n t. In the future people won’t go to the theatre, or to concerts. They will only watch television. You-------------------------------------------- Just for Fun 30. Solve this riddle. My first is in lamp but not in light. My second is in may but not in Might, My third is in dart and also in board. My fourth is in string but not in cord. My last is in see but not in glance, I am a city renowned for romance. Where am I? 31. How many times can you say these tongue twisters fast? 1) Danny the duck doesn’t dance with dogs. 2) Hot Harry hates the heat and humidity. 3) Samuel smiled as his sled swiftly soared through the slippery snow. 4) One-one was a racehorse. Two-two was one, too. When One-one won one race. Two-two won one, too. 32. Read these limericks and write one of your own. 1) A cheerful old bear at the zoo Could always find something to do. 32 If it bored him to go On a walk to and fro. He’d turn round and walk fro and to, 2) There was a young man of Bengal Who went to a fancy dress ball. He decided to risk it And went as a biscuit. But a dog ate him up in the hall. Test 1 1. Listen to the text, [sl mark each sentence “T” for true, “F” for false or for not stated. % 1) Women talk on the phone more than face-to-face. 2) Professor Boynton is a man. 3) Professor Boynton has always been interested in men’s and women’s psychology. 4) We don’t know how long Professor Boynton studied men’s and women’s conversations. 5) Women may discuss as many as 40 different subjects. 6) Men can’t find very many subjects to discuss. 7) Men talk about politics more often than women. 8) Women’s conversations are limited by talking about hus- bands and boyfriends. 2. Read the text and complete it with the phrase (a—g) below, a) Joy’s aunt b) crowding the dance floor 33 c) the youngest person d) baseball caps and T-shirts e) not only in Germany f) words for the song g) Joy became a pop star overnight The Youngest Number One Joy Gruttman’s face and her voice are familiar to all TV viewers and radio listeners in Germany. Though Joy is only seven years old, her German song “Schni-Schna-Schnappi”, or “Snappy the Little Crocodile”, is number one (1). but in some other countries as well. Over one million copies have been sold and 500,000 ring-tones* have been downloaded. Even nightclubs are playing a dis- singing the re- co remix version, with people (2)____________ frain “Schni-Schna-Schnappi”. Joy recorded the song when she was four years old and her parents posted it on the Internet as a joke. But when some German radio stations discovered the song, (3)____________ “Schni-Schna-Schnappi” is the story of a baby crocodile who is teething on his father’s leg. The track was written by (4). ------------- Iris Gruttmann, who has been writing children’s songs for 10 years. But Iris insists that it was Joy who thought of the tune and (5)_______ “Schni-Schna-Schnappi” is a lovely children’s song,” says Iris Gruttmann. “Maybe that explains its success.” Joy now has her own official website, where Schnappi (6) can be bought as well as the Schnappi CD, Schnappi video, Schnappi DVD and Schnappi video game. Joy is (7). in Europe to get to number one. * ringtone — мелодия звонка в мобильном телефоне 34 3. Write the English for the following. 1) забыть унижение- 2) представлять текущие новости 3) пристрастившийся к чтению романов 4) незабываемая телепередача 5) жестокость и насилие 6) предложить помощь 7) серьёзный провал 8)крепко спать 9) стыдиться своих грубых слов 10) убавить звук телевизора 11) равные шансы 12) избаловать ребёнка [ 4. Complete the sentences with function words. 1) Don’t worry. I’ll do the job instead you. 2) This film studio caters 3) You’ll find this picture if you turn 4) It was an old car which often broke_ the youngest children. _____________ the page. .. 5) How long has the film been .? 6) The letters p. m. stand ii post meridiem”. 7) At that moment we felt that someone was spying the snowman soon turned _ us. 8) Brought into the house, ________water. 9) She felt a 35 flush of shame what she had done. 10) Tornados are a real threat some American states. 5. Use the right passive verb forms to complete these sentences. ^ 1) Could you wait a minute? Your fax (send)______________ 2) Yesterday my favourite film (broadcast) on TV, 3) By five o’clock tea (make) , and we were enjoy- ing a friendly talk. 4) Don’t worry. The patient (take) to the surgeiy. 5) When I entered the hall, it (dec- orate) for the New Year party. 6) Tomorrow a very important political problem (discuss) in the week- ly talk show. 7) In this climate oranges (grow)__________all over the country. 8) Before the bell rang, the quiz (write) and (hand) in. 9) Everything (pre- pare) for your trip, now you may set off. 10) Listen. My favourite story by Kuprin (read) the radio. on 6. One of the sentences in each pair is right, the other is not. Mark the right one. 1) a) We looked up: the sky was threatening with a storm, b) We looked up: the sky was threatened with a storm. 2) a) In such situations the police is always called, b) In such situations the police are always called. 3) a) What a shame you haven’t seen this wonderful film! b) How shame you haven’t seen this wonderful film! 4) a) They write “traveler” in Britain and “traveller” in America. b) They write “traveller” in Britain and “traveler” in America. 36 5) а) It is unmoral to teach children cruelty, b) It is immoral to teach children cruelty. 6) a) Nowadays goods are advertised on Russian television, b) Nowadays goods are broadcast on Russian television. 7) a) The BBC is known world wide, b) The BBC is known worldwide. 8) a) “Major” and “minor” are synonyms, b) “Major” and “minor” are antonyms. 9) a) The sound is very loud. Could you turn it up, please? b) The sound is very loud. Could you turn it down, please? 10) a) I’ve just come back from London. It’s been an unforgettable trip. b) I’ve just came back from London. It’s been an unforgotten trip. 7. Write a paragraph (10—12 sentences) to describe modern television. Project Work 1 Work in groups or individually. Collect some material to create an almanac about different aspects of teen’s life. The almanac is to be 37 finished by the end of the school year and is to tell about particular spheres of your life and activities. Put the material together and prepare it for either traditional or electronic publishing. Illustrate your almanac with pictures, photos, diagrams, etc. Make sure that your almanac — has a suitable title, — is well-structured, — looks attractive, — mentions the names of all its authors, — gives their photos, — has 5 parts. Find information and write an essay on one of the problems concerning TV. Here are some ideas of such problems: 1) Teens’ problems on TV 2) The future of TV 3) The most interesting TV people 4) School and television 5) Television in your life 6) Television that educates 7) Television that entertains 8) Sport on TV 9) Prime-time TV programmes 10) Commercials on television 11) Your favourite TV channel (programme) Unit 2. The Printed Page: Books, Magazines, Newspapers W ord Box alone, an article, cheap, cheerful, courage, courageous, (a) duty, dutiful, enter, to earn, to enjoy, enjoyment, an entrance, an event, eventful, evidence, fair, to feel, a feeling, to fascinate, fascinating, general, to hold, to invent, inventive, investigation, a lie, to lie, lonely, loneliness, to mind, misbehaviour, peaceful, to push, to publish, private, to print, to reach, a reward, rewarding, to sell, strange, a stranger, to suppose, a treasure, a teasure-house, through, to type, unfair, whisper, wise, wisdom to feel at home, in general, to enjoy oneself, to be on/off duty Listening + 1, Listen to the tape, 17], and match five texts (1—5) with the N names of the places they describe (a—f). One place-name you don’t ^ need to use. Places: a) War Museum b) Waterfalls c) Concert hall d) Shopping centre e) The City f) Comedy club Texts 1 2 3 4 5 extra Place-names 2. Listen to the tape, Isl [8J, and mark each sentence “T” for true, ’T for false or “NS” for not stated. % 1) Rowling began writing early. 39 2) When she was a pupil, she preferred mathematics to other school subjects. 3) Joanne wanted to go to university but went to live in Paris instead. 4) Joanne liked working for Amnesty International. 5) She thought of Harry Potter on a train. 6) Rowling left England only once, to teach English in Portu- gal. 7) When Rowling and her little daughter lived in Scotland, they were very poor. 8) Rowling’s first book about Harry Potter was rejected by a number of publishing companies. 9) Alice Newton’s interest in the book helped to publish it. 10) Barry Cunningham from Bloomsbury was sure of the book’s success. 11) Rowling had to use a pseudonym 40 12) Rowling loved her grandmother Kathleen very much. 13) The Harry Potter book’s first step to the world fame was very modest — 1000 copies. 3. Listen to the text “Roald Dahl’s Writing Hut the right item to complete these statements. 1) Roald Dahl f» [9], and choose a) built his hut himself b) had his hut built for him c) had his hut built of wood d) had his hut built of stone 2) Inside the hut a) nothing looked clean and tidy b) everything looked clean and tidy c) only the writing desk looked clean and tidy d) only the books looked clean and tidy 3) Roald Dahl had his lunch a) in the house b) in the writing hut c) in the garden d) somewhere else 4) For writing Dahl always prepared------- a) six plain yellow pencils b) six plain sharp pencils c) six sharp green pencils with a rubber d) six sharp yellow pencils with a rubber 41 5) Roald Dahl a) was very economical with his writing paper b) kept all his rough drafts c) threw his rough drafts straight into the fire d) threw his rough drafts into the wastepaper basket and made a bonfire of them from time to time 6) Wendy, Dahl’s secretary, helped him by a) printing his books b) typing his books c) taking his books to the publisher d) sorting the yellow pads out 4. Listen to a fragment from Dahl’s story “Lucky Break — How I Became a Writer”, |s] [10], and write brief answers to these questions. 1) Why did Mrs O’Connor come to R. Dahl’s school on Saturday morning? 2) Was she good-looking? 3) How many books did she present to the pupils during 3 years? 4) How long did each class last? 5) What was the secret of Mrs O’Connor’s success with the pupils? 6) What two things did Mrs O’Connor teach Roald Dahl? 5. Listen to the tape, [gsl [11], and match five texts (1—5) with the statements below (a—f). One statement you don’t need to use. г a) In this book the main characters are a boy and a group of girls. 42 b) This book tells a story of true friends. c) This book is not written in prose. d) In this book the main character makes up unbelievable stories. e) In this book the main character creates a monster, who makes trouble. f) This is not a book of fiction but a factual one. Texts 1 2 3 4 5 extra Statements Reading + 6. The text below comes from a magazine. Put the parts of the text in the right order to make it logical. a) Years later, when Napoleon was on his deathbed on the island of St Helena, his friend Tomblier asked him if he had seen anything mysterious in the Great Pyramid. “I have spoken to no one about that. Ever,” said Napoleon. “But you are my best friend, Tomblier, and I will tell you... I will tell you what I saw that dayl” b) When he came out, he looked pale and dazed. “Are you all right, sir?” asked the guide. “Have you seen anything strange?” The famous French general was silent for a while. Then he said: “Never mention this matter again!” 43 1 ш г ( ► ’ г' I c) Tomblier leaned forward. “Yes, my general? What did you see?” he asked. Napoleon stared at Tomblier. His eyes misted over as if he was looking into the past. Then he shook his head sadly. “No. What’s the use? No one would ever believe me.” And he sank back into dreamless sleep. Napoleon Bonaparte took his secret to the grave. d) During his military expedition to Egypt Napoleon decided to visit the Great Pyramid of Cheops. His guide led him deeper and deeper into the heart of the ancient pyramid. At last they stood in the very centre of the King’s Chamber. The guide began to explain what he knew about its history, but Napoleon silenced the man with a wave of his hand. “I have to be left alone,” he said. e) The guide left the Chamber and Napoleon was alone in the warm, still, silent air. He spent the whole night there. К Order 1 2 3 4 5 Parts 7. % The texts below (a—e) are parts of magazine articles. Match them with the titles (1—6). One title you don’t need to use. 1) American Food 2) The Key to Your Adventures 3) Get the Certificate 4) Around the World 5) Goodbye to Old Traditions 6) Study Abroad a) The first time anyone really did it, was for nothing more than a shopping trip. For pepper and cinnamon, to be precise. In 1519, fine ships set sail from the Spanish coast in an attempt to 44 find the South-West passage leading from the Atlantic into the “Southern Sea”, what we now call the Pacific Ocean. b) So basically, it’s all clear. We choose a university, and submit the application forms. However, you soon begin to realise that it’s not all that easy. In the first place, it’s a big shock to learn that someone, who’s finished a Russian high school, in most cases, cannot go directly to a UK university. Why? Firstly, age; Brits tend to finish school at 18; secondly, the qualifications received on finishing a Russian school are considered of a lower level than the British equivalents. c) The times of Krusenstern and Columbus are long gone; there are almost no places on the Earth left undiscovered by sunglasses-clad tourists, carrying cameras with huge zoom lenses. However, there is one thing which remains true of travellers throughout time — they need money. But while the Conquistadors travelled under the patronage of their kings, modern young tourists must make do* by themselves — and in this, they are aided by cards — credit cards and discount cards. d) In today’s modern world, you can’t really manage without a computer. One way or another, professionals working in practically any area must be able to use a computer. Therefore, there is a need for a uniform assessment of computer literacy, something like the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL). Nowadays, in many countries, going to a university or training at the workplace requires having ECDL. In Romania, for example, ECDL is approved by the Ministry of Education. e) The truth is, that families in the US eat together less often than they used to. Instead of meeting at the dinner table, families often meet in the kitchen, around the refrigerator. There’s no time for old-fashioned cooking. Quick snacks all through the day have taken its place. And to save trouble, people eat wherever they like, in the street, in front of the TV, or at their desks. Titles 1 2 3 4 5 6 extra Texts ’ to make do = to succeed 45 8. Read the text and mark each sentence after it “T” for true, “F” for false “NS” for not stated. % British or American? Which is the pre-dominant English in the world today? There is not an easy answer to this question, nor should there be. At its heart and soul, there are no great differences between American English and British English. The reason for this is that both of them have the same roots. Of course, there are some differences in vocabulary, grammar and expression but these differences are not so great. Did you know that the American variety of English spoken today was the common household variety of English spoken in most places of the world, including Britain, in the 17th century? That means Shakespeare spoke using the American variety. Of course, at that time, there was no American variety; there was only the British variety of English. If this is true, then it was British English (and not American English as people often think) that has changed over the last three centuries. If the American variety of English has done anything to the language, then it is to have added hundreds of thousands of words and expressions to a language already containing millions. So, perhaps we should not argue about which vai'iety of English predominates in the world today, but think more about people’s cultural identity instead. It is common knowledge that the Americans are an informal people and use more informal expressions to demonstrate their friendliness. The British, more reserved (but actually just as friendly), rely more on formal expressions to show their politeness and not to be seen as “forward”. One thing is clear: in the race between British English and American English there can be no winner or loser. 1) American English and British English are quite similar. 46 2) They both came from the same source. 3) With time American English has changed more than British English. 4) Phonologically American English is more conservative than British English. 5) A lot of words invented by the Americans have entered Eng- lish. 6) We are right to think that the greeting “Hello” is British and “Hi” is American. 7) The Americans are less formal than the British, 8) The Americans are as friendly as the British. 9. Read the text and choose the right items to complete the sentences after it. % In this article Jacqueline Wilson, a children's author, writes about love of reading and recommends some of her favourite books. Like most children’s authors, I shall be very busy during Children’s Book Week going into schools and libraries up and down the country to talk about my books. I like primary schools the most. I talk for about 40 minutes and then ask the children if they’ve got any questions. This is always the fun part. The questions aren’t always connected with my books. Children of- 47 ten ignore my wrinkles and grey hair and see me simply as a withered ten-year-old. “Have you got any brothers or sisters?” and “What football team do you support?” and once, very sweetly, “How late are you allowed to stay up at night?” Therefore I know that when children ask me “What are your favourite books?” they don’t expect me to start talking about grownup literature. They want to know what my favourite children’s books are. It is always hard work choosing. I sometimes talk about the books I loved long ago when I was a child, but that isn’t always useful or relevant for today’s children. My favourite books then were “Nancy and Plum” by Betty Macdonald, a lovely story about two spirited sisters who run away from their orphanage, and “Adventures with Rosalind” by Charlotte Austen, a haunting fantasy about a lonely boy on a long journey through different lands across seven seas. Nobody else has ever heard of them and they are long out of print. I do mention Noel Streatfield, especially “Ballet Shoes” but that’s a very girly choice. Here I’d like to stress the importance of reading aloud. I think this is the best, easiest and most enjoyable way of getting a child to love books for life. I don’t just mean reading books to babies and toddlers, I mean going on reading aloud long after children can read for themselves. I wish there could be more reading aloud in our schools. That story session on Friday afternoon was the lesson we all loved most back in those long-ago schooldays. I particularly wish there could be more reading aloud at home. Story tapes are wonderful, especially in cars, but there’s nothing like a grown-up reading or telling a story directly to a child. My all-time favourite picture book to read aloud is “Where the Wild Things Are” by Maurice Sendak, with its poetic text of 338 words and wonderfully imaginative illustrations. It never fails to intrigue or delight any undersevens. The Mary Poppins books are good to read to seven or nine-year-olds. Each chapter is a story in itself, perfect for bedtime reading. Most of Edith Nesbit’s books still sound very fresh and funny, a treat to read aloud to under-11s. Girls should enjoy “Little Women”, “A Little Princess”, “What Katy Did” and “Black Beauty” read aloud, and boys might listen to “Treasure Island or “Tom Sawyer”. There are also very good contemporary books that will be 48 the classics of the future. Philip Pullman’s “Clockwork or All Wound Up” is superb for reading aloud, a perfectly constructed gothic fairytale. And there are always the Harry Potter books... 1) Jacqueline Wilson professionally. a) writes criticism on children’s books b) writes books for kids c) gives public readings of children’s books 2) Primary school children often a) ask Ms Wilson silly questions b) discuss different problems with Ms Wilson c) forget Ms Wilson’s age 3) Children’s books of long ago. a) were much better than modern books b) are hardly known to modern children c) were very hard to choose 4) In “Adventures with Rosalind” the main character. a) doesn’t stay in one and the same place b) is a lonely sailor c) goes around the world 5) The book “Ballet Shoes”. a) suits girls rather than boys b) suits boys rather than girls c) suits both boys and girls 6) Ms Wilson believes that books should be read to a) very young children b) teenage children c) younger and older children 7) When Ms Wilson was a schoolgirl, she and her classmates 4 4Л6Р a) read a lot of children’s books b) listened to their teacher reading aloud to them c) read aloud to each other 49 8) Ms Wilson names a number of children’s books that are a) usually read by children b) good for reading aloud to children c) often read aloud to children 10. Read the text from “The Daily Telegraph” and complete it with the phrases (a—h) below. a) this explains why b) according to one eyewitness c) the moisture capacity of air at 30 °C is five times what it is at 5°C d) drizzle falls frequently in winter e) much of the damage was in the town centre f) on August 10, 1893 g) Mid-June and mid-August h) by a ferocious hailstorm Rain Falls Hardest in the Feverish Month of July There is one immutable fact about British rain: it falls harder in summer than in winter — and it falls hardest of all in July. Sudden downpours are a characteristic of summer. Just as showers are typical of spring, (1)____________ And autumn often brings driving rain. This is all down to the fact that warm air can hold much more moisture than cold air: (2)__________ When conditions are right for the release of that moisture, such as when rising air currents produce towering cumulonimbus clouds, a lot more rain will fall in a given time in summer than in any other season. (3) some of our most dra- matic rainstorms occur either during or at the end of a heatwave. 50 It also explains why we often talk about tropical downpours to describe such cloudbursts. Nearly all of our heaviest short downpours happen between (4)----------- Recording equipment, of course, can only take a limited sample of the weather and this is particularly true of rainfall levels which can vary enormously from place to place. As far as the records are concerned, the biggest five-minute at Preston, Lan- fall in the UK occurred (5)______________ cashire, when 1.25 inches fell. Put another way, that is two weeks’ worth of rain in 300 seconds, or an average rate of 15 inches per hour. The heaviest rain was accompanied (6) Some hailstones were “as large as a shilling piece”. The hail was so heavy that it was impossible to see more than a yard through it, (7) As might be expected, (8) Many streets, houses and shops were flooded to a depth of 2 ft, main sewers burst, and manhole covers were forced off as water spurted six feet into the air. Speaking + 11. Speak to your friends about modern periodicals and mention • what role they play in the modern world • what they are like (types, target readers, etc.) • what material they traditionally publish • your attitude to them 12. Your friend is reading a new interesting book. Speak to your friend and find out • what book it is and where he/she got it • who is the author of the book and if he/she has read anything by this author before 4> 51 • what the book is about • what the main characters are like • why he/she is enjoying the book 13. Work in pairs and discuss the future of public libraries. \ One of you believes that libraries in their traditional form will not survive as any book will soon be available in its electronic form. The other thinks that there will always be people preferring printed books. 14. Say what you can about the role of periodicals in the society through out its history and today. (ThrJOailj} QMegra [NANCIAL T1ME$> ^■1 ^•«ioMHcnlbSriS [E lator> fCSOf14 every year-okl £*1*Лгйо dd ‘АЫ.__ ИЕ31^1Ш йгглг/ ^wasapJace, цот. баз KODPeicrvipoBKH 15. Organize a talk about your reading habits and preferences. 1) Think of what kind of books you prefer. 2) Write down some arguments in favour of such books, 3) Exchange your ideas with other students. 4) Recommend your favourite books to your friends. 52 L Writing + 16. Match the words in the two columns. Use the word combinations to complete the sentences. 1) felt 2) say it 3) monthly 4) colour 5) local 6) enjoyable 7) investigate 8) tragic 9) Words of 10) rewarding a) magazine b) book c) event d) job e) libraries f) at home g) Wisdom h) the crime i) in a whisper j) printer 1) My father is a doctor and he is sure that his profession is the most 2) A lot of people believe that “Alice in Wonderland” is a very 3) I don’t want anyone to know our password, so be careful and 4) My friend makes beautiful greeting cards on his new 5) In their family the little boy soon such kind and friendly people. they were 6) I have a thick book of aphorisms called ii 7) Everybody knows that the “Titanik” sank while crossing the Atlantic. The happened in 1912. 8) Sherlock Holmes decided to aged to do it brilliantly. himself and man- 9) This gives specialist information about new' publications. 53 10) often become a kind of cultural centre attract- ing those who love literature and arts. 17. Complete the sentences with function words where necessary. 1) I’m quite sure that you’ll enjoy yourselves at the concert: you’ve always liked this pop group. 2) As soon as we were through_____________the questions, the teacher set us a new task. 3) The photograph looked old because in was printed black and white. 4) This cpmputer can’t be sold because it is outdated. a lot of money 5) Linda agreed to meet Charley on Wednesday night when she was duty in the hospital. 6) She had to stand on a chair to reach_________the books on the top shelf. 7) All through the performance my mother held me the hand as she was afraid to lose me in the crowd. 8) I waited for Jenny it began to get dark and went home only when I understood that she wouldn’t come. 9) How can I believe you if you continue to tell lies me and everybody else? 10) The little girl held the toy her both hands look- ing it lovingly. 11) general, your test is written quite well, it’s one of the best in the group. 12) The kittens were pushing each other bowl of milk. from the 54 13) If you’re looking mend some to you. a good book, I can recom- 14) Nobody knows how much I’m looking winter holidays. to my 15) Look the pence and the pounds will look themselves. {Proverb) 18. Cross out the wrong variant to make these sentences logical and complete. 1) Robinson is so (lonely/alone)! I’m really sorry for him. 2) Margo can (print/type) very well: she prints/types 40 words a minute. 3) The “New Yorker’’ is a well-known (month/monthly) magazine. 4) He earns (his living/for his life) by writing for a local newspaper. 5) The book is beautifully (published/printed) on quality paper. 6) Lucy recited her favourite fable (writing/written) by I. A. Krylov. 7) I often write to my friend (living/lived) in another town. 8) What’s the name of this (publishing/published) house? 9) Many people prefer vegetables (selling/sold) in the market. 10) I can still remember the legend (telling/told) to me by my great-grandfather. 11) What a (fascinating/fascinated) idea it was — to do travelling in some faraway exotic places! 55 12) Do you know the music (playing/played) by our school orchestra? 19. Use the words with the suffixes -ness, -hood, -ly, -al in the sentences that follow. -al: national, factual, fatal -ly: lordly, worldly, wrinkly -ness: brightness, loneliness, prettiness -hood: boyhood, brotherhood, knighthood 1) He received a try. for his services to British indus- 2) I need some information on the problem of nu- clear stations. 3) The of the speaker’s remark struck the audi- ence. 4) We decided to visit the Museum of Wales. 5) Teenagers today are much more_____________than I ever was. 6) Not so long ago tuberculosis was considered to be a disease. 7) He has been living on his own for many years but his ______________doesn’t trouble him. 8) Sam spent his the country. years with his grandparents in 9) My great-grandfather’s old at me from the photograph. face was smiling 10) We’ve heard a lot about the new girl’s haven’t met her yet. 11) Our teacher taught us freedom, tolerance and but we 12) He spoke to us in a liked. manner which we all dis- 56 20. Write the English for the following. АЛ) зарабатывать себе на жизнь 2) издавать газету______________ 3) добраться до города 4) продемонстрировать смелость 5) провести собрание_________ 6) честное (справедливое) решение 7) общественное событие________ 8) благодарная профессия 9) тихий шёпот________ 10) незнакомое место J5.1) Эта книга — настоящая сокровищница мудрости 2) Они вошли в дом через парадную (front) дверь. 3) Почему ты говоришь шёпотом? Кто-нибудь спит? 4) Если хотите хорошо провести время, сходите в театр, 5) Когда я закончил с уроками, было уже темно. 6) Журналисты решили провести собственное расследова ние этих событий. 7) Ты помнишь, кто изобрёл телефон? 57 8) Я полагаю, что все эти слова — ложь. 9) Я всё ещё помню странные события той зимы, 10) Ваш долг — расследовать эту тайну. 21. Complete the text of the old fable with the words derived from the words on the right. The Wolves and the Dogs Once upon a time the wolves said to the dogs, “Why should we continue to be enemies any longer? You are very like us in most ways: the main (1). our (2)____ between us is only We live a life of (3). but you are (4). ------------to people, who beat you, and put heavy collars round your necks and make you work hard. And what is your reward? They give you nothing but bones to eat. It is clear that your life is (5)-------------- differ train free, slave happy 58 Don’t put iip with it any longer. Give the sheep that you’re watching to us, and we will all live and feast together.” The dogs (6). __________allowed themselves to be persuaded by these words and (7) - (8) . the wolves into the of the forest. But as soon as they were well inside, the (9)_____________________ wolves set upon them and tore them to pieces. (10)------- their fate. (11). deserve stupid company deep fear traitorous right 22. Complete the sentences using the words derived from those in brackets. % 1) Don’t you get (comfort) 2) Everybody says that George is a (type) gentleman. 3) Molly got her (strong)__ sitting on the floor? _____________English slowly after her illness. 4) Please (move) your hats as soon as you enter the church. 5) The police were (power)__________to prevent the crime: they could do nothing. 6) What’s wrong with Jack today? He was behaving quite (normal)______________yes- terday. 7) Samuel is not a good pupil: he seems to be (capable) ____________ to learn anything. 8) Democracy is one form of (govern) . 9) A little boy (appear) from his home on Monday morning. 10) Schmidt was the (command) carry her (shop) of the expedition. 11)1 helped her to ____home. 12) When James heard the 59 news, he looked at me in (speech) shock. 13) Everyone was pleased with the children’s (polite) . 14) Jake had a very happy (boy)______________ 15) We were deeply touched by the (sad) new melody. of the 23. Rewrite the sentences so that you could use Participle I in them. Example: I was crossing the road and noticed a strange vehicle. Crossing the road, I noticed a strange vehicle. 1) Steve was watching an old film and fell asleep. 2) Father was reading the newspaper and made some comments. 3) We were having a seaside holiday and played a lot of tennis. 4) Rita was writing a letter and made a couple of mistakes. 5) Bob was typing the text in the computer and pressed the wrong key. 6) Sue was choosing a book in the library and came across some stunning information. 7) The friends were walking along the central street and decided to drop in at a cafe. 8) Our school team were playing the final match and scored two goals. 60 9) Tina was looking through the window and noticed a strange blue bird on the branch. 10) The workers were repairing the road and found a buried treasure chest. 24. Complete these sentences using Participle 1. Make them true. Example: Last weekend we had a lot of fun dancins at the disco. 1)1 must say that I often have trouble 2) I remember how once we had a hard time 3) I often tell my friends how once I had fun 4) Most people have difficulty__________________________________ 5) Г11 never forget how my friends and I had a hard time 6) When I was very young I had trouble 7) During the holiday we had a wonderful time_____________ 8) It’s not surprising that some of my friends have difficulty 9) Personally I prefer to have fun 10) We never have trouble_______ at weekends, we do it easily, 25. Use the appropriate verbs in the ing-forms to complete these sentences. 61 1) Please stop 2) 1 have never enjoyed 3) Don’t stop, keep___ , you’re making too much noise. _______: it’s not in my line at all, , you’re doing it beautifully. 4) My friend loves , she’s the best cook I’ve ever met. 5) I don’t mind your_________ enjoy your company. 6) May I borrow this book when you finish with us at all: I always it? 7) A lot of people hate and it’s not _________ the surprising. 8) When the bell rang we began__________________ test as we wanted to complete it as soon as possible. 9) What do you enjoy more: mind___________ or .? 10) Would you .? I’m dying for a good strong cup. 11)1 have never liked but now I’m beginning to change my mind. 12) Our teacher asked us to start____________ coming examinations. 26. Express the same in English. Use mind + Ving. 1) Я не возражаю, чтобы вы шли домой прямо сейчас. for the 2) Я не против того, чтобы помочь тебе. 3) Мы не против того, чтобы Дон присоединился к нам. 4) Мама не возражала против того, чтобы Мэри пошла на дискотеку. 5) Ты не возражаешь против того, чтобы пойти в кино в субботу? 62 6) я не против того, чтобы твои друзья играли в нашей команде. 7) Вы не против того, чтобы мы включили телевизор? 8) Вы не против того, чтобы сходить в магазин завтра утром? 27. Give three good reasons why people do these things. % Example: go fishing. People go fishing because it allows them to spend some time out in the open air. They can also enjoy the peace and quiet of the countryside. And finally, they believe that fishing is an exciting activity, a kind of competition where you win or lose. 1) go skating 2) go jogging 63 3) go dancing 4) go shopping 28. Complete the sentences with the right forms of the words in brackets. % 1) Henry Ford was a pioneer automobile maker. He was the (one) to use assembly lines and build (he) cars from standard parts. 2) Moscow, the capital of Russia, is the (big) in the country. It is the (large) business centre in the country. city industrial and 3) It can be hard to tell moths and butterflies apart. These are the signs to look out for. Moths have (plump)_____________________ bodies than butterflies. Moths’ (antenna) like tiny combs or have feathery (hair)________ are on (they) .. Butterflies (antenna) ____________end in tiny knobs. 4) Moths hatch from eggs into caterpillars. The caterpillar feeds on (leaf) spins (it)_______ until it is fully grown. Then it a silk cocoon. A few kinds of moths do 64 not spin cocoons, but bury (they) in the ground or in piles of (leaf) until they grow into moths. 5) William Shakespeare is thought by most people to be (England) (great) tie is known about (Shakespeare) writer. Very lit-__life. When he was 18, he married Ann Hathaway, a (farmer) daughter, and had three (child) 29. Choose the right items to complete the texts below. ^ A. Books Books are used for (1). and passing on all kinds of knowledge, ideas, and stories. Some of the earliest books were made by the ancient Egyptians. They were written by hand on rolls of paper made (2)_ the papyrus plant. By the time of the Roman Empire, many books were hand- written on parchment or vellum, made (3). animal skin. It (4) (5)_-------- into sheets to look much the same a modern book. During the Middle Ages, monks made many beautiful books. They were (6) by hand with bright colours and sometimes with gold and silver. In the 1400s (7)------on paper was introduced in Europe. At first this wa.s very slow be- cause much of the work still (8) be done by hand. Then Johannes Gutenberg invented a machine with (9) type^ which could produce books (10)_ * type — зд.: шрифт 5 4Ni4 65 Today, many (11)________ the languages of the world, are produced every year, in all 1) a) keeping c) storing b) holding d) retaining 2), 3) a) off c) on b) from d) of 4) a) cut c) was cut b) cutted d) was cutted 5) a) as c) like b)than d) with 6) a) pictured c) decorated b) butified d) made nice 7) a)engraving c) typing b) printing d) publishing 8) a) must c) could b)should d) had to 9) a) moving c) movable b) moved d) removed 10) a) quick c)soon b) quickly d)sooner 11) a) millions of books c) millions books b) million of books d) million books B. Newspapers Newspapers are just what their name says — they are papers that (1),-------news. They first appeared in the 1400s. Printers produced pamphlets (2) people what was happening in the country and what they thought about it. Modern newspapers first appeared in the 1700s. Today, there are newspapers in (3)_ every country in the world, ---------------every day. in many different languages. Some (4)__________ some every week. One of the oldest newspapers is “The Times” of London. It (5)_ in 1785. (6) _ famous new'spapers are the “New York Times” and the “Washington Post” in the United States, and “Le Monde” in France. The first (7). 66 US (8). newspaper, the “Pennsylvania Packet and General Advertiser”, was published in 1784. 1) a)produce c) make b) type d) print 2) a) tell c) told b) tells d) telling 3) a) hardly c)closely b) almost d) partly 4) a) print c) are being printed b) are printed d) have been printed 5) a)began c) rose b) set off d) gave a start 6) a) Another c) Others b) The other d) Other 7) a) sucessful c) succesful b) successful d) successful! 8) a)day c) day’s b) daily d) days’ 30. Complete the text with the right forms of the verbs in brackets. ^ New Cinderella Long ago, in 1952, a young Italian girl (dream) (1)___________about marrying the young man she was in love with, but she (know) (2)__________it was impossible because they had no money. In the same year, Audrey Hepburn, then a young actress (plan) (3)__________her wedding to a young London playboy called James Hanson. She already (play) (4)------the leading part in a Hollywood musical and (make) (5)_--her film debut in “Roman Holiday”. While filming in Rome the ac- tress (order) (6). a wedding dress in a famous Fonta- na fashion house. It was a glorious dress (make) (7). of white lace with a flowing train. 67 At last the dress was practically ready and Audrey (have) (8)-------------to go to the designer for the final fitting... but two weeks before the wedding Audrey (call) (9). off. it She (not keep) (10). the dress and (not sell) (11). it. Instead she (phone) (12). Fonta- by anoth- na and said, “I want my dress (wear) (13)_______ er girl, someone who (not to be) (14)________able to afford a dress like mine the most beautiful Italian girl you can (find) (15). fy The three Fontana sisters had to find a girl, poor, young, pretty and pencil-slim like Audrey. It (take) (16) _____________ them some time before they (find) (17). Amabile Al- tobello in a poor town of Latina. Amabile (meet) (18). all the requirements and the dress (give) (19)_ to her. The people of Latina (be) (20) so excited that the town (give) (21). Amabile kitchen furniture and (or- 68 ganise) (22). a honeymoon in Paris. “It was a dream in the same come true,” she said. Amabile Altobello still (live) (23)---------- town of Latina. She (have) (24)-----------three children and five grandchildren. She and her husband (not, become) (25)____________rich, but they (have) (26)-----------a happy marriage. Amabile says that the dress (bring) (27)----------- her luck, so she (keep) (28)_ tissue paper all these years. it carefully wrapped in 31. Use the Social English section (Unit 2) to complete these flashes of conversation and compare two objects. l)Your friend. Look at these two watches. I’m in two minds which of the two to choose: I like them both. % CaTf 'mm You. 2) Your friend. The house in picture 1 is just my idea of a dream house. What do you think? 1. You. 69 3)Your friend. If I could I’d choose the mountain bike in picture 1. I think it’s much better than the plain bike in picture 2. 1. 2. You. 4) Your friend. I prefer paperbacks to hardcovers. They are cheaper and lighter in weight. You. 5) Your friend. If I were to choose a car for myself or my family. I’d buy the mini. They are much more convenient than bigger cars. 70 Just for Fun 32. In order to read this list of holidays, write the letter of the alphabet that comes before each letter listed. c d • 1 S 9 } t u n b t — f b t u f s — — — —- — w j d u p s z e b Z 1 b m m p X f f о 33. As you know, homonyms are words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Choose the correct word for each of the following sentences. 1) The boat sailed out to (see or sea)------------------------------ 2) The hungry rabbit ate the (caret or carrot) 3) The bride and groom walked dowm the (aisle or isle) 4) The electrician hung the fan from the (ceiling or sealing) 5) The tired jogger stopped to (wrest or rest) 34. This popular children’s poem by Edward Lear is also based on homonymy. Read it. Use a dictionary if necessar>’. You may act the poem out in groups of three reading for the two characters and the author. The Owl and the Pussy Cat 1. The Owl and the Pussy Cat went to sea In a beautiful pea-green boat. by Edward Lear 71 They took some honey, and plenty of money, Wrapped up in a five-pound note. The Owl looked up to the stars above. And sang to a small guitar, “O lovely Pussyl О Pussy, my love. What a beautiful Pussy you are. You are. You are! What a beautiful Pussy you are!” 2. Pussy said to the Owl, “You elegant fowl! How charmingly sweet you sing! О let us be married! too long we have tarried: But what shall we do for a ring?” They sailed away for a year and a day. To the land where the Bong Tree grows. And there in a wood a Piggy-wig stood. With a ring at the end of his nose. His nose. His nose. With a ring at the end of his nose. 3. “Dear Pig, are you willing to sell for one shilling Your ring?” Said the Piggy, “I will.” So they took it away, and were married next day By the Turkey who lives on the hill. They dined on mince, and slices of quince. Which they ate with a runcible spoon. And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand. They danced by the light of the moon. The moon. 72 The moon. They danced by the light of the moon, [;; / 1. \ Test 2 Listen to the tape, (^3 [12]. Match five texts (a—e) with the statements (1—6). One statement you don’t need to use. Texts Text 1. Geoffrey Chaucer Text 2. James Fenimore Cooper Text 3. Emily Dickinson Text 4. Nathaniel Hawthorne Text 5. Herman Melville Statements a) This author didn’t write only for grown ups. b) This author wrote about the relations between white and native population of America. c) This author wrote about unusual adventures. d) This author never saw her works published. e) This author did not live in America. f) This author wrote about life at sea. Texts 1 2 3 4 5 extra Statements 2. Read the text “History” and match its paragraphs (a—e) with their titles (1—6). One title you don’t need to use. % 1) Churchmen as Historians 2) Role of History in Earlier Civilizations and Today 3) Oral Tradition in Passing Down Information 73 4) History and Where It Gets Information 5) History and What It Studies 6) First Written Records History a) History is the story of the past. The people who write down history are historians. They usually write about important events such as wars, revolutions and governments, because these influence nations. However, historians are also interested in the lives of ordinary people and in what they did or thought about. b) Nowadays, we think of history as being written down in history books. But in earlier times, before books and printing, history was passed on by word of mouth. People told stories about their kings, their wars, their adventures. It was in this way that the stories of Ancient Greece were collected by the poet Homer to form the “Uliad” and the “Odyssey”. Some early stories such as these were made up in verse and sung to music. This made it easier for people to remember the stories correctly. c) In Ancient Egypt, scholars recorded the reigns of the pharaohs and listed the victories they won in battles. Often, these accounts were written in hieroglyphics on stone tablets. The Chinese, Greeks, and Romans were also very interested in history. It was they who first took the writing of history seriously, and they wrote of how their civilizations rose to power. d) During the Middle Ages in Europe, many people could not read or write, and printing had not been invented. The priests and monks preserved ancient books and kept the official records and documents. History became an important branch of study in the 1700s and 1800s. e) Historians get their information from hidden remains such as things found buried in old graves, as well as from old 74 books. The study of hidden remains is called archaeology. But history is not just concerned with the long distant past. After all, history is our story. What is news today will be history tomorrow. ^ modern historians are also interested in recording the present. They talk to old people about the things they remember, and they keep records on film and tape, often used for television news programmes. 3. Give the English for the following. 1) благодарная профессия 2) несправедливое решение 3) смелый незнакомец 4) богатая сокровищница 5) необычные (странные) события 6) увлекательное расследование 7)достичь города 8) напечатать книгу 9) продавать газеты 10) изобрести книгопечатание 11) в целом 12) быть свободным от дежурства 4. Complete the sentences using function words where necessary. 1) Please sit down and have some tea. I’d like you to feel home. 2) As soon as I entered the house, 1 felt that I’d been there before. 3) If you’re 75 with your homework, we can take a walk in the park. 4) It’s very bad manners to push people .. 5) We don’t mind staying alone for some time. 6) The young mother was holding the little boy joy yourself_____________ the hand. 7) Did you en- are you saying it the concert yesterday night? 8) Why a whisper? Is it a secret? 9) All ___________our excursion to St my class are looking forward___________ Petersburg. 10) Their family has grown bigger and they are looking a new more spacious house. 11)1 didn’t read that article, I just looked it. 12) Looking sick people is a very difficult job. 5. Complete these sentences with the right participles. 1) (Printing/Printed) those (writing/written) texts are easier to read than by hand. 2) (Fascinating/Fascinated) dren did not move. by the story, the chil- 3) The music (sounding/sounded) was light and cheerful. 4) The tree (growing/grown) not a birch but an oak. from the radio behind my window is 5) A house (building/built) than a house (building/built) 6) The children (playing/played) Dorothy’s brother and sister. of stone is stronger __of wood. in the garden are 76 7) I did not understand the question (asking/asked) ______________by the teacher. 6. Complete the sentences with the words derived from those in brackets. % l)In her new light blue dress Olga looked (sensation) .. 2) Is “The Times” a (day) or a (week) (lonely) newspaper? 3) Almost all people are afraid of _______4) Bathing in the river on a cold day like this is (mad) . 5) My father spent his (child) (enter) in a small town in the North. 6) I’ll meet you at the ________to the theatre. 7) We hadn’t met before. for me he was a complete (strange) . 8) Do you mind (wait) for a second? I’ll be back soon. 7. Write a paragraph (10—12 sentences) to describe your favourite book. 77 Project Work 2 Find information and write an essay on one of the problems concerning books, magazines and newspapers. 1) The book that made me interested in reading. 2) The past and future of the newspapers. 3) Magazines for teens. 4) Girls’ reading. 5) Boys’ reading. 6) Should tabloids exist? 7) Forbidden topics in journalism. 8) Paparazzi and their influence on people’s life. 9) Specialist newspapers and magazines (sports, arts, theatre, etc.). 10) Your first magazine (newspaper). 11) Should young people have a national newspaper of their own? What it should be like? 12) The advantages of the Internet over traditional mass media. Unit 3. Science and Technology Word Box achieve(ment), argue, argument, around, both, break, capable, cooker, create, creation, creative, creator, crew, crop, destroy, destruction, device, discover(er), dishwasher, engine, engineer(ing), equipment, exploration, explore, flight, guilty, generation, hammer, hoe, human(e), humanity, improve(ment), invent(ion), inventor, iron, knife, knowledge, launch, lead(er), memorable, object, opixjrtunity, participate, produce, production, rake, satisfy, saw, shaver, skill(ful), space, spade, solar, team, technique, technology, tired, toaster, tongs, tool, trad(er), train(er), (the) universe, use, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, whole to give a rise to sth, on the one hand... on the other hand... Listening + 1. Listen to the text ^Brain Boosters*^^ [gg] [13], and mark each sentence ^T” for true, for false or “NS” for not stated. % 1) People can buy brain boosters without presciption. 2) Brain boosters increase students’ ability to memorize things. 3) Brain boosters were originally invented to treat people with brain disorders such as sleeplessness and lack of attention. 4) People started using brain boosters at the end of the 20th century. 5) Brain boosters were invented in the US. ^ booster — зд.: стимулятор 79 6) Brain boosters can hardly help students to get better marks at the exams, 2. Listen to the tape, And match the names of the speakers (1—6) with the names of some important inventions (a—g) they are ^ talking about. There is one name of an invention you don’t need to use. e f 1) Katy a) refrigerator 2) Alex b) mobile 3) Don c) television 4) Patricia d) computer 5) John e) dishwasher 6) Emma f) washing machine g) vacuum cleaner g Name of the speaker 1 2 3 4 5 6 extra Name of the object 80 3. % Listen to the text “Britain’s UFO “X-files”‘ go public!”, and choose the right item to complete these statements. [151, 1) In 2008 the British government___________ a) discovered some X-files with details of UFOs over the country from the past 30 years b) published their X-files with details of UFOs over the country from the past 20 years c) made open to the public their X-files with details of UFOs over the country from the past 30 years 2) According to the files the number of people who said they had seen UFOs has_____________ police officers reported a) become bigger b) become smaller c) stayed the same 3) In 1981 in Northumbria__________ they had seen a UFO. a) twelve b) twenty c) two 4) In 1981 a policeman in Shropshire claimed to have seen UFO in a) December b) November c) October ' X-files — secret documents about mysterious facts. The word originates from a popular UR television series about two people whose job is to solve mysterious situations involving the paranormal. 6 4ftft9 81 5) Scientists say that most of the UFO cases_______________ a) are true facts b) are wrongly interpreted cases of planes’ lights and meteors c) are difficult to explain 6) Experts in UFOs say they a) have found alien spaceships on the Earth b) can explain many cases of the UFOs that have been claimed c) can’t explain any cases of the UFOs reported Statements 1 2 3 4 5 6 Items 4. % Listen to what six people discussing the problem of new nuclear power stations in Britain say, |^] [16], and decide which of them a) is against new nuclear power stations in the UK because they are too expensive b) says how much energy the UK receives from its nuclear power stations c) thinks that there is an alternative to power stations allowing to get more energy and says what it is d) is definitely for new nuclear power stations in Britain e) refers to some accidents in the past and disapproves of the idea of new nuclear power stations in Britain f) speaks about the future plans the authorities are making to get more energy in Britain Speakers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Opinions 5. % A. Listen to the tape, lgs*l [17], and fill in the information gaps in the text below and complete the text with the figures. In May (1) ----------there appeared a land link between Britain and Europe, The Queen of Britain and France’s President Francois Mitterrand opened the Channel Tunnel with a big 82 formal ceremony. It took (2) engineers and (3) (4) . (5). hours to construct the tunnel. It cost about dollars to build it. In fact there are underwater tunnels between England and France: (6). runner tunnels and (7) service tunnel. The tunnels are (8). miles or. (9). km long. They are under the sea for (10) miles, or (11) km. The history of the Channel Tunnel began in (12). when Albert Mathieu, a French engineer, suggested a cross- channel tunnel to Napoleon. (13). __________ years later the Channel Tunnel Company Limited began digging near Dover in England but in (14)___ _ __ __ the work was stopped as the British were afraid of a foreign attack through the tunnel. In ft* 83 (15). ______________the French and the British governments started digging again, but the British government stopped the work. In (16). France and the UK agreed to continue the ____________ the tunnel was opened and project and in (17)____________ trains began to use it. After all these years it is quite clear that the tunnel is a suc-ces. It can be regarded as a symbol of a united Europe. Europe is closer than ever to the British Isles. It takes less than (18). ___________hours to get from London to Paris. Scientists say that Channel Tunnel could also be part of the solution of the global warming as a high-speed rail journey (19)_____________ times “greener” than flying. B. Read the completed text and answer the questions. 1) Why, in your opinion, did the construction of the tunnel start?___________________________________________________ 2) Why was the work stopped in 1882?__________________________ 3) Who stopped the work in the seventies? Can you guess the reason? ____________________________________________________ 4) Do you share the opinion that the Channel Tunnel is a success? __________________________________________ 5) What are the advantages of the Channel Tunnel? Reading + 6. Read the texts (a—f) and match them with the titles (1—7). There is one title you don’t need to use. 1) A Bit of the Thames’ History 2) Beautiful and Magnificent (Creatures Are Dying Out 84 3) Most Unusual Finds 4) The Newest Inhabitant of the Thames 5) An Unusual Event 6) An Unusual Disease 7) Unusual Places on the River a) The River Thames in London is getting cleaner! How do we know? Because there are seahorses living in it. These seahorses are rare and usually live in the waters around the Canary Islands and Italy. They like shallow muddy water, so they are quite hard to find. And if you do spot one, don’t touch it! There is a special new law to protect them. b) How do you feel after taking a shower? Refreshed and clean? Imagine that you felt pain after it. That’s what it’s like for 15-year-old Ryan Clarke. Ryan is allergic to water. “Whenever my skin comes in contact with water,” says Ryan, “I get a rash all over my body.” Ryan’s condition is very rare — only 30 people in the world suffer from it. In spite of his allergy Ryan goes swimming and showers daily. “He has just to put up with it,” says his mum. c) The Thames was for many centuries part of the fierce ritual of “ducking”. It is such a ritual when people push someone underwater for a short time. It was a usual punishment in the Middle Ages in London. Imagine such a cruel punishment for women just for swearing or nagging their husbands. d) Tigers are on the brink of extinction. Their home is vanishing. The forests which these animals used to rule have become much smaller, their hunting grounds have nearly disappeared. When they are gone, tigers will not share the Earth with us any more. There are only 4,000 tigers in the wild now. A hundred years ago there were 80,000 tigers. e) Every year people lose about 150,000 items on the London underground. The famous Lost Property Office is in Baker Street and it gets 600 items a day — from umbrellas and handbags to wheelchairs, footballs and laptops. People in the office could hardly believe their eyes when they saw there false eyes, a park bench, a 50 metre boat, and a stuffed eagle. f) “Red Nose Day” is a charity organised by famous comedians. Clowns make people laugh. Clowns wear red noses. People in the UK sell cakes with red noses, they put red noses on their cars and they wear red noses to work. They do it to raise money 85 for charity. “Red Nose Day” is held every two years. The UK raises millions of pounds on this day. Titles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Texts 7. Read the text and write 5 — 7 questions on it. Gazing Deeper Still Four hundred years ago, Galileo and his telescope brought the heavens into focus, setting the stage for modern astronomy. Such a small thing, really — two pieces of glass and a tube no longer than the span of a man’s arm. The first telescope that Galileo built (by the way he was not the first to build one) played tricks with distance and size. The device transported faraway objects into the viewer’s presence and magnified them there. As Galileo demonstrated to the Doge of Venice in 1609, even an object invisible to the naked eye, such as an enemy ship on the horizon, would seem large with the help of his spyglass. Later, alone in the dark, after he’d learned how to make better lenses, Galileo pointed his instruments skyward to reveal uncomfortable truths about the universe. 1) The supposedly smooth, silvery orb of the Moon mimicked the Earth with chains of mountains and depths of valleys. 2) The familiar constellations contained more stars than anyone had counted, while the mysterious Milky Way consisted of nothing but stars, too densely packed for unaided eyes to see. 86 3) The planet Jupiter turned out to have four attendant bodies — “never seen since the beginning of time”, as Galileo pointed out — whose positions changed from hour to hour. 4) Venus, when followed through the telescope, grew bigger and smaller like the Moon. 5) And the large pair of companions on either side of Saturn occasionally disappeared. In 2009, four centuries after those early nights of wonder, the International Year of Astronomy saluted Galileo for introducing a new worldview. 2009 also commemorated the 400th anniversary of the publication of “Astronomia Nova”, by Johannes Kepler, who formulated laws of planetary motion as stunning as Galileo’s observations. 8. Read the text and mark each sentence after it “T” for true, “F” for false or “NS” for not stated. % Do Genes Influence the Way You Vote?^ More and more, scientists think that genes play a key role in our personalites — even perhaps in the candidates we choose. Scientists say that when you step into a voting booth you have only a partial decision. And that’s your parent’s fault. A class at Vanderbilt University (USA) is studying the role genetics plays in political decisions. The research, conducted across the country, is shedding light on how our candidate of choice might not be entirely our own choosing. Dr. David Bader, a Vanderbilt biology professor says that genetics have some role in how we think about politics. “It’s not just socialization, it’s not just nurture,” he says. “There are re- ‘ This text uses American English grammar and style. 1 87 ally differences in people. I think it’s silly to say genes don’t play a difference.” So the question is whether our political views are entirely a product of the people around us or whether we have already chosen our candidates without even realizing it. The verdict lies somewhere in the middle. “Your genotype doesn’t define you,” Bader says. “It may put you on a generalized path, but is there a single gene of whether you are a conservative or liberal? I would sincerely doubt that.” But liberals and conservatives do have differences that may not be dictated by choice, according to a New York University study by psychology professor David Amodio. Amodio was the lead author of a study that analyzed how self-proclaimed liberals and conservatives use a portion of the brain that activates when a person gets information or ideas contrary to his established beliefs. The study showed that liberals’ use of that portion of the brain was higher than that of conservatives, which suggests that liberals are more responsive to different ideas. The report says that more liberal people tend to be able to deal with pros and cons of decisions, and as they get more conservative, people like to focus on one side of the story. Of course, conseiwatives could argue they are more determined in their beliefs. They could say it is more difficult to persuade them by argument. So Bader and his class have raised a lot of questions. Genetic data are becoming important for future campaigns that could use such studies to support their arguments and to convince voters they support a certain party due to their genes. As we learn more and more, it’s more important that your genetic data should be a private thing. But as research moves forward genetic information is likely to become more available. Genetic analyses that now cost about $1,000 could be available in shopping malls in 10 years. The scientists say they will stick to examining the relationship between the science and our votes. “The question of what to do with the information is one for society,” Bader says. “The question of how we get the information is one for science.” 1) Genes have no influence on our personalities. 2) Dr. David Bader is a biology professor, 88 3) Each person has a certain gene that is responsible for our political views. 4) One of the US universities is studying the political similarities between identical twins.____________________________________ 5) People who think they are liberal, according to the research, react more willingly to different ideas. 6) Future political campaigns may use the results of Dr. David Bader’s studies-------------------------------------------------------- 9. % Read the text and choose the right item to complete the statements after it. The Fascinating History of Cleanliness^ Katherine Ashenburg, a Canadian writer, is the author of the book “An Unsanitised History of Washing”. Katherine says that she is not a clean-freak^. Her interest in writing the book didn’t come from cleanliness as much as from her curiosity about the everyday lives of people in past ages. In her new book Katherine Ashenburg writes that while our ancestors’ bathing habits might disgust us, our bathing habits would also disgust them. The seventeenth-century Frenchman never had a hot shower, because after the Black Plague in the 14th century, the French thought that hot baths made one ill. For 200 years Europeans avoided hot baths. While some cultures consider body odour offensive, others find it attractive. For the modern, middle-class North American, clean means that you shower and apply deodorant every day without fail. For the aristocratic seventeenth-century Frenchman, it meant that he changed his linen shirt daily and splashed his hands in water but never touched the rest of his body with water or soap. * cleanliness ['klenlinas] — the process of keeping yourself and your possessions clean ^ freak - someone who looks strange or behaves in a strange way 89 For the Roman in the 1st century, it involved two or more hours of splashing, soaking and steaming the body in water of various temperatures and giving himself a final oiling — all done daily, in company and without soap. Eveiy culture defines cleanliness for itself, choosing what it sees as perfect. The modern North American, the seventeenth-century Frenchman and the Roman were each convinced that cleanliness was an important marker of civility and that only his way to achieve it was the right one. Hygiene has always been a convenient stick with which to beat other peoples, who never seem to get it right. The outsiders usually err on the side of dirtiness. The ancient Egyptians thought that sitting a dusty body in still water, as the Greeks did, was a bad idea. Late-nineteenth-century Americans were scandalised by the dirtiness of Europeans. The Nazis promoted the idea of Jewish uncleanliness. At least since the Middle Ages, European travellers have enjoyed nominating the continent’s dirtiest country — the glory usually went to France or Spain. Sometimes Europeans regarded some people as suspiciously too clean — which is how the Muslims, who scoured their bodies, struck them (Europeans) for centuries. The Muslims returned the compliment, saying that Europeans are absolutely filthy. 1) The author of the book “An Unsanitised History of Washing” was interested in___________________________________________ a) the problems of cleanliness b) what our ancestors understood by cleanliness c) the way people lived in the previous centuries 2) In the 17th century French people never had a hot shower be- cause a) they found it disgusting b) they liked body odour c) they were afraid to get some disease 3) In the 17th century French people of the aristocratic families 90 a) didn’t wash their bodies daily b) washed their shirts daily c) didn’t change their shirts every day 4) In the 1st century the Romans their baths. a) never used hot water b) never used soap while taking c) never washed with other people present 5) Cleanliness for modern, middle-class North American means a) daily shower b) daily use of deodorant c) daily use of deodorant and daily shower withoCit exception 6) Many nations. a) accept only their own idea of cleanliness b) criticize all the ideas of cleanliness but their own c) regard cleanliness as a means that shows the level of civility 7) Since the Middle Ages European travellers have been trying to define the continent’s dirtiest country and________________. a) usually chose two countries of Europe as such b) never have been able to do it c) usually chose Spain 10. Read the text and complete it with the phrases (a—g) below. % a) meaning dark b) perhaps the world’s first ‘human rights’ document c) The Roman words Tam (wide) and Isis (water) d) sailed from the Thames e) England’s longest f) the Great Plague and Fire of London g) for sure 91 The Thames: Dark Waters The Thames is (1). body knows (2)___ and most famous river. No- how the Thames got its name: may- be from the Sanskrit word Tamas, (3). The waters of the river are often murky. Or maybe from (4)_____. Whatever is the origin, the Thames has played a starring role in British history. In 54 BC Julius Ceaser crossed the Thames to battle British tribes. In 1215 AD King John signed the Magna Carta — (5). (6)______ — on a Thames island. During _____(1665—1666), Londoners gathered on the riv- erbanks. They thought the Thames could save them from illness and disease. The explorers and immigrants who settled North 92 America (7). and the great trading companies that turned London into a commercial metropolis built vast docks for tlieir cargo ships. Speaking + 11. A. Speak about the Stone Age. Mention the following; 1) definition of the period which is called the Stone Age 2) its subdivision and length 3) tools used in that period of history B. Speak about the Bronze Age. Mention the following: 1) the beginning of this period in history 2) new techniques and devices invented during the Bronze Age 3) construction of pyramids C. Speak about the Iron Age. Mention the following: 1) the beginning of this period in history 2) use of military power 3) Greek and Roman technological achievements of this period 12. Work in pairs. Find out 1) what the name of the period in European history between AD 1100 and 1500 is 2) what brought a revolution to the production of power in the Middle Ages in Europe 3) what weapons appeared in Europe in the 14th century 4) which period in the European history is known as the Renaissance 5) what the main characteristics of the Renaissance are 6) what people understand by the Industrial Revolution 7) when the first steamboats and locomotives appeared in Europe 8) what changes and achievements became known during the 19th and 20th centuries 9) if there are negative results of the technological revolution and what they are 93 'т и' ' • ' |/ \ ■S> V i>i; 1 >■ 4 f f r^-i k.-i>!_r: ♦ V 13. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue about space exploration. Speak about the following facts. 1) when space exploration began 2) what countries were the leaders in this process 3) who the first man to fly into space was 4) who the first woman to fly into space was 5) who the first space walker was 6) how long he spent outside the spaceship 7) which country carried on the programme of the Moon exploration 14. Say what you can about space exploration. 1) before manned flights into space 2) the modern stage of space exploration 15. Today’s schoolchildren have the advantage of growing up with com-Г4 puters which are as natural a part of home furnishings as radio and ^ typewriters were to earlier generations. Some people believe that computers are improving our quality of life. Others see some danger in using them, for example a possible increase of unemployment. Think of other pros and cons of using a computer and discuss the problem in pairs. 94 Writing + 16. Complete the sentences. A. Use about, for, from, of. In some cases two prepositions are possible. 1) John’s mother complains his constant use of the mobile. 2) I think you should appologize_________your rude words. 3) I have been dreaming___________visiting Lon- don since I started learning English. 4) My granny thanked me ____________ helping her. 5) They will never forgive you prevent you your telling lies. 6) I will do everything I can to ____________ going there. 7) Try to keep Jimmy being in the sun too long. 8) I’m thinking buying another book by this author. 9) Why are you blaming me stopped us_____ losing the match? 10) Justin buying that camera. B. Use in, of, to to complete the sentences. 1) I don’t think Alec is ill, I suppose he is tired______ watching too many TV programmes. 2) We’are looking forward ____________our visiting Greece. 3) We are not going to partic- ipate decorating the hall. 4)1 am not used capable drinking coffee without milk. 5) I don’t think he is ________ writing these essays today. 6) They are sure Alexandre is guilty 7) My friends really succeed 8) My parents strongly object spreading such rumours. ______ learning French. my working on the 95 computer more than 3 hours a day. 9) My sisters have always been interested___________collecting Barbie dolls. 10) We are not used____________learning long texts by heart. 17. Write the names of the tools and devices. 1) тостер ____________________________ 2) грабли_____________________________ 3) топор _____________________________ 4) лопата_____________________________ 5) посудомоечная машина 6) мотыга 7) молоток 8) пила _ 9) пылесос 10) электробритва 11) садовый нож _ 12) клещи_______ 18. Complete the sentences using the words from the box in the necessary forms. % invent, inventor, invention discover, discoverer, discovery 1) Electricity is one of the most important has been made. 2) When did Columbus ___________ that Ameri- 96 са? — Не did it in 1492, 3) A lot of machines were_________ during the Industrial Revolution. 4) Do you think you can ____________ any useful devices? 5) Do you know who the of telephone was? 6) And who was the of Australia? 7) Last summer I that my granddaughter could swim. 8) Exploring the new area they new species of butterflies. 9) He the technique that allows scientists to examine DNA. 10) She would ______________ any excuse to avoid seeing people. 11) What a marvellous the sewing-machine was! 12) We something that existed but was not yet known, we something that was not in existence. 19. Express the same in English. A ,1) полезные инструменты 2) электрические приспособления 3) биологическое оружие_______ 4) нынешний урожай 5) слабые навыки и умения в чтении 6) успешные инженеры________ 7) важные изобретения_ 8) искусные торговцы _ 9) всемирно известный изобретатель 10) удивительная возможность 11) великое достижение_____ 7 46h9 97 12) вся Вселенная 13) памятный полёт 14) молодое поколение 15) корабельная команда 16) приятные воспоминания 17) необходимое оборудование 18) постоянное использование В. 1) отложить полёт 2) запустить спутник в космос 3) удовлетворить своих читателей 4) спорить с кем-либо о чём-либо _ 5) создать проблему___________________________ 6) воспользоваться возможностью сделать что-либо 7) дать толчок чему-либо__________________ 8) вести деловую (насыщенную/активную) жизнь 9) производить инструменты 10) улучшить результаты__ 11) рассмеяться 12)расплакаться 13) броситься бежать 14) уничтожить урожай 98 с. 1) производство инструментов 2) изобретатель телевидения _ 3)с одной стороны 4) достижения в какой-либо науке 5) спор по какому-либо поводу_ 6) исследование острова 7) команда спортсменов 8) вокруг света 9) мы оба 10) во Вселенной 11)предмет оборудования 20. А. Insert enough or too to complete the sentences. l)He is 2) I know him well much addicted to computer games. _______to trust him. 3) They discov- ered that the rumour was only true. 4) Have you forks and knives for everyone? 5) I’d be only happy to help. 6) You are 7) How are you feeling? — Oh, not kind, sir, bad, really 8) The rope isn’t long . 9) There isn’t time to discuss everything in detail. 10) He told me 1 hadn’t been working hard _ road is wide pleased if we get there ,. 11) Barbara won’t be _________late. 12) The for two cars to pass each other. ?• 99 в. Fill in the gaps with the nouns team or crew. 1) A_________________of horses. 2) A__________ 3) A camera 6) A design 8) A management 4) A train of sportsmen. ___5) A film 7) A project 21. Read the text and complete it with the derivatives of the words on the right. % Spectacles Transparent objects were used to help (1)_________ _________ eyesight in antiquity: the best- known case it that of the Emperor Nero, who watched (2)____________s in the arena holding in front of one eye a jewel with (3)__________fac- ets. Lenses placed close to the eyes were first used towards the end of the 13th century. Nothing is known of the (4). or of the date or place of discovery, as it was the work of an (5). ___________artisan, but Edward Rosen fixes the period of discovery to the five years after 1280. The creator of this (6).___________was proba- bly a glass (7). ., who made ornaments and glass discs for windows. defect perform curve invent literate invent work 100 22. Complete the sentences using the words derived from those on the right. % l)The young people appear to admit the _________ of new technology. 2) Young people are not _________ their parents in their attitudes to new technology. 3) Young people nowadays are more able and more ____________. 4) Recently telephones have be- come ,. 5) Videophones require lower prices and better images. 6) Today a modern computer can easily become a videophone. 7) In the next 20 years or so we have to embrace the boom in ____________ technology. 8) The bionic eye could help people with normal sight to see in the dark. 9) A computer chip can help many blind people. It works with ret- . 10) “The clock, not the inal ___________ steam-engine, is the key machine of the mod- ern age,” says Lewis Mumford. 11) Natural time is vary in ., the days and the beat of the heart and the_____________of the lungs vary in their rhythm from person to person and from time to time. 12) A hospital yesterday warned about the risk of video games after a teenage boy spent 10 days in hospital in a hypnotic trance having inevitable like ambition port, doubted person inform theory blind industry regular long move consult 101 played a motor racing video game at a seaside _____________ arcade. 13) Doctors say the more __________________are the images used in video games the greater danger there is of the between reality and virtual real- ity becoming blurred. 14) It is necessary to improve robots and make them more and .. 15) Using robots may ultimately make the human ____________of space proceed much faster. amuse realist distinct adapt, com municate colonise 23. Complete the sentences with the right forms of the words in brack-ets. 1) It is necessary to be aware of different possibilities that computers offer (we) in (we) every- day life. 2) The (much) the (many)__________ we read about computers __________problems we see that computers may bring. 3) She knows how to use a computer and an answering machine. You needn’t teach (she) never be able to do it (they)___ .. 4) They will (you). a lot in (you) . 5) Robots can help ___life, but what ex- actly they can do requires (far). investigation. 6) In (he) story “There Will Come Soft Rains” Ray Bradbury forecast that (we) homes would become enveloping automation systems that could outlast the human beings (they). ,. 7) The (late) Mr Rich- 102 ardson worked in the field of conservation energ>\ His (late) work is extremely important. 8) Tom and John both are engineers. The (late) works as a chief en- gineer in (I) firm. 9) My (child) are addicted to computer games. 10).The (late)____________issue of this magazine has already appeared in book shops. 24. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete the sentences below. ^ 1) The largest genetic study of African population reveals a greater diversity among the continent’s cultural groups than known a) early b) before c) formally d) prior 2) What is considered great today will be thing new tomorrow. by some- a) achieved b) surpassed c) undervalued d) underestimated 3) TV Ears is a powerful new device that can help thousands of people with hearing _ a)loose b)loss ___hear the television clearly, c)lost d) lose 4) The use of technology has made it possible_______even the most unmusical person to create a successful song. a) with b) to c) among d) for 5) Technology makes our lives so much happier: Mp3 players, for example, help us get or long train journeys. a) through b)over c) in airport waiting rooms d)onto 103 6) The two students going to fight. a)gazed 7) Every day people here are in a special place. a) remembered b) repressed 8) Officials have repeatedly cret report. a) denied at each other as if they were b) glanced c) glared d) peeped that they are living c) reminded d) required the existence of a se- b) gave up c) refused d) objected 25. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete the text. Christiano Ronaldo After (1). _____________ an amazing 42 goals for Manchester United and winning the Premier League, football super-star Christiano Ronaldo began to be (2). by millions of (3). ‘•S' He left his family when he was 12 and (4). away from his home island of Madeira to play (5)_________Sporting Lisbon. It was very traumatic for the young boy. He had never been on the aero- plane before. In Lisbon (6).________could understand him because of his Madeiran accent and Christiano could not under- stand them (7). .. He had some tough experiences. At 17 he signed for Manchester United and was (8)____ their famous Number 7 shirt. Ronaldo says he is playing at Man United with his (9). and soul. He says he 104 he wants to win and be the best. 1) a) hitting c) striking b) scoring d) making 2) a) admired c) promoted b)ignored d) judged 3) a) lookers c)fans b) observers d) witnesses 4) a) travelled c) transported b) moved d) came 5) a) with c) for b)inside d) to 6)a)anybody c)everybody b) somebody d)nobody 7) a)too c) also b) as well as d) either 8)a)taken c) suggested b) given d) rewarded 9) a)head c) heart b)face d) chest 26. Complete the sentences using is or are. 1)1 don’t eat vegetables except potatoes which to my liking. 2) The news you’ve told us_________ teresting. 3)The police coming. 4) very in- Mathematics or Chemistry your favourite subject? 5) Acoustics ___________the study of sound. 6) Where__________your clothes, Dick? 7) The rake 8) I think that physics ____ very big for Sally, a very difficult subject, 9) Gymnastics ___ granny’s glasses? a sport. 10) Where 105 27. Translate these sentences into Russian. 1) Who will be the first to finish the job? 2) I think the article is easy to translate. 3) Jonn is a difficult person to understand 4) This is a performance to see______ 5) James is the person to ask for help. 6) That was the cheapest camera to buy. 7) Kitty was the last to know the truth. 8) Who was the man to discover Australia? 9) I think it is the most interesting book to read, 10) This is just the hotel to stay at.__________ 28. Express the same in English. Use the infinitive. A. 1) Я согласился не смотреть телевизор. 2) Мы пообещали не возвращаться после 10 часов, 3) Им удалось прибыть на станцию не поздно. 4) Мы можем себе позволить не жить в дешёвых отелях. 5) Я надеюсь не оставаться здесь дольше чем на два дня. 6) Я предлагаю помочь нашим друзьям. 106 в. 1) у меня достаточно денег, чтобы купить этот дорогой фен. 2) Он слишком молод, чтобы одному плавать в море. 3) Мы достаточно взрослые, чтобы водить машину. 4) Дама слишком слаба, чтобы путешествовать самолётом 5) Ты достаточно взрослый, чтобы знать, что следует сделать. 6) У полиции недостаточно информации, чтобы арестовать его. 29. Complete the text with the right forms of the verbs in brackets. ^ Willy Johnson is an inventor, and a good one. But he (not, expect)* ________________honour in his own country. “Invention is a dirty word in Britain. Inventors (see)^ professors,” he (say)^_____________ as nutty Johnson is capable of (change)'* in the next millennium many of us (watch)-^ our lives. Early __________televi- sion on portable headsets. We (sit) b in our loung- es, in the backs of cars, on park benches, (lose)^ our own private world. Nobody (know)®________ m (watch )^ or what we (think)*® what we ___The 107 headset (be)^^ (ring)‘2 _____ our only companion. If the phone we (not, be) 13 able (not, need)^^ (hear)*^ and (interrupt)*® it. If the children (speak)*® _______the programme, we to say “shhh”. We entirely (focus)*® (turn)*® _______________ on the screen. When we our heads, the picture still (be)^® be)2* . (do)22 there, crystal clear, magnified, captivating (not. confused. This is not virtual reality, this for television what the Sony walkman (do)^® for audio in the past — it’s personal TV. This TV revolution (not, reach)^'* us yet. But it (come)2® 30. Complete the sentences using the right forms of the verbs. ^ 1) The earliest printed book that (survive) __________ (come) from China in 868. 2) Printing (invent) several times, and with several different effects. 3) A computer chip that (enable) pie to see (produce)____________ many blind peo- soon. 4) He says that video- phones (be) very expensive so far. 5) Britain is well known for the large number of inventions it (produce) ,. 6) If she (interrupt) us, I (not, say) 108 а word more. 7) We already (invest) a lot of money to build an industry which is inefficient and dangerous. 8) Large amounts of radiation can (cause)_________________ cancer. 9) Today the world (obtain) three-fifths of its energy from oil and gas. 10) The solution to global warming is not nuclear power, but (cut) sumption. down energy con- 31. Your friend is sure he knows everything best. But very often what he N says is not quite true. Write your opinion expressing certainty or ^ doubt and use your English from the Social English section. 1) — Scientists have found ways to produce energy from plants. —__________________As far as I know they haven’t done it so far. 2) — Man evolved from monkeys. . At best some people think so. 3) — A new Talking Atomic Watch has been invented. —__________________Scientists are still working on it. 4) — The earliest printed book came from America. —___________________It came from China in 868. 5) — Early inventions are different from those of today. —________________So, we can say “yes” and “no”. 6) — Nuclear energy is harmless because it doesn’t contribute to global warming. —______________So it can be very dangerous. 7) — More than half of South Africa’s households have no elec tricity. —______________Unfortunately it’s true. 8) — Energy from wind turbine is very cheap. —______________. As far as I know it’s very expensive, 100 Just for Fun 32. A. Read the joke and describe Mr Roger’s room. Mr Roger. When I was a youngster I was disciplined by being sent to my room without supper. But my son has his own TV, phone, computer, and CD player. Friend. So what do you do then? Mr Roger. I send him to MY room. B. Mr Roger hasn’t mentioned all the things his son has in his room. What can you add? 0 33. Complete the table, adding to it the words which are missing. Num-ber 1 is done for you as an example. Number Noun (abstract) Noun (denoting person) Verb Adjective 1. argument argue argumentative 2. invention 3. — civilized 4. electrify 5. science — 6. progress 110 Окончание табл. Number Noun (abstract) Noun (denoting person) Verb Adjective 7. innovative 8. speculate 9. improved 10. — predict 1. % Test 3 Listen to the text “From the History of the Automobile”, and choose the right item to complete the statements. 1) The last country to obtain automobiles was___ a) England b) America c) France [18], 2) The first cars were____________________________________________ a) very cheap b) relatively costly c) extremely dear 111 3) То keep the dust out of their eyes the riders used to wear a) spectacles b) goggles c) wheels 4) Horses were. a)fascinated _________of the first cars. b) puzzled c) scared 5) During the first automobile race the cars moved _____ a) slowly b) fast c) as they do today 6) Henry Ford was sure that cars will___________________ a) soon be required by a lot of people b) soon disappear c) be ignored by the majority of customers 7) Henry Ford thought that cars had to be a) repaired in no time b) repaired without difficulty c) repaired on the road 8) By 1927 Henry Ford _ a) was the richest person of the world b) was earning fifteen million dollars annually c) was getting more profit than any other person or company producing goods. 2. Read the text and fill in the gaps (1—8) with the parts of the sentences (a—h). There is one part you will not need to use. г a) until the invention of the typewriter b) was in their homes c) the art of spinning and weaving d) that would ruin the country e) to provide “genteel jobs” for women f) a woman, Mrs Samuel Slater, invented cotton thread g) highly intelligent h) entered the fields of science, medicine, teaching and literature 112 The Typewriter Up to the mid-19th century America was a “man’s world”. It was generally believed that only men were capable of managing business. The place of women (D- __________They were to bring up children and practice the household arts. Higher education was not for women either. People said that there were laws that gave a man the right to his wife’s property. So if women got education and vote (2). and the “man’s world' The theory that only men could “do things” became ground- less when (3). _______________________That was a real challenge. This simple invention, along with the growth of the textile mills, opened a path to the independence of women. Men showed little concern, and perhaps did not realize the significance when early mills offered employment to women. Their attitude was that (4). ___________had always been carried on by women anyway. It was a suitable field for them, even if they had to go to the mills to work. Here and there, in the Eastern and Midwestern States colleges for young women were established. Enrollment was small, but the young women who graduated (5)_________________ _________. Sewing machines for the home opened still wider doors of employment for women. In 1852 the system of shorthand was brought to America. Despite this important invention, the demand for women in business did not become an important factor in their emancipation (6). ___________. It was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes, a state senator. One of the first petitions he presented to the state legislature asked that equal voting rights be granted to w'omen. Another of his aims was (7)_________ vention of the typewriter. He achieved this aim with his in- К-4Л69 113 3. Complete the text with the derivatives formed from the words on the right. % Young men who were looking for new worlds to conquer at the end of the 19th century were already reading by (1). ----------- light and speaking on the telephone over long js. Along came radio, a phenome- (2)____________ non that was the result of many brilliant (3). -S. Many people were pondering the problem of sound waves. R. A. Fessenden was among them. Thomas Edison hired Fessenden as a (4). and (5). of electric mains. Fessenden was an (6), and (7). man. He very soon became obsessed with the idea of working with sound waves. He left Edison and talked two (8)____________ money for his experiments. into giving him electricity distant science test repair agression, resource bank 4. Fill in the gaps with invent or discover and their derivatives in proper forms. l)We soon we had been mistaken. 2) Who computers? 3) It was difficult truth. 4) That was the biggest archeological the in Norway for fifty years. 5) He failed to patent his____ and never got a penny for it. 6) Someone who has invented something is called a(n)________ 114 5. Complete the sentences with the function words. 1) The car broke 2) The burglars broke at the beginning of our trip. ___ the house at midnight. 3) The whole situation was so absurd that the friends broke laughter. 4) The fire broke expectedly. 5) I don’t like it when you break quite un- my conversations with other people. 6) When Mrs Brettell saw the photo of her missing son she broke five hours of rain the sun finally broke tears. 7) After ___the clouds. 8) The storm broke at night and it ruined a lot of plants in our garden. 6. Complete the sentences with the suitable infinitives. to understand, to fly, to read, to know, to buy, to see 1) This is the book for you 2) This is the film_____ 3) Who was the first man Y. Gagarin was. 4) She will be the last person 5) This is the money______ into space? — the truth, the dictionary you need. 6) The old lady is difficult 115 7. Translate the sentences into English. 1) Мы пришли сюда, чтобы потанцевать, 2) Его трудно понять. 3) Я знаю о его желании уехать. 4) Он пообещал не опаздывать. 5) Мы не можем позволить себе купить эту машину. 8. Write а paragraph (10— 12 sentences) about an important invention. 116 Project Work 3 Find information and write an essay on one of the problems concerning science and technology. 1) Should sciences be taught at school and why? 2) How can modern sciences benefit us? 3) How can modern sciences ruin people’s life? 4) The most striking achievements of modern science and technology. 5) The history of Nobel Prize and its present. 6) A Russian Nobel Prize Winner. 7) Rivalry and cooperation between different countries in science and technology. 8) Modern gadgets: pros and cons. 9) Modern science and technology and people’s health. 10) Ecology and modern science and technology achievements. 11) Are we happier than cave people? 12) A person who made a great contribution to science and technology. Unit 4. Teenagers: Their Life and Problems Word Box allow, although, anyway, author, blind, bore, boredom, bottom, challenge, challenging, citizen, claim, couple, date, deaf, deed, dumb, exist, extreme, extremely, irritate, irritation, kid, likely, lousy, mad, madly, madness, note, notice, pair, pile, poor, preserve, prettily, pretty, quite, reason, reasonable, rebel, rebellion, rebellious, respect, respectable, respectful(ly), rich, riddle, seat, shake (shook, shaken), stupid, tear (tore, torn), top, unemployed, variety, various, worry, wrap to get bored, you can’t help it, sort of, to be mad about sth, used to do sth, to be used to doing sth Listening + 1. Listen to the tape, [SJ mark the statements as false (F), true (T) or not stated (NS). % 1) Today’s bright classrooms owe much to the influence of Maria Montessori. 2) Maria Montessori was born in Rome. 3) Maria gained her degree in medicine in 1886. 4) All Maria’s pupils learned to read and write before they were five. 118 5) Maria’s first children’s house in the slums of Rome was a success. 6) Maria Montessori was sure that children should learn a lot of poems by heart. 7) Teachers all over the world agree with all aspects of Maria’s method. % 2. Listen to five speakers (1—5), Isl [20], and match what they say with the titles below (a—0- There is one title which you don’t need to use. a) A Little Bit of History b) A Useful Habit c) A Disastrous Holiday d) A Terrible Fight e) A Useful Innovation f) An Unusually Big Eater Speaker 1 2 3 4 5 Title 3. Listen to the text “Perfectionist”, ISJ121], and choose the right item to complete these statements. 1) Olivia’s problem began when she a) began reading beauty magazines b) tried to find out how different she was from the most beautiful women c) started watching TV programmes about beauties 2) Olivia was when she decided to go on a very severe diet. a) a little girl b) a grown-up girl c) a teenager 119 3) Olivia and her boyfriend parted because she_____ a) was fat and ugly b) couldn’t eat what he could c) was obsessed with the idea of getting skinny 4) Olivia understood what Judy tried to explain to her a) in no time b) in a fortnight c) little by little 5) Judy’s advice was____________________________ a) to begin hating one’s own body b) to change Olivia’s attitude towards life c) to think about other people more positively 6) In the end Olivia____________________________ a) started to change her style b) managed to get rid of her overweight c) began to appreciate her old photos 4. % Teenagers are fond of shopping. Listen to the descriptions of five London markets, [SJ Г^^], and decide which of them can be characterized as follows (a—f). There is one characteristic you don4 need to use. a) This market works only two days a week. b) This market is extremely picturesque. c) This market is not cheap at all and it has got a roof. d) This market is the oldest market in London. e) In this market you can hear live music while shopping. f) In this market you can buy inexpensive things. Markets 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristics 120 5. Listen to the tape, [23], and answer these questions. 1) What is Paolo’s nationality? Where is he from? 2) When did Paolo move to London? 3) How did he feel in London when he came there? What does he think of London now? 4) “These Streets” is Paolo’s song and his first CD, isn’t it? 5) Which football team does Paolo support — Scotland, England or Italian? Reading + 6. Read the text ^^rivate Schools in the UK** and mark the statements after it as true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS). % Private Schools in the UK The school system in the UK can proudly call itself one of the most complicated in Europe. Not only it is not the same across the kingdom but also the number of changes that have taken place in the last 50 years have made it equally confusing for a British person and for a foreigner. Let’s start from the beginning. There are two types of schools in the UK: state schools where education is free and private schools where you have to pay. The only thing is that private schools in Britain are called... public. Why? A long time ago when education was a privilege of the rich, the only schools where poor people could go were funded by charities (organizations that collect money for people in need). As it was public money, the schools for the poor were called public schools. Logical, isn’t it? However, in the course of history many public 121 schools became very successful and turned into expensive private schools but the conservative British continued to call them public schools. Until recently public schools were either all-boys or all-girls. Public schools can be full boarding (pupils live there all academic year except for holidays), day (pupils go home every day) and mixed (some pupils go home every weekend and some stay). If you want to become a public school pupil, the first you need to have is money as some public schools charge up to 20,000 pounds a year. There are some grants for bright pupils as well but the places are few and the competition is very strong. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that only six percent of the people in the UK can afford it. The other important criterion is that you have to belong to the right class as the class system in Britain is still very important. Mostly, public education is a privilege of the upper middle and upper classes. 1) The school system is different in different parts of the country. _______________________________________________________ 2) Nowadays education in Britain is the privilege of the rich. 3) Now public schools are schools for poor people in Britain. 4) The first public school in Britain was founded in 1572. 5) All public schools in Britain are single-sex schools. 6) Public education is mostly education for the privileged 7. % Read the texts (a—f) and match them with the titles (1—7). There is one title you don’t need to use. 1) Santa Schools 2) An Unusual Way Out 3) Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardy 4) A Single-sex School 5) Sweet Classes 122 6) А New School Construction 7) Harrow School a) “Saratoga Chocolates” is a tiny store surrounded by antique shops and upscale restaurants in the small town of Saratoga, 45 miles south of San Francisco. It is also a place where you can learn to make truffles from scratch. Mary Loomas is a choc-olatier. She took up chocolate making as a hobby several years ago. Then she had a three-month class and then a week of intensive study in France. As soon as Mary returned home she started writing a business plan. “Saratoga Chocolates” opened its doors in November 2005. From Thanksgiving to Valentine’s Day Mary and her five employees concentrate on candy which sells well. The rest of the year she also teaches classes for as many people as six at a time. b) At this school there are a lot of courses. They include the history of Christmas and New Year, the reindeer names, costume making, make-up workshops and most importantly, the toys that will be top of the wish-list this year. The school is over at the end of autumn and then the school-leavers are ready to take on duties at grottos and stores in the period of time before Christmas. Such schools exist all over the world. c) It is the second best public school in the UK after Eton. It was founded as a public school for the children of poor farmers in the 16th century but rapidly became one of the most prestigious private schools in the country. Famous Old Harrovians include Winston Churchill and Lord Byron. The school has excellent reputation. The fact that you are an ex-Harrovian is some kind of passport for a brighter future. The school has outstanding facilities including the best golf courses and a swimming pool. d) In my school when teachers were ill or absent the Head Teacher used to call in a supply or a temporary teacher. They were not good enough. They just came in and sat there. In fact they were not teaching. They were babysitting. So my Head Teacher decided to employ her sixth-formers. They teach the younger pupils. The school trains the students how to control a class and to prepare lessons. The students earn 5 pounds for each 50-minute lesson and they are fantastic. They know a lot about their subjects and they have positive attitudes. The children love it. e) At the school they had to study the night skies through their telescopes every Wednesday at midnight and learn the 123 names of different stars and the movements of the planets. Three times a week they went out to the greenhouse behind the castle to study Hebrology, with an elderly little witch called Professor Sprout. The most boring lesson was History of Magic, which was the only class taught by a ghost. The pupils very soon found out that their classes were more difficult than waving one’s wand and saying a few funny words. f) Morning registration at Hampton School begins at 8.50 a.m. There are five lessons each morning, with a 20-minute break after the first three. Lunch-break is from 12.35 to 2 p.m. Last lesson finishes at 4 p.m. but the boys can work in the library till 5 p. m. There are no lessons on Saturday. But on a typical Saturday there could be as many as 3,000 boys and 30 staff members involved in sport, drama, etc. 8. % Read the text and write 5—7 questions on it. Britain’s Tallest Teenager His nickname is “Stretch” and he сапЧ even walk through his own front door without bending. 18-year-old Christopher Lister is 2.21 metres tall. And he is still growing. He has always been taller than his school friends. He was 1.21 metres tall when he was four years old. Now he wears size 18^ shoes and his parents had to buy an extra-long bed for him and they made the doors in their house bigger. “When I go out there are always people asking me about my height,” says Christopher. “It is annoying sometimes.” It can also be difficult finding clothes to fit and getting into cars. Chris’s mum and dad are much smaller than him. Chris’s mum is only 1.63 metres tall and his dad is 1.89 metres tall. Doctors aren’t sure why Chris is so tall. ^ size 18 ~ 48—50-й размер 124 “When I fill in forms and they ask for a description of me I just write down ‘Extra tali’,” he says. 9. Read the text and complete it with the phrases (a—g) below. There is one phrase you don’t need to use. a) in the last five years b) from the Harry Porter movies c) the result to achieve d) committing more crimes e) just part of a general increase in violence among young people f) rejection by parents and poor education g) from certain backgrounds h) towards girls and violence Are Girls Becoming More Violent? A 25 per cent increase in girl crime over three years has shocked the UK. Why are girls (1). .? Experts give many reasons. First of all many girls are just copying boys. In Leeds, for example, every little area has its own gang. All these gangs have girls in them. They see the boys in nice clothes driving flash cars, in other words expensive-looking cars that attract attention, and they want a part of it. Psychologists also stress the fact that there is a certain change in our attitude (2). For example, Hermione (3). ___________is the new role model of girls. In the third movie Hermione hits Malfoy. Afterwards she says, “Boy, that felt good!” and she is cheered on by her friends. Professor James Garbarino explains: “Girls hit, it feels good and people appreciate it — that’s the message.” Then it is possible to say that violence among girls is (4). ___________There is a crisis in London at the moment with younger and younger children (boys and girls) getting involved in knife violence. The Metropolitan Police Commissioner re- F>orts that (5)___ killed has risen. the proportion of the young people 125 Experts nowadays are looking at ways of addressing these issues. The key is to target the high-risk girls. Evidence shows that girls (6). ___________need support to avoid violence and crime. Some may share the same experiences as violent boys such as (7), ,. Girls might also become bullies because they have grown bigger and faster than their classmates. Statistics shows that the number of offences committed by girls rose by 25 per cent in just three years, but the number of offences committed by boys fell by two per cent. Although the trend is correct, it could be that the figures are less dramatic. The experts on girl crime at London’s South Bank University mention also another fact: “We think the response to girl crime by schools and police has changed, so girls are being prosecuted for offences they weren’t prosecuted for before.” 10. Read the text and choose the right item to complete the statements after it. A New Study Claims that You Are Not as Bright as Your Parents! Bright teenagers are a disappearing breed. The new study has revealed this alarming result. It also shows that the intellectual ability of Britain’s cleverest youngsters has declined radically. The explanation is clear — almost certainly it is due to the rise of TV and computer games and over-testing in schools. If we compare the high-level thinking skills of modern 14-year-olds, we can say they are more or less equal to those of 12-year-olds in 1976. The test that was offered to the young people did not require any knowledge of science at all. It looked at how pupils could deal with complex information and sort it out for themselves. The poor results can be explained by the fact that schools nowadays concentrate on drilling children for tests. Some scientists believe the decline in brainpower is also linked to changes in children’s leisure activities. Young boys and girls are encouraged to watch TV or play computer games instead of playing with tools, gadgets and other mechanisms. There is also a shift away from art and craft skills in both schools and the home. 126 Practical activities such as building models and sandcastles, using tools playing with building blocks, knitting, sewing and woodwork are being neglected. Yet they helped develop vital skills such as understanding dimension, volume and density. Inspectors said teachers were increasingly drilling pupils to pass exams instead of encouraging them to understand crucial concepts. It is necessary to return to traditional open-ended questions. 1) Nowadays you can meet______________bright teenagers than before. a) fewer b) a few c) few 2) The intellectual ability of Britain’s youngsters_________ a) is the same as it used to be b) has increased c) has become lower 3) to explain the poor results. a) It is impossible b) It is difficult c) It is clear how 4) These days schools spend too much time on______________. a) preparing students for leisure activities b) preparing students for their future tests and exams c) developing pupils’ vital skills 5) The decline in the intellectual ability of Britain’s young people can be also explained by_______________. a) their passive way of spending leisure time b) their overusage of gadgets and other mechanisms c) their intensive developing of art and craft skills 6) Though practical activities are extremely important, teenagers tend to_____________. a) develop their skills by playing computer games b) ignore them c) invent other activities 127 Speaking + 11. Speak about the problem of teenage rebellion. Concentrate on the following items. 1) when this period can occur in a teenager’s life 2) how boys and girls usually behave during this period 3) if it influences their academic performance 4) if it influences their relations with parents and teachers 12. Describe what a school of the future can be like. Mention the following: 1) in what way it is different from your school 2) if it should have a campus with an arts centre, science labs, gyms, fitness rooms, etc. 3) if pupils are going to have online planning calendars and laptops instead of books, learn at their own speed and level 4) what a typical pupil’s workday can be like 13. Work in small groups. Find out 1) what are your classmates’ favourite hangouts 2) how they usually spend their free time 3) what their interests and preferences are in the field of sports, music, cinema, arts, etc. 4) if they read fiction or other books, how much they read and if they enjoy reading 5) if they have pets, what their pets are, what they think of keeping exotic animals as pets 6) if they travel and where they would like to go, what places they would like to visit 14. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue about teenagers’ problems. Find out the following: 1) what is the most serious problem(s) as you see it (them) 2) how much time you and your friends spend together, play video games, work on computers, etc. 3) how important your school is for you, if you would like to change anything in your school life 128 4) what you think of your further education or future profession 5) how stressful the period of future exams can be, what you think about the Russian National Exam recentlV introduced in the country 15. You and your friend are to decide where to have a meal. Regard the options given below and choose one of them. 1) to go to a restaurant 2) to drop in at a fast food restaurant 3) to do the shopping and cook a meal 4) to visit your granny and have a meal at her place Writing + 16. Complete the sentences. Use about, against, at, for, in, of, to, with. l)The old lady was shaking rage. 2) Could I have a seat the front, please? 3) And the rebellion the new king began. 4) Thomas is absolutely mad jazz music. 5) The manager said we had enough seats all those invited. 6) A couple naval officers were standing in the reception. 7) Helen has al- ways been the top of the class. 8) What’s the an- swer wrapped the riddle? 9) I would like to have the vase ___some paper, please. 10) What’s their rea- son respect leaving so early? 11)1 would like you to show ___ everybody who is present. 12) We have been dating more than a year. 13) Don’t worry 129 me. ГП be fine. 14) Don’t worry your granny so many requests. 17. Write Russian equivalents for the following words. 1) the unemployed 2) the blind ____ 3) the young 4) the poor _ 5) the rich 6) the old _ 7) the dumb 8) the deaf _ 9) the dead 10) the disabled 11) the famous. 12) the elderly 18. Write English equivalents for the following words and word combinations. АЛ) Пара книг; 2) через пару дней; 3) пара перчаток; 4) пара молодожёнов; 5) пара пирожных; 6) три пары танцоров; 7) пара носков; 8) колготки; 9) брюки; 10) через пару лет; 11) пара варежек; 12) пара туфель. В. 1)Во всяком случае; 2) весьма медленно; 3) наскучить; 4) пожимать руки; 5) раздражать учителей; 6) заметить ошибку; 7) военный мятеж; 8) восставать против чего-либо; 9) дрожать с ног до головы; 10) скука; 11) раздражение; 12) безумно влюбиться; 13) внизу страницы; 14) говорить загадками; 15) чрезвычайно глупо; 16) различная одежда; 17) хотя; 18) стопка книг; 19) на вершине холма; 20) говорить уважительно; 21) вызов кому-либо; 22) вырвать страницу из книги, 23) получить разрешение что-либо сделать; 24)порвать платье о гвоздь; 25)сохранять обычаи; 26) маловероятно. 19. Complete the sentences with these function words. 130 1) Max can’t get his fear of flying by air. 2) It can take weeks to get an illness like that. 3) Sam and his sister don’t get .. 4) Get the car quickly. We are leaving just now. 5) — How do I get to the ii Elbrus” cinema? — Get the bus now and walk the street for two or three minutes. You can’t miss it. 6) The criminals got 7)Jason got ____________ with the documents. the bus just on time. 8) I’m sure you’ll get all the difficulties. 9) Could you, please. get the car? It has broken down. 20. Complete the sentences with the derivatives of the words on the 1^ right. 1) Frank became when he saw the new computer. 2) W’rite to us! It’s al- ways a to hear from our 3) “Any man was saying is welcome,” the young ______. 4) Simon Holt was a handsome young ., who had a past. 5) My aunt invited me to join her on a short journey to Ireland. to say. 1 agreed at once. 6) Don’t rush into buying a house! Discuss it with your family and ___________ in your own good time and without the of any speech please, read improve anxious archeology mystery North, Need advise possible, press 131 or the feeling of when a sales person visits you. 7) I was fond of Char- in mind. ley but I didn’t have________ 8) He told me I had an_______ tion just because I thought there was a _____________ gang living in the house imagina- next door. 9) Later that evening when it was quite dark there came a _____________, piercing scream that made my blood run cold. 10) She looked round with a smile and said Paul’s visit was quite 11) I felt both and as hurried along to the hairdresser’s. 12) Of course. Aunt Daisy was old. But she was one of those rare_______ who are full of __________, and people and fun. 13) Amelia took out the box. Inside lay a ____ album, Amelia gazed at the book. It was such a present. 14) The letter was written in the old lady’s _____________ handwriting. 15) The box is very ________Inside there is a_________ ring with the largest emerald I have ever seen. oblige marry active crime terrify critic expect excite, nerve age wise, kind magnify, Victoria beauty love spider value, gold 132 21. Read the text and complete it with the derivatives formed from the N words on the right. F World of WarCraft World of WarCraft (WoW) is the most popular online game in the world. It’s got more mem- bers than the (1). ___________of Portugal. What makes WoW so (2)_______________and special? It is a multi-player online role-playing game that was introduced in 1994. It’s played in a fantasy world called Azeroth. (3). ___________can control their characters. For just €29 you can explore the landscape, fight monsters — and (4). with millions of other (5). .. For many of them the game is a way out of reality and a way to find new friends. “I felt accepted for the first time in my life”, admits an 18-year-old youth. But when does (6) a (7)-------- fun become thing? Ten per cent of online (8). admit to playing “too much”, forget- ting to eat and to sleep (9). One 15-year-old (10)_____________boy even collapsed after playing the game for 24 hours non-stop. Psychiatrists are now reporting record numbers of teens seeking help for their online game (11). ___________. But some people believe that the games aren’t the root of the problem. They say that what many of such kids need is their parents and their school teachers. So it is a social problem. Whether it’s a social problem or a pas- sion, WoW is (12). a game. more than just populate success play act game harm danger game proper Sweden addict clear 133 22. Write five things you are used to doing now and five things you used to do. Example:! used to play a lot with my toys when I was a child. 1)__________________________________________________ 2)__________________________________________________ 3) _________________________________________________ 4) _________________________________________________ 5) _________________________________________________ Example: I am used to helping my mum in the kitchen. 6) _________________________________________________ 7) 8) 9) 10) 23. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete the text. % The East End The East End of London is changing now from a (1)__________slum to trendy hangout. At the end of the 19th century immigrants moved in large numbers to the city of London and the East End was where they usually (2)________ The area was overcrowded and for many Eastenders poverty and hunger were facts of everyday life. In 1888 the East End became (3). due to the brutal (4). _________________________________________________by the infamous killer Jack the Ripper. Charles Dickens was one of the writers who brought the conditions in the East End to the atten- 134 tion of the society. Slums were (5)____________and in that poor area of London soup kitchens were set up. Soup kitchens are places where (6)__________food is given to poor and homeless people. But poverty and overcrowding still continued and one of the East End Streets — Dorset Street — was described as “the Worst Street in London” due to the high level of crime and poverty there. In the early 1990s young artists were (7). to the East End with its (8). __________housing and large industrial spaces, perfect for studios. Hoxton Square has become the focus of the growing East End art scene since 2001 when White Cube gallery opened there. Now Hoxton Square is the centre of trendy nightlife, as well as the art scene. 1) a) depressed c) derived b) derogatory d) deprived 2) a)ended up c) were over b) were finished d)paused 3) a) celebrated c) notorious b) famous d) well-known 4) a) murderers c) murderess b) murders d) murderous 5) a) spotted c) cleared b) cleaned d) renewed 6) a) free c) fee-paying b) independent d) costly 7) a) achieved c)attractive b) attracted d) attached 8) a) penniless c) expensive b) costly d)cheap 24. Complete the sentences using the right form of the adjectives. 1) In fact, the Links Market is now the (large)_____________________ fair in Europe. 2) Here you’ll find some of the (big), (noisy). (scary) rides imaginable. 3) At first it had simply been a glance. Then the glances had progressed to smiles, which 135 had grown (warm) and (lingering) as the days passed by. 4) It was an Easter hat, and no mistake, one of the (pretty) she had ever seen. 5) Her glance fell on the crinoline straw. It was the (pale) of pale yel- low, almost a buttermilk cream. 6) Madam Partridge’s fury changed to the (sweet) worrying about her (old)___________ that something could make your favourite magazine of smiles. 7)Jannet was __ son. 8)If you think (good) ., why not drop me a line? 9) Saturn is one of the (beautiful) ______________ 10) Two girls entered the hall. Their names were Lily and Ra- planets in the solar system. chel. The (late) (late) ___________ was ten years old. 11) This is the (late) . edition of this dictionary. 12) When the guest left the hall, Mrs Aderson gave a sigh of relief. 13) “What are our (far) actions?” he asked. 14) (Many) children believe in Father Frost. 15) His cottage was in the (far) the garden. corner of 25. Read the text below. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets to complete it. St Francis of Assissi school is in Liverpool. (It)*__________ name is known all over England because (it)^ is the (green)'"* .school in Britain. It is situated in the northwest of England. (It)^ pupils are very proud 136 of (they)'’ school which was built on a place where the town’s rubbish used to be collected. Now it’s a “green” acad- emy. It means that the school (it)® IS environmen- tally friendly and everything the (child)^ study is connected to the environment. It is the (one)® school in Britain. The school (wall)®____ eco- and (roof)*® are covered in plants. Each class is given €1,500 to design (it)** own garden. The building of the school is surrounded by (this)*^ class gardens. So- lar panels provide the school’s electricity. The school recycles all the paper and books when the pupils don’t need (they)*® ____________ any more. Rainwater is collected for the school toilets. What do the pupils think of (they)*** ______________________ school? “We are lucky to come here,” says one of (they)*®. It is so modern and most of the (proj- 137 ect) 16 (We) 18 are interesting to (we)^'^ school is really the (good)*® It is much (popular)^® (many)2*______________ than all the rest. Last year than 300 students wanted to come here for 166 places! 99 26. Write what you would like your parents to do you want your friend to do you expect your grandparents to do you like to see your friend do you like to watch your pet do you can hear your relatives do in the evening your parents make you do your parents don’t let you do 27. Translate these sentences into Russian. 1) I don’t want my pupils to get bored in my class. 2) I’ll make him give up this mad idea. 3) Don’t let them come back home so late. 4) We don’t expect them to solve this problem immediate- 138 ly. 5) They have never seen me dance. 6) I felt Alice touch my hand. 7) We watched Denis playing football with his friends. 8) I don’t think she will make us cook dinner ourselves. 9) I noticed Alice packing the suitcase. Evidently she was going to leave us. 10) We saw you dancing on the stage. 11)1 see that you have misunderstood us. 12)1 hear that you have moved into a house. 13) I hear my little brother crying in the next room. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) _ 6) - 7) - 8) _ 9) _ 10) 11) 12) 13) 28. Make a sentence out of the two given and write them down. 1) My parents were discussing something in the hall. I heard them. 2) Granny left the house. I noticed it. 3) Sam was playing the piano. We heard him. 4) Mary put a shawl on my shoulders. I felt it. 5) My friend was drawing my daughter’s portrait. I watched it. 6) Colin was riding on his bike behind the cottage. Nobody saw it. 7)Jannet was singing in the bathroom. 139 Her cousin heard it. 8) A strong wind was blowing in the street. We heard it. 9) Helen enters the room. They see it. 10) Granny was making an apple pie. I watched her. 1)_________________________________________________________ 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 29. Open the brackets and use the right forms of the verbs to complete the story. % 18-year-old Stephen Howarth had a rare genetic condition which (mean) he (lose)^ his sight. Now, thanks to an amazing new operation he (can)® see. 44 I used to rush home from school because I (worry)"* __________about getting around in the dark. Now I (stay)® later if I (need)® als and things like that,” (say)'^ to for band rehears- Stephen, 140 What (change)® Stephen’s life for the better? A pioneering operation! It (restore)® and that (mean)^® he can (lead)** his eyesight ________his life as an ordinary teen. Stephen had a condition, caused by a faulty gene which (not. work)*® properly. That (damage)*® the retina at the back of the teen’s eyes. He (lose)*^ sight for some time and (not, can)*® see at night. Surgeons at Moorfield’s Eye hospital in London (inject)*® ____________millions of healthy copies of the gene into Ste- phen’s eye (start)*"* How he (feel)*® . the retina working properly, now? “Much better,” Stephen (explain)*® “I (want)®® (get) 21 a job in a music studio. I (use)®® to be shy but now I (have)®® got the confidence (go)®^ on my own. 99 30. Express the same in English. Л.1)Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты поехала с нами. 2)Я жду, что ты посмотришь шоу вместе со всеми. 3)Дети хотят, чтобы мы помогли им составить викторину. 4) Наши родители хотят, чтобы мы смотрели меньше глупых программ. 5) Я не жду, что они скоро вернутся. 6) Нам бы хотелось, чтобы вы закончили всю работу завтра. 1)--------------------------------------------------------- 2)--------------------------------------------------------- 3)_________________________________________________________ 141 4) _______________________________________________________ 5) _______________________________________________________ 6) _______________________________________________________ В. 1)Мы видели, что машина исчезла вдали. 2) Я заметила, что Анна играла на компьютере. Прежде я никогда не видела, чтобы она это делала. 3) Мы слышали, как она играет на скрипке. Она профессионально играет. 4) Джон видел, как мы входили в комнату. 5) Джон видел, что мы вошли в комнату. 6) Сьюзан слышала, как он поёт. 7) Я почувствовала, как что-то пушистое (fluffy) коснулось моей руки. 8) Мы наблюдали, как они наряжали новогоднюю ёлку. 9) Они наблюдали за тем, как садилось солнце. 1)________________________________________________________ 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) С. 1)Она не заставит меня надеть это платье. 2) Позвольте мне присоединиться к вам. 3) Не заставляй его переписывать это упражнение. 4) Мама не позволяет нам приходить домой после десяти. 5) Пусть они сделают это сами. (Позволь им сделать это самим.) 6) Пусть они сделают это сами. (Заставь их самих сделать это.) 142 1)---------------------------------------------------------------- 2)________________________________________________________________ 3) --------------------------------------------------------------- 4) --------------------------------------------------------------- 5) --------------------------------------------------------------- 6) _______________________________________________________________ 31. Translate these sentences into Russian. 1) He stopped in the middle of the sentence trying to understand who had just entered the hall. 2) Helen really must stop working so much. 3) I will never forget spending our holidays in the Crimea. 4) He always forgets to make corrections after his tests. 5) You mustn’t forget to take these pills before meals. 6) Ben stopped playing football. 7) Ben stopped to open his umbrella. 8) We still remember visiting Buckingham Palace. 9) Stop making that awful noise. 10) He stopped to give the last orders. 143 32. А. Your younger brother is very naughty. He often does a lot of things that irritate you. Write what you could tell him if you saw him trying. 1) to find out what is within your computer 2) to make a fire in the kitchen 3) to climb a tall tree 4) to tear a page out of your textbook 5) to throw a stone at a stray dog 1) Stop___________________________________________________ 2) ------------------------------------------------------- 3)-------------------------------------------------------- 4) 5) B. Your friend has begun doing certain things you don’t approve of. Write how you could warn him/her against. 1) coming back home very late 2) being late for classes 3) smoking 4) playing computer games non-stop 5) drinking beer 6) talking back to her/his parents 7) ignoring his/her duties 1) Stop_____________________________________________________ 2) _________________________________________________________ 3) ____________________________________________ _ _ _ - 4) --------------------------------------------------------- 5) ____________________________________________________ 6) ______________________________________________________ 7)__________________________________________________________ 144 Just for Fun 33. Try and gue.ss the riddle. My treasure is worth more than silver or gold Although it cost not a penny. My treasure belongs to me all alone, And yet it is shared by many. My treasure can never be stolen away, And here is the best bit yet: My treasure gets bigger, is worth more and more. And increases the older I get! And now my treasure you have seen My dear and precious... 34. Find 19 new words of Unit 4 in this square. s c • 1 t • 1 z e n « 1 к e a s d c f g n h • J a u t h 0 г u о P О t n о У u t г t e w z e p X p * 1 1 e q b c m V b 1 n m q W 1 t p г r e b e 1 e 4 1 у 1 u e 1 О p m r n Z о X a c V b n 4 1 d a у s s d d e e d f g e b о t t о m d u h d d n e r t у 1 • 1 c h a 1 1 e n g e о • J 1 t r e s p e c t к d e a f p 1 ^ u m b Ш4«А) 145 Test 4 1. Listen to the text, Lgt^ [24], and mark the statements as true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS). 1) Twelve year schooling is obligatory for children all over the world. 2) In Bangladesh students stay at school twice as long as in Fin- land or Norway. 3) Schools in South America are better than schools in North America. 4) Primary and secondary education in Europe lasts about twelve years. 5) In Africa children spend fewer years at school than anywhere else. 6) Five years ago only boys attended schools in Afghanistan. 7) In Afghanistan most teachers are poorly educated. 8) Under the Taliban, most girls were banned from going to school. 2. Read the text and fill in the gaps (1—6) with the phrases (a—f) to complete it. % a) any real skills b) should it develop c) the only subject taught d) in most countries e) the purpose of schooling is f) have an average of 50 students Educating Teenagers Nowadays secondary education is the component of formal education (1). .. The number of secondary school stu- 146 dents has grown from 40 to 400 million worldwide over the past 50 years. In developing countries class sizes have become really big. In Sudan, secondary school classes (2)_______ __________. In the Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines, the average is more than 40. This expansion affects the quality of teaching. Each year, almost a third of the pupils have to repeat a grade in Latin America. All agree that secondary education must change and develop. But in what direction (3)_ ? To answer the question . Teaching cannot people are to understand what (4)_______ continue to be purely academic when you are dealing with stia-dents who do not intend to enter university. In other words, ac- ademic disciplines can no longer be (5) Schools must know how to interest students in the world around them. We must develop skills that will help them fulfill their potential as future citizens including a critical spirit, initiative, the ability to organize projects and to communicate. By making school curricula more work-oriented, we will avoid having young people enter the job market without (6)__________ 3. Give English equivalents for the following word combinations. 1) Сохранить что-то для будущих поколений; 2) весьма вероятно; 3) порвать платье о гвоздь; 4) выглядеть глупо; 5) встречаться с кем-либо; 6) выказывать уважение кому-либо; 7) на дне моря; 8) внизу страницы; 9) говорить загадками; 10) пара тапочек; 11) пренебрегать своими обязанностями. 1) 2) 3) 4) 10* 147 5) _________________________________________________________________ 6) _________________________________________________________________ 7) _________________________________________________________________ 8) _________________________________________________________________ 9) _________________________________________________________________ 10) _______________________________________________________________ 11)_________________________________________________________________ 4. Fill in the prepositions where necessary to complete the sentences. 1) William Shakespeare was the author Twelfth Night”. 2) I know James is mad puter games. 3) Have you booked______ “The com- the tickets? 4) I’m getting bored having. 5) The slow journey irritated the conversation we are _______________ the pas- sengers. 6) The little boy was shaking all He was really frightened. 7) John is one of our best students. He is piles the top of the class. 8) There were two spectfully books on the desk. 9) He always speaks re- his parents. 10) Could you write him a note, please? 148 5. Complete the sentences. Use to where necessary. 1)1 would like you students. 2) I heard Paul have respect of your fellow ____whisp>er the answer to the riddle. 3) I have never seen Mrs Anderson dance or sing. 4) We expect you come answer back before nine. 5) We shall make him _______________ our questions. 6) Although you are already grown-up I can’t let you return so late. 7) Did you notice them enter the building? 8) We want them win the competition. 9) Old Mrs Andrews felt Victor ____________touch her arm. 10) I would like him______________ finish the job before four. 6. Translate these sentences into English. 1) Мы видели, как Джон входил в свою квартиру, 2) Мы видели, как Джон вошёл в свою квартиру. 3) Мы слышали, как он поёт в соседней комнате. 4) Том почувствовал, что Бен дотронулся до его руки 149 7. Give Russian equivalents for these: 1) the old______________________ 2) the rich 5) the unemployed 6) the poor_____ 3) the blind 4) the dumb 7) the young 8) the deaf _ 8. Write a paragraph (10—12 sentences) about what teens like to do in their free time. Project Work 4 Find information and write an essay on one of the problems concern' ing teens. 1) What does it mean to be a teen? 2) What do most teens dream about? 3) What do you think about educating girls and boys separately? 150 4) Teens and their free time. 5) Friends in teens’ lives. 6) The difficulty of growing up. 7) How much does your family mean to you? 8) Cruelty and violence among teenagers. 9) Teens’ independence. 10) What helps teens to survive in the modern life? 11) The person who influenced your life most. 12) What makes your generation different from others? 13) Generation gap: does it really exist? Unit 5. Your Future Life and Career Word Box acquaint(ance), admire, admiration, all, although, attract(ive), bodyguard, both, brain(less), brainy, calm, care, careful, caring, certain, choice, chore, clear, continue, cope, course, debt(or), decision, decisive, degree, discourage, either, employ(ed), encourage, eventually, exact, expectation, experience(d), fulfil(ment), fortune, gap, grade, guard, lifeguard, main, maybe, mortgage, neither, none, occur (occurred), owe, patient(ly), proper(ly), quality, refuse, reliable, rely, require(ment), rescue, retire, secure, security, suit, suitable, though, waste, wasteful, within to find out to give up to get down to sth to be worth doing sth to change one’s mind to make up one’s mind to follow (in) sb’s footsteps to do well in a subject Listening + 1. Listen to the tape, [glj [25], and match the names of the speakers IL (1—6) with what they say (a—f)- There is one statement you don4 ^ need to use. Fill in the table at the end of the task. Names Statements 1) Peggy Green a) The speaker is uncertain of his future occupation. 2) Charles Colin b) The speaker began his/her her future career at an early age. 3) Donald Clark c) The speaker is going to make a very useful device to help about the house. 4) Bob Fletcher d) The speaker has become a vet. 152 Окончание табл. Names Statements 5) Robert Swenson e) The speaker would like to work in the field of management. f) The speaker’s idea of his/her career doesn’t coinside with his/her relatives’ wish. Speaker 1 2 3 4 5 extra 1 statement 2. Listen to the text “The Games We Used to Play”, [26], and mark N each sentence “T” for true, “F” for false or “NS” for not stated. ^ 1) In the days of the speaker’s childhood the games much de- pended on the children themselves. 2) The children were made to play outdoors in any weather. 3) The speaker and her friends used to play in the graveyard. 4) Their games always began at dinner time. 153 5) Girls never played football in those days. 6) The playground activities of the speaker’s childhood have disappeared. 7) The speaker wants to revive the games of the past. 3. Listen to the descriptions of various jobs (1—5), [27], and match N them with their names (a—f). There is one name of a job you needn’t ^ use. Fill in the table at the end of the task. a) archaelogist b) physicist c) physician d) architect e) secretary f) fashion model The job’s description 1 2 3 4 5 extra The job’s name 4. Listen to the text “Career Development”, tgsj [28], and choose the right item (a—d) to complete these statements. % 1) Nowadays people can change their careers ing their lives. a) several times b) exactly seven times c) less than seven times 2) In the era of our rapidly changing world it is make the right career decision. a) impossible b) vital c) not essential dur- to 3) Planning one’s career involves a) two b) three c) four definite steps, 154 4) Making the right decision about one’s career very much depends upon_________________. a) one’s own self-assurance b) one’s own judgment of oneself c) one’s own logical associations 5) People who work from a sense of. happiest. a) optimism b) duty c) strong enthusiasm or interest are usually the 6) It is important to to be able to make the right choice about your future career. a) get confidential information b) know what jobs are in great demand c) know requirements for most important occupations in the labour market 7) Parents are who help young people to make a successful career. a) the only people b) never the people c) often the people 5. Listen to the tape, text below. [29], and fill in the information gaps in the % Eurovision Winner Many teenagers would like to become singers, dancers or actors and see their careers (1)______. This is a story of a young singer and composer who is also a violinist, pianist, writer and actor. His name is Alexander Ry- bak. He was born (2) in Minsk, Soviet Union. When he was four years old, he and his family (3)____________. At the age of five, Rybak began to play the piano. His mother is 155 а classical pianist and his father is a well-known classical violinist. Alexander Rybak says that he has always loved to entertain and that it is his vocation. He currently lives in Norway. In the 2009 Eurovision Song Contest in Moscow Alexander Rybak (4) (5) and he won ii ___________________ with a record 387 points singing Fairytale”, a song inspired by Norwegian folk music. The song (6) by Alexander and was performed together with the modern folk dance company “Frikar”. The song received good reviews. Rybak won the Eurovision final receiving votes from (7) except Norway, which was not allowed to vote for itself. He finished with a total of 387 points breaking the previous record of 292 points. His first album “Fairytales” was released after his Eurovision win. Reading + 6. Read the four texts and match the place-names (a—d) with their characteristic features (1—5), one of which you don’t need to use. ^ Fill in the table after the task. 1) The place is regarded as the birthplace of one of the most important civilizations. 2) The place is situated near the town which is as old as the capital of Russia. 3) One of the main attractions of this place has been reconstructed to meet the tourist industry requirements. 4) The significance of this place is connected with military actions of the past. 5) The main attraction of this place was constructed by foreign professionals. 156 How to Spend a Weekend near Moscow The autumn in the European part of Russia can bring a few sunny days, which are well worth spending in the country. These are some places with easy reach of Moscow. a) Rostov Veliky is one of the oldest towns in Russia. It is more than 1100 years old. By the 13th century it had become the capital of one of the most prominent Russian principalities. Rostov’s kremlin was originally built as Patriarch’s residence, hence it looks more like a palace than a military fortification. Inside there are churches, Uspensky Cathedral and a remarkable bell-tower with 13 bells the largest of which weighs 32 tonnes. Part of the kremlin has been converted into a hotel. Rostov has a number of museums — archaeological, arts and crafts and a museum of medieval icons. b) Dubrovitsy is a village located 5 km from the town of Podolsk. It once was a home of Princes Golitsyns’ dynasty. In 1690 Golitsyn invited Italian architects to build the area’s main attraction — Znamenskaya Church — the masterpiece in the Italian Baroque style. This church was unusual for Russia. There were too many ornaments and sculptures in it. At first it was rejected by church officials for being so unconventional. Only by the order of Peter the Great and in his presence, it was eventually consecrated. c) Yasnaya Polyana used to be Leo Tolstoy’s estate near the town of Tula which is the same age as Moscow and has its own kremlin. The town is famous for samovars, pryaniki and armour. Tula’s armoury museum is the oldest in Russia. Tolstoy’s house in Yasnaya Polyana has retained all the original furniture and interior in such a state as they were in 1910, when the famous writer passed away. The estate has the biggest apple tree orchard in Europe. d) Vereya is a kind of gateway to Moscow. It is located just 99 km to the southwest. The town was founded in 1371 and three centuries later became one of the largest towns of Moscow Province. It has lost its glory and now has only 5,000 permanent residents and six churches. Owing to the surrounding picturesque landscape, Vereya is often called “The Suburban Switzerland”. The town’s history is closely connected with Napoleon’s invasion. This is where General Dorokhov’s army attacked the sleeping French and the first Russian victory in the war was won without a single shot. 157 Places a b C d extra Charecteristic features 7. Read the text and write 5—7 questions on it. My idea of the future work may seem rather strange to you, but I think it’s one of the most important in the world and its history proves its importance. Early men who lived where sharp rocks hurt their feet, soon began to think of some way of protecting them. So they produced a kind of sandals using flat pieces of wood. In colder parts of the world, man soon felt a need to give his feet even more protection, so he added more material to the top of the sandals, and thus the shoe was born. Sandals were worn by the ancient Egyptians as long as 5,000 years ago! At first, in fact, the sandals were worn only by the rich Egyptians. They would walk along followed by a servant who carried a pair of sandals just in case the master would need or want to put them on. Later of course, all the people began wearing them. Sometimes they made the sandals with upturned toes, to give the foot more protection. Egyptians were the first shoemakers in the world. The Greek developed the boot by gradually changing the straps which held the sandals to the feet for solid leather. Even today many primitive forms of shoes still survive. We still wear sandals very much like those worn by ancient Romans and 158 Greeks. We have moccasins which are like those worn by the American Indians. And people in Holland still wear wooden shoes! Modern shoes as we know them began to appear in the Middle Ages about the time the Crusades started. Because the Crusaders went on long journeys they needed good protection for their feet, and so people began to make shoes that would last for a long time. With time shoes became an object of fashion and all kinds of ridiculous styles appeared. 8. Read the text and mark the statements after it as true (T), false (F) or not stated (NS). 1 Why Is Literacy so Important? What is literacy? Why is it so important for future careers? Literacy is more than the ability to read, write and do arithmetic- It comprises other skills needed by an individual to function effectively in a given society. It can range from reading instruc- 159 tions or medical prescriptions, knowing which bus to catch, keeping accounts for a small business or operating a computer. But some people have no desire to read and write because they do not see the direct benefits. They are sure literacy cannot change their lives. One of the farmers in Africa says, “My life is to prepare land for crops to be planted. I don’t need to read. What shall I read? The Bible? They tell us about that at Mass. The news? I listen to the radio. The newspapers are very expensive for me.” So why force literacy on people? Because by failing to provide literacy we deprive people of being fully human and independent. Literacy is important because it’s the key to a better livelihood, healthier families, and participation in democratic life. It is extremely important for women in particular. A study in Bangladesh, for example, showed that women with secondary education were three times more likely to attend a political meeting than women with no education. At the beginning of the 21st century more than 113 million children did not attend schools. They can be mostly found in East and South Asia. Up to two-thirds of all illiterate adults are women. In developed nations functional illiteracy is also widespread. Motivation to learn is essential. For many people religion provides it as it is important to be able to read the Bible or the Koran. For others different motives are important. It can be the desire to write a personal letter, to earn money, help with their children’s education. 1) By literacy is understood the ability to read_____________ 2) Literacy can help people to function more effectively in the society.___________________________________________________ 3) About 37 per cent of people in the Arab region cannot see the benefits that come from literacy. 4) Illiterate children mostly live in Africa. 5) Women predominate among illiterate grown-ups. 6) Women have more varied motives to become literate 160 9. % Read the text and choose the right item to complete the statements after it. Do you know what your goals are? What motivates and directs your work? If you ask yourself these questions, wouldn’t it make your career choices easier? From the experience of talking with all kinds of people, it is clear that not everyone has the same ambitions in work. Some people are very' content to have a quiet, uneventful job, while others thrive on constant change and excitement. In short, we are all different and we all want different things in life. For example some people do want control over work and they want to be recognized for achievements. They need to do things their own way. Independent consulting and contract work would be good for these people. They usually want to be left alone to do their work. Just give them instructions on what you want, when you want it and let them “go for it”. For others stability and predictability are key things. They pay a lot of attention to the context of job. Pay, benefits, work environment are most important for them. There are people who have a strong need to create something new. They are often bored easily, but they are usually inventive, constantly seeking for something new. They like the challenge of starting new projects or business, have lots of interests and energy. Many people have a high need to balance work and the rest of life. They usually enjoy what they do, but realize that work is just one of many parts of life that are important. Their philosophy can be described by the motto “Work to live”, rather than “Live to work”. It is sensible to keep all that in mind when one starts thinking about their future careers. It’s important to realize who you are and what you want, so you can better define what you are seeking in a job. 1) People’s ideas of future careers a) are not alike b) are likely to be the same c) are alike d) are unlikely to be different 11-4МЛ 161 2) Some people do not need____________in work. a) any achievement b) detailed instruction and company c) recognition d) any independence 3) For some people one of the main things in their future career is____________ a) the amount of free time b) the employer’s lack of attention c) the place where they live d) the amount of money they get 4) Some people wouldn’t like to have work. a) easy tasks b) challenging tasks c) routine tasks d) creative tasks 5) Many people_____________ in their a) think that life is work b) enjoy work more than anything else in life c) like to formulate mottoes for their future career d) have various interests in life besides their work 6) Everyone choosing his/her career should a) be able to predict his/her own future b) analyse his/her own ambitions, abilities, wishes and goals c) keep in mind a position of importance d) clearly define his/her future work 10. Read the text “Growing Up in Cities” and complete it with the phrases (a—g) below. There is one phrase you don’t need to use. % a) are now taken over b) although adults may be the best experts c) in urban areas d) is not always safe e) middle-aged, middle-class men in cars 162 f) the rate of violence increases g) that urban areas are often environments of Growing Up in Cities It is often said that contemporary cities are designed for (1)___________But more and more of the world’s children are growing up in cities and their metropolitan surroundings! At the beginning of the 21st century, about half of the world’s peo- ple live (2). . Research on children’s lives in both the North and South shows (3)_____________ , deprivation, where children are especially vulnerable to pollution and disease. The streets where children historically played (4)___________ by traffic, while green space is diminishing. Families are becoming smaller, while systems of social support are being scaled down. As (5). ., parents are keeping their children indoors. II But the home itself (6)_______________ because there are such things as family stress and the rise of child abuse. Added to this are ethnic tensions and social isolation. While these problems also affect the rich, poor children are more likely to live in inadequate housing or on the streets. 163 Speaking + 11. Describe the activity you would like to do as your future career. Mention the following: • what determined your choice • what qualities in your opinion are required for this activity • where you can get the necessary training • if this activity is difficult and/or dangerous 12. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue about your partner’s plans for the future. Find out the following: 1) if your partner is absolutely sure what career to choose 2) if his/her future activity requires a university degree 3) if it is primarily (only) done by men/women 4) if it is well paid 5) if it is very prestigious 6) if it is attractive 7) if your partner’s choice has been influenced by his relatives, friends or teachers 13. Work in pairs. Find out what the most important jobs at the beginning of the XXIst century are. Explain 1) why you think the jobs are important 2) what personal qualities such jobs require (courage, accuracy, imagination, etc.) 3) what prospects these jobs can offer (promotion, financial reward, perks and bonuses, etc.) 4) if it is easy to get such occupations 5) what qualifications are reqxiired of the candidates 14. Choose any famous person or someone you know well and speak of his/her professional career. 15. Work in pairs and try to find out your partner’s interests. Discover if your partner • loves/hates sciences • regularly goes to theatres • is fond of playing computer games • knows the names of famous athletes and understands about different sports 164 is good at team games enjoys playing musical instruments likes modern music never misses a party or a disco Writing + 16. Match the picture.s (1—12) with the names of these johs (a—1). a) dentist_________________________________________________________ b) firefighter. c) hairdresser d) nurse e) vet f) librarian g) chef_____ h) soldier i) computer operator j) airhostess k) chemist 1) photographer 17. >1. Form compound words to name some jobs. 1) police 2) shop 3) congress 4) dress 5) customs 6) school a) man b) officer c) master d) woman e) maker f) assistant 165 166 в. Use -ег/-ог to make words denoting some professions. Translate the words into Russian. 1) lawy... 2) senat... 3) ush... _ 4) design... _ 5) decorat... 6) conduct... 7) butch_____ 8) announc... 9) groc______ 10) sail_____ 18. Choose the right word to complete these sentences. ^ 1) An______________is a person who drives a railway engine. a) engine officer b) engineman c) engine driver 2) Someone who makes walls with bricks is a_________. a) wallmaker b) bricklayer c) brickmaker 3) A a) hairman is a person who cuts men’s hair. b) haidresser c) barber 4) Rubbish is collected by_______________ a) rubbish collectors b) bin collectors c) dustmen 5) A is a person who makes outer (usually men’s) clothes, a)tailor b) dressmaker c) coatsman 167 6) То deal with people who come to stay in a hotel or come to visit a doctor or a businessman is a job of a___________ a) receptionist b) receiver c) reception manager 7) A person who prepares food is a__________. a) cook b) cooker c) cook specialist 8) A chemist is a person who____________ a) teaches chemistry b) loves chemistry and medicine c) makes and sells medicines 19. Express the same in English. АЛ) полагаться на кого-либо_________________________________ 2) в течение часа 3) мудрое решение 4) смотреть на кого-либо с восхищением 5) прийти в голову кому-либо______ 6) тратить время зря 7) решить что-либо сделать 8) отказаться от мысли попутешествовать_ 9) отговаривать кого-либо что-либо сделать _ 10) обнаружить правду В, 1) основная мысль 2) некоторые животные ^ 3) терпеливые родственники 168 4) хорошо успевать по предмету 5) требуется помощь 6) заботиться о домашних любимцах 7) заботливые родители 8) знать по собственному опыту 9) хорошие качества 10) справиться с чем-либо С. 1) выполнять долг 2) продолжать принимать лекарство 3) хорошая оценка по предмету__ 4) познакомить кого-либо с кем-либо 5) познакомиться с кем-либо _ _ 6) задолжать брату 5 рублей 7) быть в долгу 8) получить заём 9) уйти на пенсию в возрасте 65 лет 10) привлекать туристов_________ D. 1) безопасная работа 2) сколотить состояние 3) отказаться сделать что-либо 4) заботливые работодатели __ 5) в ожидании нашей встречи 169 6) приняться за дело 7) идти по маминым стопам 8) одетый соответствующим образом 9) заполнить пробел в образовании _ 10) спасать кого-либо от чего-либо 20. Complete the sentences with the function words where necessary. l)The computer system is secure 2) After lunch we got down_______ intruders. discussing the rest of the details of our project. 3) Alan became nervous expectation serious gaps cued the child to continue the conference. 4) I admit there are . their knowledge. 5) The officer res-_ a burning building. 6) She decided her studies for another year. 7) I first made master’s degree mortgage________ his acquaintance in 2009. 8) John has got a __________ philology. 9) He can’t have a his house. 10) My grandparents retired the age of seventy. 11) The article is not worth reading. There are no new facts in it. 12) I’m cer- tain he will be able to cope the situation. 13) my experience, very few people really under- stand the problem. 14) We know experience that 170 hot objects are painful to touch. 15) There was a small gap _____________the bed and the door. 16) Don’t discourage him to find money going to university. 17) I don’t think it is possible _______his address. 18) Why do you waste so much things of no importance? 19) How long does it take you to do 20) We can rely promises to do. your household chores? his word. He always does what he 21. Use the words across, down, off, with, around to complete the sentences with the verb to come. Then translate them into Russian. l)We have never come 2) Jack is coming______ such a collocation. with a flu. 3) Come the ladder! Now! 4) The chewing gum wouldn’t come ____________5) Put on your sweater, please. I wouldn’t like you to come down she came_______ a cold. 6) Quite unexpectedly last night. 171 22. Complete the sentences using the words derived from those on the right. l)My elder brother thinks that showing ______of any sort is a fatal_____________ 2) I would like to have a husband who’ll write me .. and send me flowers and offer .. 3) Enter our me romance and _____________ photo ____________, just send your photos, colour or black-and-white. Each one we print wins £5 and the is fi- nal. 4) This must have cost Harry a fortune she thought in . 5) Who on earth could have sent flowers? Don? John? ,. 6) There was a look of guilt on Harry’s lean. face. 7) Would you like to see that. the “Odeon”? I’ve heard it’s film at _ good. 8) There was a bonnets in___ display of hats and shapes and sizes; hats of velvet, felt and silk. 9) The the empty shop and the _ silence of from the stove made her quite .. 10) Sophie brushed a hand over one of the _____________ blocks. 11) Gwen tried her best to hide her shame and her . 12) Andrew was feel, weak poet excite compete edit, decide amaze likely probable humour Italy real delight vary peace warm sleep wood embarrass 172 filling a couple of buckets with water. 13) The result is poor. You should ___________ the essay. 14) Evie had written to the department store to ask if there were any soap write for a 15) — What hap- pens if anything goes wrong with it? — We’ll send someone around to fix it, though it’s vacant type likely 23. Complete the text using the words derived from those on the right. Sergey Shoigu was born in May 1955. His military rank is General of the Army. He graduated from Krasnoyarsk Polytechnical Insti- tute and worked in (1). _____________advancing from low levels to (2)__________positions. In 1990 he moved to Moscow from Siberia. In 1991 he was appointed the head of Rescuer Corps, which was later given more (3)_ _s and (4). to the Ministry of Emergency Situations. S. Shoigu has become a (5). minister. He be construct execute responsible name govern 173 came popular because of his (6)___________ style and high visibility during emergency situations, such as floods, earthquakes and acts of (7). sia’s most________ Russia — in 1999. . He was awarded the Rus-____state award — Hero of manage terror prestige 24. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete the sentences below. % 1) agencies are very useful; they plan your holi- days for you. a) Trip b) Voyage 2) When people admiration. a) glance c) Travel d)Journey at you, they often look at you in b) gaze c) glare d)stare 3) It was freezing outside and Linda waited for John in her thin jacket. a) shuddering b) shivering c) settling d) rushing 4) It was a lovely summer day, just the day for_________ a) an outing b) coming c) outgoing d) looking out 5) She sat at the back desk, quiet as a asked. ., afraid to be a) squirrel b) hare 6) The road was comfortably. c)rabbit d) mouse a) smooth b) bumpy and they were driving along quite c) rough 7) At that time the loudspeaker d) stony that the plane from New York was about to land. a) advertised b) announced c) pronounced d) cried 174 8) The taxi fast along the road. He understood he wouldn’t be able to catch up with it. a) is driving c) was driving b) is riding 9) The leaves usually fall. d) was riding __thick on the ground in the a)laid b) lie c) lay d) lied 10)1 would like you___ a) to sit b) sit the vase on the table, c) to set d) set 25. Choose the right item (a—d) to complete the text below. ^ Mrs Pepperpot and the Crow One summer’s day when Mrs Pepperpot was coming home from (1)_________ __________blue-berries in the forest, she suddenly heard some- thing (2)-------- er. “Oh, dear. in the heath- 14 she thought. I hope it isn’t a snake. She picked up a (3). _________ stick and walked as softly as she could towards the noise. But it wasn’t a snake; it was a (4). crow which must have fallen (5). its nest. It was (6). its wings and trying to get off the (7). Mrs Pepperpot very gently (8). and then she could see it (9). put it into her apron pocket and (10). one of its wings. So she _________it home with her. She wanted to (11). 1) a) picking b) gathering up the bird for its ailment. c) raising d) searching 175 2)a)stir c)stirred b) to stir d) w£is stirring 3) a) soft c) strong b) shapely d)severe 4) a) child c)infant b)baby d) kid 5) a) down c) from behind b) out d)out of 6) a) flying c) touching b) flapping d) patting 7) a) soil c) ground b) land d)earth 8) a) lifted it up c) rose it b) raise it d) took it up 9) a) was hurting c) hurt b) had hurt d) has hurt 10) a) brought c)took b)fetched d) moved 11) a) control c) cure b) examine d)treat 26. Which item will you choose to complete the sentences? A. maybe — may be l)He late or he may come on time, 2) Г11 come too. 3) _ things will im- prove, but then again, right, but he__________ not. 4) He wrong as well. 5). you could do a job for me? 6) The bill by credit card. 7) There_________ paid by cheque or an easier way of solving the problem. 8) we’ll meet some day, 176 в. either — neither 1) Students could choose 2) Jerry wasn’t at home___ can you. 4) der the circumstances. 5) were at the funeral. 6)_ French or Italian. ,. 3) I can’t play tennis, and _ of us knew what to do un- his son nor his daughter he forgot about the meeting or he deliberately stayed away. 7) I don’t like the candidates. 8) The president spoke against the economic reform. of for nor C. no one — none 1) of my friends will be able to help me. 2) The driver was wounded but hurt. 3) I’m sure___ of the passengers was will arrive on time in such weath- er. 4) Have you got any money? — No, at all 5) 6) knows why he has left without saying goodbye, will dare laugh at you, dear. 7) Are there any potatoes at home? — No, there are exercises have you written? —______ .. 8) How many at all. 27. Give replies to the phrases. 1) I shall come soon. (И они тоже.) 2) We have already done it. (И он тоже.) 3) Tom is never wrong. (И она тоже.) 4) We can’t help you. (И они тоже.) _ l2-4Mi9 177 5) Му parents аго not at home. (И мои сёстры тоже.) б) They spent а week in Florida. (И я тоже.) 7) Gwen doesn’t speak Chinese. (И Алиса тоже.) 8) You mustn’t do it. (И оы тоже.)___________ 9) Hat won't be here at six. <И вм тоже.), 10) I haven’t got a pet. (И моя сестра тоже.). 28. Jane and Mary are slKters but they are different. Jane prefers to be independent and does atl the Uilnipt herself. Mary likes It when other people help her. Read the sonteiU'«e about Jane and write the roire-spending sentences about Mary oaing the example. Example: Jane does her chores herself. Mary lias her chores done for her. I) Jane makes her dresses herself. 2) Jane cleans her flat properly every month. 3) Jane washes her car every week. 4) Jane plants flowers in the garden. &) Jane cooks her meals herself. 6) Jane manicures her hands. 7) Jane repairs her shoes. 178 8) Jane с1еяпя the floors herself. 29. Express tbcsamc in English. l)Hii Оля, ни Алиса не могут писать. Они маленькие. 2) Вы можете заказать либо яблочный, либо апельсиновый сок. 3) Вы хотели бы мясо или курицу? — Ни то ни другое. Я продпочитлю рыбу. 4) Вчера ты не позвовпл в не прислал сообщение. 5) У меня две дочки. Любая может вам помочь. 6) Вы можете поехать нл автобуте или ил метро. 7) Ни Сара, ни П0.1ЛИ не могут приехать сегодня вечером. 8) Никто из девочек не знает, где он живет. 0) В коробке много карандашей. Дай мне любой из них. 10) В коробке два карандаша. Дан мне любой из них. 30. Complete the text using the right forms of Ihe verbs in brackets. ^ Soiiietimeii н 1кюк can help change history. One book that certainly did was “Uncle Tom's Cabin", (wrote)* ____________________________by li* 17P Hnrriet Boochfir Stowe. It (bo)*' _________________a bcx)k Ihol (нроак)'* out agoinai aiavery. At the time И.В. Stowe (writc)^ her novo), slavcH (use)'’ ______ _ in the cotton-growing Hlates of the South In the US. The Northern в tales (abolish)** slavery. Yot most Northerners (want)* to let slavery (continue)" in the South. Stowe (cletormine)*' to make |>coplc (understand)’® _ that slavery was evil. Each night after (put)” her six children to bed. she (work)*'* on her novel. She (tell)*'* the story of Tom. a courageous old slave. “Uncle Tom" (publish)** copies (sell)** _________in 1852. Over 300,000 in a year. People (react)'® 180 _____________eirongly to the novel. In the North, many people (convince)*' _______________ finally that slavery must (end)** _____________. In the South, many people (heconie)** _____________angr>’- Uisagreemoiit lictween the North uiid the South (grow)*®______________deeper. By 1861 the two sections of the country (be)** ______________at war. The Civil War, which lasted until 1865, finally (bring)**______________an end to slav- er>’. Of course, the Civil War (have)** ______________many differ- ent causes. Yet “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” surely (play)** _____________a part. Stowe (meet)***______________President Un- coln in 1862. As Lincoln (take)*® __ her Imnd, he (say)** . “So you’re the little woman who (start)** _____________the big war.” 31. Express the same In Kaglish. Use had better or wvutd rather. 1>Уж лу'чше бы OB па*1агался на своё миеиие. Он вполне раэумныЛ молодо!) человек. 2) Я уж л>'чше выпью чашку кофе. чем чашку чая. 3)Уж лучше еЛ нанять телохрянн1ч>ля. •1) Они бы лу«1ше не кричали на ребенка. Ото не сиособ решения проблем. (Me таким образом следует р«ш1вть проблемы.) ,5) Моя мп.ча скорсч' (»стангтгя дома и будет смотреть видео, нежели пойдёт в кино. 6) Я уж лучше заполню анкету сейчас. 7) Ему бы л>'чше отправиться на вокзал сейчас, если он не хочет опоздать на поезд. 8) Ты уж лучше надевай очки, если хочешь выглядеть взрослее и умнее. 9) Ей лучше iiepi'-стать работать на компьютере по 15 часов в сутки. Она подо-рает сс^ здоровы*. 10) Салли ве|хггприннка. Она скорее ничего не будет е«.ть, нежели съест мясное блюдо. 131 Я2. Complete this dialoi;ae with the conneetorK. Uae your noclal Sng- Uah. Interviewer. Helen, why do you nlwuys or not «fated (NS). ^ Choosing a Summer I.,anguage Course The time has come to decide wliat you are going to do with your summer - get a job and earn some money, spmtd the money you’ve savtsi over the year on summer travelling or go on summer language evursea tu combine irnvelllng and studying. We would like to offer you a quick step by step guidc tu help you choose the best summer langusge course for you. You can find them in different countries all over the world. There are loads of choices — and principally it depends on your budget. In the lower price range, you have the choice of hundreds of typc44 of camps in Russia, from a W4*ek long to a month long. These courses will start from 15.000 roubles per (lerson for 2 weeks. They usually Include nlamt 10-hours of teaching per day, with groups of 15 students per U'W'her an average. Look out for intcnHlve courses, which are often not much more expensive than standanl courses, but which provide mure to Improve one's EInglish. KM Courses In Scnndintivla ап.» more expensive. They differ from those held in Kussia as their locations are usually more exotic and the camps have more farilitiee. Bxpect to pay 25.000 roubles for a two w-eek course. And of course, top of the list for both expense and qiuUlty are courses In the English-speaking countries. Nearest of courses are In England, cheapest and sunniest are in Malta, farthest away from your parents are in New Zealand and most adventurous arc in the U^. It all depends on how much money you want to spend, how far you want to fly. and whether you want to learn one type of accent or another. Another factor in deciding where to study is what you want in the future. The English world is full of a huge variety of accents. So if you imagine you will v/oixi to work in or w-ith the USA, solid knowledge of British RP (n»ceived pronunciation) may cause you problems, as you will struggle to understand what people are saying. 1) There is a variety of langungecoiirHee all over the world. 2) The cheapest language courses are in Scandinavia. 3) Inteiwive I'ourses of English cost nlx>iit 20,000 roubles per person for 2 weeks. 4) There ere very few English language courses in Norway. 5) It lakes one longer to gel to New ZenlHnd Ihan to the USA. 6) The best courses of English are always the most expensive once.. 7) The English соипйш in England are the cheapest among those which are located in English-speaking countries. ____ Ki.** 8) The choice of the Uui^age course very often depends on the money you can afford to spend on yourstudies. . _____ 3. Complete the text with the derivatives formed from words on the N rtffbt. Bacli year 50.000 <1). _________ Immi- (frants arrive in Britain. The rate at which people are entering Britain without official (21. is almost (3). to estimate. Some people say there an* certain (4)____________benefits. “The UK has bc4*n wel- coming hard-working (5). _____ __ Riirope- ans. The majority of immigrants are here because they have the right to be here or because we want tiioiu to be here. They make a vital (в). to Britain’s economy,'* says one of the offictals. “We have a (7). economy that attracts (8)________________ from all over the world and a world-class (0). eystom which ledOj________ al stiKlentH,'* he adds. to intomation- legal permit possible economy east contribute health work educate attract 4. Choose the Hifht word lo complele the sentences. i)(Neithcr/Eithor) he nor she is English. 2)(None/No one) knows the answer to your question. 3) You have so many pens. Could you give me (any/either) of them? 4) They never come on time, (neither/so) does she. 5) I can’t accept your explanation (cithcr/too). 6) There are two bags on the chair. Take one of them. (Bither/any) will do. 7)(None/No one) of us has ever heard tills name. 8) Richard will Join us, (so/neither) will Alice. ifle 5. KxpiTW the same in English. Use (he construction have emth done where you think it is approprUlt*. 1) Я HC шью платья сама, мне их шьют. 2) Робин подстригает траву сам. для его сестры делают ато другие. 3) Джон никогда не мост посуду, ему её моют. 4) Она не печатает свои письма, ей их печатают. 5) Ей переводят статьи. 6. Choose would rather or had better lo complete the itentencvN. 1) You _____________stop drinking coffee. They say it ie not healthy. 2) They_______ _ finish the task today. We must mail the reeulta In the morning. 3) Jerry____________play foot- ball than chess. 4) We outside. 5) They _______ stay at home. It’s so cold __________help their mother. She has so many things to do. 6) Shall I write the exercist*? — You --------- do. 187 7. Complete the ксп1епс«я uxini; the пес<ывагу functional words. 1) It even didn't <жсиг_____________me to refuse. 2) She hna mode______________her mind to return_______________Saturday. 3) Wliat have you got have always felt admiration your brain, I wonder? 4) We _______ you. 5) Never dis- courage him ____________writing poems. 6) I think he wastes money ____________the things he doesn't need. 7) Do you know wimt is required ___________ you? 8) I ask you to tnke care ____________ your pets. 9) «lack has always done well chemistry. 10) It’s not easy to cope such probloms. 8. Write A thank-you note to express your gratitude for the day you’ve spent at your friend’H place. 188 Project Work 5 Find iiil’ormallon and wrtle an cmuy on one of the problems concerning your plans for the future. 1) The career you would like to choose. 2) The Imtmrtanceof n university degree. 3) The career you will never choose. 4) The difficulties of choosing в career. ft) Foreign languages and your future career. 6) Part-lime jobs. 7) Kducatioii and self-education. B) What influences peoples' choice of a career most? 9) Unemployment as a social evil. 10) Working abroad. 11) Why cannot t>eopIe often be what tlicy would like to be. 11р<>л.1ож«ан91 ■ э«тчмии mi соАсржанню м ефирнлгитн) кям1» ирогнм напрв»л1пъ в р«аак11ню ofloinro о^Цхиоавиим ■vgmvu.rnu «Дрофа» 1270t8> Москаа» а/в 79. Тед.: (495) 795>05«41. B-mai): гЫеЛ^^з^гоГа.ш Пи ootipiKaM iip«HiCpe?etuitt »рОА>кии« mitл*r1fллctu» «Дрофа* o6pamaTi»ui imi адресу;) 27019» Москоа,Суш«агкийаа,1.40 Тел.: М9о) 796 05*50. 7V&-06-6I.Факс: <495) 795*06*62. Книжаиа .Haianae «УЗ)1ЛЙ*КЛГ«. 137494, Ыоскам. JlMUiptfacH(>e шоссе, л, 25, кори, 1, Тм.; <499)970.4$*60. ООО «Л5ряс«. 129075. Москва, ул, Калпброасквк, д. Э1А. Тед,/факс; (495) 981*10*39, 250*82*13. 258*82*14. Ыф: «ww.uatbook.ru ООО «Ра^умшш». К29И0, Могкна, Ндлрудммй пер., д. 15. Тед.: (495) 981 6008, htip://www,raaumnlk.nj llfnrpifrt*MariuMH «UML^.RU*. blip;//www.umiit.ru И|гтер«1сг*магвани «Уввмик ■ lv«. hi ЦК//www.umnikk.rti Интернет* магаэнн: http: / ^www.iirofa«ni (hw44um 1>1М|0«ф1ти»1имПтси* •Сашетмаябеьши 1ит«|«фм *м» U И ( и*те*#н iiaooa I Cmicvhul ncKMfci м ю iww*#. 1