Учебник Английский язык 9 класс Комарова Ларионова Макбет

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ИННОВАЦИОННАЯ ШКОЛА Ю.А. КОМАРОВА И.В. ЛАРИОНОВА К. МАКБЕТ АНГЛИИСКИИ ЯЗЫК ИННОВАЦИОННАЯ ШКОЛА Ю. А. Комарова И. В. Ларионова К. Макбет АНГЛИИСКИИ ЯЗЫК Учебник для 9 класса общеобразовательных учреждений Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации Экспертное заключение № 10106-5215/260 от 12.10.2011 г (научная экспертиза) Экспертное заключение № 001445 от25.01.2014 г (педагогическая экспертиза) Экспертное заключение № 749 от 10.02.2014 г (общественная экспертиза) Учебник соответствует Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту Москва «Русское слово» MACMILLAN 2014 unit Starter Victims? Page 9 Great Escapes Page 21 Crossing Cultures Page 33 REVISION 1 Page 45 What Next? Page 49 Our Changing World Page 61 D Express Yourself Page 73 REVISION 2 Page 85 Against the Odds Page 89 Let's Get Together Page 101 Ф Wonderful World Page 113 REVISIONS Page 125 Vocabulary Grammar Reading & Listening ♦ Verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions ♦ Questions with be, have got, there is / there are, can and do ♦ Present simple and expressions of frequency ♦ Quantity ♦ Comparatives and superlatives ♦ Materials and patterns ♦ Compound nouns; fashion accessories ♦ Present simple and present continuous ♦ Relative pronouns ♦ R: The Search for Fair Trade School Uniforms ♦ L: A radio report ♦ Verb collocations ♦ Fact and fiction ♦ Past simple and past continuous ♦ Present perfect ♦ R: Splash Landing ♦ L: A narrative about a fire ♦ Body language ♦ British and American English ♦ Present perfect with for and since-, just, yet and already ♦ Present perfect and past simple ♦ Past perfect ♦ R; Welcome to Summer School! ♦ L: A phone call Review your progress ♦ Job sectors ♦ Personal qualities ♦ will, be going to and present continuous for future ♦ Gerunds and infinitives ♦ R; 16+ Your Future ... Your Choice! 1 ♦ L: A job interview ♦ 21st century issues ♦ The environment: verbs and nouns ♦ First and second conditionals ♦ Third conditional ♦ R: Flood! Fiction or Prediction? ♦ L: A presentation about oil ♦ Visual arts ♦ Nouns as adjectives: materials ♦ The passive: affirmative and negative ♦ The passive: questions ♦ R: Scotland’s Graffiti Castle ♦ L; A radio announcement Review your progress ♦ Fears and phobias ♦ The five senses ♦ Models of obligation, prohibition and ability ♦ Models of deduction and possibility ♦ R: The Human Spider Returns to London ♦ L: A dialogue with an athlete ♦ Relationship verbs ♦ Reporting verbs ♦ Reported speech ♦ Reported questions with if ♦ R: The EX Factor ♦ L: A radio programme ♦ Describing places ♦ Collocations: holiday activities ♦ used to ♦ Subject and object questions ♦ Tense review ♦ R: The Seven Wonders of 1 the World I ♦ L; Childhood holiday ■ memories 1 Review your progress Culture Speaking & Pronunciation Writing Dialogue builder Across the curriculum ♦ Talking about likes/dislikes and preferences Culture today ♦ Urban Tribes ♦ Asking questions in the present ♦ Your opinion tense ♦ Word stress ♦ Giving your opinion ♦ Making a complaint There’s a problem with this ... fd like a refund, please. Page 130 Culture today ♦ Escape from Reality into the Past - Culture ” today ♦ Could You Become a British Citizen? ♦ Talking about experiences ♦ [d] [t] [Id] ♦ A book review ♦ Word order ♦ Asking questions in the present ♦ A language learning perfect and past simple experience ♦ [h] ♦ Tenses and time expressions ♦ Agreeing and disagreeing / (don’t) really like ... So / Neither do I. ♦ An English speaking test Could you introduce yourself? Tell me a bit about... CLIL CLIL Health & Safety Page 132 History Page 134 Culture today ♦ Which Way Next? ♦ Talking about job sectors ♦ Understanding fast speech ♦ A formal letter ♦ Organization of formal letters ♦ Arranging an interview Could I speak to ...? We’d like to invite you for an interview. ^ Geography Page 136 Culture today ♦ You Are What You Eat! ♦ Talking about the environment ♦ Intonation ♦ A for and against essay ♦ Linkers of contrast and addition ♦ Apologizing I feel bad now! Don’t worry about it! ©Sdence Page 138 Culture today ♦ Is It Art? ♦ Talking about artwork ♦ Weak forms: was and were ♦ A description of a work of art ♦ Word choice ♦ Asking for and giving opinions What do you think of...? Pm not very keen on it. (cul)*'^ VJV Page 140 Culture today ♦ The Gift of Dyslexia? ♦ Talking about disabilities ♦ [s] + consonant ♦ A biography ♦ Expressions of time and sequence ♦ Asking for permission Can’t I stay out later? You’d better ask... CLIL Social science Page 142 Culture today ♦ Party Boy Says Sorry ♦ Talking about relationships ♦ Linking ♦ An email ♦ Contractions ♦ Asking someone out Do you want to go out tonight? Thafs a shame. CLIL Literature Page 144 Culture today ♦ Around the World ♦ Talking about holiday activities ♦ Word stress ♦ Your holidays ♦ Editing your work ♦ Making requests: at the bank Could you...? Would you mind + -ing? ©Geography Page 146 Starter unit 0 Recycle Questions with be, have got, there is / there are, can and do 1 Complete the questions with these words. does are is can has : О Recycle Verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions ' 3 Find these words in the text. How do you say them in your language? between long people speak around often perfectly say little alphabet usually well 4 Copy and complete the table with the words from exercise 3. What do you know about English? How many people (1)... speak English? Where (2) English come from? How many letters (3) the English alphabet got? How many words (4)... there In English? What (5) . the most common words in English? 2 Read the information and answer the questions in exercise 1. The English Language English is the first language in about 70 countries, so there are more than 400 million people who speak it perfectly. Around the world, there are between 350 and 380 million people who can speak English well as a second language. English comes from a mixture of different influences, including the old Anglo-Saxon language and French. It’s also got a little bit of Norse, Greek and Latin in it. verbs .nouns adjectives people adverbs of frequency adverbs of manner prepositions There are about 300000 words in a complete English dictionary, but most people usually use about 30000 words. The English alphabet has got 26 letters. It isn’t as long as some other European alphabets. Hungarian, for example, has got 40 letters. The three English words that people use most often are the, of and to. The word sorry isn’t in the top ten, which is surprising because British people say sorry nearly two million times during their life! Recycle Present simple and expressions of frequency 5 Look at the table. Change they to she. How do the verbs change? They often listen to music. They don’t usually listen to music. Do they listen to music every day? Adverbs of frequency usually go before the verb. Expressions of frequency usually go at the end of the sentence. 6 Complete the text with the present simple form of the verbs in brackets. The English School Name: Vera Moskvina Here at The English School, we are all very happy with Vera's progress. She always (1)... (ask) if she (2)... (not understand) and she usually (3)... (do) her homework. Vera (4)... (enjoy) meeting the other students from Russia, and they (5)... (not speak) Russian together, we all hope that she (6)... (continue) with her English studies. 7 Write sentences. Use the adverbs and expressions of frequency in the correct place. 1 Vera / forget / her homework, (never) 2 She / catch / the bus.’ (every morning) 3 The students / go out together (often) 4 They / have excursions, (twice a week) 5 Vera / speak / Russian, (hardly ever) 6 She / go / to England, (once a year) О Recycle Quantity 8 Translate the sentences. How are they different in your language? 1 There aren’t many windows in our classroom. 2 There isn’t much light. 3 There are some English dictionaries. 4 There aren’t any computers. . 5 There are a lot of intelligent students here! 9 Correct the errors in these sentences. 1 I haven't got some money. Л 2 How many people is there in this classroom? Л 3 There are ащ nice places in my town. Л 4 How many does it cost to go to the cinema where you live? X 5 Are there a good cinema here? X 6 There are loLof teachers in my school. X О Recycle Comparatives and superlatives 10 Copy and complete the table with the correct adjectives. adjective comparative superlative 1 smaller smallest 2 ... bigger biggest 3 ... funnier funniest 4 ... more boring most boring 5 . better best 6 . worse worst 11 Complete the questions with the comparative or superlative form of the adjectives in brackets. Do you think English is .. (easy) than Maths? What’s . (bad) subject at school? Are you .. (tall) than your teacher? Who is . (young) person in your class? Which football club is ... (good), Spartak or Dynamo? What’s (popular) football team in your class? Who is (intelligent) person in your family? Is your city . (big) than London? 12 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 11. о Recycle Talking about likes/dislikes and preferences 13 Read and listen to the dialogue. Answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 Who is Liam? Who does Vera usually share a room with? Wfrid'i deo* d'oes^ Vefis prefer? Does Vera like getting up early? 14 Read the examples. How do you say them in your language? -----------------------------Леей Imperatives Don't worry. wake me up at ten o'clock! 15 16 Write the words in order to make imperative sentences. if / Ask / you / something / understand / don’t. Ask if you don't understand something. 1 forget / bring / to / Don’t / books / your 2 page / Open / books / your / at / ten. 3 late / be / Don’t / class / for 4 your / do / Remember / homework / to. 5 be / shy / Don’t. 6 English / Speak / classroom / the / in. The sentences in exercise 15 are things your teacher would say. Can you complete these sentences for you to use in class? 1 Sorry, ... understand. 2 Could ., please? 3 How.. in English? 4 What mean? 17 Study the examples. Which expression doesn’t take the -ing form? I like / love / enjoy listening to music. I hate / don’t like getting up early. I don’t mind sharing a room. I prefer being near the window. I’d rather be next to the door о Recycle Speaking 18 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. Get to know your classmates! 1 What kind of music do you like listening to? 2 How often do you go to concerts? 3 What time do you usually get up? 4 Do you mind getting up early? 5 Where do you like going on holiday? 6 Would you rather go on holiday with your family or your friends? 7 Which subject don’t you like studying? 8 What are your favourite subjects? I;»h ionVvicti ms A Unit contents: Vocabulary Materials and patterns; compound nouns: fashion accessories Grammar Present simple and present continuous; relative pronouns Skills Read about a fair trade adventure Listen to a report from a fashion show Write your opinion of an advert Practise making a complaint Across the curriculum History Culture today Urban Tribes “'V t’?' 4^ /Л The most expensive item of clothing in the world was sold at an auction for more than $1 million. What was it? a) David Beckham’s shirt b) Marilyn Monroe’s dress c) Beyoncd’s hat Why do we call denim trousers ‘jeans’? a) Because Italian sailors in Genoa wore similar trousers. b) Because Mr Jean invented them. c) Because they come from the Scottish town of Jeantown. What is a catwalk? a) The raised area at a fashion show that the models walk along. b) A special area where cats walk. Who do you think is the most fashionable ... a) actor/actress? b) singer? c) sportsman/sportswoman? Vocabulary 1 Materials and patterns 1 Copy and complete the table with these words. Use a dictionary to heip you. cotton flowery leather tie-dyed tartan denim wool plain silk striped velvet checked materials patterns cotton 2 (^foTI Look at the pictures and compiete the sentences with the words from exercise 1. Then iisten and check. 1 He’s wearing a ... denim jacket. 2 Look at this ... cotton T-shirt! 3 I like your... silk dress. 4 That’s a nice ... wool scarf 5 He’s wearing a .. cotton shirt. 6 She’s wearing a ... velvet jacket. 7 These .. leather boots are really trendy! Recycle Look at the pictures in this unit. How many of these clothes can you find? T-shirt shirt skirt trousers shorts jeans trainers jacket shoes socks Study the examples. Is the word order the same in your ianguage? ------------ Order of adjectives pattern + material some plain leather shoes a powery cotton dress Your voice Describe what these people are wearing. Use the correct order of adjectives. 1 your teacher 2 the person sitting next to you 3 the people in the pictures on page 11 Vocabulary plus Workbook p116 > Reading 5 cCo^ Read and listen. How many words for describing clothes can you find in the text? 6 Read the text again. Choose the correct answers. 1 Wood Green School students wear / don’t wear a school uniform. 2 They want cheap / ethical shirts. 3 The girls in the cotton fields earn more / less than Sam’s pocket money. 4 In the organic village, they use / don’t use pesticides. 5 Sam, Rita and Trish succeed / don’t succeed in making fair trade shirts. 7 Find these numbers in the text. Write a sentence for each one. three The three teenagers visit the cotton fields. three 12 five four 8 MORDS Ii\ (CONTEXT Match the parts of the phrases. How do you say them in your language? 1 a pair of a) money 2 a lot of b) girls 3 a group of c) trousers 4 rolls of d) shirts 5 a box of e) cotton iTiH E1SEWR16HIR®: WEWI RffiR^Dl шЯшшшХт ,:a Sam, Rita and Irish are students at Wood Green School in Oxford. They usually wear a school uniform of a plain white cotton shirt, a comfortable sweater, and a pair of black trousers or a skirt. Tomorrow they’re leaving for India to make a television programme. It’s about their mission to find a way of making ethical school' shirts because they don’t want their uniforms to be made in a sweatshop. They’re angry that the high-street shops make a lot of money, but the workers hardly ever benefit. The three teenagers visit the cotton fields in India and see the darker side of the clothing industry. Here, they’re meeting a young girl who works 12 hours a day for less than five pounds a week. That’s less than Sam’s pocket money! But Irish, Sam and Rita discover that it is possible to find organic, fair trade cotton. They visit a. remote organic village where farmers don’t employ young children and they never use pesticides. ‘Fair trade is much more than a logo -it really affects people’s lives,’ says Sam. Sam, Rita and Irish are looking for a factory to transform the rolls of cotton into shirts. They travel to Tirupur, the clothing capital of India. There they find an ethical factory where the workers are well treated, so they order a box of shirts. 9 Read the text again and answer the questions. Here we can see Sam, Rita and Trish’s classmates. They are wearing the new white school shirts. If people can make fair trade shirts for just four pounds each, why can’t the high-street shops do the same? ibirtT ■ 'T~ Your voice Answer the questions. Describe the students’ school uniform. Why do they want to wear fair trade shirts? What is the work situation like for children in the cotton fields? Why is the organic village different to the cotton fields? Where do Sam, Rita and Irish find a factory to make the shirts? Why do they buy shirts from this factory? What do you usually wear to school? Where are your clothes from? Look at the labels! Are any of the clothes you’re wearing today fair trade? Think about how much your clothes cost. Where do you think the money goes? Imagine the working life of the people that made your clothes. Describe a typical day. Across the curriculum History -»р1з7^ Grammar 1 Present simple and present continuous 1 Look at the table and complete sentences 1-4 with present simple or present continuous. present simple present Continuous -f They always wear a school uniform. + Martha’s talking to the workers. - They don’t want clothes from a sweatshop. - She isn’t wearing her uniform today ? Do they travel to India? 7 Are they selling the fair trade shirts? Yes, they do. / No, they don’t. Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. We use the to talk about things that are happening at the moment. We use the to talk about habits and routines. We usually use the with adverbs of frequency. We don’t usually use the .. with state verbs. We don’t usually use the present continuous with state verbs, for example: like need feel know want believe think see understand 2 Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 1 The teacher .. (wear) a tartan shirt today. 2 They ... (wear) a uniform at their school. 3 He ... (do) his homework at the moment. 4 She . (spend) a lot of money on shoes. 5 My sister.. (work) in a shoe shop today. 6 She often . (buy) organic clothes. 3 Make the sentences in exercise 2 negative. 4 Choose the correct words. Size Zero? Do size zero models encourage anorexia? It’s true that eating disorders (1) become / are becoming a big problem. In some countries, the fashion industry (2) is trying / tries to stop this -Madrid Fashion Week (3) never uses / isn’t using size zero models. But the organizers of London Fashion Week (4) aren’t wanting / don’t want to ban size zero models. 17-year-old model Paula Rigg says: ‘I (5) think / am thinking the fashion industry needs to wake up. A lot of young people (6) see / are seeing skinny models on the catwalk and think they should be like that.’ What do you think? 5 Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of these verbs. [^sW. not study listen rain wear not speak Vanessa always . jeans - she .. some new white jeans today Javi.. at the back of the class today, but he usually ... at the front. Ilya .. any English at all, so she .. English now We Geography every day We Geography now. It hardly ever .. here, but it . today I always . to my teacher. I to her at the moment! Write questions. Use the present simple or present continuous. 1 What / you / do / at the moment? 2 How often / you / have English? 3 What time / this class / finish? 4 What / your teacher / wear / today? 5 What / you / wear / at the moment? 6 How / you / usually / travel to school? Speaking 7 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 6. Use full sentences. ^ What are you doing at the moment? ^ I'm doing my homework. rw Language Guide pi 9 > Listening A radio report 1 Look at the pictures and answer the questions. 1 Where are the models? 2 What are they wearing? <3^ Listen to the report. In which order do they describe the models in the pictures? Listen again. Choose the correct answers. 1 The Student Fashion Week is in July / September The reporter is standing in the dressing room / near the catwalk. Two / Three hundred students are showing their work. The prize for ‘Best Collection’ is 12 / 30 thousand pounds. Gisele is one of the judges / models. There are student designers from 13/30 colleges. Vocabulary 2 Compound nouns: fashion accessories -----------fee® Compound nouns Compound nouns consist of two parts. We sometimes write them as one word, and sometimes as two words. Some compound nouns have a hyphen, catwalk nose stud make-up 4 Complete the compound nouns with these words. hand hair head ear nail shoe 1 ... rings 2 . . style 3 band 4 .. bag 5 ... laces 6 . varnish rQ[^ Language Guide pi 8 > Pronunciation: word stress a СЗ® Listen to the words. Is the stress on the first or second part? b C£2§] Listen and repeat. Complete the sentences with the compound nouns from exercise 4. 1 I always wear red ..on my nails. 2 You need a lot of money if you want to buy a Louis Vuitton 3 Your fringe is too long. Why don’t you wear a ? 4 In Spain, most baby girls wear 5 I’m going to the hairdresser’s tomorrow -I want to change my . . 6 Your voice Write sentences about your classmates. Use as many of the compound nouns as possible. Alla is шаг\щ purp\e nail varnish. Anton's shoelaces are areen. ^пШ: lUlSii iisnr istazu Culture today 'Indies' are young people who listen to non-commercial, independent music.They like pop/rock bands such as Franz Ferdinand, Kaiser Chiefs and Razorlight, and they often go to festivals where these bands play live, like Glastonbury and Bestival. The indie style is casual and quite androgynous. The typical hairstyle is a long fringe to one side, for both boys and girls. Indies often wear tight denim jeans, plain or striped T-shirts, studded belts, and Converse sneakers. Nose studs and other piercings are also popular. Fashion and music Music often influences fashion, and there are lots of different ‘urban tribes’ which follow a particular style. These include Goths (who always wear black), Moshers (who listen to hardcore and metal), and Nu-ravers (who like rock and rave music). 'Plastics' is a term which comes from the popular teen movie Mean Girls, and it refers to teenage girls who like to look glamorous. Plastics often wear clothes which are shiny or pink. They never leave home without make-up, and they can't live without their hair straighteners! Plastics are also fans of jewellery, nail varnish and high heels. Singers who are popular among this urban tribe include Leona Lewis and Beyonce, but the first song on their playlist is probably Aqua's Barbie Girl. Plastics usually go out to places where they play pop music or R'n'B. ^ 'Hoodies' are young people who ^ wear hooded sweatshirts, baggy tracksuit bottoms and white trainers. The clothes which they buy are usually a particular brand, such as Adidas or Bench. Hoodies like hip-hop and rap music - the singers that you'd find on their playlists include Jay-Z and Dizzee Rascal. In Britain, the term 'hoodie'is often used in a negative way to describe young people who are antisocial, but a lot of hoodies are just music fans who like to follow fashion! 1 Read and listen. Match paragraphs 1-3 with pictures a-c. Do these fashions exist in your country? 2 Answer the questions. 1 Which bands do Indies like? 2 What hairstyle do Indies often have? 3 Where does the term ‘Plastics’ come from? 4 Which song is popular with Plastics? 5 What kind of music do Hoodies listen to? 6 Which designer brands are popular with Hoodies? Compiete the sentences with information from the texts. 1 Indies usually wear 2 They often go to 3 Plastics’ fashion accessories include 4 Plastics like listening to music such as 5 Hoodies usually wear 6 People sometimes use the term ‘hoodie’ to refer to Your voice In Britain, young people spend about £200 per year on clothes. Do you think it’s important to foiiow fashion, or is it a waste of money? the BIG DEBATE -» Workbook pi 25 Grammar 2 Relative pronouns 1 Translate the examples. Are the pronouns all different in your ianguage? relative pronouns Indies are young people who listen to independent music. Plastics often wear clothes which are pink. They usually go to places where they play R'n'B. We use relative pronouns to give extra information about people, things or places. We can also use that instead of who or which. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings. Jay-Z and Dizzee Rascal are singers The clothes Moshers go to clubs Goths are people The music a) which Goths wear are usually black. b) who make rap or hip-hop music. c) which Moshers like is hardcore or metal. d) where they play heavy metal. e) who listen to death rock or punk music. 3 Complete the questions with who, which or where. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT RAP? What do you call... • the person (1)... mixes music at a club? • the rapper (2)... adds the vocals? • a type of rap music (3)... describes gangs and violence? What's the name of... • the American city (4)... rap music started? • the type of dance (5)... was popular with hip-hop fans? • the country (6)... rapper Basta lives? 4 Use your knowledge of music to answer the quiz questions. [-(» Language Guide p19 > Your voice Complete the sentences. Use relative pronouns and your own ideas. At school, I always wear clothes which are comfortable. I like people I enjoy going to places I never wear clothes . I admire people . I like films... Book corner Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct answers. Vanity Fair At the moment i (i) read / 'm reading a book called Vanity Fair' It's a novel (2) which / who satirizes society in 19th century England. The main character in the book is Becky, a young \Noman (3) who / which is determined to become rich. She (4) use / uses her beauty and charisma to improye hersocmi situation. Becky (5) go / goes to work as a tutor for a rich family and then she marries their son. Together, they go to a lot of parties in London and Paris, (6) which / where Becky meets rich aristocrats. Becky and her husband also borrow a lot of money (7) who / which they can't return and they (8) often cheat I cheat often when they're playing cards. I (9) think / am thinking that this is an interesting book because it (10) shows / is showing that fashion victims aren't just a modern idea! 2 (JobI Listen and check. Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray Writing dossier Your opinion 1 Read the text. Does the writer like the advert? Description of an Advert In this advert, there are two models who are both wearing blue denim jeans and plain white cotton T-shirts. They're holding hands and standing on the beach. They're getting wet but they seem to be enjoying themselves! This is an advert for a company which sells jeans. I think they use it in fashion magazines and on billboards in the city centre. It seems to me that they are trying to sell clothes to young people, because the models in the picture are young and active. I like this advert because it reminds me of going to the beach on holiday. But I don't think that people really remember adverts when they go shopping and they're buying clothes. In my opinion, they just buy the things which they like when they're In the shop. 2 Translate the expressions Into your language. Which ones can you find in the text? Language focus; giving your opinion I think that. I don't think that.. In my opinion, It seems to me that.. As far as I can see,... I believe that .. Complete these sentences with expressions from the Language focus. Make them true for you. advertising is a waste of money . some adverts are very clever. there are adverts everywhere. . a lot of adverts target young people. ... adverts influence people when they go shopping. Writing plan (T) Plan to write your opinion about an advert. Find a picture in a magazine and answer these questions about it. 1 What are the models wearing? Where are they? Are the models famous? What kind of company is the advert for? Where can you see this advert? Do you like the advert? Why/Why not? Write your composition. Use your notes and the model text to help you. Describe what you can see in the advert. Give some information about the company and the places where you can see the advert. Give your opinion of the advert and why you like / dislike it. Check your writing. / Use the present simple and present continuous correctly / Use at least two relative pronouns. / Use at least two of the expressions from the Language focus to give your opinion. (4) Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Making a complaint Look at the problems with these clothes and accessories. Match phrases 1-4 with pictures a-d. 1 It shrank in the wash. 2 It’s got a hole in it. 3 They’re broken. 4 It’s got a stain on it. 2 (T^ Read and listen. Why does Ruth want a refund? Shop assistant Ruth r Hello, can 1 help you?^ ^Yes, there’s a problem with this T-shirt. Oh. What’s the matter with it? It’s got a hole in it. Here on the back, look. 1 see. Have you got the receipt? Yes, here it is. Thanks. Do you want to change it for No, thanks. I’d like a refund, please. another one? OK. Did you pay by cash or card? Cash. There you go. That’s £8.50. ^ ^Thanks very much. J 3 (SH Listen again and repeat. 4 Imagine you’re returning one of the items in the pictures in exercise 1. Prepare a new dialogue. <3i5] Listen to another conversation and choose the correct answers. 1 Practise your dialogue. ^ Hello, can I help you? Yes, there's a problem with these sunglasses. Useful expressions' There’s a problem with this/these What’s the matter with it/them? Have you got the receipt? Do you want to change it for another one? I’d like a refund, please. Liam is returning . to the shop. a) a pair of jeans b) some sunglasses c) some CDs He’s returning them because a) they’re broken. b) they don’t fit. c) he doesn’t need them. They cost a) £9.99. b) £19.99. c) £29.99. Liam wants to a) have a refund. b) change them for some different ones. c) change them for some identical ones. .—. (V) К) •I и I :Ч Language Guide Vocabulary Materials and patterns t. plain tie-dyed striped flowery checked denim cotton silk velvet cotton Compound nouns: fashion accessories tartan wool catwalk handbag hairstyle headband earrings make-up nose stud nail varnish shoelaces Dictionary extra! benefit (v) ★ ★ ★ remote (adj) ★ ★ employ (v) ★ ★ ★ suffer (v) ★ ★ ★ ethical (adj) ★ sweatshop (n) fringe (n) ★ transform (v) ★ ★ mission (n) ★★ treat (v) ★ ★ ★ non-commercial (adj) uniform (n) ★ ★ pesticide (n) Phrase: darker side Useful expressionsj There's a problem with this/these What's the matter with it/them? It shrank in the wash. / It's got a ../ They're broken. Have you got the receipt? Do you want to change it for another one? I'd like a refund, please. Did you pay by cash or card? Grammar Present simple and present continuous present simple We use the present simple о for habits and routines. They go to school in Oxford, о with adverbs of frequency They never use pesticides, о to describe summaries of events. They travel to Taipur .. There they find an ethical factory so they order a box of shirts. о In the third person singular (he/she/it) we add -s to the verb. She usually wears a school uniform, о In negative sentences and questions we use the auxiliary do. Does he travel very often? Farmers don't employ young children in the organic village. present continuous о We use the present continuous to describe what is happening at the moment. Here they're visiting a remote organic village. о We form the present continuous with subject + be + verb + -ing. They are looking for a factory, о In questions, the order is be + subject + verb + -ing. Are they taking orders for the shirts? о In short answers, we don’t repeat the verb + -ing. Yes, they are. / Yes, they arc taking. / state verbs о State verbs such as like, know, think, need, want, see and feel do not usually use the continuous form. They see the darker side of the clothing industry. / They arc seeing the darker side of the clothing industry. X Relative pronouns We use relative pronouns to give extra information about people, places or things. We join two sentences by using the relative pronoun. It refers to teenage girls. They like to look glamorous. It refers to teenage girls who like to look glamorous. We use who for people, which for things and where for places. Hoodies are young people who wear hooded sweatshirts. 'Plastics' is a term which conies from the popular teen movie 'Mean Girls'. They often go to festivals where the band plays live. We can use that instead of who or which. Hoodies are young people that wear hooded sweatshirts. 'Plastics' is a term that comes from the popular teen movie 'Mean Girls' Grammar bank ч Workbook p98 Progress check Materials and patterns 1 Match the patterns with these words. flowery striped tie-dyed tartan checked plain Compound nouns: fashion accessories 2 Write a compound noun for each definition. Use one word from each box. hand hair ear shoe cat rings bag style walk laces 1 Jewellery which people wear in their ears. 2 The way that you wear your hair. 3 Girls usually carry one of these. 4 your.aQi^ft .tbi« I You have these on your trainers. Present simple and present continuous Write sentences. Use the present simple or present continuous. We / do / a test / at the moment. We / do / a test / after every unit. It / not rain / here / today It / hardly ever / rain / here. We / usually / have / English / in this room. I / sit / in the classroom / now Complete the text with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. My cousin Carrie usually (1) (wear) jeans, but now she (2) (wear) a white dress. She (3) (get) married today I (4) (think) she looks fantastic. Carrie usually (5) (go) to the hairdresser’s, but today the hairdresser (6) (style) her hair at home. I (7) (paint) her nails with some beautiful pink nail varnish at the moment. I am very excited about today! Make questions for these answers. Use the present simple or present continuous. ? They five in London. ? She’s wearing a white dress. ? They’re going to the cinema. ..? The film starts at eight o’clock. .. ? I have English classes three times a week. .. ? He’s doing his homework. Relative pronouns 6 Complete the sentences with who, which or where. 1 Most people have got friends like the same music. Goths often wear clothes .. are black. Nu-ravers are people ... listen to rave music. My friends go to clubs they play R’n’B. My mum wants me to buy shoes are comfortable. Are there any places you can dance in your town? Cumulative grammar i 1)2)з>4>5>6)7^ 7 Choose the correct words. The Solar Bikini This hi-tech bikini (1) contains / is containing small solar panels (2) which / who can power your iPod, so you can listen to music all day while you’re on the beach. Andrew Schneider, the designer (3) where / who created the idea, (4) works / is working on a pair of solar shorts too. Apparently, these can create enough energy to cool your drinks. Obviously, the solar panels only work in places (5) which / where the sun shines. But Schneider (6) doesn’t think / isn’t thinking that’s a problem, because people hardly ever (7) go / goes to the beach if it isn’t sunny Just be careful if you (8) are liking / like swimming. Remember to dry your bikini completely before you plug in your music! (20 rea Unit contents: Vocabulary Verb collocations; fact and fiction Grammar Past simple and past continuous; present perfect Skills Read about a ‘miraculous’ crash landing Listen to a boy’s survival story Write a book review Practise agreeing and disagreeing Across the curriculum Health & Safety Culture today Escape from Reality . into the Past rt' t ^ -f - ^ Vi '"Ж 1 The famous escapologist Harry Houdini died in the USA in 1926. Where was he born? a) Germany b) Hungary c) Britain 2 In virtual fantasy role-playing games, what is the correct word for the persona which a player creates? a) character b) personification c) avatar 3 The classic film The Great Escape is based on a true story related to which war? a) World War I b) World War II c) the English Civil War 4 Which American band released a song called The Great Escape in 2007? a) Boys Like Girls b) Nirvana c) Foo Fighters Vocabulary 1 Verb collocations 1 Look at the expressions. Which four can you see in the pictures? say sorry thank you a prayer teli a story the truth a lie Recycle Translate the verbs into your ianguage. Which four are irregular? fly crash scream fall rescue hit sink destroy make a decision a mistake excuses take a risk a photo care 2 (illl Listen and repeat. 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of soy, tell, make or take. 1 Don’t .. excuses - you need to tidy your room right now! Please me the truth - did you take my handbag or not? My little sister always ... a prayer before she goes to bed. A person who lies is called a liar. .. care when you cycle on the main road -it can be dangerous. British people are very polite. They always ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ 4 Your voice Answer the questions. 1 Do you often take risks? Give an example. 2 When did you last say sorry, and why? 3 What is the biggest decision you have made in your life? Was it the right decision? 4 Which stories did your parents or grandparents tell you when you were young? Vocabulary plus ^ Workbook p117 > Reading 5 (Sm Read and listen. Why is Chesley B. Sulienberger a hero? 6 Match the paragraphs of the text with three of these headings. a) The right decision b) A terrible coincidence c) In the freezing water d) ‘Brace yourselves - we’re going down!’ 7 Find words 1-6 in the text and match them with the correct definition. 1 land (v) 3 take off (v) 5 crew (n) 2 runway (n) 4 engine (n) 6 life jacket (n) a) the motor of a plane b) when a plane comes down c) inflatable safety equipment d) the people who work on a plane e) when a plane goes up f) the place where a plane usually lands 8 MOUDSIN CONTEXT Find the past form of these irregular verbs in the text. say hit tell think hold have make come speak SPLASH landing Plane crash-lands in New York's Hudson River & I) When office workers looked out of their Manhattan skyscrapers, they couldn’t believe what was happening down below. A plane was flying incredibly low over the river. But it wasn’t out of control - it looked as if it was landing on a runway. Flight 1549 was taking off from LaGuardia airport when it hit a flock of birds. In a terrible coincidence, both engines failed. Less than five minutes later, the plane was in the water. Miraculously, all 155 passengers and crew survived. ^According to passengers, one minute they were Agoing up and the next minute everyone was screaming. A passenger who was sitting near the left engine told reporters that flames were coming out of it. 1 think everyone was saying their prayers,’ said one man. ‘For a second, I thought I was going to die right there in the plane,’ another added. The parents of a three-year-old girl and a nine-month-old baby held their children tight while the plane was going down. ‘It’s good to be alive,’ they said. (^The pilot, Chesley B. Sullenberger, had only two choices: to land on water, or crash. He made a quick decision, and managed to land on the busiest part of the Hudson River Within minutes, 14 boats came to rescue the passengers who were standing on the wings and those who weren’t wearing life jackets. A true hero, Sullenberger was the last to leave the sinking plane. One grateful survivor said he spoke to him while they were standing on a rescue raft. ‘I said I just want to thank you on behalf of all of us,’ he said. Sullenberger was very calm. He just smiled and said ‘You’re welcome.’ 9 Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 Where did the plane take off? 2 Why did the engines fail? 3 Were the passengers calm while the plane was coming down? 4 Why did the pilot decide to land in the river? 5 Why didn’t most of the survivors get wet? 6 Did the pilot leave the plane as soon as it landed? 10 Your voice In your opinion, which of these people played a part in avoiding a disaster? Can you think of any other people who were involved? pilot co-pilot air stewards passengers office workers ferry captains reporters police divers the public Grammar 1 Past simple and past continuous 1 Look at the table and complete the rules with past simple or past continuous. past simple past continuous +■ All the passengers and crew survived. + The plane was flying very low - Most of the survivors didn’t get wet. — Some people weren’t wearing life jackets. ? Did both engines fail? Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t. ? Were people screaming? Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t. The plane was taking off when it hit a flock of birds. One survivor spoke to the pilot while they were standing on a rescue raft. 1 We use the . . to talk about actions in progress at a particular time in the past. 2 We use the ... to talk about events in the past. 3 We usually use the after while and the after when. 2 Choose the correct words. 1 We were reading the article when the class was finishing / finished. 2 I used a dictionary while I read / was reading it for the first time. 3 What were you doing when this class began / was beginning? 4 I wasn’t listening when the teacher explained / was explaining our homework. 5 Dk} yoL' yoGT you came / were coming to school? I Complete the text. Use the past simple or past continuous form of the verbs in brackets. What a Hero! Captain Chesley B. Sullenberger clearly never loses his calm. He (1) ... (know) that something was wrong while Flight 1549 (2) ... (take off), but he (3)... (not panic). After landing successfully in the Hudson River, the pilot (4)... (become) a national hero. While Sullenberger (5) ... (rest) after the extraordinary events, his wife and daughters talked to reporters outside their home. Kate, 16, and Kelly, 14, (6)... (say) they were Very proud’ of their dad. Meanwhile, their father received an interesting phone call from the owner of Virgin Atlantic, Sir Richard Branson. While he (7) ... (watch) Sullenberger on the news, Branson (8) ... (decide) to offer him a job as the captain of his new intergalactic spaceship! Write questions for these answers. Use the past simpie or past continuous. I went to the USA last summer. (Where ?) where did you go last summer? 1 I was doing my homework at nine o’clock last night. (What .?) 2 I got up at haif past seven. (What time . ?) 3 We were sitting quietly when the teacher arrived. (What ?) 4 We came to this school' three years ago. (When .. ?) 5 I watched a disaster film on TV last night. (What.. ?) 5 Your voice Write true answers for the questions in exercise 4. Pronunciation: [d] [t] [id] a <ЯН1 Listen and repeat the verbs. [d] [t] [Id] '1 failed ^smiled looked crashed landed waited (Em Check the rules for the pronunciation of past simpie endings in the Language guide on page 31. Then listen and add these verbs to the table. watched survived wanted screamed worked visited Language Guide p31 > Listening A narrative about a fire 1 (3j1] Listen to a narrative about a fire. Which headline best describes the story? (a) Teen rescues neighbours from inferno Family survives devastating fire Neighbour starts house fire 2 Listen again and order the pictures according to the narrative. 3 Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences. 1 The fire started in the middle of the day. 2 Rachel smashed the window with a chair 3 Joe and Rachel jumped onto the garage roof 4 It was Joe’s idea to get the trampoline. 5 Rachel, Joe and their mum all escaped without injury 6 Their next-door neighbour died in the fire. Vocabulary 2 Fact and fiction 4 Listen and repeat. Which two can you see in the pictures? role play news report biography fantasy comic autobiography legend textbook science fiction film script bestseller Find the words from exercise 4 to match these definitions. 1 a book which someone writes about their own life an article which appears in a newspaper a text which shows actors what their characters must say a book which someone writes about someone else’s life a traditional story, similar to a myth Are the words in exercise 4 related to fact or fiction? Copy and complete the diagram. Fact news report О Fiction fantasy 7 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer. Do you ever play role-playing games? Do you like science fiction films? Which books are bestsellers at the moment where you live? Which comics did you read when you were younger? What is your favourite textbook this year? © Culture today Escape from Reality... into the Past ---- Let the battle beginl- Max Hobbs reports from the front line The air is heavy with the smell of gunpowder, and there are bloodstained bodies all around me. Suddenly, I hear the tremendous ‘boom’ of a cannon, and smoke fills my eyes. In the distance I can just see a soldier on horse-back -and he’s coming right for me. My heart is beating like a drum, and I’ve never felt so afraid .. Fortunately, of course, the blood I can see is all make-up, and this battle is not for real. I’ve come here to experience a historical re-enactment of the English Civil War. Role play enthusiast Simon Lowe has agreed to be my guide for the day. He’s brought me a spare costume - short wool trousers, a cotton shirt, a leather tunic and a musket, which is the kind of gun they used in the 17th century. We certainly look like characters in a film. This is quite an unusual way to spend the weekend, so I’m keen to ask Simon how he got involved. Tve always been Interested in history,’ he told me. ‘When I was young, my parents took 1 (£IZI Read and listen. Choose the correct answers. 1 The text is... a) a biography of a 17th century soldier b) an article for a magazine. 2 This re-enactment is based on .. a) the true story of the English Civil War b) a legend about a Viking battle. 2 Find the past participle of these verbs In the text. Which one is regular? feel come bring be want meet have learn Historical re-enactments Historical re-enactments are a type of role play where people re-create an historical event or period. They are very popular in Britain. If you visit a castle, you can sometimes watch medieval Jousting or look around a medieval market. me to the re-enactment of a Viking battle, and it was amazing - really dramatic! It’s just something that I’ve always wanted to do. And I’ve met some great people here - Including my girlfriend.’ After the battle, Simon introduces me to some other members of the group. On Monday morning they’ll be back in the office or in the classroom, but for now they’re enjoying their lives as 17th century soldiers and peasants. When the time comes for me to say goodbye and step back into the modern world, I feel quite sad. I’ve had a great time, and I’ve learnt more about history than I ever would in a textbook! Are these sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 1 The participants of the re-enactment are wearing 19th century clothes. 2 They’re making a film about the Civil War 3 Simon saw a re-enacted Viking battle when he was a child. 4 Simon’s girlfriend isn’t interested in historical re-enactments. 5 The writer feels that historical re-enactments are a good way to learn about history. Your voice Discuss these questions. 1 Do you think this is a good way to ‘escape reality’? 2 Which other ways can you think of? the BIG DEBATE Workbook pi 26 Grammar 2 Present perfect 1 Look at the table and answer the questions, present perfect I have had (I’ve had) a great time. Simon has agreed (He’s agreed) to be my guide. These ‘soldiers’ haven’t killed anyone. Max hasn’t done this before. Have you (ever) watched a reenactment? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. Has Max learnt a lot about history? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t. We use the present perfect for: a) actions that started in the past and haven’t finished I’ve always been interested in history, (and I’m still interested now) b) actions that finished in the past but are relevant now I’ve met some great people. (and I often see them now) 1 How is the third person form different? 2 Which past participles are regular? 3 Do we use the past participle in short answers? Complete the text with the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Role-playing history is something which (1) (become) increasingly popular over recent years. Thousands of people (2) (join) many different groups since the first re-enactment society began in the 1960s. Rob Smith (3) .. (be) a member of his local club for two years. He (4) always . (not be) a role play fan, but now he loves it. ‘In addition to the battles, we (5) .(visit) a lot of schools too’, he explains. Groups like this (6) (bring) English history to life for school students around the country Write questions. Use the present perfect and ever. you / play a role-playing game? Have you ever played a role-playing game? 1 you / study English history? 2 your teacher / visit Britain? 3 you / read a historical novel? A \/niir friftnHfi / nivp vnu nomnuter names for Speaking Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 3. Use short answers. rOQ' Language Guide p31 > Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct words. The Treasure of Monte cristo (1) Have you heard / Were you hearing of the French writer Alexamdre Damasl I (2) has read / Ve read 'The Three Musketeers', and now I'm re'ading 'The Treasure of Monte Cristo'. It's a greatstory. It's abouta man called Edmond Dantes who goes to prison for a crime which he (3) wasn't committing I didn't commit. Before he went to pr\sor\, Dantes was a good man, with a beautiful fiar)cee called Mercedes. But when he finally managed to escape from prison, he (4) has wanted / wanted to take revenge on his enemies. So, how (5) was he escaping / did he escape? well, (6) when / whiie he was doing his time in prison, Dantes (7) was meeting I met an old priest called Abbe Faria. They became good friends, and one day Abbe Faria said: 'If you ever escape from here, go and find my fortune. I (8) was hiding /'ve hidden it on the island of Monte Cristo. Keep it - it's yours!' Later, Dantes escaped and he (9) found / was finding the treasure. Then he (10) went / has gone to find the men who sent him to prison, and to look for Mercedes. 2 Listen and check. The Treasure of л/ionte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas f27) Writing dossier A book review 1 Read the review and answer the questions. Why did Tom read this book? Who was Harry Houdini? Would Tom recommend the book? Book review The last book that I read was called 'Escape! The Story of the Great Houdini.' It's by an American authorcalled Sid Fleischman. I got this book out of the school library because we were doing a project about escapology and magic. 'Escape!' is a biography about the famous escape artistand magician Harry Houdini, and it provides lots of fascinating information about his life. It also describes his famous acts in detail, and considers his success in both Europe and the USA. There are lots of great photos in the book too. This book was useful for my project, but it was very enjoyable too. The author is a magician as well as a writer, and he really brought Houdini to life for me. I'd definitely recommend this book to anyone who is interested in learning more aboutthe history of the 'Great Houdini'. Tom Hutchinson Translate the example sentences in the Language focus. Is the word order the same or different in your language? Language focus: word order subject + verb + object be + adjective adjective + noun adverb of degree + adjective И/е were doing о project. It was useful for my project. There are lots of great photos. It was very enjoyable. 3 Order the words to make sentences. 1 wrote / Tom / review / a / book. 2 very/a / Houdini / was / escapologist / successful. 3 this / book / wrote / Sid Fleischman. 4 fascinating / It / book / a / is. 5 were / The / amazing / photos. @ Writing pian (T) Plan to write a book review. Answer these questions. 1 What was the last book you read? 2 Why did you read it? 3 What kind of book is it? 4 What is it about? 5 Has it got any pictures? 6 Did you enjoy it? Why / Why not? (2) Write your book review. Follow this pian. > book title, author, reasons for reading it •f book type, what it’s about, any pictures? ^ your opinion of the book (3) Check your writing. / Check word order for subject + verb + object. / Check word order for adjectives and adverbs. / Check the past tense verbs. 0 Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Agreeing and disagreeing Look at the list of Top Five books and answer the questions. Which is the most popular book? Have you read any of these books? Do you know if there are films based on any of these books? Top Five Books for 15-17-year-olds (as voted by YOU!) The Lord of the Ringsb^ J.R.R. Tolkien The Invisible Man by Herbert Wells it by Stephen King Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Twilight Ь\/ Stephanie Meyer 2 (3jl] Read and listen. Ruth is choosing a book at the library. Which book does she choose? Vera Ruth ^ What kind of thing are you looking for?^ How about The Lord of the Rings trilogy? What did you think of them? Yes, so did I. It took me ages, though. I read quite slowly. This one looks good. V No, neither do I. But it looks quite good. ^ ^Well, like reading fantasy books. ^ Oh, I read them last year. They were good. I really enjoyed them. Yes, so do I. The Invisible Man? I don’t really like science fiction books. ^Hmm. I think I’ll try it. J 3 ФЕ Listen again and repeat. 4 In pairs, make a list of your ‘Top Five’ books. Then, prepare a new dialogue. Use expressions for agreeing and disagreeing. 5 Practise your dialogue. What kind of book are you looking for? ^ Well, I like reading .. 6 ФЕ Listen to another conversation. Choose the correct answers. 1 present past I really like ... I really enjoyed ... So do I. So did I. I don’t really like ... I didn’t really enjoy ... Neither do I. Neither did I. They agree to go and see a(n) a) action b) science fiction c) romantic They want to go to the a) 5.15 b) 7.45 Later, they plan to go a) to a.disco. b) to a party c) for a pizza. film. showing, c) 9.30 ауи!11М|*'иш1И1.'< Language Vocabulary Verb collocations say sorry thank you a prayer tell a story the truth a lie make a decision a mistake excuses take a risk a photo care Fact and fiction Fact X X Fiction autobiography /bestseller \ comic biography ( ] fantasy news report \ role play / iog^nd textbook \ / science fiction Dictionary extra! battle (n) ★ ★ ★ beat (v) ★ ★ ★ bloodstained (adj) cannon (n) coincidence (n) ★ distance (n) ★ ★ ★ flame (n) ★ ★ flock (n) ★ grateful (adj) ★ gunpowder (n) manage (v) ★ ★ ★ miraculously (adv) musket (n) peasant (n) ★ raft (n) re-enactment (n) tremendous (adj) ★ ★ tunic (n) wing (n) ★★★ Phrase: out of control Useful expressionsj I really like So do I. I don’t really like Neither do I. I really enjoyed So did I. I didn’t really enjoy Neither did I. cs щтткттщт •mmsmm Е* Grammar Past simple and past continuous past simple о We use the past simple to talk about events in the past. о All persons are the same, о We make negative sentences in the past with didn't and the infinitive without to. They didn't land on the runway, о We make questions in the past with Did and the infinitive without to. Did he open the door? о In short answers we don’t repeat the main verb. past continuous о We use the past continuous to describe an action in progress in the past, о We form the past continuous with subject + be + verb + -ing. They were flying very low. о In questions, the order is be + subject + verb + -ing. Were they standing on the rescue raft? о In short answers, we don’t repeat the verb + -Ing: Yes, they were. /Yes, they were standing. Л present simple vs present continuous о We often use the past simple and the past continuous in the same sentence, о We use the past simple for short actions. We use the past continuous for longer actions. The past simple describes an event that happens during a longer action in the past continuous, о We normally use when before the past simple clause and while before the past continuous clause. Flight 1549 was taking off from LaGuardIa airport when it hit a flock of birds. While Flight 1549 was taking off from LaCuardia airport, it hit a flock of birds. Pronunciation: past simpie endings О The pronunciation of past simple regular verbs changes, depending on the spelling of the verb: о When the verb ends in an unvoiced sound, the -ed ending is pronounced [t]: look ^ looked о When the verb ends in a voiced sound, the -ed ending is pronounced [d] fail failed о When the verb ends in -t or -d, the -ed ending is pronounced [id]: land -> landed о For irregular verbs, see Irregular verbs list, p163. Present perfect affirmative I / You / We / They’ve (have) He / She / It’s (has) come here. negative I / You / We / They haven’t (have not) He / She / It hasn’t (has not) felt so afraid. questions Have Has I / you / we / they he / she / it survived? short answers Yes, I / you / we / you / they have. / No, I / you /we / they haven’t. Yes, he / she / it has. / No, he / she / it hasn’t. We use the present perfect to talk about experiences in the past, when we don’t mention the exact time. We use subject + has / have -i- past participle. For irregular past participles, see Irregular verbs list, pi 63. We often use ever to ask questions about experiences in the past. In short answers we don’t repeat the main verb. Have you ever been to a historical re-enactment? Yes, I have. / No, we haven't. We often use never with the present perfect to talk about experiences we have not had. We use subject + has / have + never + past participle. He's never felt so afraid. Grammar bank "» Workbook p100 у ; I dD 0' Progress check Verb collocations 1 Match the beginning of the questions with their endings. 1 Why did you tell me a a) your decision? 2 Did you say b) lie? 3 How did you make c) the risk? 4 Will you tell us the d) thank you? 5 Is it worth taking e) truth? Fact and fiction 2 Complete the words with vowels. 1 This is our English t_xt b_ k. 2 One day I’ll write my _t_b _gr phy! 3 Starwoirsisa sc_ nc_ f ct n film. 4 A very popular book is called a b s t s _ 11 _ r. 5 Stan Lee and Steve Ditko created the c _ m _ c The Amazing Spider-Man in 1962. 6 King Arthur appears in many I _ g _ n d s. Past simple and past continuous 3 Complete the text with the past simple form of the verbs in brackets. THE GREAT ESCAPE The Great Escape is a famous British film which was made in 1963. It’s based on the true story of a mass escape from a German prison camp during World War II. The prisoners (1) ... (dig) a tunnel, and 76 men (2)... (escape). However, many of those men (3) ... (not survive), because the Gestapo (4) ... (catch) them later. Two men (5) ... (manage) to escape because they (6) ... (steal) a boat. Another man (7) ... (go) to France. In 1963 this film (8)... (not win) any Oscars, but now many people think it is a great classic. 4 Complete each sentence with the verbs in brackets. Use the past simple once and the past continuous once in each sentence. 1 While we . home last night, it to rain, (walk / start) 2 I my geography homework when you . . (do / phone) 3 When I at the cinema, my friends . for me. (arrive / wait) 4 What you . when you . . the news about the accident? (do / hear) 5 you ... to the teacher when she this exercise? (listen / explain) Present perfect 5 Complete the dialogues with the present perfect form of these verbs. not see give read do tell make 1 - I ... The Great Escape. What about you? - No, but I ... the book. It’s a true story. 2 - I’m sorry - I . a terrible mistake. - Why, what you . ? 3 - your teacher.. you any homework? Yes, she . us to prepare a reading text. 6 Order the words to make questions. 1 you / had / ever / accident / an / Have ? 2 Has / in / town / it / snowed / your / ever ? 3 seen / science fiction / Have / a / film / you ? 4 your / Has / ever / teacher / lived / abroad ? 5 ever / biography / you / Have / read / a ? 7 Answer the questions in exercise 6. Use short answers. Cumulative grammar 8 Choose the correct words. 4>5>б)>7)8)9* The Chickens are Escaping! 32 One of the (1) funniest / funnier films that I (2) ever see / ’ve ever seen is Chicken Run. It’s an animation (3) which / who is based on the classic film The Great Escape, and it’s made by the people (4) who / where invented Wallace and Gromit The film is about some chickens who (5) was / are trying to escape from the horrible farmers Mr and Mrs Tweedy. Mrs Tweedy (6) is wanting / wants to make chicken pies, because she (7) makes / doesn’t make enough money from eggs. She begins to kill the chickens that (8) hasn’t / haven’t produced their quota of eggs. Of course chickens can’t fly, so they build an aeroplane for their great escape. The end of the film was brilliant - while Mrs Tweedy (9) tried / was trying to catch the escaping chickens, she (10) fell / was falling into the chicken pie machine! Unit contents: Vocabulary Body language; British and American English Grammar Present perfect with for and since; just, yet and already, present perfect and past simple; past perfect Skills Read about an international summer school Listen to a phone conversation Write about your language learning experiences Prepare for an English speaking test Across the curriculum History Culture today Could You Become a British Citizen? P I’ Г 1 in 7. A '^V Ч A ' ? Untries Visas ,Шй да Л\г\\ Irorf' w'f. ' rof«cw n ^91) 27 the vs .'VN vJ 1 When British people talk about going ‘across the pond’, they are going to ... a) Australia. b) the USA. c) Ireland. 2 Body language isn’t the same in all countries! A ‘thumbs up’ sign is positive in most countries, but it’s an insult in ... a) Spain. b) Portugal. c) Greece. 3 When an Englishman says ‘I’m going to the shopping centre’ an American says ‘I’m going to the ... ’. a) market. b) shop. c) mall. 4 The Big Apple is an informal name for... a) New York City. b) Los Angeles. c) Moscow. ---------------------------------------------------- Vocabulary 1 Body language 1 Match the expressions with the pictures. hug kiss shake hands smile frown nod shake your head shrug your shoulders laugh hold hands wink gesticulate \ J Recycle Look at the words. Which ones are not part of the face? eyebrows arms forehead eyelids shoulders lips cheeks neck hands eyelashes 2 (Зт Listen and repeat. 3 Complete the sentences with expressions from exercise 1. 1 You .. when you want to say ‘yes’. 2 You when you want to say ‘no’ 3 You .. when you don’t know, or you feel indifferent. 4 You usually with the interviewer at a job interview 5 People usually when someone takes their photograph. 6 People often .. when they watch a comedy. 4 Your voice Answer the questions. 1 In your country, how do people usually greet each other? 2 How do they say goodbye? 3 Do people gesticulate much in your country? 4 Do you think that body language is very different in other countries? 5 Look at the photo on page 35 and describe the people. Where are they? 6 (ЗяИ Read and listen. Make a list of the different activities that you can do at the summer school. 7 Complete the sentences with names from the text. ... has been go-karting. ...’s first language is English. ... first went to the summer school when he was 13. ... has been at the summer school for three days. ... has enjoyed the day trips. ... misses her mum’s cooking. Vocabulary plus Workbook p118 > 8 WORDS IX Complete the sentences with COXTEXT the correct prepositions. Then check in the text. 1 ... the weekend we went on a day trip. 2 We went to London ... bus. 3 Being here is like being .. home. 4 There are classes ... the morning. 5 You can go ... a swim .. the afternoon. 6 I’ve spoken to my parents ... the phone. ^ luelcome to summer school ©G® s At the weekend we went on a day trip to London by bus. It was amazing! We’ve also been to Brighton and Windsor. I haven’t been homesick at all - being here is like being at home. You don’t have time to miss home because there are classes in the morning and lots of activities. You can go for a swim in the afternoons - don’t worry, the pool is heated! I’ve spoken to my parents on the phone a few times, but the only thing I really miss is my mum’s cooking. I’ve made so many new friends here! I’ve been here for two weeks and I’ve never had so much fun in my life! Bianca, Italy d This is my third year in England - I’ve spent every summer here since I was 13. The course hasn’t finished yet but I know my English has really improved again - you have to speak English here because it’s the only common language. The funniest thing we’ve done this year is ‘Hunt the Teacher’. Ail the teachers were wearing disguises and we had to find them in the town. The other things I’ve enjoyed this year are go-karting and the International Evening. We all made food from our countries. Most of it was nice, but I didn’t like the Hungarian cabbage! Carlos, Mexico 'л In my room there are five boys from different countries. There’s one German boy who snores really loudly, but apart from that it’s OK. I’ve only been here for three days but I’ve already made friends with people from all over the world. While the international students are learning English in the morning, I have Spanish classes. I’ve just met a Mexican boy here, so I can practise my Spanish with him. The others are always complaining about the English weather but I don’t mind it - I’ve lived here all my life! lain, England Are the sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 1 Bianca has missed her family 2 The swimming pool is very cold. 3 One day all the teachers wore disguises. 4 Carlos has tried food from different countries. 5 lain hasn’t made any new friends yet. 6 You can only learn English at the Summer School. 10 Your voice Imagine you’re at Summer School. Look at the timetable. Ask and answer about what you were doing yesterday. What were you doing at half past eight? Щ I was having breakfast. A typical day at Summer School 8.30- 9.00 9.00- 12.30 12.30- 14.00 14.00- 15.30 15.30- 18.00 18.00- 19.00 Breakfast Language lessons Lunch Arts and crafts or IT Sports or excursions Dinner 19.00-21.30 Talent contest or disco Across the curriculum History pi34 Grammar 1 Present perfect with for and since 1 Look at the table. How do you say for and since in your language? Do you use the present perfect with these expressions? for and since We use for to talk about a period of time. He’s been there for three days. We use since to talk about a point in time. He’s been there since Saturday. 2 Complete the text with for or since. Ian has only learnt German (1) ... a year, but he’s learnt French (2) ..a long time. He’s had French lessons at school (3) ... he was nine. Ian has also learnt a bit of Chinese (4) ... he watched the Beijing Olympics. He’s been at Summer Camp (5)... a few days now, but he hasn’t practised his Chinese (6)... he arrived! 3 Write questions with How long and the present perfect form of the given verbs. you / this book? (have) How long have you had this hook? 1 you / English? (learn) 2 your teacher / here? (work) 3 you / your best friend? (know) 4 you / at this school? (be) 5 your best friend / in this town? (live) 6 you / your mobile phone? (have) 4 Your voice' Answer the questions in exercise 3. Write full sentences with for or since. just, yet and already 5 Translate the examples. Then complete sentences 1-4 with just, yet or already. just, yet and already The course hasn’t finished yet. Has your English improved yet? I’ve already made lots of new friends. I’ve just met a Mexican boy. 1 We use .. in negative sentences and questions. 2 We always put at the end of the sentence. 3 We put... and ... before the past participle. 4 We use for something that has happened З?' recently. 6 Write sentences. Use the present perfect and the words in brackets. I / start / this exercise, (just) I've just started this exercise. 1 The class / not finish, (yet) 2 The teacher / give / us our homework, (already) 3 The bell / ring, (just) 4 We / not leave / the classroom, (yet) 5 The lunch break / begin, (already) 6 you / see / the last Harry Potter film? (yet) Present perfect and past simple 7 Match examples a-b to rules 1-2. present perfect and past simple a) He went to England three years ago. b) He’s been to England three times. 1 We use the present perfect for actions that happened at an unspecified time. 2 We use the past simple for actions that happened at a specified time. 8 Complete the sentences. Use the past simple and present perfect in each one. 1 We ... (learn) English for a long time. We .. (start) when we were six. 2 I . (live) here all my life. My parents . (move) here before I was born. 3 My mum ... (go) to England years ago, but she ... (not visit) the USA yet. 4 I ... (meet) some of my classmates before I came to this school. I ... (know) them since I was little. 5 I ... (see) all The Lord of the Rings films years ago, but I (not read) the books yet. 6 Our teacher (teach) in this school for years but she . (work) in Ireland when she was younger Speaking 9 Ask and answer about these experiences. Use the present perfect and past simple. go to England? read an English book? see an American film? meet a celebrity? Have you ever been to England? Yes, I have. ^ Where did you go? I went to Brighton. Г0Э~ Language Guide p43 > Vocabulary 2 British and American Engiish 1 Match the British and American words. Which ones can you see in the pictures? 1 film a) elevator 2 lift b) subway 3 holiday c) movie 4 city centre d) soccer 5 taxi e) awesome 6 amazing f) fries 7 football g) mall 8 shopping centre h) vacation 9 underground i) downtown 10 chips ]) cab 2 (Зт Listen and repeat. Pay attention to the American accent. 3 Complete the text with these words. cabs movie awesome downtown vacation elevator Welcome to New York! The Skyride is an (1) ... virtual tour of the Big Apple. To find us, just take the (2) ... to the second floor of the Empire State Building. During the Skyride, you will ‘fly’ over (3) ... Manhattan. You’ll see the Statue of Liberty and the yellow (4) ... in Times Square. You’ll fly over Brooklyn Bridge and catch a game at the Yankee Stadium. All in just half an hour! Finally, you’ll have the opportunity to watch a short (5) ... about the Top Ten things to do while you’re on (6)... in New York. Listening A phone call 4 John’s spending the summer with his cousin Brad in the USA. Read the email. Where does Brad live? Hi Mum and Dad! I’ve only been here in the Big Apple for a week but it feels like ages. Yesterday we went to a baseball game and Brad’s team won. Call me soon and I’ll tell you all about it. John X PS Aunty Sarah and Uncle Tom send their love. 5 (Jill Listen to the phone conversation. Which three people do you hear? 1 Brad 4 John’s mum 2 John 5 Brad’s dad 3 Brad’s mum 6 John’s dad 6 ($13 Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 They’ve been to the Statue of Liberty / Empire State Building today They watched King Kong / Spiderman last night. The Yankees / New York Mets won the baseball game yesterday. They might go to watch American football / soccer next week. They’re going to a fast food restaurant / the mall with Brad’s friends tomorrow Culture today Could YOU Become a British Citizen? ■-Э- immigration Nowadays, if you want to become a British citizen, you have to pass a Citizenship test. The test contains 24 questions like these, about subjects such as history, politics, customs and geography If you answer 75% of the questions correctly, you pass the test. '1 Dariusz is delighted because he has just passed the test. ‘I had studied really hard,’ he says. ‘A few months before the test. I’d bought a book called Life in the UK: A journey to Citizenship. I read it about a hundred times!’ Dariusz is from Poland originally, and he’s been in Britain for three years now His English is very good because he’s studied it since he was at school. Tm so happy. It’s amazing - I can’t stop smiling!’ 1 cCin Read and listen. How many of the questions in the text can you answer? 2 Find words in the text to match these definitions. 1 a resident of a country 2 traditions or habits 3 very happy 4 sad because something went badly 5 a place where people live temporarily because there’s a war in their country Last year, about 400000 British people emigrated. The most common destinations were Australia, New Zealand, France and Spain. The same year, about 591 000 immigrants arrived in the UK from countries such as Poland, India, China and Pakistan. Test yourself! Do you know the answer to these questions? • When are the Patron Saints’ days of England, Scotland and Wales? • At what age do children finish compulsory education? Do men and women have equal political rights? • Where do people speak with a Cockney accent? • What is the NHS? Imana from Somalia wasn’t so lucky. She took the test a few days ago, but she didn’t pass. ‘I was very disappointed,’ she says. ‘I hadn’t used a computer much before, and that was a problem because you have to take the test on the computer ’ Imana has only been in Britain since November.'She had been in a refugee camp for a year before she came here. ‘I know my English isn’t very good yet,’ she adds. ‘But when I showed the test questions to some of my English friends, they didn’t know all the answers either!’ Are these sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 1 The Citizenship test has got 75 questions. 2 It’s about all aspects of life in the UK. 3 Dariusz was well-prepared for the test. 4 He has only studied English for a year. 5 Imana didn’t have much experience with computers. 6 She has been in Britain for many years. Your voice Answer the questions. 1 Do you think the Citizenship test is a good idea? 2 Is there a Citizenship test in your country? 3 Write five questions that you would include in the test in your country. BIG DEBATE Workbook pi 27 у Grammar 2 Past perfect 1 Look at the table and answer the questions. 1 What form is the verb after had / hadn't? 2 What tense is the verb after before? past perfect We use the past perfect to talk about an activity in the past that happened before another activity. 'had I HfldrTtjo [з+ past participle Dariusz had bought a book before he did the test. Imana had been in a refugee camp. She hadn’t used a computer much. Had Dariusz prepared for the test? Yes, he had. / No, he hadn’t. 2 Choose the correct words. 1 Imana hadn’t learnt / didn’t learn English before she arrived in Britain. Before he took the test, Dariusz prepared / had prepared well. When Imana left the refugee camp, the war in her country didn’t end / hadn’t ended yet. Dariusz had worked here for three years, so he didn’t have / hadn’t had a problem with the test. Complete the sentences with the past simple or past perfect form of the verbs in brackets. 1 Had you already learnt English before you (come) to this school? Which other books you (use) before you bought this one? Before you started this school year, you already .. (meet) your English teacher? Where had your parents lived before they ... (move) to your current house? Pronunciation: [h] a (Sm Listen and repeat. had hadn’t have haven’t hold hands b (Slz] Listen and practise saying the sentence. Harry and Helen hadn’t held hands before. Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct answers. finished Daisy Miller (1)... you heard of a novel called 'Daisy Miller'? It's about an American girl called Daisy who travels to Europe in the 1890s. I (2) the bookyet - l (3) .. the third chapter. Daisy was having a great time in Europe. She (4) . there before, so everything was new and exciting. When Daisy was in Switzerland, she met a young man called winterbourne, in those days, everything was more formal So Daisy shocked people when she agreed to go sightseeing with Winterbourne, because they had only (5) .. each other (6)... half an hour! In this book, Henry James (7) about the cultural differences between Europeans and Americans. More than a century has passed (8) Henry James wrote the story, but I think that there are still a lot of misunderstandings between people from different countries! 1 a) Did b) Have c) Had 2 a) hasn’t b) haven’t c) didn’t 3 a) ’ve just read b) just have read c) read hav 4 a) didn’t go b) hadn’t been c) wasn’t 5 a) knew b) known c) knows 6 a) since b) yet c) for 7 a) write b) wrote c) written 8 a) for b) since c) just 2 (SHI Listen and check. Language Guide p43 > Daisy Miller by Henry James Writing dossier A language learning experience 1 Complete the text with these words. had went was like studying learnt Learning Russian I've learnt Russian for four years, since I (1)... 11 years old. I remember my first Russian teacher - his name was Mr Carr. He was English but he spoke Russian fluently because he (2).. lived in Moscow. Last year I (3)... to Russia for the first time. My teacher organised an exchange trip to Saint Petersburg. My penfriend's name was Yura Granin. I had never met a real Russian before! I (4)... a lot of Russian while I was staying with his family, and I had a fantastic time there. Now I'm (5).. for my Russian GC5E at Newton Comprehensive School in Birmingham. We usually have three hours of Russian every week, including one hour of speaking practice. I (6)... learning a foreign language because you can talk to people when you go abroad on holiday. Look at the Language focus and translate the bold time expressions in sentences 1-6. Then match the sentences to tenses a-f. a) present continuous b) present simple c) present perfect d) past simple e) past perfect f) past continuous Language focus: tenses and time expressions 1 We often study grammar and vocabulary. 2 We're wridng a composition now 3 We used Macmillan dictionaries last year. 4 I spoke German while I was travelling in Germany 5 I've learnt French for eight years. 6 I'd never met an English person before I went to England. Л Read the sentences and find the time expressions. Then complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. What tense are they? I was learning French when I started to learn German 1 Our teacher... (work) here since 2007. 2 We hardly ever... (speak) Russian in class. 3 We (use) a different book at the moment. 4 I . (go) abroad three years ago. 5 My penfriend (not travel) abroad before he came here. Writing plan (X) Plan to write about your experiences of learning English. Answer these questions. 1 How long have you studied English? 2 Who was your first teacher? 3 Have you ever been to an English-speaking country, or met an English-speaking person? 4 Where do you learn English now? 5 Do you like learning English? Why? / Why not? (2) Write three paragraphs. Foiiow this pian, and use the modei to heip you. > Describe your memories of your first English teacher, or your English classes in the past. ^ Write about your most interesting language learning experiences. ^ Give information about your current studies. (3) Check your writing. / Use the present perfect with for or since. / Use the past perfect and past simple with before. / Check the irregular past forms and past participles on page 163. (4) Write the finai version and put it in your Dossier Dialogue builder An English speaking test Read the instructions for an English speaking test. What kind of questions do you think they will ask in part one? Write as many as possible with these words. Where How long What How many When The English School speaking test Part one Answer some general questions about yourself, your home and family, and your interests. Part two The examiner will give you a card with some instructions. You have one minute to prepare a task, then you have to talk for about one minute. 2 Read and listen. Which places In England has Vera visited? Teacher Vera Hello! First of all,-could you introduce yourself? Whereabouts in Russia are you from? Yes, where are you from exactly? And how long have you studied English? How long are you staying here in Liverpool? I see. Tell me a bit about your family. Thanks, Vera. Now I’m going to give you a card with some instructions. Yes, my name’s Vera. I’m 15 years old and I’m Russian. I’m sorry, could you repeat that, please? Oh, I was born in Voronezh, but now I live in Moscow For about eight years. This is my second time in England - I went to Brighton last year. For two weeks. I’m staying with an English family. Do you mean my family in Russia? Well, I’ve got two brothers who are 10 and 12. They haven’t been to England yet. OK. Thanks. Л 3 (CI3 Listen again and repeat. Imagine you are doing a speaking test at a language school in Britain. Prepare answers to the questions in the dialogue. Add two more questions from exercise 1 (ЗЙ] Listen to the second part of Vera’s speaking test. Which card did she have? Practise your dialogue. Hello! Could you introduce yourself? Yes, my name's A Describe an important decision that you have made in your life. • What was the decision? • When did you make it? • How did you feel afterwards? В UsefulexpresSiojlSJ Could you introduce yourself? Whereabouts in are you from? I’m sorry Could you repeat that, please? How long have you studied . ? Tell me a bit about Do you mean ? How long are you staying here in Describe your first experiences of staying away from home. • When was it? • Where did you go? • How did you feel? 7 С^Гз^ Listen again. Take notes to answer the questions on Vera’s card. 8 Your voice imagine you are doing part two of the test. Prepare vour answers to ^ Language Guide Vocabulary Body language frown gesticulate hold hands head British and American English British amazing chips city centre film football holiday lift shopping centre taxi underground shoulders American awesome fries downtown movie soccer vacation elevator mall cab subway Dictionary extra! cabbage (n) ★ homesick (adj) citizen (n) ★ ★ ★ hunt (n) ★ citizenship (n) ★ miss (v) ★ ★ ★ Cockney (adj) patron saint (n) compulsory (adj) ★ ★ refugee (n) ★ ★ delighted (adj) ★ ★ right (n) ★ ★ ★ heated (adj) ★ snore (v) Useful expressions Could you introduce yourself? I’m sorry Could you repeat that, please? Whereabouts in ... are you from? Where are you from exactly? How long have you studied ..? How long are you staying here in Tell me a bit about Do you mean ? .42 I * h I » I $ Ш Ы Ш Ш Ш Ш й Grammar Present perfect with for and since о We use the present perfect with for when we mention the period or length of time of a situation. I've been here for two weeks, о We use the present perfect with since when we mention the point of time when a situation started. I've spent every summer here since l was 13. о We use How long .. ? with the present perfect to ask about the duration of an action or a situation. How long have you been in England? How long has your teacher taught at this school? just, yet and already о We use just in the affirmative to talk about something we have done a short time before the moment of speaking, о It goes between the auxiliary verb and the main verb. I've just spoken to my parents on the phone. о We use yet to describe a period of time up to now. о We use it in negative sentences to talk about something that hasn’t been done up to the moment of speaking, and we use it in questions to ask if something has been done. о Yet goes at the end of negative sentences and questions. The lesson hasn't finished yet. Have you done your homework yet? о We use already in the affirmative to talk about something that we have done, о It goes between the auxiliary verb and the main verb. I've already beeri to London. Present perfect and past simple О We use the present perfect for situations when the time period is not finished. I've lived here all my life, о We use the past simple for completed actions in the past, when the time period is finished. Last weekend we went on a day trip to London. / Last weekend we have been on a day trip to London. Л Past perfect affirmative I / You / He /She / It / We / They had studied really hard. negative I / You / He/She / It/ We / They hadn’t bought the book. questions Had I / you / he /she / it / we / they used a computer before? short answers Yes, I / you / he / she / it / we / they had. No, I / you / he / she / it / we / they hadn’t. We use the past perfect for actions in the past which happened before another action. 2nd action: Irma took the test a few days ago. 1st action: She hadn't used a computer before. We form the past perfect with subject + had + past participle. Danil had studied very hard to pass the exam. Grammar bank -»Workbook p103 У Progress check Body language 1 Complete the sentences with these words. shake your head gesticulate frown laugh wink nod kiss shake hands 1 You . with your hands or arms when you want to emphasize something. You if you agree with something. You with one eye. You usually ... people twice to say hello. You . . if you disagree with something. People in England often when they meet someone. You ... if you are worried or annoyed. People .. when something is very funny British and American Engiish 2 Write the pairs of British and American words. film = movie film football taxi lift chips holiday underground cab fries subway movie soccer vacation elevator Present perfect with for and since 3 Complete the sentences with for or since. They’ve lived in the USA six years. I’ve been at this school ... I was 12. The UK has been in the EU .. a long time. Maria hasn’t felt well yesterday. We’ve been here an hour They haven’t been to Britain . 2005. just, yet and already 4 Order the words to make sentences. started / just / I’ve / exercise / this, already / We’ve / this / grammar / studied, teacher / yet / arrived / The / hasn’t, test / The / started / just / has. finished /1 / this / yet / exercise / haven’t, had / already / We’ve / lunch. Present perfect and past simple Complete the questions. Use the preser perfect or past simple. How long ... (you / live) here? When (you / start) at this school? (you / ever visit) France? Where (you / go) on holiday last yea How long (you / know) your best trie Where (you / meet) your best friendl 6 Answer the questions in exercise 5. Past perfect 7 Complete the text with the past simple c past perfect form of the verbs In bracke Emma (1) (not go) abroad before she vi on a school exchange to France. In fact, s (2) (not spend) more than a weekend away from home before. At first, she was < nervous. Before she (3) (go), her paren had told her to phone as often as she wan But then she wasn’t homesick at all, and s (4) (have) a great time. The only bad th was when they had snails for dinner She (5) (never eat) snails before! Cumulative grammar i 2 з 4 s e 8 Choose the correct words. Russia's English Camp (1) Did you know / Were you knowim there’s a place in Russia (2) where / \ everyone speaks English'? People (3) go / there to practise their language skills - hun of Russian people have (4) yet / already the experiment. Masha has been there (i / since two weeks and she (6) has /’s hj a great time. ‘I’d studied English at school (7) didn’t / hadn't used it in real life,’ she ‘It’s great. I (81 ’d 've learnt so much an met some wonderful people!’ ят Vocabulary Find a word for each picture. eyelashes wool hug glasses sunglasses wink eyebrows shake hands American handbag Internet romance arms T-shirt ice cream newspaper i Reading 1 Read the text. Why is 16th June a significant day? Give three reasons. Ireland s liter If you ever find yourself in the centre of Dublin on 16th June, you might be surprised to see a lot of people wearing very old-fashioned clothes. That’s because this is ‘Bloomsday’ an annual celebration of the life of James Joyce. Joyce was a famous Irish author who wrote poems, short stories and autobiographical novels. On this day every year, people from all around the world come to Dublin to remember him. One of Joyce’s most famous books is Ulysses. The protagonist of this novel is called Leopold Bloom, and that’s why people celebrate ‘Bloomsday’ The novel describes in detail the events of one single day; 16th June 1904. In real life, this was a very important day for James Joyce. It was the day he met the woman who later became his wife - Nora Barnacle. Although James Joyce wrote all his books about Ireland, he and Nora didn’t stay there. Their spirit of adventure took them to Italy, Switzerland and France. They were living in Paris when the Second World War began. James Joyce died about a year later, in 1941 Joyce’s work has inspired writers of every generation since then, and Ulysses is considered to be one of the great classics of 20th century literature. 2 Read the text again and answer the questions 1 What did James Joyce write? 2 Why is the celebration called Bloomsday? 3 Who was Nora Barnacle? 4 Did James Joyce spend his whole life in Ireland? 5 Where was he living in 1939? 6 Has James Joyce’s work had an effect on other writers? Listening (^[m Listen to a tour guide taiking about another famous irish writer. Choose the correct answers. 1 Bram Stoker wrote ... a) Frankenstein. b) The Hound of the Baskervilles. c) Dracula. 2 As well as novels, Bram Stoker also wrote . a) comics and graphic novels. b) short stories and non-fiction. c) fairytales. 3 Bram Stoker was born in ... a) Belfast. b) Cork. c) Dublin. 4 At university he studied ... a) literature, b) maths. c) drama. 5 Bram Stoker travelled the world ... a) with his wife and son. b) as part of his job as an actor’s Personal Assistant. c) to research his novels. 6 The author died in ... a) 1912. b) 1922. c) 1992. Speaking 4 Work in pairs. Ask and answer. Which books do you study in Literature at school? What are you reading at the moment in your free time? J^Can you name any authors who are famous in your country? ^ Have you ever read a book in English? Have you ever been to Ireland? ^ Do you know the name of any cities in Ireland? What is the capital of Ireland? Project t You’re going to do a project about Ireland, j Listen to your teacher’s instructions. Grammar Present simple and present continuous 1 Complete the text with the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. St Patrick’s Day In Dublin, people (1) ... (have) street parties every year on St Patrick’s Day. Processions (2) ... (go) through the city centre, and people often (3) ... (wear) fancy dress costumes. The people in this picture (4) ... (wear) green T-shirts. They (5) ... (celebrate) St Patrick’s Day with all their friends. It often (6) ... (rain) in Ireland but fortunately it (7) ... (not rain) here at the moment. The sun (8) ... (shine) and everyone (9) ... (have) a great time! Past perfect 4 Complete the sentences with the past perfect form of these verbs. read not travel learn not eat tell Before I flew to Cork, I ... by plane before. I ... a book about the country before I went. Before I arrived, I... a few Gaelic words. I .. Irish stew before I went to Ireland. People . . me to take an umbrella! Past simple and past continuous Relative pronouns 2 Choose the correct words. 1 While my brother visited / was visiting Ireland, he stayed with relatives in Dublin. He was having a snack with our cousin when he met / was meeting his girlfriend. While they chatted / were chatting he discovered that she played the fiddle. He was learning to play the drums when they met / were meeting. While they talked / were talking about their plans, they decided to start a band. 5 Complete the sentences with who, which or where. 1 Past simple and present perfect Irish is a Gaelic language . is spoken by many Irish people. Irish stew is a celebrated Irish dish ... is made from lamb, or mutton and vegetables. Sinead O’Connor is an Irish singer .. was born in Dublin. Brandon Bay is a great beach . . you can go surfing. Oscar Wilde was the Irish writer .. wrote The Picture of Doricm Gray Complete the postcard with the past simple or present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Error correction Find and correct one error in each sentence. Greetings from Killarney! We (1)... (arrive) in Ireland last Saturday and we (2)... (spend) three days in Dublin. Then we (3)... (drive) down hereto Killarney three days ago. So far we (4)... (visit) the national park and the Dingle Peninsula. It's beautiful, but the weatherisn'tgreat. We (5) ... (notclimb) any mountains yet, but Mum and Dad (6) ... (just/ return) from a walk in the rain. Hope it's sunny where you are! viona XX My dad hardly ever is wearing jeans. I’ve had these trousers since ages. I wear a tie-dyed T-shirt today. My best friend is a person which is always laughing. He’s been to Ireland three years ago. I haven’t read an autobiography before I read this one. They was smiling when I took the photo. He’s just wink at me! tSSfgsm МД1.1ЯЩиЦ1 (ЗШ Listen and read. Then act out the sketch in groups. CHARACTERS Special Agent Green Special Agent Brown Nick Todd A police investigator A police investigator A young man Mrs Bird Mr Bird Alien \A)ice Nick’s elderly neighbour Her elderly husband In Mr and Mrs Bird's living room Green Mr Bird Brown Mrs Bird Mr Bird Mrs Bird Green Mr Bird Green Brown Mrs Bird Green Brown Mr Bird Green Mrs Bird Brown Mrs Bird Mr Bird Mrs Bird Green Mr Bird Brown You say you saw a spaceship and it was sitting in your neighbour’s garden. Is that right? Yes. We were watching television and suddenly we saw a red light coming in through the window. And what did the spaceship do next? It floated in the air for a moment, over the garden - isn’t that right, John? Yes, it did, dear. And then it came down in our neighbour’s garden. There. Right in front of the garage! OK. So the spaceship parked in front of the garage. Yes, it did. We thought we were dreaming! We tried to telephone the police, but our phone had stopped working. Curious .. [cynically] Very curious. So, what did this spaceship look like? It was dark green with red lights. It didn’t have any windows. It wasn’t enormous. I’d say just a little bigger than a caravan. [taking notes] OK ... a caravan with no windows. So after the spaceship had landed, what happened next? A figure appeared. We didn’t see a door, but we saw a figure. Like a person, but purple with blue legs. And it had long, blue hair and a silver headband or something. Purple and blue? Hmm. Long, blue hair... headband ... and are you completely sure? We both saw it, officer. As clear as day What did this .. figure do? It rang on our neighbour’s front door - and then it pushed it open, and walked in! We haven’t seen our neighbour since then! We’ve seen pizzas arrive, but we haven’t seen our neighbour for two days. You saw this two days ago and you’ve only just called us today? Our phone wasn’t working until today and we don’t go out very often. Uhuh. Fine. Thank you. Two minutes later, next door Nick [speaking on the phone in his half]... and she’s just wonderful! She’s got beautiful Green Nick Green Nick Brown Nick Green Brown Nick Brown Nick Green Nick Brown Nick Brown Nick Brown Green Nick Alien Nick hair, amazing eyes. I haven’t learnt her language yet, but [sound of doorbell]. Ohoh! The door Speak to you later, yeah? Mr Todd? Yes? I’m Special Agent Green. And this is Special Agent Brown. We’re from Hatton Valley Police - Special Investigations Department. [alarmed] Really? How can I help? We have reason to believe that there was a strange vehicle parked in front of your garage two days ago. [surprised] Was there? [referring to his notes] We understand that it was dark green, with red lights. And ... urn ... an unusual person came out of the vehicle. Do you know anything about this incident? A strange person and a dark green vehicle? Two days ago? Urn That’s right. Ah! They brought my Christmas tree two days ago. On the roof of a van. It’s a big tree, so it covered the van! [surprised] On the roof of course! And was the person who brought the tree wearing purple? Did they have long, blue hair? [laughs loudly] It’s OK. It was a girl! She did have long hair, yes - and she was wearing a large, purple anorak. And a silver headband? Mm, well, I think she was listening to an MP3 player With big headphones. Well, thank you very much for your help. Sorry to have taken up your time. Not at all. No problem. Bye now! [sighs] Another case of two old people who read too much science fiction and need new glasses! Yes. Come on. It’s cold out here! [walking away] [in a hushed whisper] You can come out now, they’ve gone! VVhat were we talking about? Dru varan . . my ... mm ... travels .. Oh yes! Have you been on Earth before? What do you eat? ■■■ Unit contents: Vocabulary Job sectors; personal qualities Grammar will, be going to, and present continuous for future; gerunds and infinitives Skills Read about options for British students at 16+ Listen to an interview for a part-time job Write a formal letter Practise making arrangements on the phone Across the curriculum Geography Culture today Which Way Next? L I # Which exams do British students take at the age of 16? a) SATs b) GCSEs c) A-Levels Sam is 16. He'd like a part-time job as a shop assistant. Which job sector is he going to work in? a) business b) retail c) law in your opinion, what jobs should be best-paid? Why? What would you like to be? Vocabulary 1 Job sectors 1 <3H] Listen and repeat. Which job sectors can you see in the pictures? education business catering law agriculture engineering construction the performing arts the media tourism retail health and social care Recycle Check the meaning of these jobs. How many more can you write in two minutes? chef lawyer shop assistant journalist builder farmer teacher dancer Complete the sentences with the words from exercise 1. 1 Jane is studying economics at university. She wants to work in . . . 2 Mark enjoys travelling and he can speak four languages. He wants to work in ... . 3 Emma is studying journalism. She’s going to work in .. . 4 Lee loves cooking. He wants to work in .... 5 Gemma’s at the National Theatre School. She wants to find a job in ... . 6 Rob’s training to be a primary school teacher. He’s going to work in .. Reading Speaking 4 (Sill Read and listen. Which of the different choices would you prefer: A, В or C? 5 Complete the sentences with names from the text. 1 ... is going to do an apprenticeship. 2 ... is going to study A-Levels. 3 ... is going to do work experience. 4 In the future, ... will be a plumber. 5 ... thinks he’ll go to university. 6 ... isn’t sure what he’ll do in the future. Ask and answer about the job sectors. Use these reasons and your own ideas. • the money • the working environment • the hours • work colleagues • holidays • job satisfaction ^ Would you like to work in catering? ^ No, I wouldn't.The hours are long and the money isn't great. Compound adjectives Compound adjectives have got two parts. We join them with a hyphen. a five-star hotel, am easy-goimg persom 6 WORDS СШ1ШТ Find compound adjectives in the text to match these definitions. Vocabulary plus Workbook p119 1 studious, or serious at work 2 occupies only part of the week 3 a job that has a good salary 4 occupies all the working week щщт^: 16+ Vour future ... your choice! ooo §0© ШЭ 0®ВШ iSIiXS ©(«Йаш A Further Education ~nere are two options: ® Apprenticeships 0Empioyment A-Levels ~'€se are the qualifications that ii j need to go to university. Most reople study three or four subjects. Vocational Courses If you do an apprenticeship, you learn a trade and do part-time study. There are apprenticeships in areas like agriculture, catering, tourism and construction. The minimum wage for 16-yeai olds is £3.40 an hour. ’^cu can take a certificate in areas s-jch as business, health and =>ocial care, or performing arts. Apprentices earn at least £80 a week. If you’re not sure about what you want to do, you can take a e2e course. This is a training programme which also gives у work experience. Then you car apply for a full-time job when you’re ready. Alison Sam Gary Next year I’m going id fake Й-Levels af school. I'm not fhe most hard-working sfudenf but I hope I'll pass my exams in fhe end! й^ffer fhaf, I'm going fo fake a gap year. Then t fhink I'll sfudy Languages af I'm sfarfing an apprenficeship nexf monfh, affer my GCSEs. I wanf a well-paid job. so I'm going fo be I don'f know whaf I wanf do when I leave school, so going fo do an eZe course. universify. a plumber! I know I won'f be fhe only girl on fhe course because fwo of my friends are doing if foo. I'll have fhe chance fo do some work experience af a recording sfudio. Thaf'll be greaf because I love music! Glossary GCSEs = General Certificate of Secondary Education A-Levels = Advanced Levels ■ e2e = Entry to Employ Read the text again and answer the questions. 8 Your voice Answer the questions. How many A-Levels do most people take? Can you take a Vocational Certificate in performing arts? Do apprentices study full-time? How much do apprentices earn? How much is the minimum wage for 16-year-olds? What is an e2e course? dh What choices have you got at the age of 16 How many subjects do people usually study in your country between the ages of 16 and 18? Is there a minimum wage for 16-year-olds ir your country? What are you going to do when you finish your compulsory education? What do you think you will do when you’re 18 years old? Across the curriculum Geography-» pi36 Grammar 1 will, be going to and present continuous for future 1 Read the examples and complete sentences 1-3 with will, be going to or present continuous.’ will be going to present continuous i + I I Gary thinks he’ll go to university. + Sam’s going to do an e2e course. + Alison is starting an apprenticeship next month. г He won’t study maths. - He isn’t going to get a job. - She isn’t staying at school next yea I ? Will he travel in the future? Yes, he will. / No, he won’t. ? Is he going to do work experience? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t. ? Are her friends staying at school? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. 1 We use ... for future plans and intentions. 2 We use ... for predictions. 3 We use ... for definite plans and arrangements in the future. I Complete the dialogue with will or won't and the verbs in brackets. Anna What job (1) ... you ... (have) when you’re older? Jamie I’m not sure. I (2) ... (not work) in catering because I can’t cook! Maybe I (3) .. (get) a job in tourism - I’m really interested in travel. What about you? What job do you think you (4).. (get)? Anna I think I (5)... (have) a job in the media because I’m interested in current affairs. Maybe I (6) . (become) a journalist or a newspaper editor but I (7). (not work) for a gossip magazine - they’re awful! i Write predictions about your future. Use I (don't) think I'll. and these ideas. 1 pass my school-leaving exams 2 go to university 3 take a gap year 4 get a good job 5 be an English teacher 6 earn a lot of money Pronunciation: understanding fast speech a (°Ш1 When we say going to quickly, it sounds like gonna. Listen and repeat. I’m going to study harder, (normal) I’m gonna study harder, (fast) b (Сзб1 Listen. Are the sentences normal or fast? 4 Read Alison’s New Year’s resolutions. Write sentences with be going to. She's going to study harder My New Year's resolutions / study harder / find out about apprenticeships / make an appointment with the careers adviser / save up to buy a car / go to the gym / not eat chocolate! Are your New Year’s resolutions the same as Alison’s? Write sentences with I'm (not) going to. Then add three new resolutions. I'm going to study harder too. I'm not going to Write questions. Use the present continuous for future. 1 What time / you / go home / today? 2 What / you / do / this evening? 3 Where / you / go / next weekend? 4 Who / cook your dinner / this evening? 5 When / you / go on holiday? Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 6. сШ Language Guide p59 > Vocabulary 2 Personal qualities 1 Check the meaning of the bold words and expressions. Then match 1-10 with a-j. 1 She’s very punctual. 2 He’s really reliable. 3 She’s very mature. 4 She’s very fit. 5 He’s clever. 6 She’s very outgoing. 7 I’m quite ambitious. 8 My boss has got a good sense of humour. 9 She works well in a team. 10 He isn’t very experienced. a) You can count on him. b) He passed all his exams. c) She’s always on time. d) I know what I want, and I’m going to get it! e) She seems older than her age. f) He hasn’t done this kind of work before. g) She always goes to the gym. h) She likes working with other people. i) She’s an extrovert! j) He’s always telling jokes. 2 (^Гзт1 Listen and repeat. 3 Look at the three job vacancies. What are the jobs? Listening A job interview 5 (Зт Listen to the job interview. Which of the three jobs in exercise 3 is it for? 6 ЗИ] Listen again and complete the missing information in the application form. Job Application Form Personal details Name (/)... Smith Address 15 Queens "Road, Cambhdqe (2.) Telephone 01865 (3)... Age (H)... Education School Cambridge Community School Qualifications Im taking (5)... Ci^SCs this year. Employment history / currently work at the Saville Restaurant on (6) ... evenings and (1) ... . Job preferences (please tick) (8) П waiter/waitress D chef D kitchen assistant 7 Answer the questions. 1 What is she going to do next year? 2 Is she going to go to university after that? 3 How long has she worked in a restaurant? 4 Why does she want to change her job? 5 What does she enjoy most about her job? Games tester wanted (preferably aged 15-17) Experience, enthusiasm and a love of games essential! Email for an interview. The Latte Cafe is looking for experienced part-time waiters/waitresses and kitchen assistants. Must be punctual and work well in a ^^team. Phone for an interview. Do you want a career in the media? Young person needed m going to be famous one day! Nyasha oung person needed to present music show on TV. No experience required but must be reliable and outgoing ^31102^456987 for an audition. In your opinion, which person suits each job? Use the words from exercise 1 to give your reasons. I think Nyasha would be a good candidate for job 2. She looks outgoing, and she's ambitious. I don't go out much. I prefer playing computer games. Wayne like working with other people. Culture today Doing work experience WHICH WAY NEXT? Can’t decide what kind of work experience to do? Try our quiz - it’ll help you to decide! 1 Ъ What’s your favourite subject at school? a) Geography, Biology, PE or Foreign Languages b) Art, Drama, Music or Creative Writing c) Maths, Economics or IT 2> What do you enjoy doing in your free time? a) I love socialising, travelling and keeping fit. b) I’m interested in photography, fashion and music. c) I like playing on the computer, reading, or playing chess. Are you a team player? a) Yes, definitely. I enjoy being with people -helping others, or working in a team. b) Not really. I prefer to be the centre of attention! c) I don’t mind working in a team, but I’d rather be the boss. In England and Wales, all students have to do two weeks of work experience in Year 10 or 11. This can be in many different places, such as a library, hair salon, or office. You don’t earn any money, but you learn new skills and get experience of the working world. How creative are you? a) I’m not very good at drawing and I usually avoid singing at all costs! b) I’m pretty good at making things a I’m learning to play an instrument. c) I’m more logical than creative. I lik problem-solving. Are you planning to join the rat rac a) Definitely not. I don’t want to wear a suit or be a commuter. b) No way! I’d rather work at home, о travel the world. c) Probably. I want to work in an offic 6^ Do you want to ‘get rich quick’? a) No, I won’t need to make a lot of m Job satisfaction is more important. b) Definitely. I’m planning to be famoi it’ll be easy to get rich. c) I’m very ambitious but I’m not a risi taker. I’ll be happy with an excellen salary! Mostly a You’re a ‘people person’. You could try a caring profession such as health or social work, or something in the field of tourism, sport or education. Mostly b You’re aiming for the bright lights! How about a career in the media or performing arts? Just don’t be disappointed if you can’t reach the stars. Mostly c You’re a lateral thinker Perhaps you’ll decide to follow a career in law, business or computing. Work hard and aim high! Read and listen to the text. Then do the quiz and check your answers. Do you agree with the suggestions? Compare your results with a classmate. Are you surprised by his/her answers? Your voice Is work experience a good idea? Make a list of advantages and disadvantages Advantages: it looks good on your CV, Disadvantages: you have to get up earlier, @ the BIG DEBATE Workbook p128 Grammar 2 Gerunds and infinitives 1 Translate examples 1-6. Book comer gerunds and infinitives We use gerunds . • after verbs for likes/dislikes love enjoy like hate can't stand enjoy being with people, after some verbs avoid practise I usually avoid singing! after prepositions I’m not very good at drawing. Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct answers. 1 I Ann 'Л47»и ЙГ sincm: did you admi me/0! myimiYrtinenec’' Kath Ann We use infinitives ... • to explain the objective of an action 4 You should speak to a careers advisor to get more advice. • after some verbs wcmt help need plan decide learn 5 I want to work in an office. • after adjectives 6 It’s easy to get rich when you’re famous! Kath Ann Kath Ann Complete the sentences with the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs in brackets. Kath Ann 1 What do you want .. (do) when you leave school? Do you enjoy (work) in a team? The perfect job is difficult .. (find). You should practise (answer) questions before you go to an interview Are you thinking about (work) with children? Some people do voluntary work (get) some experience first. Kath Ann Kath Ann Your voice Complete the sentences for you. Use gerunds or infinitives. What (1) do you study / are you studying for your English GCSE? Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Are you enjoying (2) reading / to read it? It’s OK, but it isn’t very easy (3) understanding / to understand. Have you seen the film yet? No, I haven’t. But we’re going (4) to watch / watch it next week in class. Good idea. It (5) ’ll help / is helping you to understand the story. Yes, I hope so! So, what do you think - will Elizabeth (6) to marry / marry Darcy in the end? Hmm. I’m not sure. Obviously, she wants (7) to be / being happy. She isn’t just planning (8) to find / finding a rich husband, like her sisters. Well, girls couldn’t work in those days. That’s why they needed (9) to find / finding rich men! Yes, I suppose so. I’m glad it isn’t like that now. Well, enjoy the film. Don’t worry, I (10) won’t / don’t tell you how it ends! 2 Listen and check. I enjoy I usually avoid . In the future, I want I’m going to learn .. I’m not very good at I don’t find it easy рШ Language Guide p59 > Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen Writing dossier A formal letter 1 Read the job advert and the letter Why is Liam interested in this job? Why is he a good candidate? City Tourist Information Centre 12 West Way Liverpool LI 7FX 64 Kings Road Liverpool L3 4FE 18th June Liverpool Daily News The City Tourist Information Centre is looking for a Part-time Assistant (16+) Saturdays and/or Sundays £4/hour Send CV and cover letter to Mr Sam Wright, 12 West Way, Liverpool, LI 7F. Dear Mr Wright, I am writing to apply for the position ot Part-time Assistant at the City Tourist Information Centre, whieh was advertised reeently in the Liverpool Daily News. I am very interested in this job beeause 1 hope to do a degree in Tourism in the future. I already have some experienee in this area beeause last summer I worked as a tour guide in the city centre, which I really enjoyed. I am hard-working and reliable, and I enjoy working with people. 1 also speak some French and German. I enclose my CV and would be happy to provide references on request. 1 would be available to work on Saturdays or Sundays. Thank you for considering my application. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Liam Simpson 2 Look at the Language focus and answer the questions. 1 Where do you put the address of the person you’re writing to? How do you start a letter when you don’t know the person’s name? How do you finish a letter when you know the person’s name? Language focus: organization of formal letters о Don’t use contractions in formal letters, о Write your address at the top right, and write the other person’s address to the left, о When you know the person’s name, begin and end: DearA/Ir/A/lrs..., Yours smeerely, о When you don’t know the person’s name, begin and end: DecirSir//\/lcidcim, Yours faithfully, о Sign the letter and then write your full name. Match the parts of the formal letter phrases. Then translate them into your language. I am writing to I hope to I enjoy I look forward to Thank you for a) working as part of a team. b) hearing from you. c) apply for the post of waiter d) considering my application. e) study catering in the future. Writing plan (D Plan a letter to apply for th job. Look at the advert anc answer these questions. 1 Where was the job advertised? 2 Why are you interested ir this job? 3 What relevant qualities he you got? www.jobs4u.com Saturday jobs at Music Mania We're looking for Customer Assistants to work 9:00 - 5:30 Apply to Music Mania, The High Street, Foxton, CM79DH Write a first version. Organ your work into three paragraphs. your reason for writing: wh you saw the job advert your reasons for applying; why you are a good candidate for the job mention your CV; thanks c closing greetings > Check your writing. / Write both addresses correctly / Include the date. / Use the correct opening a closing greetings. / Check that you’ve used gerunds and infinitives correctly. / Include at least two perso qualities. (4) Write the final version and it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Arranging an interview 1 Look at part of Liam’s CV. Can he speak French? 2 (^ElI Someone phones Liam to invite him for an interview. Read and listen. When is the interview? Qualifications GCSE English (B), Maths (B), Art & Design (A), Music (A), French (B), Science (C), ICT (B), History (B) Work experience June-September 2013 Liverpool City Tours Tour guide Assistant (part-time summer job) Sam Liam < Hello, could I speak to Liam, please? Oh, hi. This is Sam Wright, from the City Tourist Information Centre. You applied for a job with us recently, and we’d like to invite you for an interview. Would Saturday morning be all right? Can you come at 9.30? See you then. We look forward to meeting you. Speaking. Oh, yes. Hello! Oh, great! When do you want me to come? Yes, that’s fine. What time? OK, that’s great. Thanks! Bye. J 3 (Jill Listen again and repeat. Imagine you are offered an interview for the job at Music Mania on page 56. Prepare a new dialogue. 6 Listen to another telephone conversation and answer the questions. Practise your dialogue. ^ Hello. Could I speak to ., please? ^ Speaking. Does Liam answer the phone? Why does Sam call Liam again? What day is Liam’s interview in the end? Where is the interview? iicgfulexpressionsj Could I speak to ? Speaking. We’d like to invite you for an interview. We look forward to meeting you. Language Guide Vocabulary Job sectors health and social care law Personal qualities retail the media the performing tourism arts ambitious clever experienced fit good sense of humour mature outgoing punctual reliable works well in a team Nyasha is outgoing and ambitious. Louise works well in a team. Dictionary extra! aim (n) ★★★ apprenticeship (n) avoid (v) ★ ★ ★ creative (n) ★ ★ field (n) ★ ★ ★ follow (v) ★ ★ ★ full-time (adj) ★ ★ gap year (n) job satisfaction (n) logical (adj) ★ ★ part-time (adj) ★ ★ plumber (n) ★ problem-solving (n) trade (n) ★ ★ ★ wage (n) ★ ★ ★ Phrases: at all costs centre of attention L. Useful'expressions; Could I speak to please? Speaking. This is from . We’d like to invite you for an interview When do you want me to come? See you then. We look forward to meeting you. Grammar will, be going to and present continuous for future will 0 We use will or won't + infinitive without to to make predictions about the future. I'll have the chcmce to do some work experience. I won't be the only girl on the covirse. о We normally use contractions ('ll not will and won't not will not) when we speak, о We use will/won't for all persons. We don’t use -s in the third person. He will take that exam. / I ic wills take that exam. Л о We don’t use do/does in negative sentences. They won't earn a lot of money. / They don't will earn a lot of money-Л о In questions, the order is will / Won't + subject + infinitive without to. We don’t repeat the infinitive without to in short answers. Will the job be well-paid? Yes, it will. / No, it won't. be going to о We use be going to to talk about plans and intentions for the future, о To form sentences we use: subject -I- be + going to + infinitive without to. I'm going to be a plumber! Alison isn't going to take A-Levels. о In questions, the order is be + subject -i-going to + infinitive without to. We don’t repeat going to -i- infinitive without to in short answers. Are they going to take a gap year? Yes, they are. / No, they aren't. present continuous for future о We use the present continuous for definite plans and arrangements in the future. о We form the present continuous with subject + be + verb + -ing. I'm starting an apprenticeship next month. They aren't taking the exam in June, о In questions, the order is be + subject + verb + -ing. We don’t repeat verb + -ing in short answers. Is your friend doing the course too? Yes, he is. / No, he isn't. Gerunds and infinitives о Some verbs are followed by a gerund (verb + -Ing) I like swimming о Some verbs are followed by an infinitive form. I need to sleep, gerunds о When we talk about likes or dislikes, they are normally followed by the gerund. I enjoy playing the trumpet. I can't stand wearing a suit, о Other verbs also take this form, eg, avoid When you learn a new verb always check which form it uses in a dictionary and make a note of it. I avoid singing at all costs! о We also use the gerund after prepositions. I'm interested in studying photography, infinitives о Some verbs are followed by the infinitive, eg, want, help, need. Make a note of these when you come across them. I want to learn French. о We also use the infinitive after adjectives. It's difficult to commute to work every day. о We also use the infinitive to explain the reason or purpose for doing something. She took the job to make some money. Grammar bank-» Workbook p104 У щтят Progress check Job sectors 1 Complete the words with vowels and write them in your notebook. Then use them to complete the sentences. 1 _gr c_lt_r_ 4 c_nstr_ct _n 2 th_ m_d_____5 c t_r_ng 3 r t I 6 t r s m a) Ann is a newspaper editor. She works in .. . b) A farmer’s job sector is c) Chefs and waiters work in d) Sarah works part-time in a shop. She works in . e) Builders and architects are important people in f) People who enjoy travelling often work in .. Personal qualities 2 Complete the sentences with these words. ambitious outgoing punctual experienced reliable fit 1 People who are .. always do what they say. 2 People who are .. usually do lots of sport. 3 people aren’t shy at all. 4 people have clear objectives in life. 5 People who are . always arrive on time. 6 People who are ... have done a similar job before. Future tenses 3 Look at the information and write sentences about William. Use will or won't. William won't get rich. He will .. 60 4 Write questions with be going to. Then write true short answers. 1 you / do your homework / tonight? 2 your parents / move house / next year? 3 you / cook dinner / this evening? 4 it / rain / this afternoon? 5 you / walk to school / tomorrow? 6 your teacher / correct this test? 5 Complete the dialogue. Use the correct for of the present continuous for future. Mum What (1) (you / do) this weekend? Ann Well, on Saturday I (2) . . (meet) Sarah town. We (3). (have) lunch. Then I think we (4) .. (go) to the cinema. Mum (5) (Sarah / come) here for dinner? Ann No, she isn’t. They (6).. (celebrate) he grandma’s 60th birthday later Mum Oh, that’s nice. (7) . (they / have) a party? Ann No, they aren’t. They (8) .. (have) a family meal together Gerunds and infinitives 6 Complete the text with the correct form of tl verbs in brackets. My brother Toby wants (1) (be) a chef because he really enjoys (2) . (cook). He ofte practises (3).. (make) new dishes at home, like lasagne and risotto. He’s very good at (4) (bake) cakes too. Toby knows that it isn' easy (5) (open) your own restaurant, but he determined (6) . (be) a famous chef one day! Cumulative grammar 11>2>3)4>5>6^ 7 Choose the correct words. Unusual Jobs Chris Skaife's job is unique. He’s the ‘Ravenmaster’ in the world! Chris (1) look / к after the ravens - those big, black birds - a Tower of London. He (2) ’d / ’s had this (3) since / for 2011 and he really (4) loves loving it. ‘Although I don’t like (5) to get / get up at five o’clock in the morning, I plan (6) stay! to stay here,’ says Chris. ‘I (7) ’m /’s not goir look for a new job, so I think I’ll (8) be / to be 1 until I retire!’ (9) There are / Are six ravens at Tower and they’re very important. The lec (10) is saying / says that if the ravens disapp England will fall. li 3 f' 4 i. When we say GM food we mean a) generally meaningless food. b) genetically modified food. c) generally modulated food. CO2 is dangerous for the environment because it causes the earth’s temperature to increase. What is CO2? a) carbon monoxide b) carbon dioxide c) oxygen In some parts of the world, robots are already very popular in homes as well as factories. Which continent has got 50% of the world’s robots? a) Europe b) Africa c) Asia Dolly was the first cloned animal in 1996. What was she? a) a pig b) a sheep c) a cow Vocabulary 1 21st century issues 1 (35з] Match pictures 1-8 with these words. Recycle Look at the world problems. Which two noun suffixes can you find? racism pollution immigration terrorism sexism malnutrition Then listen and repeat. oil solar power cloning flood global warming wind power gas GM (genetically modified) food 2 Find the words from exercise 1 to match these definitions. 1 A black liquid which is used for making petrol, plastic and chemicals. 2 The exact reproduction of living organisms. 3 A substance that is used as energy for cooking. 4 An increase in the world’s temperature. Reading Look at the pictures on page 63. Which one do you think is real? What can you see in the other picture? 6 Read and listen. Then complete the summary with these words. 3 Copy and complete the table with the words from exercise 1. tidal wave global warming floods homeless landmarks fossil fuels renewable energy oil genetic engineering climate change Flood is a disaster movie which considers the possible effects of (1) .... In the film, a huge (2) ... hits London. All the city’s (3) ... are under water. The (4) ... kill thousands of people, and millions are (5)... 4 Your voice Answer the questions. 1 Do people use renewable energy in your country? 2 Do people complain about the price of fossil fuels where you live? 3 Have you ever eaten GM food? Vocabulary plus Workbook pi 20 > WORDS Match 1-3 and a-c to make COXTEXT expressions from the text. Then translate them into your language. 1 Time 2 The tidal wave 3 A lot of places a) will be in real danger. b) is running out. c) is heading straight for London. 10 Ifs a bright sunny morning in London and Rob, an engineer at the Thames Barrier, has just returned from his holiday. He receives news of a hurricane in Scotland which has caused a giant tidal wave. Now, that huge wave is moving down the east coast and heading straight for London! Suddenly, the city’s famous landmarks are under six metres of water. Thousands of people are dead and millions are homeless. Time is running out for Rob to save the city from total disaster... Fortunately, this is just a film. But could it really happen? If the Thames Barrier failed, it would be a real disaster for London. And many scientists are starting to worry, if global warming continues, the consequences will be very serious. Many places along the British coast will be in real danger if the sea level continues to rise. While the film crew were making Flood, Hurricane Katrina destroyed the American city of New Orleans. So, perhaps it wasn’t just fiction after all. And then the film’s release in 2007 coincided with the wettest summer in British history. Floods devastated many parts of the country. Some areas of London were submerged under half a metre of water. If you saw the photos, you’d think it was just another disaster movie ... Fact... or fiction? 8 Are these sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 1 Rob is on holiday in Scotland when the flood happens. A hurricane caused the tidal wave. The Thames Barrier protects Scotland against natural disasters. Global warming is putting some British coastal regions in danger. They made this film a year after Hurricane Katrina. There were terrible floods in Britain in the summer of 2007 I ,rin Fact... or fiction? ...j i 9 Your voice Answer the questions. 1 Do you think it’s really possible that London will disappear in the future? If the sea level rose a lot, which cities in your country would be in danger? Can you think of any other consequences of global warming? Across the curriculum Science ^pi3s Grammar 1 First and second conditionals 1 Look at the table. In which case is the situation more probable, a or b? a) first conditional ^fjojopresent simple }ojo will / won't {ojoinfinitive If global warming continues, the consequences will be very serious. We use the first conditional to talk aboul a possible or probable situation in the future. b) second conditional If jo past simple jowould / wouldn*t}ojoinfinitive If the Thames Barrier failed, it would be a real disaster. Complete the first conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If the earth gets hotter, more countries (suffer) droughts. Southern Europe will become a desert if global warming ... (continue). If we ... (not do) something soon, this problem will get worse. People .. (die) if they can’t grow food. If the ice melts, polar bears (not survive). Complete the second conditional sentences with the correct form of these verbs. have live be build give 1 If we ... more money to Water Aid, they would be able to help more people. If Water Aid ... more wells, more people would have clean water. Their life ... better if they didn’t have to walk so far to collect water. If people ... clean water, they wouldn’t get ill so often. If they didn’t get ill, they . longer Choose the correct words in the conditional sentences. 1 If scientists find / found a cure for AIDS, it would save lives around the world. If diseases didn’t / don’t exist, more people would reach their 100th birthday If we use up all the world’s oil, we need / ’ll need more renewable energy. If oil prices continue to rise, petrol gets / will get more expensive too. If scientists made human clones, I think the world will / would be a dangerous place. We use the second conditional to talk about a hypothetical situation, or to give advice (‘If I were you ...’). 5 Complete the conditional questions. 1 If you didn’t have to stay at school this afternoon, where ... (you / go)? If you pass your driving test one day, (you / buy) a car? What would you do if you ... (win) €1,000? What .. (your parents / say) if you arrived home at three o’clock in the morning? Will you go out this evening if your teacher . (not give) you a lot of homework? 6 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 5. Pronunciation: intonation (JiH Listen. Does the intonation go up in the if- clause or the consequence clause? 1 If I won the lottery. I’d go on holiday. 2 If I go to England, I’ll visit London. ($4ll Listen and repeat. Practise the intonation. I~Q& Language Guide p71 "\ Vocabulary 2 The environment: verbs and nouns 1 Find these verbs in paragraphs 1-4. How do you say them in your language? pollute recycle waste damage destroy improve survive demonstrate develop protect when the coY\X.a\r\er sh\p 'Rem' гаи aground on a riff off the New Zealand coast, it spilled heavy fuel oil and polluted miles of North Island beaches. It destroyed, the sea life, killing up to 1^20,000 seabirds.______________^ We're developing electric vehicles. These improve the quality of the air, and so they help to protect the environment. J we're demonstrating against nuclear pov\ier. We believe that nuclear v\iaste can seriously damage the environment! What can we do? Well, recycle your paper, cans and bottles. And don't waste electricity -always turn off the lights! 2 Copy and complete the table with the verbs from exercise 1 and these nouns. Then listen and check. demonstration destruction damage pollution protection waste survival improvement recycling development Listening A presentation about oil 5 (55ZI Listen to the presentation. In what order do they talk about these topics? verb noun pollute pollution Oil: “black gold" fee® Noun suffixes We often make nouns with the suffixes -ment, -ing and -tion. Where does oil come -from? The fransporfafion of oil Whaf is oil used Tor? AMfernafives fo oil The problem of global warming Oil in Antarctica 3 Look at the nouns in exercise 2. How many of them have got noun suffixes? Speaking (ЛЗ Guess the correct answers. Then listen again and check. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 The region that produces the most oil is . What can you recycle in your town? What do you and your family do to avoid wasting energy? Have you ever been on a demonstration? What else can we do to improve our local environment? a) the Middle East, b) Alaska. The Prestige disaster happened in a) 1999. b) 2002. It’s illegal to obtain oil from a) the Arctic. b) Alaska. Scientists predict that oil will last... a) about 40 years, b) 100 years, c) forever. c) Spain, c) 2012. c) Antartica. Culture today Nowadays, it seems that everyone’s talking about food! Vegetarians and vegans, foodies and freegans, the Gl diet and GM food. What’s it all about? Here we take a look at some of the issues that affect our food ... Vegetarians in Britain In Britain, there are about three milli vegetarians who don’t eat meat or fi; Of these, a quarter of a million £ vegans, which means that they do eat any animal products such as m eggs or cheese. 1 ) Vegetarianism is becoming increasingly popular among young people in Britain. 16-year-old Jane explains why she stopped eating meat: ‘Someone told me that they’re destroying the rainforests to use the space for cattle. Then eventually the cattle are made into burgers, so eating burgers actually contributes to global warming! If I’d known about this before, I would have become a vegetarian years ago.’ Every day, supermarkets throw away a huge amount of food because it’s past the sell-by date. ‘Freegans’ are a group of people who don’t agree with this food waste. They take food from the supermarkets’ rubbish bins, and eat it. They also find food in the countryside, and grow their own vegetables in community gardens. 19-year-old freegan Lenny explains: ‘We do this for environmental reasons. If we hadn’t taken the food from the rubbish bins, it would have gone to a landfill site.’ The global population is growing, and millions of people haven’t got en to eat. So scientists have developed a way of producing ‘genetically moc (GM) crops. Some of these are easier to grow in areas which suffer droughts. Supporters of GM food say that this will improve the chanc survival for millions of people around the world. But many people are ag GM food. 17-year-old Ellie says: ‘I was angry when I realized that a lot c food is already genetically modified. If I hadn’t read the labels, I wouldn’t realized. Now I avoid all GM food. I don’t think it’s natural.’ Match paragraphs 1-3 with three of these headings. Then listen and check. Are these sentences true or false? Find evidence in th text. a) The GM debate b) Fast food and rainforests c) The rising cost of food d) The ‘freegan’ revolution Jane’s a vegetarian because she loves animals. Some rainforests are destroyed to make space for cattle. Freegans want to protect the environment. Some GM crops grow better in dry areas. Find words in the text to match these definitions. cows you should eat a product before this date a place where they bury rubbish food which grows in the fields Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the question 1 Are there many vegetarians in your country? 2 What is your opinion of ‘freeganism’? 3 In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of GM food? (6i) the BIG DEBATE Workbook p' Grammar 2 Third conditional 1 Translate the examples. Are the tenses the same in your language? third conditional |ШЙ perfect Hqvejojopast particip^ If he had studied more, he wouldn’t have failed his exams. if he hadn’t failed his exams, he would have gone to university We use the third conditional to talk about the imaginary consequences of a situation after it has happened. 2 Find these sentences in the text on page 66 and complete them with the missing verbs. If I.. the labels, I wouldn't have realized. If I'd known aboutthis before, I a vegetarian years ago. If we ... the food from the rubbish bins, it would have gone to a landfill site. 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 I wouldn’t have bought this CD if I ... (know) it was damaged. 2 If you had asked, I... (help) you. 3 If people ... (not pollute) the river, the fish wouldn’t have died. 4 Would you have known about freegans if you .. (not read) the article? 5 If people hadn’t protected the blue whales, they . (not survive). 6 If people had realized about the effects of global warming, (they / use) more renewable energy? Your voice Complete the sentences with your ideas. 1 If I hadn’t come to school today, I ... 2 If our teacher had been ill today, he/she 3 If we had lived 100 years ago, we ... Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Complete the text with the correct conditional form of the verbs in brack! Robbie the Robot A couple of years ago, I saw 'I, Robot' att cinema. I probably wouldn't have read tl' book if I (1) .. (not see) the film. Butactui I really enjoyed it. I thinkyou (2) .. (like) i you're a fan of science-fiction. The book is a collection of nine short stories. Myfavou was the first one, called 'Robbie'. It's aboi an Шег\сап family, who get a robot call Robbie for their daughter Gloria. Gloria Ic Robbie, but her parents start to worry. Tt think that she won't make human friend! she (3). (spend) all her time with a robe So they decide to return Robbie to the fac Gloria is very upset, so her parents decide buy her a dog. They think that if she had a pet, she (4).. (forget) about Robbie the robot. But Gloria is still unhappy. So her parents decide to take her to the robot factory. They think that it would help her she (5) .. (see) that robots weren't huma But what (6) (happen) if they meet Ro at the factory? if you (7) (read) the bo( you'll find out! 2 (J49] Listen and check. ,Robot by Isaac Asimov Writing dossier A for and against essay 1 Read the essay. Which paragraph gives the argument for cloning, and which against? Is Cloning Good or Bad? In the 21st century, cloning is a controversial topic. People have different opinions about the subject, and there are arguments both for and against cloning. Some people argue that if we clone animals, they won't get diseases like 'mad cow disease' Scientists can also use cloned cells to fight human diseases like cancer. Moreover, cloning already exists in nature - identical twins are clones of each other. However, It is Illegal to make human clones artificially, and most people disagree with the idea of scientists creating people. They think that if human cloning existed, people would create 'designer babies' by choosing things like the colour of their eyes, skin and hair. In conclusion, I think that the cloning of animals and plants could be a good idea because it has scientipc benefits. Human cloning, on the other hand, could be very dangerous for our society. Look at the examples. Which are linkers of contrast and which are linkers of addition? How do you say them in your language? Language focus: linkers of contrast and addition Scientists can also use cloned cells to fight human diseases. Moreover cloning already exists in nature. However, it Is illegal to make human clones artificially. Human cloning, on the other hand, could be very dangerous. 3 Choose the correct words. 1 Scientists have never made a human clone. Animal clones, also / on the other hand, are quite common now. 2 Human cloning is illegal. However / Moreover, scientists use cloned human cells. 3 Identical twins have got the same DNA. Some plants are however / also natural clones. 4 The cloning of animals can prevent diseases. Moreover / However, it could protect endangered species. Writing pian (1) Plan to write an essay with the title ‘Genetically modified food: danger or opportunity?’ Are ideas a-f for or against? GM food .. a) could help people who suffer from famine. b) might not be safe. c) can look and taste good. d) can contain extra vitamins. e) can be grown in very dry places. f) could be toxic. for against (2) Write your essay. Use the model to help you. 4- introduction *4 the argument for GM food 4^ the argument against GM food 4^ your conclusion (3) Check your writing. / Include at least one linker of contrast and one of addition. / Check that you present both sides of the argument. / Include at least one conditional sentence. @ Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. 4^ Dialogue builder Apologizing 1 Look at the calendar. Make questions with these question words Then ask and answer. When Where Who What What time is Vera’s exam? It’s at four o’clock. AUGUST Tuesday 1st Vera's exam four o'clock Wednesday 2nd Grandma's birthday Thursday 3rd Take ca+ to vef Friday 4th Mum and Dad out for dinner Saturday 5th Liam's interview Ruth and Vera to London © Sunday 6th Party in the park - 2.30 2 (ЛЗ Ruth and Vera are going on a day trip. Read and listen. Does Liam go with them? Liam Ruth Л ... ■ Hey, where are you going? What, without me? No, I’m not. But don’t worry about it! No, it’s OK. 1 don’t mind. No, it doesn’t matter I’ve got a few things to do today. L Yeah, it’s fine. Have a nice time! > ^ We’re going to Manchester for the day! Sorry -1 thought you were busy today? Oh no, 1 feel bad now! I’m really sorry, Liam. Do you want to come? We’ll wait for you if you want. OK. Are you sure? N ^Thanks. We’ll bring you a present! / 3 313 Listen again and repeat. 4 Imagine you’re in this situation. Prepare a new dialogue. You and a friend are going to Suzdal for the day. You thought your sister had a driving lesson today, but actually she’s free. 6 Зт Listen to another dialogue. Are these sentences true or false? 1 Ruth and Vera are on the bus. 2 The man and his wife have got reserved seats. 3 Ruth and Vera don’t want to move. 4 It’s a short journey. 5 Practise your dialogue. ^ Hey, where are you going? ^ We're going to . Usefulexpressions; Sorry. / I’m really sorry. I feel bad now! Don’t worry about it! I don’t mind. / It doesn’t matter Дго \/ni I Cl irci? I % a-- f Г*, Language Guide Vocabulary 21st century issues climate change flood Ш global warming genetic engineering cloning GM (genetically modified) food fossil fuels renewable energy solar power wind power The environment: verbs and nouns verbs nouns damage demonstrate destroy develop improve damage demonstration destruction development improvement verbs nouns pollute protect recycle survive waste pollution protection recycling survival waste Dictionary extra! barrier (n) ★ ★ cattle (n) ★ ★ coincide (v) ★ ★ consequence (n) ★ ★ ★ contribute (v) ★ ★ ★ drought (n) homeless (adj) ★ hurricane (n) landmark (n) release (n) ★ ★ ★ sell-by date (n) submerge (v) tidal wave (n) Useful expressionsj Sorry / I’m really sorry I feel bad now! Don’t worry about it! It’s OK. I don’t mind. It doesn’t matter. It’s fine. Are you sure? щтт. штттттттттттш Grammar First and second conditionals о We use the first conditional to talk about possible situations and their consequences, о To form first conditional sentences we use If + subject + present simple for the situation, and subject + will/won't+ infinitive without to for the consequence, о We use the second conditional to talk about imaginary situations and their consequences. о To form second conditional sentences we use If + subject + past simple for the situation, and subject + would/wouldn't + infinitive without to for the consequence. first conditional situation consequence If global warming continues. the sea level will rise. consequence situation Polar bears will be in danger of extinction if the ice cap continues to melt. second conditional situation consequence If the Thames Barrier failed. London would be under water. consequence situation People wouldn’t get so ill if they had clean water. We can put the situation first or we can put the consequence first. If the situation comes first, we put a comma. If the sea level continues to rise, many places will be in danger. We don’t put a comma if the consequence comes first. Many places will be in danger if the sea level continues to rise. We don’t use will or would in the if- clause: If it continues to rain, the river will flood. / If it will continue to rain, the river will fhod. / Third conditional о We use the third conditional to talk about situations that happened in the past and their imaginary consequences. If I had known that the land used for cattle was destroying the rainforest, I would have become a vegetarian years ago. о To form third conditional sentences we use If + subject + past perfect for the situation, and subject + would have / wouldn’t have + past participle for the consequence. third conditional situation consequence If I had read the labels. I would have realized the food was genetically modified. If we hadn’t taken the food from the rubbish bin. it would have gone to a landfill site. consequence situation I would have realized the food was genetically modified if I had read the labels. It would have gone to a landfill site if we hadn’t taken the food from the rubbish bin. We can put the situation first or we can put the consequence first. If the situation comes first, we put a comma. If I had known it was out of date, I wouldn't have bought the product. We don’t put a comma if the consequence comes first. I wouldn't have bought the product if I had known it was out of date. Grammar bank ^ Workbook p107 ^ Progress check 21st century issues 1 Complete the words with vowels and write them in your notebook. Then match them to the correct definition. 1 s _ I _ r p _ w _ r 2 c I n _ n g 3 g_s 4 fl__d a) A disaster which occurs when a lot of water covers an area of land. b) The process of using the sun to create energy c) A technique for reproducing other living things exactly d) A source of energy that is neither liquid nor solid. The environment: verbs and nouns 2 Copy and complete the table with verbs or nouns. verb noun (1)... survival destroy (2)... (3)... recycling protect (4) ... (5) ... waste develop (6) ... First and second conditionais 3 Choose the correct words. 1 Would / Will polar bears become extinct if all the ice melted? 2 Some animals won’t survive if we don’t / didn’t protect them. 3 What will happen if global warming will continue / continues? 4 What will / would you do if your house flooded? 5 If you turned / would turn off all the lights, you would use less electricity 6 If scientists find / would find a cure for cancer, it will help a lot of people. 4 Complete the conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If you were ill, I .. (come) and see you. 2 (you / visit) me if I was in hospital? 3 If I go to the cinema, I (call) you. 4 I would go out if I (not have) so much homework. 5 Our teacher (be) happy if we pass the test. 6 What will you do if you .. (not pass)? Third conditional 5 Match the beginnings of the sentences witi their endings. 1 2 3 4 5 6 a) b) c) d) e) f) I would have helped you We wouldn’t have finished in time They wouldn’t have gone to the beach The city wouldn’t have flooded She wouldn’t have passed the test She would have got a better mark f it had rained, f you had asked, f she had studied more, f you hadn’t helped us. f it hadn’t rained, f she hadn’t studied. Complete the third conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 She wouldn’t have bought that food if she ... (know) that it was genetically modified. I (recycle) those bottles if I’d known where to take them. Would global warming have happened if people (not pollute) the environment? If it had rained, they .. (grow) more crops. Dodos .. (not become) extinct if people had protected them. Cumulative grammar nuiSillllSE 7 Choose the correct words. Man vs Horse Marathon Llanwrtyd Wells (1) isn’t / doesn’t a happeninc place, but you (2) would / will have been extremely thrilled if you (3) have / had been there las' weekend. Llanwrtyd Wells is a Welsh town which (4) is holding / holds an annual race over 22 miles (5) where / which runners compete against riders on horseback. The Man versus Horse Marathon has been held (6) since / for 1980, but it (7) has / have changed over the years. Originally, the human competitors (8) were allowed / allowed to race only on foot. Later, cyclists were allowed to compete, too. So, if you decide (9) to go / going there next year, you (10) ’d / ‘II need a decent pair of sneakers or a bicycle! Unit contents Vocabulary Visual arts; nouns as adjectives: materials Grammar The passive: affirmative, negative and questions Skills Read about an unusual graffiti project Listen to a radio announcement for the Sand Sculpture Festival Write a description of a work of art Practise giving your opinion Across the curriculum Art Culture today Is It Art? Ь % 1 One of van Gogh's famous paintings, Sunflowers, is a ... a) landscape. b) still life. c) wildlife. 2 Which period in art history came after the Gothic period? a) Roman art b) Romanesque art c) Renaissance art 3 Who painted Black Square? a) Kandinsky b) Malevich c) Chagall 4 What style is Salvador Dalf famous for? a) Cubism b) Impressionism c) Surrealism Vocabulary 1 Visual arts Recycle Are these adjectives positive or negative? Which ones would you use to describe the artwork on this page? 1 Sm Listen and repeat. Which types of art can you see in the pictures? unusual amazing shocking awful silly strange nice old-fashioned drawing still life graffiti sculpture installation print portrait pottery craft graphic design fashion design landscape Reading 2 Complete the sentences with these words. 4 (^1з1 Read and listen. Is the graffiti at Kelbt Castle permanent? sculptor potter printmaker painter designer 1 Wedgwood was an English .... He made ceramics for royalty. Ernst Neizvestny is a Russian .... His sculpture Great Centaur is in Geneva. Turner was an English ... His landscapes are famous. Giorgio Armani is a famous ... He was born in Italy. Goya was a painter and .... Some of his famous prints are in the Prado Museum. Match the paragraphs with four of these headings. a) Uniting cultures through art b) See it now while you can! c) Have they gone mad? d) The history of Scottish castles e) The process from start to finish Read the text again and write questions for these answers. Speaking He lives at Kelburn Castle. They’re from Brazil. It’s on the west coast of Scotland. From 10 am until 6 pm. Yes, he did. Look at the pictures in exercise 1 again. Which type of art do you like? Ask and answer giving your opinion. ^ Do you like the still life? Yes, I do. I think it’s realistic! WORDS IX (^OXTEXT Vocabulary plus Workbook p121 > go mad do (your) best make (your) mark have a look change (your) mind Find idioms 1-5 in the text. The match them with the correct definition. a) go and see somethir b) change your opinion c) do as well as possib d) personalize somethir e) become crazy Scotland's Graffiti Castle J) Can you imagine a castle covered in graffiti? In Scotland, such a castle exists. The castle is owned by Lord Glasgow, who wasn’t impressed when he first heard about the plans. It was his daughter and son’s idea, and when they told him about it, he thought they had gone mad! Eventually his children did their best to convince Lord Glasgow to allow the project to happen. They promised that only the world’s best graffiti artists would be hired for the project. (^Arrangements were made for the artists, a well-known Brazilian group named Nina, Nunca and identical twins Os Gemeos, to spend a month at Kelburn Castle. Their goal was to combine the culture of Brazil with the architecture of Scotland through the Graffiti Project. It was a fantastic opportunity for the artists to make their mark! 8 Are the sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 1 Lord Glasgow’s son and daughter organized the Graffiti Project. All the artists were Scottish. The project was completed in two weeks. The entire castle is covered in graffiti. The artists used more than a thousand cans of paint. Kelburn Castle isn’t open to the public. After the design was developed by the Brazilians, the walls of the castle were painted white. A surprising number of cans of sprav paint - 1500 in total - were used to paini colourful imagery on the castle. The projeci was finished in about four weeks, and visitors today can see a dazzling display of faces animals, objects and designs that are paintec on even the turrets and chimneys of the castle, The whole event was filmed and can be viewec on the castle’s website. (4) The castle is located just 35 miles from Glasgo\A on Scotland’s west coast. It’s open to visitors from 10 am to 6 pm. If you want to have a look though, you had better hurry, as the graffit won’t be kept on the walls for long. The castk walls are damaged and will be repaired at some point in the future. But the Graffiti Project has been a great success. In fact, after seeing the terrific work that the Brazilians had done. Lore Glasgow changed his mind and decided tha he loved the idea after all! 9 Your voice Answer the questions. 1 Do you think the Graffiti Project was a good idea? Why? / Why not? If you had the opportunity to decorate a castle, what would you paint? Do you ever see graffiti in your town? Which buildings in your town would be good for a graffiti project? In your opinion, is graffiti always attractive? Across the curriculum Art-^ pi4o r- Grammar 1 The passive: affirmative and negative 1 Read the examples and choose the correct words in rules 1-3. the passive: affirmative and negative present First, the walls are painted white. They aren’t painted black. past The castle was painted (by the artists). The project wasn’t completed in a week. future The graffiti will be removed next year It won’t be forgotten! 1 We form the passive with be/have + past participle. 2 We use the passive when we want to focus on the recipient / the person that does the action. 3 We use for/by to say who does the action. 2 Choose the correct active or passive form of the verbs. 1 First, the artists prepare / are prepared the designs. 2 The spray paint buys / is bought. 3 The walls paint / are painted white. 4 Then, the artists cover / are covered the walls with graffiti. 5 The process recorded / was recorded on video. 6 Everybody liked / was liked the result! 3 Complete the text with the past simple passive form of the verbs in brackets. 4 Complete the sentences with the future passive form of the verbs in brackets. Photography Competition Three winners will be selected in these categories: Portrait, Landscape and Wildlife • Only digital images (1) ... (consider). • Low resolution pictures (2) ... (not accept). • Winners (3) ... (contact) by email. • Photos (4)... (not return). • Winners (5)... (invite) to a prizegiving ceremony. • The winning photos (6) ... (publish) in Photo Magazine. 5 Change the sentences from active to passive. Start with the bold words. Karl Bryullov painted The Last Day of Pompeii'. 'The Last Day of Pompeii' was painted by Karl Bryullov. 1 Fie finished The Last Day of Pompeii' ir 1833. 2 Sir Walter Scott admired the painting. 3 The Russian State Museum exhibits it. 4 Thousands of people see the painting e\ year. 5 A lot of art students will study it this year. гШ Language Guide p83 21st Century Gargoyles Schoolchildren in Oxford (1)... (invite) to take part in a very special competition last year. They (2) ... (ask) to design new gargoyles for the famous Bodleian Library. The competition (3)... (judge) last November, and nine winners (4)... (choose). The winning designs (5) ... (inspire) by historical or mythical characters including a dodo and characters from the Tolkien stories. Then, the new stone gargoyles (6) ... (sculpt) by professional artists. If you visit Oxford, have a look at all the ugly faces! Listening A radio announcement 1 Look at the information. What are these buildings and statues made of? Do you know where you would find the originals? Festival of Sand Sculpture The English seaside town Weston-Super-Mare is hosting its International Sand Sculpture Festival again this year. Come and see the amazing sculptures, which include Big Ben, The Little Mermaid and Gaudi's famous cathedral! 2 (ЛЭ Listen to a radio announcement and complete the information. Where? Weston-Super-Mare, England When? From (1)... July to (2)... August What? An amazing display of sand sculpture on the theme of (3) The ... Continents’ How (4) £ ... for adults and (5) £ ... much? for children. 3 (ЛЗ Listen again and answer the questions. 1 Will the sculptures disappear if it rains? 2 Which sculpture represents Antarctica? 3 What animal sculptures will there be? 4 How many sculptors are there? 5 How long will it take them to complete the sculptures? 6 How many people visited the last festival? 7 Can visitors learn to make sand sculptures? Vocabulary 2 Nouns as adjectives: materials We sometimes use nouns as adjectives, especially to describe materials. a sand sculpture a gold ring Some nouns have a different adjective form. wood - wooden wool - woolly '------------------------------------------------ 4 (Зт Complete the descriptions with these adjectives. Then listen and check. gold silver bronze ice sand stone wooden woolly 1 a .. carving ■■ 3 a.. sculpture 2 an . sculpture 4 a ... crate 5 a bracelet 6 a ... hat 7 a ... chain 8a.. statue 5 Find nouns to match these definitions. Can you guess ...? 1 Originally, this material comes from sheep. 2 This is the most valuable metal in the world. 3 It’s the material which comes from trees. 4 It’s made when water freezes. 5 Granite and marble are examples of this. 6 It’s something you find on most beaches. 7 To make this metal, you mix copper and tin. 8 This precious metal is the colour of aluminium. Culture today The Turner Prize What Is it? JSITART? The Turner Prize is Britain’s most important prize for contemporary art. It is organized by the Tate Gallery, and the winner is awarded £25000. See for yourself! Take a look at the controversial work of three previous Turner Prize winners ... The Lights Going On and Off Martin Creed’s installation was an empty room, with the light going on and off automatically. It was criticized in the media and caused a big debate among the general public. An artist called Jacqueline Crofton even threw eggs at the gallery walls in protest! Shedboatshed Simon Starling found a wooden shed next to a river. He dismantled it and transformed it into a boat, which he used to travel down the river. When he reached an art gallery, he transformed the boat into a shed again. Several British newspapers laughed at Starling’s work, but he was awarded the Turner Prize in 2005. Read about the Turner Prize. Are these sentences true or false? 1 The winners don’t receive much money 2 J.M.W. Turner was a famous sculptor. 3 The Tate organizes the Turner Prize. (5Ц] Read and listen to the text. Then answer these questions for each work of art. 1 What’s it called? 2 What’s it made of? 3 Who was it made by? Why Is It called the Turner Prize? It was named after the famous landscape painter J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851). However, Turner would have been surprised if he had seen some of the winners - his art was much more traditional! When will the next winner be announced? The Prize is awarded every year. The next winner will be announced in December. Mother and Child Divided by Damien Hirst Mother and Child Divided Damien Hirst is famous for his series of anim installations. In this one, he cut a real cow and a in half and exhibited them in separate glass tank He also exhibited a dead sheep in a tank. One da a 35-year-old man poured black ink into the tar and called it ‘Black Sheep’. Then, he was arreste 3 Your voice Discuss these questions. What do you think of these works of art? If you had to choose just one of these to be the winner, which would you choose? Why? Which is your least favourite? Why? the BIG DEBATE Workbook p130 (7^ Grammar 2 The passive: questions 1 Translate the questions into your language. Find the answers on page 78. the passive: questions present How much money are the winners given? past Why was the man arrested? future When will the next winner be announced? Write the words in the correct order to make passive questions. installation / called / What / the / is ? was / Who / it / by / made ? created / When / it / was ? of / What / it / was / made ? the Turner Prize 7 When / it / was / for / nominated ? the artist / awarded / Was / the Turner Prize ? bought / Who / by / was / it ? Look at the information and answer the questions in exercise 2. Aty U99SX by Tracey The artist’s real bed and possessions were used in this installation. It was nominated for the Turner Prize in 1999, but it didn’t win. Then it was bought by the art collector Charles Saatchi for £150000. Pronunciation: weak forms was [waz] and were [wa] a (ЛЗ Listen. Are the weak forms [waz] and [wa] at the beginning of the question or not? 1 How much were the winners given? 2 Were the winners given a lot of money? 3 Was the man arrested? 4 Why was he arrested? b (jm Listen again and repeat. гШ Language Guide p83 > Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct active or passive aiternative to compiete the text. What is beauty? 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' (1) in 1891. It's about n mcm called Dorian Cray who thinks that physical beauty is more importantthan his soul. When an artist (2)... a beautiful picture of him Dorian Gray has an idea. He wishes for the painting to become old and ugly, and not him. When this happens, the consequences are terrible. This book (3)... by the Irish authoroscarwilde Wilde also (4) .. poems, plays and children's stories, but this was his only novel. Oscar Wilde had a difficult life. He (5) . to prison for two years, and he (6) when he was only 46 years old. Now, 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' (7) one of tt classics of gothic horror fiction. Every year it will (8).. by thousands of British students for their Literature exams. a) publishes a) paints a) writes a) wrote a) sends a) died a) considers b) b) b) b) b) b) b) b) 8 a) study (Sm Listen and check. was published is painted was written were written was sent was died is considered be studied The Picture of Doricm Gray by Oscar Wilde Writing dossier A description of a work of art 1 Read the text and replace the bold words with these words. designed iron copies statues sculptor unusual My Favourite Work of Art My favourite work of art is called Another Place. It's an installation which you can see at Crosby Beach, near Liverpool. Another Place was (1) created by the British (2) artist Antony Gormley, who's famous for his figurative works. The installation consists of 100 figures which are made of (3) metal. All the sculptures are 1.89 metres tail because they're exact (4) replicas of the artist's body. The figures are situated along 3 km of the beach, and they have become a popular tourist attraction in the area. At one point the installation was going to be moved to New York, but the people of Crosby decided that it should stay there permanently. I really like/Another P/oce because it's (5) strange to have (6) sculptures in the sea. The atmosphere of the installation changes depending on the weather and the tide. Sometimes, when the tide is high, you can't see the figures at all! 2 Look at the Language focus. Can you add any similar words? Language focus: word choice Use a variety of nouns, verbs and adjectives to make your writing more interesting, and to avoid repeating the same words. Nouns sculpture, statue, work of art,.. Verbs design, make, create. Adjectives different, interesting, unusual,.. 3 Rewrite the sentences with these words. installed bronze tourists huge drive fascinating 1 Some statues are made of metal. 2 They are often put in public squares. 3 Antony Gormley’s work is interesting. 4 He has made a big sculpture called Angel of the North. 5 You can see it when you go to Gateshead. 6 People see it when they visit the city Writing pian (?) Plan a description of a work of art. Answer the questions. Use these notes or choose your own favourite work of art. 1 What kind of work of art is it? 2 Where is it situated? 3 Who was it made by? 4 What is it made of? 5 What does it show? 6 Do you like it? Why? / Why not? The Bronze Horseman by Falconet • a statue of Peter the Great • Senate Square, Saint Petersburg • made of bronze • the statue with the pedestal is aboutlS m tall • the symbol of Saint Petersburg ® Write three paragraphs. Use your notes from exercise 1. information about the work • of art, including the title, the artist’s name, and the location > more information about the work of art, including the materials used and what it’s about 4- your opinion, with the reasons why you like/ dislike it (3) Check your writing. Use the checklist to help you. / Choose different words to make your writing more interesting. / Use at least two examples of the passive. / Check the past participles on page 163. / Check the words for materials on page 77. (4) Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Asking for and giving opinions 1 Look at the information and answer the questions 1 Is the gallery open on Sunday mornings? 2 What can you buy in the shop? 3 How much does it cost to visit the gallery? Welcome to the Modern Art Gallery Opening times Tuesday - Saturday 10 am-5 pm Sunday 12 pm-5 pm Closed Mondays FREE ENTRY The shop stocks a wide range of books, postcards, posters, gifts and jewellery by local designers. SPECIAL EXHIBITION STARTS ON SATURDAY 2 5Ц] Ruth and Vera are visiting the Modern Art Gallery. Read and listen. Which works of art does Vera prefer? Ruth What do you think of these big abstract paintings? I can’t make my mind up. They’re a bit strange. They’re amazing - the detail is incredible! Why? What don’t you like about them? Yes, I guess you’re right. Well, they probably cost a fortune anyway. Vera Ч 3 5Ц] Listen again and repeat. 4 Imagine you’re visiting the special exhibition in exercise 1. Prepare a new dialogue. Practise your dialogue. ^ What do you think of...? ^ I quite like / don't like I quite like them. They’re very bright! Yes, they are. What about these ceramic sculptures? Do you think so? I’m not very keen on them. I think they’re a bit old-fashioned. 1 wouldn’t buy them, that’s for sure. Yeah, I bet!_________________________________ Listen to Ruth and Vera talking in the gallery shop. Choose the correct answers. 1 2 3 4 Vera wants to buy a book / poster. The gift is for her friend / mum. They cost £3.99 / £9.99 each. Ruth wants to buy some jewellery / postcards. Useful expressions; What do you think of ? I quite like it/them. I can’t make my mind up. I’m not very keen on it/them. guess you’re right. Language Guide Vocabulary Visual arts drawing landscape still life portrait an ice sculpture a stone carving Dictionary extra! automatically (adv) ★ ★ calf (n) ★ chimney (n) ★ collaborative (adj) convince (v) ★ ★ ★ criticize (v) ★ ★ dismantle (v) exhibit (v) ★ ★ figure (n) ★★★ identical (adj) ★ ★ ink (n) ★ mark (n) ★★★ pour (v) ★ ★ shed (n) ★ ★ spray paint (n) tank (n) ★★★ turret (n) unite (v) ★ ★ craft fashion design graffiti graphic design installation pottery sculpture a gold chain a woolly hat a bronze statue a sand sculpture Useful'expressions^ What do you think of.. ? What about this/these ? What don’t you like about them? I quite like it/them. I can’t make my mind up. I’m not very keen on it/them. I guess you’re right. Grammar The passive: affirmative and negative О We use the passive when we want to focus on the recipient of an action in a sentence, not the doer The castle Is owned by Lord G\asqov\i. о We also use the passive when we don’t know who does the action. Arrafngements were made for the artists to spend a month at Kelbarn Castle, о We use the passive more in writing than in speaking. о We often use the passive in writing to describe a process. After the design was developed, the walls were painted white. The project was finished In aboutfourweeks. the passive: present, past and future о We use subject + is/are + past participle to make the present simple passive. The castle is located on Scotland’s west coast, о We use subject + wasjwere + past participle to make the past simple passive. The design was developed by the Brazilians, о We use subject + will + be + past participle to make the future passive. The castle will be repaired at some point in the future. active to passive о Active sentences start with the doer of the action. Graffiti artists painted the castle. (The focus of the sentence is on the graffiti artists.) о Passive sentences start with the recipient of the action. The castle was painted by graffiti artists. by О We use by to introduce the person or thing which does the action in passive sentences. The artists were invited by Lord Glasgow. о We only use by when it’s important to mention who did the action. The design was created in the studio (by artists). The passive: questions о We make questions in the passive in the same way as we do in active sentences, by changing the order of the words. present How is the Turner Prize awarded? How are the installations made? past Why was the man arrested? Why were eggs thrown? future Where will the artwork be hung? Will the winner be awarded? We use is/Are + subject + past participle to make questions in the present simple passive. We use \NasMere + subject + past participle to make questions in the past simple passive. We use will + subject + be + past participle to make questions in the future passive. Progress check Visual arts 1 Read and write the words. Then match them to the correct definition. ['laend.skeip] 4 ['pDitrit] [grs'fiiti] 5 ['faej(a)n di.zain] i'skAlptfa] 6 [graefik di'zain] a) Words or pictures drawn on walls usually in public places. b) A painting of an area of land, usually the countryside. c) The art of designing clothes. d) A painting or drawing of someone’s face. e) The art of designing pictures or text usually for magazines. A solid artwork often made of stone, metal or wood. f) Nouns as adjectives: materials 2 Write the letters in the correct order. Then match the materials to pictures a-f. 1 c i e 4 notes 2 z e b r 0 n 5 dans 3 livers 6 d 0 g I The passive: affirmative and negative 3 Complete the passive sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Present 1 This room (paint) green. 2 The walls (cover) in graffiti. Past 3 Those books ... (write) in Russia. 4 Our school (build) last year Future 5 Our tests (correct) tomorrow 6 The marks . (give) out next week. 4 Make the sentences in exercise 3 negative 1 This room isn't painted green. Change the sentences from active to passive. Use by only where necessary. Picasso painted Guernica. Millions of people visit the museum every year. They sell craft products at this gallery They will close the gallery at Christmas. One of my friends won the competition. They will publish her photo in the magazine The passive: questions Complete the passive questions with the present simple, past simple or future form of the verbs In brackets. 1 What .. this sculpture (make) of? It’s made of marble. When .. it (create)? It was created last year Where ..it .. (show)? It will be shown in the museum. Who those prints . (design) by? They were designed by my friend Bob. Where., they., (sell)? They’re sold at the gallery shop. Cumuiative grammar 11>2>з>4)5>бХ 7 Choose the correct words. A Very Expensive Kiss! A 30-year-old woman (1) Is / was arrestf yesterday at the Museum of Contempora Art after (2) kissing / to kiss a painting wor $2 million. The pure white painting, whk was created (3) by / for the American arti Cy Twombly, (4) was / were damaged by tf woman’s lipstick. She (5) has / had never see a Cy Twombly painting before and apparent she (6) felt / feels so emotional that she want€ (7) to kiss / kissing it. She will (8) appear /1 appear in court next week. Vocabulary Look at the clues and questions, and write down the 20 words. Find words for these definitions. energy from the sun an increase in the world’s % temperature the opposite of a drought the creation of identical cells oil and gas are examples of these .........-....... What are the nouns for these verbs? improve survive destroy develop demonstrate Name five types of art in the picture. Reading 2 Read the text again and answer the questio 1 Read the text. Who is Biggibilla? 7\Ьоп0та1\Д|^1; Киот tKe ^Ancient to tKe AAodem For thousands of years, Australia’s indigenous artists have created fascinating work in a very distinctive style. Now, this tradition has become part of a very modern project: an ambitious collaboration between BMW and the indigenous artist Biggibilla. The installation consists of a painted BMW sports motorbike, four wooden totems, a large painting, and a series of songs. It was exhibited at the Museum of Contemporary Arts in Sydney, and at the Sydney Motor Show. Biggibilla’s work is based on the songs and stories of the indigenous Gummaroi people. This project tells the story of the creation of the boomerang, which is very important in their culture. If the Aborigines hadn’t invented the boomerang, they wouldn’t have been able to hunt so successfully. The installation includes sculptures of various creatures from the story, including an Australian bird called a kookaburra, a crocodile and a platypus. Biggibilla’s art symbolizes environmental responsibility, and for this reason he felt that it was appropriate to work with BMW. With projects such as the development of a hydrogen car, the company is involved in numerous renewable energy projects for the future. There’s no doubt that if indigenous artists continue to combine their ancient traditions with such contemporary projects, the stories of their ancestors will never be forgotten. What did Biggibilla create for the exhibition? Where was his work shown? What is the installation about? Why are boomerangs an important part of Aboriginal culture? What is a kookaburra? How is BMW connected with environmental responsibility? Listening сСбЛ Listen to Lewis and Jess talking aboul their travel plans. Choose the correct answ Lewis is going to fly to ... a) Brisbane, b) Canberra. c) Sydney. He’s going to do voluntary work at... a) a koala sanctuary. b) a kangaroo centre. c) a National Park. After that he’s planning to ... a) get a job in Brisbane. b) take surfing lessons on the east coast. c) return to Britain. Lewis is going to travel by ... when he’s in Australia. a) train b) car c) bus Jess is planning to work in an office ... a) for a year before she goes to university. b) for six months before she goes travelling c) for a few w6eks while she decides what to do. Jess and her friends want to visit... a) Asia. b) the USA. c) Europe. Speaking Work in pairs. Ask and answer. ^ Do you do art at school? What kind of thing; you make? What are your favourite kinds of art? Which kinds don’t you like? ^ Have you ever been to an art gallery? What you see? ^ How many famous artists from your country you name? Are there any statues in your town? What a; they made of? Project [ You’re going to do a project about Australia. . Listen to your teacher’s instructions. шт Grammar Future tenses 1 Make the sentences negative. 1 I’m going to the cinema on Saturday 2 It’s going to rain this evening. 3 Australia will win the next World Cup. 4 My relatives are going to visit Sydney 5 Kangaroos will become extinct. 6 We’re doing an exam tomorrow. Gerunds and infinitives 2 Complete the text with the gerund or infinitive form of the verbs in brackets. My aunt Edith isn’t very good at (1) ... (paint) but she enjoys (2) .. (visit) galleries. When she was in Australia she decided (3) ... (go) to an exhibition of Aboriginal art. She thought it was fascinating (4) ... (see) all the colourful paintings. She wanted (5) ... (buy) one (6)... (take) home and she chose this one. Now it’s in her living room at home. She loves (7) ... (look) at it because it helps her (8) ... (remember) her holiday in Australia! The passive 4 Complete the text with the present passive or past passive form of the verbs in brackets. The Sydney Opera House (1)... (situate) next to the city’s harbour. It isn’t just for operas - it (2) ... (use) for concerts and plays too. The Opera House (3) ... (design) by the Danish architect Jorn Utzon. The construction work (4)... (start) in 1958, and the Opera House (5) ... (complete) 15 years later. It (6) ... (open) by Queen Elizabeth II in 1973. The roof (7) ... (make) of concrete, and it (8) ... (cover) with more than a million white tiles. Rewrite the present, past and future sentences in the passive. Start with the bold words. Use by only if necessary. 1 They held the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. 2 They built the Olympic Park for the games. 3 People still use the Park for sports activities. 4 They hold music festivals there too. 5 Sochi will host the 2014 Olympics. 6 They will construct a new Olympic Village. Error correction First, second and third conditionais 3 Complete the conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If global warming (continue), Australia will get hotter and drier. 2 I wouldn’t be surprised if Australia . (win) the next rugby World Cup. 3 We (visit) Uluru if we had gone to central Australia. 4 You . . (see) kangaroos everywhere if you drive around the country 5 If the explorer James Cook (not arrive) in Australia in 1770, it wouldn’t have become a British colony 6 Where ... (you / go) if you won a trip to Australia? 6 Find and correct one error in each sentence. 1 Are you going study more next year? 2 In the future people will to use more solar power. 3 If we used wind power, will electricity be cheaper? 4 My brother wants being a lawyer. 5 The Sydney Harbour Bridge were built in 1932. 6 Australian wine sold around the world. 7 I’ll send you a postcard if I’ll go to Melbourne. 8 If they hadn’t won the lottery, they wouldn’t go to Australia. Ullllb *+—» (Sll Listen and read. Then act out the sketch in groups. CHARACTERS Gill, Chris, Sam and Ben Four 18-year-old school friends Mr Beaumont Their English teacher Beside the river on a hot day Gill This is fantastic! I’d stay here forever, if we didn’t have to go back to school. Chris Yeah, I love being in the country, with all the birds and the plants. Just look at all these trees! Sam Listen to the river It’s like music. The water’s so clean! If I had an empty bottle. I’d fill it and take it home to drink. Ben Oh no, you wouldn’t. Not if you’d noticed all that rubbish! Gill Oh look at that! That’s awful! Who would do that? What a mess! Ben Most of it is plastic, too, which is a disaster for the environment. Chris Look over there! Some bricks have been left there. Just dumped. Isn’t there a landfill site near here? Sam There probably is, but you have to pay to use it. Chris You have to pay to throw away your rubbish? That’s crazy! Gill We should pick up the rubbish. Look, I’ve got some bin bags here. Let’s throw it away in town. Chris Wait a moment. I’m going to take some photos. This is incredible. Why do people do this? At school the next day Gill I’m going to do something about all that rubbish by the river Are you going to help me? Sam All right. What do you want to do? Gill Well, if we could get enough people, we could hold a demonstration. Chris That’s ambitious! Sam But it’s a good idea. I think we should definitely do something. Chris But a demonstration would be very difficult to organize. If you told everyone at school, how many people do you think would come? Where would you start? Ben What would you do if the police came? Would our parents let us? Gill OK. Let’s think about this. What else can we do? If we don’t do something now, the river will be ruined very soon. Ben I know, let’s ask Mr Beaumont after school. He’ll have ideas! He probably did things like this when he was young. At the end of the school day Ben Mr Beaumont! Mr В Ben. Sam. Gill. Chris. These are serious faces! How can I help you? Gill Well, we had a picnic by the river recently. It was so beautiful at first, but then we saw lots of rubbish everywhere. Yuk! Chris took some photos. Chris Look. They’re on my mobile. Here. Mr В Ah yes, I can see what you mean. And I’m guessing you have a plan. Are you going tc tell me about it? Sam Well, Gill has an idea, but we think it’s probably going to be too difficult. Mr В What is it? Gill To hold a demonstration. Mr В Yes. Not easy. It’s not impossible, but... Ben So we’d like to know what else we can do. Do you have any ideas? Mr В You want to do something simple but effective, to tell everybody about the situation and make them think. Right? Chris Exactly Mr В Hm. Well, how about an exhibition? Chris’s already taken some photos. You can take more. But remember, you’ll need to think of some solutions to the problem, too. Chris OK. I’ll take photos of recycling bins and things you can make out of rubbish. Gill That’s a good idea! Ben How many people will come to an exhibition about rubbish? Sam If we combine it with something else. I’m sure a lot of people will come. But what can we combine it with? What are people interested in? Ben Music? Chris I’m not singing in front of the whole town! Gill I know! A play! Let’s write and perform a play! Then people can walk through Chris’s exhibition on their way to see the play Mr В It could be a play about the importance of protecting our local environment, perhaps? Ben Brilliant! Pen and paper? Sam I’ve got some. OK. Who are the characters going to be? 1 Irek Zaripov won four gold medals at the Paralympics in Vancouver in ... a) cross country skiing and biathlon. b) Alpine skiing and biathlon. 2 If someone suffers from ophidiophobia, what are they afraid of? a) snakes b) people c) spiders 3 A 15-year-old French boy invented an alphabet for blind people in 1821. What was his name? a) Louis Breguet b) Louis Pasteur c) Louis Braille 4 The American Nik Wallenda beat the world record for the longest tightrope walk over the Niagara Falls in 2012. How long was the walk? a) 55 metres b) 505 metres c) 550 metres • » i щт^ттт ji * IP й 1 Vocabulary 1 Fears and phobias jn Recycle Look at the adjectives + prepositions. Which three are synonyms? 1 (°Гбз1 Listen and repeat. Which things can you see in the picture? frightened of good at scared of capable of afraid of spiders heights flying the dark germs public speaking open spaces confined spaces snakes strangers foreigners being alone 0 Y) ^ 9s 00 2 Match these phobias with the words from exercise 1. Write sentences. xenophobia arachnophobia vertigo claustrophobia agoraphobia People who suffer from xenophobia are afraid of foreigners. Reading 4 (3551 Read and listen. Why did Alain Robj start climbing? Read the summary and choose the corre words. Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. Are you afraid of any animals or insects? Would you be capable of climbing a high building? Have you ever been on an aeroplane? If so, how did you feel? Are you good at public speaking? Do you mind being alone in the dark? Pronunciation: [s] + consonant Alain Robert was born in (1) London / Fran When he was young, he was afraid of (2) th police / heights. He started (3) rock-climbi urban climbing with the Scouts. When he v (4) 12 / 20, he climbed eight floors because forgot his house keys. Later, in (5) the 1990 2003, he started the extreme sport of urban climbing. Read the text again and write questions f these answers. a ШЮ Listen and repeat. Pay attention to the pronunciation at the beginning of the words. spiders speaking snakes spaces strangers b C^eTj Listen. Practise saying the sentence. Steven and Stacie can’t stand snakes and spiders! 1 ...? More than 80. 2 ...7 Through the window. 3 ...? Seven times. ...? Five da’ ...? In 1994 7 WOKIKSIX C()XTEXT Find words in the text to match these definitions. very brave and adventurous something that’s done for publicity the different levels of a building a very high building it’s between your hand and your elbow Vocabulary plus -> Workbook pi 22 > .90 The daring French climber Alain Robert has climbed more than 80 of the world’s highest skyscrapers, and he’s brought his terrifying sport to London again. After reaching the top of Westminster’s tallest building, ‘Spiderman’ was arrested by police. This time he was lucky because he didn’t have to go to prison. However, things haven’t always been so easy. In China, Alain had to spend five days in prison after climbing the Jing Mao tower without permission. Since ‘urban climbing’ is generally illegal, Alain usually has to run past the security guards before he can start his adventures. Then he can’t rest until he reaches the top. Sometimes, though, Alain is invited to do a stunt, so he doesn’t always have to avoid the police. In 2003 he was asked to climb a 95-metre tower in London to promote the third Spiderman movie. How did Alain become the Human Spider? As a boy, he was scared of heights but he decided to overcome his phobia, and started rock-climbing with the Scouts. When he was 12 he forgot his house keys, and he had to climb eight storeys to get in through the window. By his mid-20s, Alain could climb mountains without ropes. Then, a film-maker said Alain should try climbing buildings. So, in 1994, he climbed Chicago’s highest skyscraper and the superhuman sport of urban climbing was born. But Spiderman isn’t invincible, and Alain has fallen seven times. He’s broken his wrists, elbows, pelvis, nose and skull. But, despite everything, he firmly believes that people shouldn’t give up. Can we all overcome our fears like this? Maybe. But even so, you mustn’t try this at home! 8 Read the text again and answer the questions. 9 Your voice Answer the questions. What happened to Alain when he finished climbing in Westminster? What happened when he climbed in China? Why does he usually have to run past security guards? How did he promote the Spidermcm movie? When could Alain rock-climb without ropes? Who suggested that he should climb buildings? Where did he climb his first skyscraper? Which bones has Alain broken? Had you heard of Alain Robert before you read this article? Do you admire him? Why? / Why not? Have you ever tried climbing? What’s the most dangerous thing you’ve ever done? Have you got any fears or phobias? Do you think we can all overcome our fears? Grammar 1 Modals of obligation, prohibition and ability 1 Read the examples. Then complete the sentences 4 Look at the table. Translate the examples into your language. 92 with can, must / have to or don't have to. present can Alain can climb skyscrapers without ropes. He can’t rest until he reaches the top. must / have to He has to pass the security guards. You mustn’t try this at home! don't have to Alain doesn’t have to climb skyscrapers -it’s his choice! 1 We use ... for obligation and prohibition. 2 We use ... for ability. 3 We use ... for no obligation. 2 Choose the correct words. You must / don’t have to wash your hands to kill germs. Spiders can / can’t fly. They can / mustn’t catch flies. Snakes are carnivorous - they have to / mustn’t eat meat. They eat mice alive - they have to / don’t have to kill them first! You have to / mustn’t drink this water - it isn’t clean. 3 Your voice Complete the sentences. I can speak English but I can’t... When I’m at school I have to ... When I’m at home I don’t have to Our teacher always says that we mustn’t.. Before I’m 18,1 can’t past ability When he was 25, Alain could climb without ropes. As a boy, he couldn’t stand heights. obligation He had to spend five days in prison. no obligation He didn’t have to go to prison. We don’t use must in the past. 5 Complete the text with these words. had to didn’t have to could couldn’t Spiderman Can’t Overcome the Weather! London office workers got a shock yesterday when they looked through the window. They (1)... see a man climbing up the building! It was the French urban climber Alain Robert, also known as ‘Spiderman’. But this time, the Human Spider (2) ... reach the top because it was too cold and wet. Window cleaners (3) ... rescue him from the 35th floor. Fortunately, Alain (4) ... go to prison this time. He should check the weather forecast next time. Your voice Complete the sentences with could, couldn't, had to or didn't have to. II do my homework last night. I read when I was six. We .. go to school yesterday I . . repeat my exams last year I . speak English when I was three. Language Guide p99 > Listening A dialogue with an athlete 1 (ЗВЗ Listen to the dialogue. What does Tanya want to do in the future? 2 Write the sentences in the correct order. a) She started playing wheelchair basketball. b) She decided to get fit. c) She started training for the Paralympics. d) She won the regional athletics competition. e) She began doing athletics. 3 (353 Listen again. Choose the correct answers. 1 Why is Tanya in a wheelchair? a) She’s got spina bifida. b) She was paralysed after a car accident. c) She had her leg amputated. What does she never say? a) ‘Everyone should do what they’re good at.’ b) ‘There are lots of things I’m not good at.’ c) ‘I can’t!’ What’s the most difficult thing she’s done? a) Pass her exams. b) Go on television. c) Learn to drive. What does she want to be in the future? a) A pharmacist. b) A television presenter c) A writer Speaking Does your school help people with disabilities or other difficulties? Imagine you’re in these situations. What difficulties would you have? What should be done to improve the situation? You’re blind. You’re asthmatic. You’re deaf You’re diabetic. You use a wheelchair I'm sure it's difficult to get around the school Vocabulary 2 The five senses 5 Match the five senses with pictures 1-5. hearing touch taste sight smell 6 Match the questions and answers. Can you see the view from there? Can you hear that music? Can you taste the chilli on this pizza? Can you feel the sun on your back? Can you smell something funny? a) Yes - it smells of burning. b) Yes - it feels really hot. c) Yes - it sounds terrible! d) Yes - it looks amazing! e) Not really. It just tastes of tomato. 7 Copy and complete the table with the verbs from exercise 6. 1 can ... It... 1 can see it. It(1) ..great. 1 can (2) ... it. It tastes good. 1 can hear it. It (3) fantastic! 1 can feel it. It (4) . cold. 1 can (5) . it. It smells nice. 8 (353 Listen and check. in a wheelchair 9 Your voice Complete the sentences with your ideas. 1 I think ... tastes horrible. 2 I like the smell of 3 I wouldn’t like to touch a .. I think it would feel .! 4 I think . ’s new song sounds great. Culture today Dyslexia ,F -■ When you suffer from dyslexia, people sometimes think that you must be lazy or stupid. But in fact, dyslexia has nothing to do with intelligence. Actually, quite the opposite might be true ... The word dyslexia comes from Greek a means ‘difficulty with words’ Dyslexia giv people problems with reading, writing spelling. In Britain, about one in ten you people have some form of dyslexia. @ The Gift of Dyslexia? ® So, how do you know if dyslexia is something which affects you? If you answer ‘Yes’ to most of these questions, you might be dyslexic. You should talk to someone about it at your school or college. Many dyslexic people are very creative, musical or sporty. This might be because the right side of their brain is often bigger. The right side of the brain controls your creative and artistic skills, and the left side controls logic and mathematics. Famous dyslexics include Orlando Bloom, Robbie Williams and Keira Knightley. The famous scientist Albert Einstein was also dyslexic. It seems that people with unusual talents often have the ‘gift’ of dyslexia! • Does it take you a long time to read and understand books? •When you are reading, do the words sometimes look blurred? • Do you have difficulty taking notes quickly? • When you’re writing, do you sometimes put letters or numbers the wrong way round, such as ‘15’ for ‘51 ’ or ‘saw’ for ‘was’? • Do you find mental arithmetic difficult? • Do you have problems with left and right when following directions? If you’re dyslexic, you don’t suffer in silence! There are things you can do to make life The following devices might be • A calculator is essential if yc problems with numjDers. • A spell-check facility or computer is great if yoi difficulty with spelling. • You can record your no a dictation machine, then li them when you’re revising. 'I remember going for an a\ when I was eight, and It was th excruciating experience b I couldn't read my lines. My to act was my driving force really good help from some ar teachers, so I overcame the d and now it's not really a prc Keira Knightley 1 Read the information box about dyslexia. What is it? How many people in Britain have it? (ЛЗ Now read the article. Match three of these headings to paragraphs 1-3. Then listen and check. What other problems can dyslexia cause? Which devices can help people with dyslexia? Did Keira Knightley overcome her dyslexia? a) Creative dyslexics b) Famous people can’t be dyslexic c) Technology can help d) Recognizing dyslexia Your voice Work in pairs. Answer the questions. 1 Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 Why might many dyslexics be very creative? What is the difference between the left and right sides of the brain? What difficulties might dyslexics have when they’re reading? Answer the questions in paragraph 2. How many ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ answers did you get? Does anyone in your family have dyslexia? Do you know of any famous people in your country who are dyslexic? What special creative, musical or sporting abilities do they have? 94 the BIG DEBATE Workbook pi Grammar 2 Modals of deduction and possibility 1 Read the examples. Then match sentences 1-3 with a-c. must / might / can’t evidence deduction/possibility My brother has difficulties with reading and writing. 1 Some people think he must be stupid or lazy You can answer ‘Yes’ to most of the questions. 2 You might be dyslexic. There aren’t any lifts in our school. 3 It can’t be easy to get around in a wheelchair. a) It’s possible. b) It’s 100% certain. c) It’s 100% impossible. 2 Choose the correct words. He can’t / must be arachnophobic - he’s holding a tarantula! She’s carrying a white stick. She must / can’t be blind. My grandad doesn’t always hear me. He can’t / might be deaf. Paralympic athletes are really fit. They must / might train regularly If you don’t like heights, you might / can’t suffer from vertigo. She can’t / must be scared of public speaking - she’s a politician. Complete the sentences with might, must or can't. She can't be French. She only speaks English. He isn’t answering the door He be out. Don’t touch that dog it be dangerous. This game be difficult - my little brother can play it! That house has got ten bedrooms. It be very expensive. Book comer Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct answers. The Secret Garden ‘The Secret Garcfen’ is about a girl called Mary When her parer\ts die, she (1) ..go and live with her uncle, Mr Craven, in a big country house. Mr Craven is sad because his wife has died. He doesn't spend much time at home, so Mary is often unhappy and alone. One day, a servant tell Mary about a secret garden. While she's looking afterthe garden, Mary gets much happier and healthier. One evening, Mary thinks she (2)... hearsomeon crying. (3). there be another child in the house' She discovers that Mr Craven has got a son calleo Colin, who never leaves his room because he (4) walk. Mary and Colin become friends and she takes him to the secret garden. At first he (5) go in a wheelchair, but later he learns to walk. when Mr Craven returns home, he hears laughte in the garden and he sees a little boy running. He thinks it (6) he Colin, hut It is! In the end, two miracles happen that day Colin (7) .. walk again, and Mr craven is happy for the first time i many years. 1 a) had to b) have to c) has to 2 a) can to b) can c) can’t 3 a) Might b) Must c) Should 4 a) can b) can’t c) doesn’t have tc 5 a) have to b) might c) has to 6 a) can’t b) mustn’t c) has to 7 a) can’t b) can c) must 2 (Sz3 Listen and check. The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson ^ Burnett Writing dossier A biography 1 Read about Valeri Kharlamov. What happened in these years: 1948,1969,1975,1980? Valeri Kharlamov: Overcoming Obstacles Valeri Kharlamov was born in Moscow in 1948. He learned how to play ice hockey at the age of 7 and loved it from then on. He was not very tall and was diagnosed with a heart defect as a child. His father, seeing his talent in the rink, went against doctors’ advice and enrolled him in the Red Army (CSKA) ice hockey school. The school later found his health to be fine. Kharlamov was a star from the start. During his first season with the Red Army (CSKA) team, he played 43 games and scored 29 goals. He was awarded Merited Master of Sport in 1969 and named Player of the Year twice in his career. In 1975, he married his wife, Irina, who gave him two children, Alexander and Begonita. The year 1976 brought great glory and terrible pain for Kharlamov He participated in the Innsbruck Winter Olympics that year and became a national hero when he scored the winning goal in the final hockey match. Months later, Kharlamov was involved in a tragic car accident, and many people thought his career was over. After much therapy, however, Kharlamov returned to the ice, and he even played in the Lake Placid Winter Olympics in 1980. A year after his last Olympics, a second car accident would end Kharlamov's life. His legacy lives on today, as he is considered one of the greatest ice hockey players ever The film Legend No. 17 showcases his great life. The film recently won a Golden Eagle, the Russian equivalent to an Oscar. 2 Find the expressions from the Language focus in the text. How do you say them in your language? Language focus: expressions of time and sequence at the age of during when a year after today recently Choose the correct word or phrase. Wayne Gretzky was born in Canada in 1961. (1) When / Recently he was a child, he would practise at a local rink. He began his ice hockey career (2) during / at the age of 17 (3) A year after / Today his professional start in ice hockey, he began playing in the National Hockey League. (4) During / Recently his career, he established several records for himself, including six All-Star records. (5) Today / When he is retired from ice hockey and spends his time in Canada and the US. Writing plan (l) Prepare notes about the singer Daniel Powter. Read the information and answer the questions. 1 When and where was he born? 2 When did he start playing the violin? 3 Why did he leave music college? 4 What was his first CD? 5 When did he record Bad Day? 6 What has he done since then? Daniel Powter Date of birth 1971 Place of birth Canada Early years Age 4 Began playing violin College Left after two years because of dyslexia 2000 Made first CD, I'm Your Betty Fame 2005 2012 Bad Day is an international success Released fourth CD, • Turn on the Lights Current situation Now Playing in festivals around the world (2) Write the biography. Organize your information into three paragraphs. > date and place of birth; early childhood ^ information about his successful career 4^ current situation (3) Check your writing. / Use the correct tenses. / Use at least three expressions of time and sequence. / Use at least one modal verb. (4) Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Asking for permission 1 Listen to a recorded message and complete the cinema information. Odeon Showing times X-Men Origins: Wolverine Certificate: 12A Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince Certificate: PG Transformers Certificate: (4) ... Ticket prices 2 (J72] Ruth is asking her mum if she can go out this evening. iRead and listen. What time does she have to be home? Ruth Mum, can I go into town tonight? With Vera, and some friends from school. Ten? Can’t I stay out later because it’s Friday? But my friends don’t have to be home until eleven. All right. Thanks, Mum. Oh, just one more thing ... Can I borrow some money? 18.15 (1)... 21.00 (2) ... 19.15 20.45 14.30 17.30 (3) ... .50 Under-15s (5) ... Under-15s £7.00 Mum Ч 3 (JzH Listen again and repeat. 4 Imagine you want to go to see one of the films in exercise 1. Prepare a new dialogue. 5 Practise your dialogue. Dad, can I tonight? Who are you going with? Useful expressions^ Can I tonight? Can’t I stay out later? Let’s say then. Oh, just one more thing You’d better ask Who are you going with? All right, but you have to be back by ten o’clock. No, you can’t. Sorry! Well, let’s say half past ten then, OK? Yes, what? You’d better ask your dad. He might lend you some!________________________________________ 6 (Зт Listen to Ruth’s conversation with her dad. Choose the correct answers. 1 Ruth wants to borrow . a) £5. b) £20. c) £50. 2 Ruth’s dad gives her a .. note. a) five-pound b) ten-pound c) twenty-pound 3 Ruth was planning to ... a) get a taxi home. b) come home with her friend’s mum. c) get the bus home. 4 Ruth’s dad offers to a) meet her in the car after the film. b) give her more money tomorrow c) take her to the cinema. Language Guide Vocabulary Fears and phobias being alone confined spaces foreigners fr -m iin flying germs b © strangers spiders the dark The five senses hear / hearing see / sight smell / smell Dictionary extra! blurred (adj) ★ invincible (adj) daring (adj) mental arithmetic (n) despite (prep) ★ ★ ★ overcome (v) ★ ★ device (n) ★ ★ ★ pelvis (n) dyslexia (n) security guard (n) dyslexic (adj) skull (n) ★ ★ elbow (n) ★ ★ skyscraper (n) facility (n) ★ ★ ★ stunt (n) fine (n) ★★ urban (adj) ★★★ gift (n) ★ ★ wrist (n) ★ ★ illegal (adj) ★ ★ taste / taste Useful expressionsj Can I tonight? Who are you going with? All right, but you have to be back b Can’t I stay out later? Well, let’s say ..., OK? Oh, just one more thing You’d better ask . 98 I I I I I I ■ Grammar Modals of obligation, prohibition and ability :oligation and prohibition (present) c We use must or have to for obligation. You must/huve to spend five days in prison. 0 We use don't have to when there is no obligation (something isn’t necessary). Sometimes Alain is Invited to do a stunt, so he doesn't alvjays have to avoid the police. 0 We use mustn't when something is prohibited. It doesn’t have the same meaning as don't have to. You mustn't use this lift. (It’s prohibited -maybe it doesn’t work and it’s dangerous.) You don't have to use this lift. (It’s not necessary - there are other lifts, or you can walk up the stairs.) о After must we use the infinitive without to. You must wait here. / You must to wait here. Л о We use has to in the third person and do/ does in questions and the negative. affirmative (obligation) I / You / We / They He / She / It have to / must has to / must check. negative (no obligation) I / You / We / They He/She/It don’t have to doesn’t have to pay. negative (prohibition) I / You / We / They He / She / It mustn’t climb. ability (present) о We use can for ability. Alain Robert can climb the world's tallest skyscrapers. He can't rest until he reaches the top. о After can we use the infinitive without to. He can climb buildings without ropes. / I le can to climb bulMlngs without-ropes. Л obligation (past) о We use had to in the past. We never use must in the past. We had to tell the security guard. / we musted tell the security guard. / о We use didn't have to for no obligation in the past. He didn't have to go to prison - he had to pay a large fine. N ability (past) о We use could for ability in the past. He could climb mountains without ropes. She couldn't swim when she was six. Modals of deduction and possibility We use must and can't for deduction. We use must when we are certain about something because there is a logical explanation for it. Sandra has won the competition, she must be happy. We use can't when we are certain that something is impossible. You're making a lot of mistakes. You can't be paying attention. We use may or might if we think something is possible, but we aren’t certain. He finds it difficult to read and write. He might be dyslexic. Grammar bank Workbook p110 > Cq(. 0Г, Progress check Fears and phobias 1 Complete the sentences with these words. strangers foreigners heights germs the dark flying 1 My brother doesn’t like climbing mountains. He’s afraid of .. People from a different country are .. . My little sister always leaves the light on at night. She’s scared of You should be very careful not to talk to .. on the Internet. My uncle always travels by boat or train because he doesn’t like .... People who are afraid of usually wash their hands all the time. The five senses 2 Choose the correct word. I like your dress. It looks / sees great! Can you sound / hear that music? Don’t eat that - it tastes / sounds bad. This new perfume smells / looks really nice. What’s that? It hears / sounds like thunder Modais of obiigation, prohibition and ability 3 Choose the correct answer. He’s a bit deaf He .. hear very well, a) can b) can’t c) mustn’t He’s still very fit. He walk 20 km. a) has to b) can c) can’t wear jeans at school every day We .. wear a school uniform, a) must b) have to c) don’t have to I study I’ve got an exam tomorrow, a) mustn’t b) can’t c) have to Turn off your phone. You use it here, a) must b) mustn’t c) don’t have to 4 Write these sentences in the past. Change the bold words. I can’t find my bag. We can hear loud music. He has to finish his homework. I don’t have to get up early We have to catch the last bus home. Choose the correct words. In the past, blind people (1) couldn’t / mustn read books - other people (2) must / had to read to them. That changed with the inventior Braille. Now, blind people (3) can / have to re any book they want, so they (4) mustn’t / doi have to depend on other people. They just (5) can’t / have to learn the Braille alphabet. People who (6) can’t / must see well can als« listen to audio books. Modais of deduction and possibil 6 Complete the sentences with must, might < can't. This ring ... be gold - it only costs £1.99! It... be niy book - it’s got my name in it. David isn’t at school today. He . be ill, bu‘ perhaps he’s on holiday. Alison’s got lots of cats. She . like them. They be from Yakutia, but I’m not sure. He be scared of heights - he went climt in the Pyrenees last year. Cumuiative grammar 123456 7 Choose the correct answers. О Strange Phobias Have you ever (1) ... of ‘koumpounopho This phobia - the fear of buttons - (2) ... i people than you imagine. People (3) ... afraid of buttons say that life can be very diff 18-year-old Hannah has been a button pf (4) ... she was little. She remembers lookir the buttons on her dentist’s shirt, and after she (5) ... stand the sight of buttons. Hai wants (6) ... with her phobia, and she’s c (7) ... hypnosis. If she succeeds, she (£ a new shirt with lots of buttons! 1 a) hear b) heard c) hearir 2 a) is affecting b) affect c) affect! 3 a) who b) which c) where 4 a) for b) since c) yet 5 a) can b) must c) couldr 6 a) to deal b) dealing c) deal 7 a) try b) trying c) to try 8 a) buys b) ’ll buy c) is buy V, Unit contents: Vocabulary Relationship verbs; reporting verbs Grammar Reported speech; reported questions with if Skills Read a magazine article about relationships Listen to a radio programme about relationship advice Write an email Practise asking someone out Across the curriculum Literature Culture today Party Boy Says Sorry J In Greek mythology, who was the god of love? a) Zeus b) Eros c) Apollo If you ask someone out, you ... a) invite someone to go with you to a cinema, party etc. b) ask someone a difficult question. What happened to Romeo and Juliet at the end of the story? a) They lived happily ever after. b) They both died. c) Romeo was murdered by Juliet’s family. Your friend invites you to go ice skating. You say ‘ГП give it a miss’. It means you ... a) accept the invitation. b) refuse the invitation. Vocabulary 1 Relationship verbs 1 (Jzi] Listen and repeat. Then translate the J Recycle Check the meaning of the adjectives. Which are for describing appearance and which are for character expressions into your language. Which ones are positive and which are negative? Which ones can you see in the pictures? good-looking loyal pretty romantic kind fit caring slim ask someone out go out with someone get on with someone fall in love with someone finish with someone cheat on someone miss someone have an argument with someone flirt with someone fancy someone Л-Ч ^ C> (? 2 Complete the story with these words. out in on got with had Sara fancied Ben and she flirted (1)... him at the disco one evening. Then she asked him (2)... and he said ‘Yes’. She went out with him for two months and she (3)... on well with all his friends. She thought she was falling (4) . love! Then, one day, Sara saw Ben with her best friend. He was cheating (5)... her! They (6)... a big argument and she finished with him. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings. Would you finish What would you do if you If someone asked you out. What would you do if Would you go out with someone a) where would you like to go? b) someone cheated on you? c) fancied someone in your class? d) who didn’t speak your language? e) with someone if you didn’t get on with their friends? 4 Your voice Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 3. Vocabulary plus ^ Workbook p123 > И Reading (JzElRead and listen. Who finished tN relationship, Jack or Kelly? Complete the sentences with jack or J6 1 ‘I’ve never been so happy!’ said .... 2 ‘I’m going to spend the weekend with friends,’ said .... 3 ‘You have to stop seeing your friends!^ said .... 4 ‘I want to have a break,’ said .... say and tell We always use an object pronoun after tCi She said that she wanted a break. She told him that she wanted a break. WORDS IIV Complete these sentence CM)]VTli!XT with said or told. Check y< answers in the text. 1 She ... that she had decided to spend more time with friends. 2 She ... me that she didn’t want to see anymore. 3 He ... that I had to stop seeing my friei 4 I ... him we could still be friends. Factor... There are two sides to every story! Every week we ask people to explain what went wrong in their relationship. This week: Jack Jones (15) and Kelly Simpson (14) from Birmingham. He says ... She says ... t Kelly flirted with me a lot at the youth club, and she asked me out soon after we’d met. She was very keen at first and she wanted to see me all the time. But last month she became quite distant and she told me that she wanted to have a break for a while. She assured me that she hadn’t met anyone else but I didn’t really believe her I think she was cheating on me but she didn’t know how to tell me. So she said that she had decided to spend more time with her friends. She was always going out with her friends! In the end she told me that she didn’t want to see me anymore. It’s a shame because I really liked Kelly and it would be good if we could still be friends. In fact, I miss her a lot and I still text her quite often. But she never replies f el met Jack at the youth club and I fancied him immediately In the beginning we got on really well and we went out together all the time. He got serious very quickly, and he told me that he was falling in love with me. He said that he had never been so happy But then he started to get really jealous if I went out with my friends, and I began to feel a bit suffocated. One day I told him I was going to spend the whole weekend with some friends so I wouldn’t be able to see him. He went a bit mad. He said that I had to stop seeing my friends if I wanted to be his girlfriend. So we had a big argument and I finished with him. I told him we could still be friends but he said that he never wanted to see me again! 9 8 Are the sentences true or false? Find evidence in the text. 9 Your voice Answer the questions. Jack and Kelly live in Manchester Jack and Kelly met at school. Jack thought that Kelly went out with her friends too often. Jack and Kelly still see each other quite often. Kelly thought that Jack was quite a jealous person. Their relationship ended after a big argument. 1 Which story do you think is more honest. Jack’s or Kelly’s? Have any of your friends ever finished with anyone for the same reasons as Kelly? How many reasons can you think o1 for finishing with someone? What’s the most serious reason? Ш Across the curriculum Literature pi44 Grammar 1 Reported speech 1 Look at the table and complete 1-3 with would, past continuous or past perfect. direct speech reported speech present simple ‘1 never want to see you again!’ He said that he never wanted to see her again. past simple present continuous Tm falling in love!’ He told her that he was falling in love. (1) past simple ‘1 saw her with another boy.’ He said that he had seen her with another boy. past perfect present perfect ‘1 haven’t met anyone else.’ She told him that she hadn’t met anyone else. (2).. will ‘1 won’t be able to see you.’ She said that she wouldn’t be able to see him. (3) .. Is / are going to Tm going to see my friends.’ She said that she was going to see her friends. was / were going to can ‘We can still be friends.’ She told him that they could still be friends. could have to ‘You have to stop seeing your friends.’ He said that she had to stop seeing her friends. had to 2 Read the direct speech. Then choose the correct words in reported speech. 3 Choose the correct time expressions. ’m going out with a girl called Debi. ^ 1 John said that he went / was going out with a girl called Debi. we met on holiday. ^ 2 He said that they have / had met on holiday ^ I won't see her again until July ^ John said that he had met Debi three weeks ago / before. He said that he had to email her that day / today. He said that he would write to her again the following / previous day He said that he was going to visit her the next / following year 3 He said that he \Nou\dY]‘t / didn't see her again until July. ^ I miss her. ^ 4 He said that he had missed / missed her Time expressions in reported speech today that day yesterday ^ the day before next year > the following year tomorrow > the following day / the next day last week ^ the previous week / the week before two years ago ^ two years before 4 Read John’s email. Then complete the sentences in reported speech. ___ c Dear Debi, How are you? I’m trying to study, but I can’t concentrate. I think about you all the time! I’ve never felt like this before. I think I’m going to go crazy! I’ll send you the photos. I love you, John xxxx John said that he was trying to study He said that he . . concentrate. He told Debi that he about her all the time. He said that he . never... like this before. He said that he thought he .. go crazy. He said that he . her the photos. He told Debi that he . her. И Language Guide pill Listening A radio programme 1 (Jz3 Listen to the radio programme. Which three situations do they talk about? There's this girl l really like. ^ think my boyfriend is cheating on me. ^ had a massive argument with my parents. J ^ ^My sister is a\\Nays flirting with my boyfriend. ^ 2 (JH] Listen again and choose the correct answers. 1 if you want to ask advice on the programme, you should .. a) send a text. b) call or send an email. c) get details from the website. Suzy says that Emily should a) confront her sister. b) tell her parents. c) ignore her sister’s behaviour Suzy suggests that Paul... a) sends the girl a text message. b) tells the girl he really likes her c) waits for the girl to make the first move. Suzy tells Darren to a) forget about the argument. b) find somewhere else to live. c) apologize to his parents. 3 Are the sentences true or false? 1 The programme is on the radio every Monday Emily’s sister is older than her Paul met the girl he fancies at school. Darren and his parents argued about his clothes and hairstyle. Next week, the programme is all about friends. Pronunciation: linking a 771 Listen and repeat. 1 She cheated^on him. 2 They had^an^argument. Listen. Which words are linked? 1 They got on well. 2 They fell in love. Vocabulary 2 Reporting verbs 4 Read the sentences and translate the bold words into your language. Which two can you see in the pictures? My friend invited me to go to a party I explained that I was busy that day I promised not to drive too fast. My parents warned us not to stay out late. Our teacher told us to study a lot. We agreed to go out at the weekend. She complained that she had a headache. My sister refused to lend me her jeans. Her boyfriend admitted that he’d cheated on her. 5 Copy and complete the table with the verbs from exercise 4. verb + that verb + infinitive verb + object + infinitive announce that offer to nsk someone to 6 (3z3 Listen and repeat. 7 Choose the correct words. 1 My mum refused / admitted that she’d read my diary. My friends never offered / complained to help Oliver promised / asked me to go to the party, My cousin warned / announced that she was having a baby! The teacher told / explained us to write an essay called ‘What is love?’ I invited / agreed to go out for a drink with Joe 8 Your voice Complete the sentences with your own ideas. This morning my friend told ... Our teacher sometimes complains Last week I invited .. When I was little my parents warned I’ve never refused .. I sometimes ask .. Culture today Social networking Since they began in 2003, social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook have become more and more popular. Now, more than a hundred million people use them all over the world. Most people just use these sites to socialize with friends-online, but sometimes things go wrong ... @‘Richard asked us if we wanted to come to a party. When I got there, there were about hundred people! I asked his parents knew about he said that they did Richard Hill two him if it and Later, the Jenny Platt house was a complete mess. We offered to help him clean up, but he was scared because his parents were coming home. So we all left.’ ‘When we went on holiday we told Richard not to ^ have a party, and he promised that he wouldn’t. But when our neighbours phoned us the next morning, we came home early. We were devastated. They had completely destroyed the house! Later, we asked Richard if he had invited all these people, and he said that he hadn’t. But he admitted that he had invited a few friends. Now, we don’t know what to believe.’ @‘My parents went away so I decided to have a small party. I invited a few friends, but everything got out of control. People came from all over the country, and they refused to leave. The neighbours started complaining. They asked if I would turn down the music, and then they called the police. Now, my parents are so mad at me. I want to tell them I’m sorry -1 just don’t know what happened, think that hackers entered my web page.’ arrived at the house after receiving complaints from the neighbours, and I warned them to keep the noise down. I asked the 17-year-old boy if all those people were his friends, and he said that they were. Two hours later, there was a disturbance and we returned to the scene. Several people were arrested, including the 17-year-old boy.’ Mr and Mrs Who asked these questions? Complete the sentences with the people from the text. Read and listen. Match paragraphs 1-4 with the names. ‘Did you invite all these people?’ asked . ‘Will you turn the music down?’ asked ‘Do your parents know about the party?’ asked ‘Do you want to come to a party?’ asked ‘Are all these people your friends?’ asked Read the text again and write the events in order. 4 Your voice Ask and answer. He invited his friends to a party They destroyed the house. Richard’s parents went on holiday Richard’s parents came home early. Richard decided to have a party 200 people came to the party Do you believe Richard’s story? What would you have done if you were Richard? Can you think of any other situations where social networking sites could lead to disaster? the BIG DEBATE Workbook p13 Grammar 2 Reported questions with if 1 Read the examples and answer the questions, reported questions with if ‘Do you want to come to a party?’ He asked if we wanted to go to a party ‘Are they your friends?’ I asked if they were his friends. ‘Did you invite all these people?’ I asked if he had invited all those people. 1 Do we use a question mark in reported questions? 2 Do we use the affirmative or interrogative word order after if? 2 Read the questions. Then choose the correct answers in the reported questions. ^Do you fancy QY]yoY\e in this class? ^ 1 She asked anyone in this class, a) if I fancied b) do I fancy ^^id you go out last weekend? ^ 2 She asked ... out the previous weekend, a) did I go b) if I’d gone ^Haveyou ever fallen in love? 3 She asked a) had I ever fallen in love. b) if I’d____________ will you get married in the future? ^ 4 She asked get married in the future, a) if I would b) would I Speaking 3 Ask and answer the questions in exercise 2. Make notes of your partner’s answers. Do you fancy anyone in this class? No, I don’t! 4 Report your conversation to the class. I asked Maria if she fancied anyone in this class, and she said that she didn’t. Language Guide p111 > Book corner Unit grammar check 1 Choose the correct words. Romeo and Juliet The Capulets and the Montagues lived in Verona, and the two families were enemies, one day Romt (a Montague) met Juliet (a Capulet) and they fell love. But then another Capulet saw Romeo and warned him (1) not to/don't talk to Juliet. He said that he (2) will / would kill Romeo if he went out with a Capulet That night, Juliet heard a voice outside her window. It was Romeo. He told her that he (3) loved / loves her, and he asked her (4) marry to marry him. A priest agreed (5) to marry / marrying Romeo and Juliet in secret. Then, they were going to run away together. But Romeo saw the young Capule man and they had a fight. Romeo killed him, and the people of Verona told him (6) leave / to leave the city forever Later, Juliet's fathersald that he (7) had found / found a husband for her. He didn't know that sh< had already married Romeo. Juliet asked the prie: (8) if he would / would he help her He told Juliet (9) take / to take a sleeping potion. He explained that she (10) would / will sleep for a day, but her parents would think that she was dead! Soon, Romeo heard that Juliet had died, so he drank some poison. But then Juliet woke up. Whet she saw that Romeo was dead, she killed herself. In death, the young lovers were finally together. 2 (ЛТ] Listen and check. Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare Writing dossier An email 1 Read the email. Why is Alice asking for advice? Hi Charlie, How are you? I hope you had a great holiday. Tell me all about it! I’ve got so much to tell you. Do you remember that I went to the disco session at the ice rink last week? Well, I met a really nice guy there called Joe! We talked for ages and I gave him my mobile number and he said he’d ring me. Guess what he texted me yesterday and asked if I wanted to see him again! The problem is that I can’t decide what to do. I mean, we’ve got loads in common and we get on really well but he doesn’t actually live here - he was just visiting his cousins. What do you think I should do? Bye for now. Alice PS Please email me back tonight - I’m confused and I really need your advice! 2 Read the Language focus. Find six contractions in the email. Language focus: contractions We usually use contractions in informal writing such as emails and blogs. I've = I have ccm't = can not 3 Rewrite the sentences using contractions. He said that he had been to London before. I could not wait to meet him. He said he would like to see me. He told me that he was not going to be late. I have decided that it is not a good idea. If she had known he was 25, she would not have met him. Writing pian ® Imagine that you are Charli< Write a reply to Alice’s email. Include answers to these questions. 1 Did you have a good holiday? Are you pleased for Alice? Do you think Joe sounds nice? Do you think it’s a problerr that Joe lives in a different town? Ask where he lives! Do you think it’s a good idea for Alice to see Joe again? If Alice meets Joe again, where do you think they should go on a date? 4^ Write your email. Use your notes from exercise 1. Thank Alice for her email and tell her a bit about yoi holiday. Give your reaction to Alice’s news. Give advice about the situation, and reasons wh; you think it’s a good/bad idea to meet Joe. Give Alice your advice about what you think she should do next. Add a PS at the end with a question or some more information. 4) Check your writing. / Use contractions, not full forms. / Use at least one relationship verb. / Use at least one reporting verb. / Include reported speech c questions. / Check that you use the correct tenses. (4) Write the final version and put it in your Dossier. Dialogue builder Asking someone out 1 Look at the information. Do you think this is a good place to go on a date? Why? / Why not? Ice Rink Disco Sessions Thursday, Friday and Saturday 20.00 - 22.30 Last admission 21.30 £6.10 includes skate hire 2 (Sm Liam is asking Vera out. Read and listen. Why can’t Vera go to the party? Liam Vera Hi Vera, how’s it going? OK. Hey, do you want to go out with me and my friends tonight? We’re going to the disco session at the ice rink. < Go on - it’s easy! Well, would you like to go to a party tomorrow instead? That’s a shame. Maybe another time?^ Fine, thanks. How are you? Oh, I don’t know. Where are you going? Ice skating? No, I don’t think so. I’ve never been ice skating before. No, sorry. I think I’ll give it a miss. I’d love to, but I’m afraid I can’t. I’m going to the cinema. Yeah, thanks Liam. See you later!_____________ 3 Listen again and repeat. 4 Prepare a new dialogue. Use these places or your own ideas. Practise your dialogue. l^Hi, how’s it going? Fine, thanks. 10-pin bowling a concert a fair (ЛЮ Listen to Liam’s conversation with Sarah. Choose the correct words. Useful expressions 1 Do you want to go out tonight? I think I’ll give it a miss. Would you like to . instead? I’d love to, but I’m afraid I can’t. That’s a shame. Maybe another time? Liam invites Sarah to the cinema / a party / a concert. It starts at six / eight / ten o’clock. They agree to meet at Sarah’s house / in town / at Liam’s house. Liam gives Sarah his address / email / mobile number. (lO Language Guide Vocabulary Relationship verbs ask someone out cheat on someone fall in love with someone fancy someone finish with someone VI flirt with someone 'I V get on with someone Reporting verbs admit agree announce ask complain explain invite offer promise refuse tell warn go out with someone have an argument with someone miss someone My friend invited me to go to a party My sister refused to lend me her je Dictionary extra! ^ assure (v) ★ ★ mess (n) ★ ★ devastated (adj) neighbour (n) ★★★ distant (adj) ★ ★ quite (adv) ★ ★ ★ disturbance (n) ★ ★ scene (n) ★★★ hacker(n) shame (n) ★★ jealous ★ spend (time) ★ ★ ★ keen (adj) ★ ★ ★ suffocate (v) U sef ul expressionsj How’s it going? Fine, thanks. Do you want to go out tonight? I think I’ll give it a miss. Would you like to .. instead? I’d love to, but I’m afraid I can’t. That’s a shame. Maybe another time Grammar Reported speech c When we use reported speech, we report what was said from our point of view The tense changes from the one that the speaker originally used. 0 When we use direct speech, we write the exact words the person said and put quotation marks around the words. 'We met on holiday in Tuapse,' he said. о When we use reported speech, we do not use quotation marks. He said that they had met on holiday in Tuapse. present simple past simple ‘I fancy you.’ He told me that he fancied me. present continuous past continuous Tm going out with Tim.’ She said that she was going out with Tim. past simple past perfect ‘I met her at a party ’ He told me that he’d met her at a party. present perfect —► past perfect Tve met someone else.’ She told me that she’d met someone else. will would ‘We’ll miss you.’ They said that they’d miss me. is / are going to was / were going to ‘He’s going to ask you out.’ —► She said that he was going to ask me out. can could ‘I can’t go out with you.’ He told me that he couldn’t go out with me. have to had to ‘I have to finish with Sam.’ She said that she had to finish with Sam. о Some pronouns and time expressions also change in reported speech. For example: direct speech reported speech I he / she you I / he / she / we / they we they me him / her you me / him / her / us / them us them my his / her your —► my / his / her / our / their our their now then today that day tomorrow —> the next day / the following day yesterday the day before / the previous day last year the year before / the previous year five years ago —> five years before next week the next week / the following week о We use the object pronoun after tell. He told me that he would come, о We use the object pronoun with to after say. He said to me that he would come, о We often put that after sayltell + object pronoun in reported speech. Direct speech: 'You have to stop seeing your friends.' Reported speech: He told me that i had to stop seeing my friends. Reported questions with if о We use if to report Yes/No questions, о The word order is the same as in affirmative statements. о We change the tenses in the same way as in reported speech, о That is never used. 'Did you enjoy the party?' He asked me if I had enjoyed the party. Grammar bank Workbook p113 er Progress check Relationship verbs Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings. Emma fancied One day, she asked She went She got on But Nick finished She missed a) out with him a few times. b) with Emma. c) a boy called Nick. d) him a lot. e) him out. f) well with his friends. Reported statements Compiete the sentences with said, told or osked. She . that she’d met a nice boy. She if I knew him. I her that I didn’t. She that he was good-looking. She me that she was in love. I if he lived near here. Write sentences in reported speech. ‘I like football,’ she said. She said that she liked football. Tm doing my homework,’ he told me. ‘I saw Tania in town,’ she said. ‘I haven’t seen the new film,’ he said. Til call later,’ she said. ‘We can go to the cinema,’ she told me. Reported questions with if 4 Compiete the reported questions. ‘Did you pass the exam?’ He asked if i had passed the exam. 1 (112) ‘Do you speak English?’ He asked if I ‘Are you from Russia?’ He asked if I ‘Have you been to London?’ He asked if I ‘Is your teacher nice?’ He asked if my teacher ‘Are you going to walk to school?’ He asked if I .. 5 Write the direct questions. She asked if I lived in England. (Do 'Do you live in England?' She asked if I spoke Spanish. (Do ) She asked if I would help. (Will ) She asked if I had been out the previous night. (Did .) She asked if my friend was with me. (Is She asked if I was going to go for a drini (Are ..) Reporting verbs 6 Choose the correct words. 1 We complained / promised to study harder. Our teacher agreed / explained to postpone the exam. They warned / said me not to go alone. Harry refused / invited us to his party. He refused / said to tell me her secret. She told / offered to help me. Cumulative grammar 7 Choose the correct words. 1>2>3>4>5>6; World Records An American couple called Daniel Fredt and Susan hold the world record for (1) longer / longest marriage ever. Dc Frederick asked Susan if she (2) will / w< marry him when they were teenagers, and said that she (3) wants / wanted to spenc rest of her life with him. They were ma (4) for / since 91 years. They (5) must / c have known each other really well! The world record for the most marric belongs to an American called Glynn Wolfe (6) was / were born in 1908, and he (7) h had been married 29 times before his dea 1997. Glynn (8) had / was having 19 chile 40 grandchildren and 19 great-grandchildr wbrnsbtmmm Unit contents: Vocabulary Describing places; collocations: holiday activities Grammar used to] subject and object questions; tense review Skills Read about the New Seven Wonders of the World Listen to people talking about their childhood holidays Write about your holidays Practise making requests Across the curriculum Geography Culture today Around the World... m In 2008, 25-year-old Mark Beaumont broke a new world record by travelling around the world in 194 days. How did he travel? a) on foot b) by bike c) by plane What is the largest country in the world? a) Russia b) the USA c) China And the smallest country in the world? a) Monaco b) Andorra c) Vatican City If you had roubles, rand and yen, where could you spend them? a) Canada, Mexico and Thailand b) Russia, South Africa and Japan c) Ireland, Germany and Australia Vocabulary 1 Recycle Which of these places are there i your town? Describing places 1 (S13 Listen and repeat. Which adjectives would you use to describe these places? cathedral castle ruins palace statue church beach skyscraper mysterious beautiful amazing incredible wonderful enjoyable relaxing dangerous peaceful comfortable famous exciting Adjective suffixes We add the suffixes -ous, -ful, -ing, -ibie and -able to verbs and nouns to make adjectives 2 Copy and complete the table with the adjectives from exercise 1. Your voice Complete the sentences with y< own ideas. 1 The most enjoyable holiday I’ve had was . 2 The most dangerous place I’ve been to is The most peaceful place at my school is . The most famous building in my town is .. -ful -ing beautiful -ous -ible / -able Vocabulary plus Workbook p124 Reading Look at the New Seven Wonders of the W( on page 115 and match them to these cou Which one would you most like to visit? Use the adjectives from exercise 1 to describe these places or situations. the view from a mountain a five-star hotel the Bermuda Triangle a beach holiday snowboarding in the Alps Italy China Brazil Peru Jordan Mexico India (313 Read and listen to the text. Are thes« sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences. 1 Pronunciation: word stress a (Зт Listen and repeat. Are there three or four syllables in these words? enjoyable incredible mysterious b ёЦ] Listen. Write the words in the correct box. exciting dangerous beautiful relaxing The New Seven Wonders were selected Bernard Weber. Stonehenge is one of the Ancient Wondc the World. The Red Square wasn’t chosen. The Ancient Wonders of the World were more than two thousand years ago. Ancient Greek tourists travelled by boat. Three of the Ancient Wonders still exist t( WORDS Ш с:олткхт Find the antonyms (opposit of these words in the first X\ paragraphs of the text. wonderful amazing (114) unpopular ordinary pleased natural ugly The New Wonders In 2007 the New Seven Wonders of the World were announced after a global competition. The winners were voted by phone and on the Internet - just like in Pop ldol\ The competition was organized by a Swiss film-maker called Bernard Weber. It was very popular around the world - over a hundred million people cast their votes. Some countries were disappointed that * their nominations didn’t win. Stonehenge, England’s mysterious stone circle, didn’t make the top seven, and neither did the beautiful Red Square in Moscow. Nevertheless, everyone agrees that the winners are all incredible man-made structures and they deserve to be protected forever. en Wonders World The Ancient Wonders Do you know why there are Seven Wonders of the World? It was the ancient Greeks who made the original list more than two thousand years ago, and they chose the number seven because it was considered to be magical. The Ancient Wonders included the Great Pyramid of Giza and the world’s first lighthouse in Alexandria. Ancient Greek tourists used to visit the Seven Wonders by boat, travelling across the Mediterranean. But today only the Great Pyramid remains. What happened to all the other Wonders? Most of them were destroyed by fires and earthquakes. The ancient Greeks used to call the Seven Wonders theamata, which means 'must-see'. Two thousand years ago, travel agents used to sell tours of these amazing places that people ‘must see’ during their lifetime. Perhaps tourism isn’t so different today! Read the text again and choose the correct answers. Over a hundred million people ... a) have visited the New Wonders of the World. b) voted in the competition. England’s nomination .. a) wasn’t successful. b) won the competition. The Ancient Greeks chose Seven Wonders because a) they thought seven was a magic number b) there were seven pyramids. The Great Pyramid a) was destroyed by an earthquake. b) is the only remaining Ancient Wonder Petra [ Christ Rede 10 Your voice In groups, make a lis the Seven Wonders of your cou Give reasons for your choices. I think the Cathedral of St. Sophia \r Novgorod should he one of the Sevei wonders, because it's an amazing example of Russian architecture. Now try to agree on one of youi to become the Eighth New Won of the World! i! h Across the curriculum Geography pi46 Grammar 1 used to 1 Read the examples. How do you say used to in your language? used to The Greeks used to visit the Seven Wonders. They didn’t use to travel by plane. Did they use to travel by boat? Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t. We use used to + infinitive to talk about past habits and states that are now finished. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings. The Pharaohs used to rule Egypt People used to think the earth was flat Gladiators used to fight at the Colosseum Machu Picchu used to be a busy city People used to celebrate lots of religious ceremonies at Stonehenge a) but there aren’t any fights there now. b) but no one lives there now. c) but now the country is a republic. d) but now they just go there for the solstice. e) but now we know that it’s round. Complete the sentences. Use used to or didn't use to and these verbs. live be sing not act not play Wayne Rooney . in Liverpool. He .. for Real Madrid. Three-time Olympic champion Maria Kiselyova . a TV presenter Angelina Jolie in Friends. Robbie Williams . in Take That. Your voice Make questions with used to about when you were younger. Then ask and answer in pairs. wear glasses? live in a different house? have a pet? have a different hairstyle? walk to school? go to the beach? Did you use to wear glasses? Yes, I did. But now I wear contact lenses. (m) Subject and object questions Read about Cleopatra, the Egyptian Quee Who did she fall in love with? Cleopatra was the Queen of Ancient Egyp She fell in love with the Roman general Mark Antony, and they had three children. Cleopatra and Mark Antony wanted to bui a great empire, but the Romans defeated them. In the end, Egypt became part of th« Roman Empire. 6 Translate questions a and b. How are the^ different in your language? subject and object questions Cleopatra loved Mark Antony, subject object Subject question a) Who loved Mark Antony? Cleopatra. Object question b) Who did Cleopatra love? Mark Antony. Answer these questions to the text in exercise 5. Which one is an object questic Who had three children? What did Cleopatra and Mark Antony wai to build? Who defeated Cleopatra and Mark Anton What happened in the end? 8 Write subject or object questions for the t answers. Use Who or What. The Egyptians constructed the Pyramids. Who constructed the Pyramids? The Romans built the Colosseum. The Romans built the Colosseum. Ruslan married Lyudmila. Ruslan married Lyudmila. Shakespeare wrote Antony and Cleopatro Shakespeare wrote Antony and Cleopatrc Language Guide p123 Vocabulary 2 Collocations: holiday activities 1 Look at the collocations. Which six expressions can you see in the pictures? go on safari buy souvenirs see the sights hire a bike go snorkelling take photos get a suntan make friends send postcards eat an ice cream 2 (ЗИ] Listen and repeat. 3 Complete the text with the past simple form of these verbs. get send go take see make hire We went to Spain last summer and I had a great time. I (1) . snorkelling every day and I (2) ... a great suntan. I (3) .. some new friends on the campsite where we were staying, and I (4) .. lots of photos of them. One day we went to Seville. We (5) . bikes and (6) . all the sights. I (7) ... postcards to all my friends back home. Speaking Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. Which sights can tourists see in your town? Have you ever hired a bike? What souvenirs do you buy on holiday? Have you ever been snorkelling? Do you usually take photos on holiday? Would you like to go on safari? Listening Childhood holiday memories 5 Listen to Alison, Richard and Jane talking about their childhood holidays. Who does this picture belong to? Listen again and choose the corre answers. 1 Now Alison... a) goes to Skegness every year. b) doesn’t go on holiday with her family. c) never goes on holiday. 2 Richard used to travel abroad by ... a) plane, b) train. c) car and ferry 3 Jane’s family usually went to ... a) Wales, b) Scotland, c) France. 4 .. has the happiest memories of childhood holidays. a) Alison b) Richard c) Jane Answer the questions. Where did Alison and her family use to sta> What did they use to do at the beach? Who did Richard use to go on holiday with' Which cities did Richard visit? What was the weather usually like on Jane holidays? What was the best thing about Jane’s holidays? 8 Your voice Where did you use to go on lAfKon iirkii \kiara if/MinnorO Culture today Taking a gap year .3 -.■4 ,<^,A Workbook p114 ^ present simple I speak English and French. present continuous We aren't sitting on the beach. past simple What did you see? past continuous She was travelling in New Zealand. present perfect I haven't bought any souvenirs. past perfect Where had they gone? will I will go to Egypt next summer. be going to I'm going to visit my friends in Russia. first conditional If I save enough money, I will go on holiday. second conditional If you left early, what train would you catch? third conditional If the ancient Egyptians hadn't built the Pyramids, we wouldn't have visited them last year. present simple always, usually, often, sometimes, hardly ever, never present continuous now, at the moment past simple yesterday, last week/month/ year, a week ago, at 3 pm past continuous while present perfect for, since, just, yet, already, ever, never future this evening, tonight, tomorrow, next week/ month/year Of Progress check Describing pieces 1 Match the beginnings of the words with their endings. Then translate them Into your language. 1 wonder a) ous 2 danger b) able 3 relax c) ful 4 comfort d) ibie 5 incred e) ing Coiiocations: hoiiday activities 2 Complete the sentences with these words. souvenirs safari suntan bike postcards snorkelling Last year my uncle went on .. in Africa. He sent us . of beautiful landscapes. He bought .. for all the family My parents and I went... in the sea near Estartit. We saw lots of fish! I hired a ... to get to the beach. We all got a great. because we went to the beach every day used to 3 Complete the sentences with used to or didn't use to to make true sentences. I .. go to a different school. We .. use this book in primary school. I be shorter than I am now I . go out at night when I was little. My grandparents .. use instant messaging when they were young. People . write more letters, but now we usually send emails. Subject and object questions 4 Choose the correct words. Do you know the answers? 1 Who designed / did design the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg? What else designed he / did he design? Who wrote / did write Romeo and Juliet? What else wrote he / did he write? Who did marry / married Brad Pitt? Who else fell he / did he fall in love with? (124) Tense review Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 I (do) a test at the moment. 2 I (be) happy if I get all the answers correct. 3 We often (go) to the beach on holiday 4 My cousins saw the Queen while they ... (visit) Buckingham Palace! 5 I (buy) this book last year 6 I .. (have) these trainers for about six months. Match the sentences in exercise 5 with these tenses. a) present simple b) past continuous c) present continuous d) present perfect e) past simple f) future 7 Write these time expressions in the correct order. now next week yesterday tomorrow last year a week ago Cumuiative grammar 11>2)3>4>5>6^ 8 Choose the correct words. A Very Long Walk! In 1998, Karl Bushby decided (1) walking / to walk around the world. He (2) began / was beginning his adventure in Chile and he (3) said / told that he hoped to return home to England in 2014. Karl usually (4) sleeps / is sleeping in a tent. He (5) has to / mustn’t carry all his things in a trailer which (6) was / were built especially for the trip. The intrepid adventurer has (7) already / yet walked more than half way. He (8) ’s /’ve crossed the frozen ice between Alaska and Siberia and now he (9) walks /’s walking through Russia. If he completes the journey, it (10) will take / takes 16 years in total. Reading 1 Read the text. Name three things which you can see near Uffington. The Mysterious White Horse In our history class at school we’re doing a project about local history, so our teacher took us to visit a fascinating place near the village of Uffington, about half an hour from Oxford. There, in a beautiful open space, is an amazing white horse which is ‘drawn’ on the hillside. Who created this White Horse, and why was it made? Well, historians say that an Iron Age tribe used to live there, and they created it as a sign of their territory. Certainly, the horse must be very old, because an almost identical figure appears on gold coins which were found in the area, and which date from the first century BC. What fascinates me is how people were capable of creating such a perfect figure when they couldn’t see it from above! How could they see clearly what they were doing, when they didn’t have planes or even balloons? To make the White Horse, they had to dig large holes in the grass and then fill them with chalk - the soft white stone which is very common in this area. If you go to this part of England, you must visit the White Horse. It’s an amazing place full of historical interest and mysterious stories. For example, legend says that Saint George killed the famous dragon near here, on Dragon Hill. There’s also an Iron Age hill fort nearby. (126) Read the text again and answer the questions. Why did the writer visit the White Horse? Where is Uffington? When was the White Horse made? Why were the gold coins significant? How did people create the White Horse? According to local legend, what happened c Dragon Hill? Listening (ВЗ Listen to a news item about an event c Stonehenge. Choose the correct answers. 1 There were about... people at Stonehenge, a) 300 b) 3000 c) 30000 They were ... a) at a demonstration. b) celebrating the longest day of the year. c) celebrating the shortest day of the year. The weather was ... a) warm. b) stormy, c) wet. ... entertained the people. a) Musicians b) Actors c) Theatre group The police said that... a) no arrests were made. b) the event was quite peaceful. c) many protesters became violent. The public have had free access to Stonehenge on this day each year... a) since 2000. b) forever, c) since last yea Speaking Work in pairs. Ask and answer. Is tourism important in your region? And in your country? Which places do tourists visit where you live What are the advantages and disadvantage of tourism in your country? Have you or your friends ever been to Britai Where do you and your friends usually go о holiday? Project You’re going to do a project about Britain. Listen to your teacher’s instructions. Grammar Modals 1 Choose the correct words. Our Mountain Adventure In Britain, the weather (1) must / can change at any moment so you (2) have to / don’t have to be prepared - especially when you go to the mountains. One day Anna and I went to the Lake District. Suddenly, the clouds came down and we (3) couldn’t / mustn’t see anything. We (4) had to / must wait for the weather to improve. Fortunately, the Mountain Rescue team (5) couldn’t / didn’t have to come and find us. The sun came out and we (6) could / can see a path in front of us. ‘But it (7) might / can’t be the wrong path!’ said Anna. ‘It (8) can / can’t be the wrong path,’ I replied. ‘It’s the same one that we came on!’ Reported speech 2 Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. 1 ‘I like travelling.’ She said that 2 ‘We’re having a great time.’ They said 3 ‘I made a lot of friends.’ He said that.. 4 ‘I’ll go to Scotland next time.’ He said 5 ‘You have to be careful.’ She told me . 6 ‘I’ve sent you a postcard.’ He told me . Subject and object questions 3 Write subject or object questions. Do you know any of the answers? 1 Who / write / The Lord of the Rings? 2 Who / Prince Charles / marry? 3 Who / rule / Russia in 1571? 4 What / happen / in England in 1066? 5 Who/win/the UEFA cup last year? 6 What / England / win / in 1966? used to 4 Complete the sentences with used to or didn't use to and these verbs. go smoke live be understand have 1 My cousins in Birmingham but now they’re in Manchester 2 We on holiday to Wales but now we spend the summer in Norfolk. 3 Scotland .. a separate country but now it’s part of Britain. 4 British people a cooked breakfast but now most people have cereal and toast. 5 In the UK, people in pubs but now it’s illegal. 6 I English but now I have classes every week. Tense review 5 Choose the correct form of the verbs. Welcome to Britain! Every year more than 20 million tourists (1) visit / are visiting Britain. Last year they (2) spent / have spent more than £70 billion while they (3) stayed / were staying in the country That (4) means / is meaning that tourism is big business in the UK! London (5) has always been / was always popular among foreign tourists, but the northern cities of Newcastle, Leeds and Manchester (6) become / are becoming more popular destinations now If you (7) will visit / visited Britain, where (8) would you go / had you been? Error correction 6 Find and correct one error in each sentence. 1 Can your grandmother to speak English? 2 We didn’t used to live in this house. 3 Yet we haven’t started our holiday. 4 The teacher said us to study more. 5 I asked her if she will help me. 6 Do you has to wear a school uniform? 7 Who did write Hamlet? 8 I’ve just finish this exercise. J (il сиунэи aiVCiWIICd <ыМ111Э / fmmmm (Зт Listen and read. Then act out the sketch in groups. CHARACTERS Katie A 16-year-old blind girl Greg Katie’s new boyfriend Mum Dad Katie’s mother Katie’s father Jo Greg's boss Greg Katie Dad Greg Greg Dad Katie Dad Greg Katie At JoJam Records Katie Excuse me. Have you got any classical music? Oh, and any heavy metal? Like that song from the Daredevil soundtrack? Oh, I know the one you mean. It’s over there, look. Next to jazz. And classical music is near the door Over there? Sorry, I can’t Dad? Just here, love. Which one do you want me to look for? Oh, I’m really sorry! I didn’t realise you were ... urn Katie Blind? Don’t worry. But if you could give me a hand, that would be wonderful. Dad, if you want to get some classical music, you could look urn . near the door? Yes, that’s right, over there. But, Katie ... I’ll be fine. Dad. Relax. This young man can be my eyes. Fine, then. But if you need anything, I won’t be far away. So, what are we looking for? [sighs] Oh, anything that brings me to life. I must find music that I can see. You can see music? Wow! [embarrassecf] No, I can’t see music. But when you listen to some music, don’t you see pictures - in your mind? Oh yes! If the music inspires me, I can. But not always. Katie Well, I’m the same. I sometimes hear a song on the radio and I can see things I’d thought I’d forgotten - faces, colours .. I love music! Greg Well, let’s take six or seven CDs to the counter and I’ll play them to you. Katie Oh, thanks! But I mustn’t take up too much of your time. You mustn’t give me special attention No problem. The shop isn’t busy today, anyway It used to be full on Saturday mornings, but not now. People don’t buy so many CDs now And this way, you may find something you like, something new . OK. Dad! I’m going to stay here with .. Greg. ... with Greg and choose some music. Katie, Mum said we had to be home for Greg Katie Greg Greg Katie Greg Katie Dad (3^ lunch and she wanted us to get the fish. Katie Da-ad. You can buy the fish. Please. Can I stay here? You could come and get me half an hour... Dad Oh, alright. But you mustn’t leave this shop! I’ll be back in 30 minutes. That afternoon Jo Greg Jo Greg Jo Greg Jo Greg Jo How were things this morning? I saw you talking to a girl for a long time. She’s amazing, Jo. I really want to get to know her. I’ve never met anyone like her before! You’ve never met a blind girl before? Well, it’s true she’s blind, but that’s not wl she’s special. [amused] So what does she think of you' I think she likes me. She asked if she col touch my face, because she wanted to know what I looked like. I couldn’t just let her walk out of my life after that - so I asked her out. And she said yes! It might not be easy, you know. After all, she is blind. Have you thought about tha Yes, but it will be OK. I can tell her what things look like and she can tell me what they sound or feel like. Well, Greg, I’m very happy for you! Mum Katie Mum At Katie's house a few days later Mum [anxiously] Greg might leave you. We dc want you to be hurt. Katie Mum, I am 16 and I really like Greg. You to let me go out with him! You’ll like him. Your dad and I are worried. Well, Tennyson said it was better to hav( loved and lost, than never to have loved all. And maybe I won’t lose him. You and your books and music! I hope h likes reading. Katie He loves reading. He reads to me a lot. [sound of doorbelf] That must be him! [excited now] You said he would be punctual! That’s a good sign! [sound of Dad opening the door] Hello, come in. Oh, that’s nice! Darling, Greg’s brought us some flowers! Oh, I.. Oh, they’re lovely Thank you! [laughing] Mum, this is Greg! Mum Dad Greg Mum Katie Geography Dictionary Irregular verbs pi 48 pi 63 SKIS ilii !1ЮЯ Fashion through the ages 1 Match the fashion with a period on the timeline. 1550-1600 1500 1920 2000 2 Match the description with each of the fashions from exercise 1. 1 Aristocratic men wore wigs in Britain from the 17th century until the end of the 18th century, but the most extravagant wigs were fashionable by about 1665. 4 Men wore stockings, short trousers and a doublet. They also wore a cloak and generally carried a sword in Elizabethan England. After the First World War, women’s fashion changed enormously During the 1920s dresses got shorter and women showed off their legs. The curves of previous decades were replaced by straight dresses with no curves at all. Empire dresses had a very long skirt and a high waist. The body of the dress was very tight and it was difficult for women to move their arms. From the 1860s, the shape of women’s bodies was exaggerated with tight corsets. The skirts were very wide which made it difficult for women to sit down. When England had a civil war, the Puritans insisted on very plain clothes. No colour, no decoration, no frills. I Fashion or politics? 3 Read the texts about foot binding and pigtails in China and answer the questions. Foot binding In China, from as early as the 10th century, the size of a woman’s feet was a sign of her beauty People thought that if the feet were smaller, the girl was more beautiful and she would find a husband more easily Mothers wrapped their daughters’ feet with very tight cloths from a very early age so that the feet could not grow to their natural size. The mothers hoped they would achieve the ideal size of 6 cm, which was called the Gbiden Lotus. Originally, only the richest girls had to go through this painful process, but by the 17th century foot binding was common practice in all sections of society During the 20th century, some people began campaigning for the end of foot binding and in 1911 it was finally banned. However, it was not until 1949 when the new Communist regime came into power that the prohibition on foot binding was enforced. Chinese pigtail From about the 17th century when China was ruled by the Qing dynasty, Chinese men had long hair which they wore in one long plait or pigtail down their back. At that time, men had to wear their hair in this style or risk execution. The fashion of wearing a long pigtail with a shaved forehead continued and the pigtail became a symbol of traditional Chinese values. During the 1911 revolution, men who cut off their pigtail and showed their bare neck were considered revolutionaries and the pigtail gradually disappeared. Why did Chinese women want to have small feet? What was the perfect size for women’s feet? When did foot binding end? What happened if men didn’t wear pigtails during the Qing dynasty? What was the pigtail a symbol of? What did people think of men who cut off their pigtails in 1911? Project You are going to find out about fashions across the ages. Plan ^ Choose a time and country you would like to find out more about. Research Find information about the fashion you have chosen. Look in the library or on the Internet. Prepare Make a poster with texts and photographs to illustrate your findings. Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher. Emergency first aid 1 Match the emergency telephone numbers with the locations. Russia USA UK 1 999 2 911 3 112 2 Match the situations with the appropriate first aid. Someone is having dinner and they get some food stuck in their throat. They can’t breathe. Someone is making a cup of coffee and they pour boiling water over their hand. Someone is cutting wood with a saw and they cut their arm very badly. A sharp speck of dust goes into someone’s eye. Someone is stung by an insect and stops breathing. 'У'' Hold the burn under running water for 15 minutes or submerge it cold water. Use a tight bandage or г clean cloth to stop the bleeding. Ask the injurec person to lie down and elevate the arm. Pour lots of clean water into and over the eye un the speck is removed. Hit the person on the ba< or put your arms around the person from behind г pull up firmly. Try to get the person breathing again by performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 132 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 3 Read the guidelines and answer the questions. 1 What should you do when you first see someone lying motionless on the ground? 2 What is the ABC checklist? 3 Describe CPR in your own words. Guidelines for CPR Step 1 If you see someone lying motionless on the ground, you should decide if this is an emergency and call for help. • Check for danger before approaching a person lying on the ground. • Find out if they are conscious by gently shaking their shoulders and speaking to them. • If there is no response, shout for help and phone an emergency phone number. Step 2 Lie the person on their back and go through the ABC checklist. A Check Airway: Is anything blocking the person’s mouth or nose? Open their airway by putting one hand on their forehead and gently pushing their head back; lift the chin with two fingers. В Check Breathing: Look for movement in the chest, feel for breath with your cheek, listen for sounds of breathing for ten seconds. C Check Circulation: Can you feel a pulse? Does the person look blue in the face? Step 3 If the person is not breathing, start CPR. Place your hands in the middle of their chest and push down on the chest 30 times. You need to push the chest down by about 4-5 cm at a rate of 100 per minute. After 30 compressions, open the person’s mouth by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Pinch their nose, put your mouth over theirs and blow for one second. Repeat twice letting the air go into the lungs and then escape. Continue to give 30 compressions and two breaths until the emergency services arrive. , Project You are going to find out about emergency situations involving fire. r Plan Choose three different locations where a fire might start and think about what the dangers would be. For example, at home, in a school or in the countryside. Research Find out what you should do in fire emergencies at the three locations. Look in the library or on the Internet. Prepare Present your findings with illustrations or photographs and text. Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher шш lillirilj Emigration and immigration 1 Match the words and phrases with their definitions. 1 asylum seeker 2 emigrant 3 displaced person 4 immigrant 5 refugee 6 fugitive a) someone who leaves their home to escape from war, persecution oi natural disaster b) another way of describing a refugee c) someone who leaves their country to go and live in another country d) someone who arrives in a country and wants to live there e) someone who has committed a crime and is hiding from the police f) someone who arrives in another country seeking protection becausi they are in danger Emigration from Ireland 2 Read and complete the text with these words. starvation potato fungus landowners disease poverty The potato famine At the beginning of the 19th century, Ireland was part of the United Kingdom and was one of the poorest regions in Europe. The land was controlled by a few (1)... with enormous estates and peasant families rented small areas of land where they cultivated vegetables at a subsistence level. Many people emigrated to look for a better life for themselves and to escape from (2).... By the 1840s, Irish peasants had come to rely on just one vegetable, the (3) ..., for food. The potato is rich in nutrients and people can remain healthy on a diet almost exclusively of potatoes. When a (4)... caused by (5)... destroyed the potato crop in 1845, millions of people had nothing to eat. It was a disaster and conditions were made worse by the policies of the British government which ruled Ireland at that time. The crisis continued through the 1840s and over a million people died from (6) ... or disease. From a population of about 8 million, over 1 million people emigrated to North America. Read the text again and answer the questions. Who owned most of the land in Ireland What food did people eat? What caused the potato plants to die? When did the potato famine start? What was the population at that time? How many people emigrated to North America during the famine years? (134) West Indian immigration to Britain 4 Locate these countries on the map. Jamaica Barbados Trinidad and Tobago Cuba Dominican Republic Haiti 5 Read the text and answer the questions. There are over 20 islands in the West Indies. Before independence, several of them like Jamaica and Barbados, were British colonies. People from those countries were all British citizens and had the right to live and work in Britain if they wanted to. Between 1948 and 1970 nearly half a million people left the West Indies and went to live in Britain.The British government encouraged immigrants to move because Britain didn't have enough workers especially for the hospitals and for the transport system. However, immigrants left for many different reasons. Some wanted better opportunities for their children, some had fought in the Second World War and had lived in Britain before, and some wanted to save money and then return to the Caribbean. 1 Name two islands in the West Indies which were British colonies. 2 Were people from these colonies allowed to work in Britain? 3 Why did the British government encourage people to emigrate to Britain? 4 What other reasons did people have for emigrating to Britain? Project You are going to find out more about emigration from and immigration to your own country. Prepare Decide on the best way to show your findings. For example an essay or an illustrated poster Plan Choose a time in the past when emigration or immigration has affected the population of your country. Research Find out the reasons why people changed country What effect did their departure or arrival have? Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher Job sectors 1 Match the names of the job sectors with the services they provide. 1 Primary Sector a) Providing services: retail, tourism, education, health, banking, transport, maintenance, entertainment, the media and law. 2 Secondary Sector b) Obtaining raw materials from nature: farming, mining, forestry and fishing. 3 Tertiary Sector c) Processing raw materials: manufacturing, construction and textile industries. 4 Quaternary Sector d) Intellectual services: researching and developing new ideas, computing and ICT. 2 Match these jobs to the sectors: primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary. miner politician shipbuilder builder factory worker teacher train driver fisherman librarian doctor farmer engineer Changing economies Read the text. Say if the sentences are true or false. 1 Sheffield is a small town. 2 There is coal in the area around Sheffield. 3 Sheffield is famous for making iron. SHEFFIELD'S INDUSTRIAL PAST Sheffield is a large city in South Yorkshire with a population of about 0.5 million people. The wealth of natural resources in the area meant that the city developed as these resources were exploited. So primary and secondary sectors have always been important to the economy of the city and even in medieval times, it was important as a centre for the metal trade. Sheffield became especially important during the industrial revolution when hundreds of factories and furnaces were built making use of the local materials of coal, iron ore, and water. When the process for making steel was invented in the 1750s, Sheffield became the most important centre of steel production in Britain and by the middle of the 19th century, Sheffield was the world's biggest producer of steel. The unpleasant aspects of the industrial revolution were also part of Sheffield's history. Steel production meant long working hours in dangerous, unpleasant conditions and Sheffield quickly became one of the main centres for trade union organization and action. In the 1860s, factories were attacked and factor owners murdered by desperate workers and th' government tried to control the power of the union; Even as late as the 1930s, George Orwell wrot' a description of grim living conditions in Sheffield: 'I has a population of half a million and it contains fewe decent buildings than the average village of fiv hundred.' By the 1970s, the coal-mining industry was in declin and the 1980s saw the decline of the metal trades a steel was produced more cheaply in other parts of th world. Fewer people were employed as the process fc I Read the text about Sheffield’s industrial past again and answer the questions. What is the population of Sheffield? Which sectors of the economy were traditionally most important to the city? When was Sheffield the most important producer of steel in the world? Were trade unions important in the history of the city? When did the coal industry decline? When did steel making decline? SHEFFIELD TODAV Today, Sheffield faces a challenge to find new sources of employment. The European Union has recognized Sheffield as a ‘less-favoured-region’ in need of investment and development. Read about Sheffield today. Say if the sentences are true or false. Now it is the fastest growing British city apart from London and investment is trying to generate an urban renaissance to replace traditional manufacturing jobs with jobs in service sectors. 1 Sheffield has been designated an EU ‘less-favoured-region’. Most jobs in Sheffield are in the secondary and tertiary sectors. There is very little green space around Sheffield. There are 20000 students at the universities. Sheffield is surrounded by beautiful countryside and tourism is another possible area of expansion. The University of Sheffield was founded in 1905 and helped to investigate advances in metal production. Today the 40000 students who attend the city’s two universities also help to develop the retail, entertainment, housing and catering industries. Project You are going to find out about which sectors the people in your area work in. Plan Make a list of questions to ask people about what job they do. Prepare Collect all your information in a table. Research Find out what jobs your family and their friends have got. Present your material Take your findings to school. Your teacher will collect all of the information and you will make a bar chart with your classmates to present the whole class’s findings. High tides and low tides 1 Look at the photos and decide which one shows a high tide and which one shows a low tide. 2 Read the text and say which of the diagrams represents: a) when very high tides occur b) when very low tides occur Gravity and its effects on the tides The Earth orbits the Sun approximately every 365 days and the Moon orbits the Earth approximately every 27 days. It is gravity which keeps the Earth and Moon in their orbits, but gravity is also what affects the tides. Although the Sun’s gravity is much stronger than the gravitational force of the Moon, in fact, it is the Moon which has the greater effect on the Earth’s tides because it is nearer to the Earth. But both the Sun and Moon affect the tides. Water in the oceans on Earth is ‘pulled’ into different tide patterns by gravity When the gravity of the Moon and Sun are on the same axis, there will be high tides (diagrams 1 and 3). When the Moon and Sun are perpendicular, the tides are very low (diagram 2). Analysis of ocean movements and tides is very complex because oceans vary in depth and shape and every coastline around the world is unique. This means that some places have two tides a day and some only one, while other places have no visible tide at all. When bad weather and storms combine with high tides, flooding often takes place. SUN У SUN J 1 £ \ t ъ SUN .V ) 1' Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 What is the Moon’s orbit of the Earth? 2 Does the Sun’s gravity affect the Earth’s tides? 3 What other factors affect the tides? 4 What combination might result in flooding? f138) Sir Isaac Newton 4 Read the text and put the paragraphs in the correct order. One of the world's greatest scientists © Newton is famous as the man who realized that gravity was at work when he was hit on the head by an apple falling from a tree. This story may be a legend, but in 1687 he published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (‘Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy') which showed that gravity is a universal force. Sir Isaac Newton was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He was born in 1643 and he studied at Cambridge University, where he later became professor of matheniatics. 0He was also famous for his bad temper and eccentricities in later life, but he made many other important contributions to science before his death in 1727. (0 His interests were very wide and from the mid 1660s he studied not only mathematics, but also physics and astronomy He studied the composition of light and colours and he developed a powerful telescope to study the stars. Newton's three laws of motion 5 Match the sentence halves to make Newton’s Laws. a) there is an equal and opposite reaction. 1 Newton’s first law An object in a state of uniform motion 2 Newton’s second law Force*= 3 Newton’s third law For every action b) remains in motion unless acted on by an external force. c) mass X acceleration mm: ............. * Force is measured in a unit called newton, named after Sir Isaac Newton. Project You are going to find out more about gravity. Plan Prepare Find out how satellites are put into orbit and why Draw some diagrams and write a text to explain they do not float out into space. Research Find information about satellites. Look in the library or on the Internet. your findings. Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher Styles in architecture 1 Match the classical architectural styles with the descriptions. 1 Doric 3 Corinthian 4 Tuscan 5 Composite © This style developed in Greece and was used widely in 400 BC. At the top of the column, there is always a pair of curled volutes. The Erechtheum on the Acropolis is an example. © This order was developed in Ancient Rome. It has heavy, plain columns with no decoration. © © The plainest and simplest of the classical orders. It originated in Greece in 500 BC. The Parthenon has these columns. This is the most elegant and elaborate style from Ancient Greece. It has the narrowest columns and the top is carved to look like the pointed leaves of the acanthus plant. © This style comes from Rome and as its name suggests, it mixes the Ionic and Corinthian styles. 2 Look at the diagrams of different styles of arches. Read the text and name the styles. ARCHES Wm Arches are shapes which support openings in walls A force at the top of an arch is spread across the sides of an arch and down to the base. If you rotate an arch 360 degrees it is a dome! A flat arch may have a very slight curve. It is made from wedge-shaped stones. Roman arches are semi-circular and were first usee by Roman engineers. This style was used again ir the Romanesque style (meaning descended frorr Rome) in Medieval Europe from about the lOtf century Gothic arches are tall and pointed and are one о the typical characteristics of Gothic architecture This style was prevalent from approximately the 12th-16th centuries and the tall, pointed arches made it possible for cathedrals to have enormous windows. Moorish arches are also called Horseshoe arches because of their shape. The curve is often more thar a semi-circle and is typical of Islamic architecture. (140) Express yourself 3 Look at these photos of different buildings to see how different styles of architecture have been used. Answer the questions. Notre-Dame Cathedral (Paris, France) Kazan Cathedral (St Petersburg, Russia) Alcazar (Segovia, Spain) Look at the building. What style of arches are used? Look at the building. What style of columns are used? Look at the building. What styli of arches are used? What other cathedrals of this architectural style do you know? Where does this style come from? Why are they called Horsesho» arches? Project You are going to find out about the styles of architecture in the buildings where you live Plan Choose a public building near where you live. Prepare Present your findings with some photos or illustrations and text. Research Find out when the building was built and the name of the architect. Look at the style of the building. Flas the architect used any styles from the past? Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher. Working for the blind or partially sighted 1 Match the sentences with the correct information. The name of the organization which works in the interest of blind people in Britain. The number of people registered as blind or partially sighted in Britain. The number of working guide dogs in Britain. The cost of lifetime support for a guide dog including training, health care and food. The age that guide dogs begin their training. The working life of an average guide dog. The name of the largest organization which trains guide dogs for the blind. The cost of a guide dog to its new owner. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) about 4600 the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) about £35000 50 pence 6-8 weeks old 6-7 years approximately 150000 people the Guide Dogs for the Blind Association К ^ Braille 2 Read the text about Louis Braille. Say if the sentences are true or false. p|Z^PiTf‘-4| " I Louis Braille was born near Paris in 1809 with perfect sight, but when he was four years old he had an accident which made him blind. He was intelligent and although he came from a poor family, a wealthy neighbour paid for him to attend one of the first schools for the blind, the Royal Institute for Blind Youth. At school he learnt to read by touch, but the method was difficult to use and it could take months to read one book. Louis was still only 15 yearsold when he developed a coded reading system which worked effectively, now known as braille. In 1821, a captain from Napoleon’s army visited the school and demonstrated a system of ‘night writing’ which soldiers used for passing messages in silence and in the dark. Louis realized that a similar system could be developed for blind people and he started to work on his own version. It used a code of six raised dots to represent the alphabet in the space of a fingertip. Louis spent the rest of his life teaching the system to students at the school and translated many books into braille. He suffered from poor health and tuberculosis and died at the age of 43. In 1952 the French government gave him a hero’s burial in the Pantheon in Paris and the importance of his contribution is recognized worldwide. Louis Braille was blind from birth. Louis Braille came from a wealthy family. Night writing was used by Napoleon’s soldiers. Braille uses a code of 8 raised dots to represent the alphabet. Louis Braille spent his adult life teaching his system to other blind or partially sighted people. The French government gave Louis Braille a hero’s burial when he died. 3 Change the incorrect sentences from exercise 2 so they are true. a I Talking books 4 Read about talking books and complete the text with the words below. MP3 files compact disc vinyl records cassette tapes digital With the development of audio recording facilities, audio books were developed for the blind and partially sighted. In 1932, the American Foundation for the Blind first developed talking books and by 1935 audio books were sent free of charge to some blind adults in the USA. The first recordings were on (1) . and were available for schools and libraries until the 1970s. When audio cassettes became available in the late 1960s, more recordings were delivered on (2) and audio books became very popular through the 1970s and 1980s with portable cassette players. (3) technology for sound reproduction was introduced when the (4) was first patented in 1970. CDs didn’t become widely used until the 1990s, but when they did, the CD player made audio books really easy to use. Now with efficient Internet connections, audio books can be downloaded to computers as (5)... The RNIB in Britain runs a Talking Book Service which offers over 16000 audio books delivered on disc to homes for an annual subscription fee. This service uses the Digital Accessible Information System (Daisy) technology which makes it very easy for listeners to skip pages or chapters. Listening Books, an audio book charity based in Britain, started in 1959. It provides an audio book service through the Internet or via the postal service to anyone who has an illness or disability which makes it difficult or impossible to read a book on paper. : Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 When did the first talking books appear? 2 What format were talking books in the past and what format are they now? 3 Is the RNIB Talking Book service free for users? 4 What is the name of the charity which started in 1959 and offers audio books? Project You are going to find out about organizations which work to support the blind and partially sighted people in your country Plan Decide what information you want to find out about the organization. For example, does it train dogs for the blind? Does it organize talking books? Research Prepare Make a poster with texts and photographs to illustrate your findings. Present your material Present your completed project to your Find information about the organization. Look in the classmates and teacher library or on the Internet. The sonnet 1 Read the information about a form of poetry, the sonnet, and choose the correct information. 1 Sonnets always have sixteen / fourteen lines. 2 A Shakespearean sonnet divides into the following groups of lines: three groups of four lines, quotmins, a group of two lines, a couplet. ^ a group of eight lines, an octave, ^ a group of six lines, a sestet. Shakespeare's Sonnet 116 2 Read one of Shakespeare’s sonnets and match the sections of the poem with modern meanings. 1-c) © d) © Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds. a) Love will not change with hours or weeks, but will be constant until the end of time. Or bends with the remover to remove: 0, no! it is an ever-fixed mark, f b) If everything I say here is proved wrong, then never wrote a line of poetry in my life and no man has ever loved. That looks on tempests and is never shaken; ^ It is the star to every wandering bark, ^ Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken. c) I believe that two people who are made for each other, should not be prevented from being together Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks d) and in this way it is like a star which sailors use to navigate. Within his bending sickle's compass come; @ Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks. But bears it out even to the edge of doom. (t) If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved. m- 4 e) Nothing can change love even when the person who is loved changes or their attitude changes. f) No, love is a fixed point which even violent storms can’t move, g) Love doesn’t obey the laws of time even though physical beauty will be affected by time. 4^ f Read about Shakespeare and answer the questions. 1 What is celebrated on 23rd April? 2 What was the name of Shakespeare’s theatre? 3 How many sonnets are there in total? - Were all the sonnets written to a man? Shakespeare & Shakespeare’s sonnets We don’t know exactly when Shakespeare was born, but 23rd April is generally celebrated as his birthday (and the day he died). He was born into a wealthy family in around 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon and when he was 18 years old he married Anne Hathaway. Some time after this, he travelled to London where he became very successful in the theatre as an actor and writer He had his own company of actors who performed at the Globe Theatre. We know very little about his personal life, but we do have copies of the 36 plays and the many poems which he wrote. Shakespeare started writing the sonnets in 1593 and there are 154 sonnets in total. There have been many theories about who the sonnets were written for, but no-one knows for sure. Sonnets 1-126 were all-written to a man, so these sonnets are known as the ‘fair youth’ sonnets, and sonnets 127-152 were all written to a woman, the ‘dark lady’ There are many themes in the sonnets, with love, beauty, time and politics often being the subject of the verses. Project You are going to find out about a famous play by Shakespeare and about the theatre in his day. Plan Find out about the main characters in A M\dis\Ammer Night's Dream. Find out about the Prepare Write a text about your findings. Globe Theatre. Research .-ind information about the play and the theatre jsing the library or the Internet. Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher Natural wonders of the world 1 Match the words with the pictures. 1 volcanic crater 2 waterfall 3 cave 4 glacier 5 canyon 6 sea cliffs 7 reef 8 lava flow Underground wonders (limestone caves) Read the text and answer the questions. 1 Is limestone an igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rock? 2 What is the chemical composition of limestone? 3 How did limestone rocks form? 4 Why can water erode limestone? 5 What formations are the result of erosion in limestone? Limestone and chemical erosion Limestone is a hard, grey, sedimentary rock which formed millions of years ago in areas where there used to be tropical seas. Small animals or plants containing calcium carbonate (CaCOg) lived in those tropical seas and when they died, their remains accumulated into layers of calcium carbonate. With pressure and heat over millions of years, limestone rocks began to form. The underground rivers can erode the rock to form enormous cave systems with large underground lakes and with tunnels sometimes hundreds of kilometres long. The formation of caves means that impressive stalactites, stalagmites and pillars often form. Water enters cracks in the limestone rock and gradually erodes the cracks until they become very large. When rivers reach an area of limestone, they often disappear because the water travels along tunnels which have become so large that the river travels underground. 3 Read the text again and name parts a-e of the diagram. Use the words in the box. stalagmite stalactite pillar cave underground lake 4 =eac€ what natural feature you would like to oat more about. For example, the Kapova ca.r n the Urals. Research “r.c nformation about the rock formations and ‘c-r. c^y were eroded. Do an Internet search c Loe name and find a suitable web page. Place name Location How were the rocks formed? How were the rocks eroded? Other information Present your material Present your completed project to your classmates and teacher Аа abstract (adj) ['aebstraekt] иск. абстрактный acanthus (n) [a'kaenGas] акант {растение) accent (n) ['aeks(a)nt] акцент, произношение access (n) ['aekses] доступ (have access to - иметь доступ к чему-л.) accessories (n pi) [aek'sesariz] аксессуары across the pond [a.kros бэ 'pond] за океаном, по ту сторону Атлантики actor (п) [’aekta] актёр actually (adv) ['аек^иэМ] 1) на самом деле, фактически; 2) как ни странно, как ни удивительно admire (v) [ad'maia] восхищаться admit (v) [ad'mit] признавать(ся) advert (n) [’aedvsit] реклама; объявление advertise (v) ['aedvataiz] 1) рекламировать; 2) помещать объявление advertising (п) ['aedvataizir]] реклама affect (v) [a'fekt] воздействовать, влиять (be) against sth [(bii) a'genst SAmGit]] (быть) против чего-л. against the odds [a'genst ,6i: 'ndz] несмотря ни на что; наперекор всему ages (п р1) ['eid39z] разг. долгий срок agoraphobia (п) [,aeg(a)ra'faubia] агорафобия {боязнь открытого пространства) agree (v) [a'gri:] соглашаться agriculture (п) ['aegrikAltfa] сельское хозяйство aground (adv) [a'graund] на мели (run aground -сесть на мель) AIDS (n) [eidz] СПИД aim (for) (v) [eim (b:)] стремиться (к чему-л.) (aim high - метить высоко, иметь честолюбивые замыслы) airway (п) ['eawei] дыхательные пути A-Level (п) ['ei.levi] двухгодичная программа подготовки к поступлению в британские университеты, завершающаяся выпускными экзаменами, которые одновременно считаются вступительными all over [,э:1 '9uva] (по)всюду (from all over the world - CO всех концов света) alphabet (n) ['aelfabet] алфавит alternative (n) [Dil'tsinativ] альтернатива aluminium (n) [.aela'miniam] алюминий amazing (adj) [a'meizig] изумительный, поразительный, удивительный ambitious (adj) [aem'bi/ss] 1) амбициозный, честолюбивый; 2) целеустремлённый amputate (v) [’aempjuteit] ампутировать, отнимать ancestor (n) ['aensesta] предок Anglo-Saxon (adj) [.aenglau'saeksn] англосаксонский (Anglo-Saxon language -древнеанглийский язык) angry (adj) ['aeggri] сердитый, недовольный; рассерженный animal products (n pi) ['aenim(a)l .prodAkts] продукция животноводства announce (v) [a'nauns] объявлять; сообщать annual (adj) [’aenjuai] ежегодный anorexia (n) [.aena'reksia] анорексйя {патологическое состояние, возникающее вследствие стремления к коррекции внешности и характеризующееся ненормальным пищевым поведением - голоданием, приводящим к истощению) antisocial (adj) [,aenti'sauj(a)l] антисоциальный apparently (adv) [a'paerantli] вероятно, очевидно appear in court [a.pia in 'kait] предстать перед судом application (n) [,aepli'kei/(a)n] заявление {например, о приёме на работу) apply (v) [a'plai] обратиться с заявлением, подать заявку (apply for - подать заявку на что-л., арр1> to - подать заявку куда-л. / кому-л.) appointment (п) [a'pDintmant] встреча, приём (таке ап appointment - договориться о встрече, записать(ся) на приём) apprentice (п) [a'prentis] ученик; стажёр apprenticeship (п) [a'prentis/ip] тренинг в процессе работы с целью получить необходимые практические умения и навыки, одновременно часть времени выделяется на получение теоретических знаний appropriate (adj) [a'praupriat] 1) соответствующий: 2) подходящий, уместный arachnophobia (п) [a.raekna'faubia] арахнофобия {боязнь пауков) arch (п) [a:tj] арка; свод architect (п) ['aikitektj архитектор architecture (п) ['aiki.tektjaj архитектура argue (v) ['aigjuij 1) спорить, ссориться (argue about - спорить о чём-л,); 2) утверждать (argue that - утверждать, что ...) argument (п) ['aigjumant] 1) спор, ссора; 2) довод, аргумент aristocrat (п) ['aerista.kraet] аристократ around the world [a'raund ба wsild] по всему миру во всём мире; вокруг света arrest [a'rest] 1 (n) арест; 2. (v) арестовывать art history (n) [,a:t ’hist(a)ri] история искусств artificially (adv) [.aiti'fi/ali] искуственно, искусственным путём Arts and Crafts (n pi) [,a:ts an 'kraifts] уроки декоративно-прикладного искусства artwork (n) ['ait,w3:k] произведение искусства ask someone out (phr v) [,a:sk sAmwAn 'aut] приглашать кого-л. на свидание aspect (n) ['aespekt] аспект, сторона assure (v) [э'/э:] уверять, заверять asthmatic (adj) [aes'maetik] страдающий астмой asylum seeker (n) [a'sailam ,si кэ] беженец, просящий о предоставлении политического убежища at all costs [at ,э:1 'kosts] любой ценой auction (n) ['э:к/(э)п] аукцион audio book (n) ['oidiau ,buk] аудиокнига audition (n) [a:'di/(a)n] театр., кино; ТВ. прослушивание author (n) ['э:0э] автор autobiographical (adj) [,D:taubaia'graefik(a)l] автобиографический autobiography (n) [.oitaubai'ografi] автобиография award (v) [a'woid] присуждать {награду, премию) awesome (AmE) (adj) ['o:s(a)m] разг. потрясающий, фантастический axis (п) ['aeksis] ось Bb baggy (adj) ['baegi] мешковатый ban (v) [Ьзеп] запрещать bandage (n) [’baendids] бинт; повязка bare (adj) [bee] оголённый beautiful (adj) ['bju:taf(e)l] 1) красивый, привлекательный; 2) великолепный beauty (n) [’bjuiti] красота believe (v) [bi'liiv] 1) верить; 2) думать, полагать benefit (v) ['benifit] получать выгоду, пользу bestseller (n) [,best'sele] бестселлер (the) Big Apple (n) [(6э) ,big 'эер(э)1] Большое Яблоко {прозвище г Нью-Йорка, возникшее в 1920-х годах) bikini (п) [bi'kiini] бикини {женский купальный костюм; от названия атолла Бикини в Тихом океане) biography (п) [bai'ngrafi] биография blind (adj) [blaind] слепой bloodstained (adj) ['blAd.steind] окровавленный blurred (adj) [blsid] неясный; расплывчатый body language (n) ['bodi Iaer]gwid3] язык мимики и жестов boiling water (n) ['boilig woita] кипяток boomerang (n) ['buimaraer]] бумеранг boot (n) [buit] сапог; ботинок borrow (v) ['borau] занимать, одалживать bottoms (n pi) ['botamz] (спортивные) штаны brace yourself (v refi) ['breis ja.self] держаться, собраться с духом Braille alphabet (п) [,breil 'aelfabet] шрифт Брайля brand (п) [braend] бренд, торговая марка break (n) ['breik] перерыв (the) bright lights (n pi) [(5a) ,brait 'laits] «огни большого города» brightly-coloured (adj) [,braitli'kAlad] яркий, красочный bring to life [.brig ta 'laifj приводить в чувст! возвращать к жизни bronze [bmnz] 1 (adj) бронзовый; 2. (n) брон builder (n) ['bilda] строитель bungee jumping (n) ['bAnd3i. ,d3Ampig] банд; джампинг {прыжки с большой высоты на эластичном тросе, обвязанном вокруг щиколотки) burial (п) ['berial] похороны burn (п) [Ьз:п] ожог, обожжённое место bury (v) ['beri] погребать business (п) ['biznas] бизнес button (п) ['bAt(a)n] пуговица Сс cab (AmE) (n) [kaeb] такси call [кэ:1] 1 (n) телефонный звонок; телефо( разговор; 2. (v) 1) называть; 2) звонить пс телефону campaign (v) [kaem'pein] проводить кампан; cancer (n) ['kaensa] мед. рак cannon (п) ['kaenan] артиллерийское орудие canyon (п) ['kaenjan] каньон, глубокое ущел1 caravan (п) [kaera'vaen] трейлер carbon dioxide (п) [,ka:ban dai'oksaid] угле газ carbon monoxide (п) [,ka:ban mon'oksaid] угарный газ cardiopulmonary resuscitation (п) [ka:diau'pAlman(a)ri ri,SASi'tei/(a)n] cep/: лёгочная реанимация careers adviser (n) [ka'riaz ad vaiza] консул no трудоустройству caring profession (n) ['kearig pra,fej(a)n] профессия в области социальной работь carnivorous (adj) [ka:'niv(a)ras] плотоядньт carve (v) [ka:v] вырезать; высекать carving (n) ['kaivig] высеченная фигура cash (n) [каеЛ наличные (деньги) cast a vote [,ka:st a Vaut] голосовать на вы castle (n) ['kcj:s(a)l] зёмок casual (adj) ['каезиа!] повседневный, непарг {об одежде) catch (v) [кае^ 1) поймать, схватить; 2) усп( попасть {на транспорт); 3) увидеть {мель category (п) ['kaetag(a)ri] категория catering (п) ['keitarig] кейтеринг, ресторанн обслуживание {торжественных Meponpnf cathedral (n) [ka'0i:dral] собор cattle (n pi) ['kaet(a)l] крупный рогатый скот catwalk (n) ['kaet.woik] подиум celebrate (v) ['selabreitj праздновать, oтмe^ celebration (n) [,sela'breij(9)n] празднован1^ cell (n) [sel] биол. клетка centaur (n) ['sentoi] кентавр (the) centre of attention (n) [(5э) .sentar av a'tenj(a)n] центр внимания ceramics (n pi) [sa'raemiks] керамика; керамические изделия chalk (n) [ф:к] геол. мел change your mind [,^eind3 ja 'maind] передумать, изменить своё мнение chapter (n) [’^aepta] глава {книги) character (n) ['kaerikta] персонаж {литературного произведения) charisma (n) [ka'rizma] личное обаяние charity (n) ['tj'aerati] благотворительная организация cheat (v) [tj’iit] жульничать (cheat on someone -изменять кому-л.) checked (adj) [tj’ekt] клетчатый, в клеточку cheek (n) [ij’iik] щека chef (n) [fef] шеф-повар chemical ['kemik(a)!] 1 (adj) химический; 2. (n) химикат; химический продукт chest (n) [tfest] анат. грудная клетка chin (п) [ф1п] подбородок chips (BrE) (n pi) [Ij'ips] картофель фри choice (n) [tfDis] выбор citizen (n) [’sitiz(a)n] гражданин, гражданка citizenship (n) ['sitiz(a)njip] гражданство city centre (BrE) (n) [,siti 'senta] центр города classmate (n) ['klais.meit] одноклассник, одноклассница clause (n) [kloiz] лингв, предложение в составе сложного предложения (consequence clause -главное предложение (следствия); if- clause -придаточное предложение (условия) claustrophobia (п) [.kbistra'faubia] клаустрофобия {боязнь замкнутого пространства) clever (adj) ['klevaj умный climate change (n) ['klaimat ,tfeind3] изменение климата cloak (n) [klauk] плащ, накидка clone [klaun] 1. (n) биол. клон; 2. (v) клонировать cloned (adj) [klaund] клонированный cloning (n) ['klauniQ] клонирование cloth (n) [klD0] 1) ткань; 2) тряпка (the) clothing industry (n) [(6a) 'klau6if] .indastri] швейная промышленность coal-mining industry (n) ['kaul.mainir] ,indastri] угольная промышленность coast (n) [kaust] морское побережье coastline (n) ['kaust,lain] береговая линия coin (n) [кэш] монета coincidence (n) [kau'insid(a)ns] случайное стечение обстоятельств collaboration (n) [ka,laeba'reij(a)n] сотрудничество collaborative (adj) [ka'laeb(a)rativ] совместный colleague (n) ['koliig] коллега collection (n) [ka'lekj(a)n] 1) коллекция; 2) сборник collector (n) [ka'Iekta] коллекционер come down (phr v) [,клт 'daunj опускаться, снижаться come out (phr v) [,клт 'aut] 1) появляться; 2) выходить comfortable (adj) ['kAmftab(a)lj удобный, уютный comic (n) ['komik] комикс commit a crime [ka.mit a 'kraim] совершить преступление common (adj) ['koman] 1) общий; 2) обычный; 3) распространённый, характерный commute (v) [ka'mjuit] совершать регулярные (обычно ежедневные) поездки из дома на работу и обратно commuter (п) [ka'mjuita] человек, совершающий регулярные (обычно ежедневные) поездки из дома на работу и обратно complain (v) [kam'plein] жаловаться {на что-л.) composite (adj) [’kompazit] архит. композитный, сложный (об одном из пяти классических архитектурных ордеров) comprehensive school (adj) [.kompri'hensiv ,sku:l] общеобразовательная школа compression (n) [kam'prejn] мед. компрессия (chest compression - компрессия грудной клетки {непрямой массаж сердца) compulsory education (n) [kam.pAlsari edju'kei/(a)n] обязательное образование computing (n) [kam'pjuitir]] программирование conclusion [кэп'к1и:з(э)п] вывод (in conclusion -в заключение) confined space (n) [kan.faind 'speis] замкнутое пространство confront (v) [kan'frAnt] открыто поговорить confused (adj) [kan.fjuizd] растерянный; смущённый consequence (n) ['konsikwans] (по)следствие construction (n) [kan'strAkJ(a)n] 1) строительство {отрасль народного хозяйства)-, 2) строительство, стройка contain (v) [kan'tein] содержать в себе, включать, иметь в своём составе continent (п) ['kontinant] континент, материк continue (v) [kan'tinju:] продолжать(ся), длиться contribute (to) (v) [kan'tribjuit (ta)] способствовать controversial (adj) [,kDntra'v3iJ(a)l] спорный, сомнительный; дискуссионный convince (v) [kan'vins] убеждать cool (v) [ku:l] охлаждать copper (n) ['kupaj медь Corinthian (adj) [ka'rinGian] архит коринфский (об одном из пяти классических архитектурных ордеров) cost а fortune [kost а 'faitfanj стоить целое состояние cotton ['kot(a)n] 1 (adj) хлопчатобумажный; 2. (n) хлбпок count on someone (phr v) ['kaunt on .sAmwAn] полагаться, рассчитывать на кого-л. couplet (n) ['kAplat] (рифмованное) двустишие course (п) [kais] учебный курс, программа (курса) cover (v) ['kAva] покрывать cover letter (п) ['kAva ,leta] сопроводительное письмо craft (п) [kraift] ремесло {мелкое ручное производство часто высокохудожественных изделий) ^5^ crash (v) [kraej] крушение crate (n) [kreit] ящик create (v) [krii'eit] создавать; производить creative writing (n) [krii.eitiv 'raitir]] писательское мастерство crew (n) [krui] экипаж crop (n) [krop] сельскохозяйственная культура Cubism (n) ['kju:biz(9)m] кубизм {модернистское течение в изобразительном искусстве первой четверти XX века) cultivate (v) [’kAltiveit] культивировать, выращивать cultural differences (n pi) [,кл1Щэ)гэ1 'difransiz] культурные различия cure (for) (п) [kjua (fo:)] лекарство, средство (or чего-л.) currency converter (n) ['kAransi kan,v3ita] конвертер валют current affairs (n pi) [.kArant a'feaz] текущие события (в политике, экономике и социальной жизни, освещаемые в СМИ) curve (п) [ks:v] 1) дуга; 2) изгиб custom (п) ['kAStam] обычай, традиция (в масштабах одного народа, культуры) Dd damage ['daemid3] 1. (n) вред; урон, ущерб; 2. (v) портить, повреждать; наносить ущерб dancer (п) [’dainsa] танцор; танцбвщик, танцбвщица dangerous (adj) ['deind3aras] опасный daring (adj) ['dearir]] смелый, храбрый, бесстрашный (the) dark (n) [(,5a) ’daik] темнота; ночь (the) darker side [(5a) ,da:ka said] тёмная (неприглядная) сторона day trip (n) [,dei 'trip] однодневная поездка deaf (adj) [def] глухой debate (n) [di'beit] дискуссия, обсуждение; полемика decent (adj) ['di:s(a)ntj 1) подходящий; 2)приличный decline [di'klain] 1 (n) спад, упадок; 2. (v) приходить в упадок defeat (v) [di'fiit] одержать победу {над кем-л.), наносить поражение {кому-л.) definitely (adv) ['def(a)natlij безусловно, определённо oelighted (adj) [di'laitid] довольный; счастливый cemonstrate against (v) ['deman,streit agenst] .'маствовать в демонстрации протеста против demonstration (n) [,deman'strei/(a)n] демонстрация denim ['denim] 1. (adj) джинсовый; 2. :n) джинсовая ткань deposit [di'pozit] 1 (n) отложение; £ (v) осаждаться des'^n [di'zain] 1. (n) 1) проект; дизайн; 2> рисунок; 2. (v) 1) проектировать; 2) рисовать; 3 разрабатывать designate (v) ['dezigneit] называть, объявлять designer (n) [di'zaina] дизайнер, модельер designer baby (n) [di.zaina 'beibi] «селекционный / спроектированный ребёнок» {зачатый с применением методов генной инженерии) desperate (adj) ['desp(9)rat] доведённый до отчаяния destination (п) [,desti'neij(a)n] место назначения; цель (поездки, путешествия) destroy (v) [di'stroi] разрушать destruction (n) [di'strAkJ(a)n] разрушение devastate (v) ['devasteitj 1) опустошать; 2) шокировать, огорчать devastated (adj) ['devasteitidj 1) опустошённый; 2) шокированный, огорчённый develop (v) [di'velap] 1) развивать; 2) обнаруживать; 3) разрабатывать development (n) [di'velapmant] 1) развитие; 2) разработка dictation machine (n) [dik'teij(0)n ma,Ji:n] диктофон dig (v) [dig] копать, рыть digital image (n) [,did3it(a)l 'imid3] цифровое изображение disagree (v) [.disa'gri:] не соглашаться disappear (v) [.disa'pia] исчезать disaster (n) [di'zaista] бедствие, катастрофа disaster movie (n) [di'zaista ,mu:vi] фильм-катастрофа discover (v) [di'skAva] обнаруживать, узнавать disease (n) [di'ziiz] заболевание, болезнь disguise (n) [dis'gaiz] одежда для маскировки dismantle (v) [dis'maent(a)l] демонтировать displaced person (n) [.displeist 'p3is(a)n] вынужденный переселенец distant (adj) ['distant] 1) сдержанный, холодный; 2) отдалённый distinctive (adj) [dis'tigktiv] самобытный, оригинальный disturbance (n) [dis'taibans] нарушение {тишины, покоя) DNA (n) [.diien'ei] ДНК do time [,du: 'taim] отбывать срок do your best [,du: ja best] постараться; делать всё, что можно dodo (n) ['dau.dau] додб или маврикийский дронт {вымерший вид нелетающей птицы) dome (п) [daum] купол Doric (adj) ['donkj архит. дорический {об одном из пяти классических архитектурных ордеров) downtown (AmE) (n) ['daun.taun] (деловой) центр города doublet (n) ['dAblatj ист дублет {мужская верхняя одежда, распространённая в Западной Европе эпохи Возрождения) drawing (п) ['droiig] 1) рисование; 2) рисунок dress (п) [dres] платье dressing room (n) ['dresig ,ru:m] гримёрная drip (v) [drip] капать; стекать driving force (n) ['draivir] .fais] движущая сила drought (n) [draut] засуха dyslexia (n) [dis'leksia] дислексйя {существенные трудности в овладении чтением (в т. ч. в понимании прочитанного) и письмом у нормальных в других отношениях детей) dyslexic [dis'leksik] 1. (adj) страдающий дислексией: 2. (п) дислектик Ее е2е (п) (сокр. от Entry to Employment) в Англии: специальная образовательная программа для молодых людей в возрасте от 16 до 18 лет, разработанная таким образом, чтобы поддержать в подготовке к программам ученичества и в трудоустройстве тех, кто ещё не определился с выбором дальнейшего пути или чувствует себя не готовым к продолжению учёбы или работе early (adv) ['з:И] рано earn (v) [з:п] зарабатывать earring (п) ['хэпг]] серьга (the) Earth (n) [(.Sii) 'з:0] Земля {планета) earthquake (n) ['3i0,kweik] землетрясение easy (adj) ['iizi] лёгкий, нетрудный, простой eating disorder (n) ['iitir] dispida] мед. расстройства приёма пищи {к ним относят анорексию, булимию, психогенное переедание, а также ряд других расстройств) economics (п) [.iika'nomiks] экономика eccentricity (п) [,eksen'trisati] эксцентричность, чудаковатость editor (п) ['edita] редактор education (п) [,edju'keij(a)n] образование effect (п) [I'fekt] 1) результат, следствие; 2) влияние; воздействие (effect of - (по) следствие чего-л., effect on - влияние или воздействие на) elbow (п) ['elbau] локоть elevate (v) ['elaveit] поднять elevator (AmE) (n) ['elaveita] лифт emergency first aid (n) [i'm3:d3(a)nsi f3:st 'eid] неотложная первая помощь emigrate (v) ['emigreit] эмигрировать emigration (n) [,emi'greij(a)n] эмиграция emphasize (v) ['emfasaiz] подчёркивать, акцентировать empire (n) ['empaia] империя employ (v) [im'pbi] использовать (работника)', нанимать employment (n) [im'pbimant] работа; (трудовая) занятость encourage (v) [ш'клпбз] поощрять, содействовать; провоцировать (болезнь) endangered species (n) [in,deind3ad 'spii/iiz] вымирающий вид endure (v) [in'djua] вынести; выдержать energy (n) ['епэбз!] энергия enforce (v) [in'fDis] юр. придавать законную силу engine (n) ['епбзш] двигатель engineering (n) [.endsi'niarig] машиностроение; инженерия enjoy (v) [in'd3Di] любить (что-л.), получать удовольствие (от чего-л.) enjoyable (adj) [in'd3Diab(0)l] приятный, доставляющий удовольствие enormously (adv) [I'noimasli] весьма, очень, чрезвычайно enthusiasm (п) [in'0ju:zi,aezam] энтузиазм (the) environment (n) [(,6ii) inVairanmant] окружающая среда environmental (adj) [in,vair9n'mant(a)l] экологический; относящийся к борьбе с загрязнением окружающей среды erode (v) [I'raud] геол. разрушать; выветривать; размывать erosion (п) [1'гэи5(э)п] геол. эрозия equal (adj) ['iikwalj 1) равноправный, равный; 2) равносильный, равный (equal reaction -равное противодействие) escape artist (n) [I'skeip ,a:tist] иллюзионист, исполняющий сложные трюки с освобождением от цепей, верёвок и т. п. escapologist (п) [.eska'poladBist] иллюзионист исполняющий сложные трюки с освобождением от цепей, верёвок и т. п. escapology (п) [,е5кэ'ро1эбз1] умение выполнять трюки с освобождением от цепей, верёвок, из запертого сундука и т п. ethical (adj) ['е01к(э)1] этичный (допустимый с точки зрения требований этики) eventually (adv) [I'ventfuaii] в конечном счёте, в итоге exactly (adv) [ig'zaektii] 1) точно; именно; 2) именно, да, совершенно верно (как выражение согласия) exam (п) [ig'zaem] экзамен examiner (п) [ig'zaemina] экзаменатор exchange (п) [iks'^eind3] 1) обмен; 2) размен денег exciting (adj) [ik'saitig] волнующий excruciating (adj) [ik'skrui/ieitig] мучительный excursion (n) [ik'sk3ij(0)n] экскурсия execution (n) [,eksi'kju:J(9)n] (смертная) казнь exhibit (v) [ig'zibit] выставлять, экспонировать exist (v) [ig'zist] существовать; иметься в природе experienced (adj) [ik'spiarianst] опытный, знающий experiment (n) [ik'sperimant] эксперимент explain (v) [ik'splein] 1) объяснять, разъяснять; 2) давать объяснение, объяснять (причину поведения) exploit (v) [ik'spbit] разрабатывать (месторождения) extinct (adj) [ik'stigkt] вымерший extrovert (n) ['ekstravsit] 1) психол. экстраверт; 2) дружелюбный, общительный человек eyebrow (n) ['aibrauj бровь eyelash (n) ['ailaej] ресница eyelid (n) ['ailid] веко rf factory (n) ['faektri] фабрика fail (v) [fell] 1) перестать действовать, выйти из строя; 2) проваливаться {на экзамене) fair trade (п) [.fea 'treid] честная торговля {торговля на основе взаимной выгоды; также торговля по справедливым ценам) fall in love (with) [.fail in 'Iav (wi6)] влюбиться (в кого-л.) famine (n) ['faemin] голод {массовое бедствие) famous (adj) ['feimas] известный, знаменитый fan (n) [faen] фанат, фанатка; поклонник, поклонница fancy (v) [‘faensi] испытывать симпатию, нравиться fancy dress costume (n) [,faensi 'dres .kostjuim] карнавальный костюм fantasy (n) ['faentasi] фэнтези {литературный жанр, основанный на использовании мифологических и сказочных мотивов) farmer (п) ['faima] фермер fascinating (adj) ['faesineitinj чрезвычайно интересный fashion design (n) [Тае/(э)п di.zain] дизайн одежды (the) fashion industry (n) [(5э) 'faej(a)n .indAstri] индустрия моды fashion victim (n) ['faej(a)n .viktim] жертва моды fashion week (n) ['fae/(a)n wi:k] неделя моды fear (n) [fia] страх feel (v) [fill] 1) чувствовать; 2) осязать; 3) полагать; 4) щупать, прощупывать fiction (n) ['fikj(a)n] 1) вымысел; 2) художественная литература fiddle (n) ['fid(0)l] разг скрипка fight [fait] 1 (n) бой; 2. (v) 1) сражаться, вести бой; 2) бороться figure (n) ['figa] 1) фигура; 2) изображение film (BrE) (n) [film] фильм film crew (n) ['film ,krui] съёмочная группа film script (n) ['film ,skript] киносценарий film-maker (n) ['film.meika] кинорежиссёр finalist (n) ['fain(a)list] финалист, участник финального конкурса find а way (to do sth) [,faind a ,wei (ta 'du: SAmGig)] найти способ (сделать что-л.) finish with someone (phr v) ['fini/ wi6 .SAmwAn] порвать отношения с кем-л. firmly (adv) ['faimli] 1) сильно; 2) твёрдо, решительно fit [fit] 1 (adj) в хорошей (физической) форме; здоровый (keep fit - поддерживать форму, быть в форме); 2. (v) быть впору, подходить flat (adj) [flaet] плоский flock of birds (n) [.flok av 'baidz] стая птиц flood (n) [flAd] наводнение floor (n) [flDi] 1) этаж; 2) дно flowery (adj) ['flauari] имеющий цветочный орнамент или рисунок fluently (adv) ['fluiantli] бегло (о речи) flying (n) ['flaiig] полёт, перелёт follow (v) ['folau] 1) следовать, придерживаться (follow fashion - следовать моде); 2) заниматься чем-л., иметь ту или иную профессию foodie (п) ['fuidi] любитель готовить еду и поесть footbinding (п) ['fut,baindir]] бинтование ног {обычай бинтовать ноги девочкам, практиковавшийся в Китае) forehead (п) ['fond, 'faihed] лоб foreigner (n) ['forma] иностранец forever (adv) [far'eva] навсегда forget (v) [fa'get] забывать formal (adj) ['fD:m(a)l] формальный, официальный fort (n) [fait] форт, крепость fossil fuel (n) ['fos(a)l fjuial] ископаемое топливо freegan (n) ['fri:g(a)n] фриган {человек, отрицающий принципы потребительства) free of charge [,fri: av 'tjaids] бесплатно fries (AmE) (n pi) [fraiz] картофель фри frill (n) [fril] оборка, рюш fringe (n) [frind3] чёлка frown (v) [fraun] (на)хмуриться fugitive (n) ['fju:d3ativ] беглец; лицо, скрывающееся от правосудия full-time (adj) [.ful'taim] занимающий полный рабочий день fungus (п) ['fAggas] грибок {микроорганизм) funny (adj) ['fAni] 1) смешной, забавный; 2) разг. странный furnace (п) ['fsinis] горн {металлургическая печь) further education (n) [.fsiba"^ edju'keij(a)n] послешкольное образование Gg Gaelic (n) ['geilik] ирландский (гэльский) язык {язык ирландцев, один из кельтских языков) gang (п) [gaeg] банда, шайка дар year (п) ['даер jia] годовой перерыв в учёбе {обычно после окончания школы и перед поступлением в вуз, используемый часто для путешествий или работы) gargoyle (п) ['gaigDil] гаргулья {согласно легенде -драконовидная змея, с огромной силой извергавшая воду; изображения гаргулий сооружались на водостоках) gas (п) [gaes] газ {топливо) GCSE (п) [,d3i:si:es'i:] программа обучения школьников в возрасте 14-15 лет продолжительностью два года, завершающаяся обязательным государственным экзаменом, по результату которого выдаётся сертификат о неполном среднем образовании generation (п) [,d3ena'rei/(a)n] поколение genetic engineering (n) [dsa.netik endji'niarig] генная инженерия germ (п) [с1зз:т] бактерия gesticulate (v) [d3es'tikjuleit] жестикулировать get on with someone (phr v) [,get on wi5 .SAmwAn] ладить {быть в хороших отношениях) с кем-л. get rich quick [,get rit/ 'kwik] быстро разбогатеть, быстро составить состояние get up (phr v) [,get ’Ap] подниматься, вставать (после сна) giant (adj) ['d3aiant] гигантский gift (n) [gift] 1) подарок; 2) дар, талант glacier (п) ['glaesiaj ледник glamorous (adj) ['glaemaras] эффектный; очаровательный global warming (n) [,д1эиЬ(э)1 'wDimig] глобальное потепление GM food (n) ['d3i:em ,fu:d] генетически модифицированная пища god (п) [god] бог go-karting (n) [дэи 'kaitig] картинг {гонки на картах - простейших гоночных автомобилях без кузова) gold [gauid] 1. (adj) золотой {сделанный из золота); 2. (п) золото {металл) до out (phr v) [,дэи 'aut] проводить время вне дома до out with someone (phr v) [,дэи 'aut wi6 SAmwAn] проводить время, встречаться (с другом, подругой) gossip magazine (n) ['gosip maega.ziin] журнал светской хроники Goth (n) [goG] гот {представитель субкультуры готов) Gothic horror fiction ['goGik ,hora ,^к/(э)п] готическая литература, готический роман {романтический роман с элементами сверхъестественных ужасов) Gothic period (n) ['goGik piariad] период готики {средневекового искусства Европы) government (п) [’gAv(a)nmant] правительство graffiti (art) (п) [gra'fiiti (a:t)] (искусство) граффйти granite (п) ['graenit] геол. гранит graphic design (n) [.graefik di'zain] графический дизайн grateful (adj) ['greitf(a)l] благодарный gravity (n) ['graevati] физ. гравитация, всемирное тяготение Greek (п) [griik] грек, гречанка grim (adj) [grim] страшный, ужасный grow food [,grau 'fuid] выращивать продовольственные культуры gunpowder (п) ['gAn.pauda] порох Hh hair salon (n) ['hea .saeion] парикмахерская hairdresser (n) ['hea.dresa] парикмахер hairstyle (n) ['hea,stall] причёска handbag (n) ['haend.baeg] дамская сумочка harbour (n) ['haiba] бухта hardcore (n) [.haid'kai] хардкор {музыкальный жанр) hardly ever (adv) [,ha:dli 'eva] едва ли когда-нибудь, почти никогда hard-working (adj) [,ha:d'w3ikir]] трудолюбивый hate (v) [heit] ненавидеть headband (n) ['hed.baendj лента или узкая повязка {на голову) health and social care (п) [,hel0 an 'sauj(a)l kea] система медицинской и социальной помощи hearing (n) ['hiarig] слух {способность слышать) heated (adj) ['hiitid] нагретый; подогреваемый heavy (adj) ['hevij тяжёлый; пропитанный (heavy with the smell - тяжёлый от запаха) height (п) [hait] высота high heels (n pi) [,hai 'hiilz] обувь на высоких каблуках high-street shop (n) [.haistriit 'Jop] магазин на центральной улице города high tide (п) [,hai 'taid] прилив high waist (n) [,hai 'weistj высокая талия (e одежде) hillside (n) ['hil.saidj склон горы, холма hip-hop (п) ['hip,hop] хип-хоп {музыкальныйжанр) hire (v) ['haia] брать напрокат historian (n) [hi'stairian] историк hi-tech (adj) [,hai'tek] хай-тек; c применением высоких технологий hold hands [,hauld haendz] держаться за руки hole (n) [haul] 1) дыра; 2) яма holiday (BrE) (n) ['holidei] каникулы; отпуск homeless (adj) ['haumlas] бездомный homesick (adj) ['haum.sik] тоскующий no дому, no родине homework (n) ['haum,w3ik] домашняя работа, домашнее задание hooded sweatshirt (n”) [,hudid 'swetj3it] куртка из хлопчатобумажного трикотажа с капюшоном Hoodie (п) ['hudi] худи {представитель субкультурь худи) horseback (п) [('ha:s,baek] on horseback - верхом (rider on horseback - верховой, всадник) horseman (n) ['haismanj всадник, наездник (Bronzt Horseman - Медный всадник, памятник Петру I в Санкт-Петербурге) host (v) [haust] выступать в роли хозяина, принимать hug (v) [hAg] обнимать hunt (v) [,hAnt] охотиться hurricane (n) ['hArikan, hArikein] ураган hypnosis (n) [hip'nausis] гипноз li Ice [ais] 1. (adj) ледяной; ледовый {сделанный изо льда); 2. (п) лёд identical (adj) [ai'dentik(a)l] идентичный, одинаковый (identical twins - идентичные близнецы) ignore (v) [ig'nai] игнорировать, не обращать внимания igneous (adj) ['igniasj геол. вулканического происхождения ITCr i." 'i'li:g(a)l] запрещённый; незаконный гтех>п in) [.imi'grei/(a)n] иммиграция -lism (n) [im'pre/(9)niz(a)m] -монизм {направление в искусстве) г#» [im'pruiv] улучшать(ся), “еег _е-!Ствовать(ся) ■г*#*-—.ent (п) [im'pruivmant] улучшение, т :€^с_:енствование с-гер) [in'kluidig] включая, в том числе « 'П) [’igkriis] повышение, рост V) [in'kriis] повышать(ся), расти ■B33i'^giy (adv) [in'kriisigli] всё более и более “rccie adj) [in'kredab(9)l] 1) невероятный, -^«-.’Глимый; 2) потрясающий гсес*=лс1€п1 music (п) [.indi'pendant mjuizik] '"с;€ ~usic, indie) независимая музыка, инди-— з=-ка. инди {включает в себя музыкальные "Л-2::^ .для которых характерны независимость “ ‘С^мерческой поп-музыки) гое [ indi] инди {представитель субкультуры го—erent ;adj) [in'difrant] безразличный rccenous (adj) [in'did3anas] аборигенный, "зе^пый r^eiaole adj) [in'f1eitab(a)l]-надувной r^-ence i'lnfluans] 1 (n) влияние; 2. (v) влиять, >ззывать влияние person ['ind3ad рз:5(э)п] потерпевший, "сстадавший rsc'e у [in'spaia] вдохновлять nsr*^ed ,adj) [in'spaiad] вдохновлённый rsis-lation (n) [,insta'lei/(a)n] иск. инсталляция zcc^ia современного искусства, -хххгранственная композиция из различных 2^-е’.»еитов, являющая собой художественное “Об • ппал; messaging (п) [.instant 'mesad3ir]] т-овенный обмен сообщениями rs—1 " [ insAlt] оскорбление гтзйдеп! iadj) [in'telid3(a)nt] умный, смышлёный r^=rr«w п) [’intavju:] 1) собеседование; 2 ервью las^rewer (п) ['intavjuiaj 1) проводящий сс»5ес€дование; 2) интервьюер, берущий ^>•~ec5ью adj) [in'trepid] отважный, смелый 1чгзс-се yourseif (v refi) [.intra'djuis jaselfj ~едг~авиться r*src:.c i€ adj) [in'vinsab(a)l] непобедимый, -e -з=^<мый "^1 [in'vait] приглашать one аэ [ai'onik] архит ионический (об одном из ш-ассических архитектурных ордеров) [.airij 'stjui] ирландское рагу баранина с картофелем и луком) ^ (adj) железный; 2. (п) железо "т г - 'iju:; ’isjui] проблема, вопрос item of clothing (n) [.aitam av 'klaubigj предмет одежды Jj jacket (n) ['d5aekit] 1) куртка; 2) пиджак; 3) жилет jeans (n pi) [d3i:nz] джинсы jewellery (n) ['d3u:alri] драгоценности; ювелирные изделия job satisfaction (n) ['d3ob S3etis,faekJ(a)n] ощущение удовлетворённости от работы job sector (n) ['d5ob .sekta] здесь: сектор экономики joke (n) [бзаик] шутка journalism (n) ['d33inaliz(a)m] журналистика journalist (n) ['d33:nalist] журналист журналистка joust (v) [d5aust] биться на (рыцарском) поединке или турнире judge [бзлбз] 1. (п) судья; 2. (v) оценивать, судить Кк keen (adj) [kiin] увлечённый; сильно желающий keep fit [,ki:p 'fit] поддерживать (спортивную) форму kiss [kis] 1 (n) поцелуй; 2. (v) целовать kitchen assistant (n) ['kiij'an a,sist(a)nt] помощник no кухне kookaburra (n) ['кика.Ьлга] кукабара или гигантский зимородок {птица, обитающая в Австралии и Новой Гзинее) LI land (v) [laend] приземляться, делать посадку; сажать {летательный аппарат) landfill site (n) ['laendfil .saitj свалка (отходов) landmark (n) ['laend,maik] достопримечательность landowner (n) ['laend,эипэ] землевладелец landscape (n) ['laend,skeip] 1) ландшафт, пейзаж; 2) пейзаж {жанр и произведение изобразительного искусства) language skills (n pi) ['Iaeggwid3 ,skilz] языковые навыки last (v) [Iciist] хватать, быть достаточным {на какой-то промежуток времени) lateral thinker (n) [,laet(9)r3l 'Gigka] человек с нестандартным мышлением Latin (n) ['laetin] латинский язык, латынь laugh (v) [laif] смеяться lava flow (n) ['laiva ,Яэи] лавовый поток law (n) [bi] 1) (научный) закон; 2) право, юриспруденция lawyer (n) ['b:ja] юрист; адвокат leather ['1еЬэ] 1 (adj) кожаный; 2. (n) кожа {выделанная) liar (n) ['laia] лжец, лгун, лгунья librarian (n) [lai'brearian] библиотекарь lie-in (n) [lai'in] долгое лежание в постели {по утрам) life jacket (n) ['laif ,d3aekit] спасательный жилет lift [lift] 1 (BrE) (n) лифт; 2. (v) (при)поднимать (кверху) lighthouse (n) ['lait.haus] маяк like (v) [laik] 1) любить, нравиться; 2) хотеть, желать limestone (n) ['laim.staun] геол. известняк lip (n) [lip] губа liquid (n) ['likwid] жидкость little (adj) ['lit(a)l] маленький (о возрасте), младший live (adv) [laiv] вживую live happily ever after [liv 'haepili eva ,a:fta] жить долго и счастливо living organism (n) [.livir] 'э:дэп12(э)т] живой организм logical (adj) ['lDd3ik(a)l] 1) логический, логичный; 2) способный рассуждать логически logo (n) ['laugau] логотип long (adj) [lor]] 1) длинный; 2) долгий, длительный (have a) look [(.haev a) 'luk] взглянуть, ознакомиться, посмотреть look forward to (phr v) [,luk 'faiwad tui] ждать c нетерпением, ожидать с радостью lose your calm [,lu:z ja 'ka:m] терять спокойствие loudly (adv) ['laudli] громко low-resolution (picture) (adj) [laureza,lu:J(a)n Cpikij’a)] (изображение) c низким разрешением low tide (n) [,lau 'taidj отлив lung (n) [1лг)] анат лёгкое Mm mad (adj) ['maed] сумасшедший, ненормальный (mad at - рассерженный на {кого-л. / что-л.)\ go mad - сойти с ума) mad cow disease (n) [maed 'kau di.ziiz] коровье бешенство {заболевание крупного рогатого скота) magician (п) [ma'd3ij(a)n] фокусник таке а decision [,meik а di'si5(a)n] принимать решение, решить таке а mistake [,meik а mi'steik] (с)делать ошибку, совершить ошибку таке excuses [,meik ik'skjuisaz] находить отговорки, отнекиваться таке friends [,meik 'frendz] подружиться make the first move [,meik 6a fsist 'mu:v] первым сделать шаг (к примирению) make your mark [,meik ja 'maik] оставить свой след {совершить что-л. значительное) make-up (п) ['meik.Ap] макияж mall (AmE) (п) [mo: , mael] молл, крупный торговый центр malnutrition (п) [,maelnju'trij(a)n] недоедание, недостаточное питание man-made (adj) [.maen'meid] созданный руками человека marble ['ma:b(a)l] 1 (adj) мраморный; 2. (n) мрамор mass escape (n) [,maes I'skeip] групповой побег massive (adj) ['maesiv] тяжёлый; серьёзный {по действию, последствию) mature (adj) [та'фиа] взрослый, возмужавший (о человеке) (the) media (n) [(6э) 'miidiaj СМИ, средства массовой информации medieval (adj) [,medi'i:v(9)l] средневековый meet (v) [miit] встречать(ся) melt (v) [melt] таять metal ['met(a)l] 1. (adj) металлический; 2. (n) 1) металл; 2) мётал, метёлл {жанр музыки) metamorphic (adj) [.meta'moifik] геол. метаморфический (о горной породе) mind (v) [maind] возражать, иметь что-л. против (в вопросительном или отрицательном предложении, а также в утвердительном ответе) miner (п) ['mama] шахтёр minimum wage ['minimam .weids] минимальная заработная плата miraculously (adv) [ma'raekjulasli] чудесным образом miss (v) [mis] 1) скучать {по кому-л. / чему-л.)\ 2) пропускать {разг give something а miss -пропустить что-л.) mission (п) ['mi/(a)n] поручение, задание misunderstanding (п) [.miSAnda'staendig] неправильное понимание, неверное представление mix music [,miks 'mjuizik] микшировать или сводить музыку mixture (п) ['miks^a] смесь model (п) ['mDd(a)l] модель, манекенщик, манекенщица Moorish (adj) ['muarijj архит. мавританский {об одном из пяти классических архитектурных ордеров) Mosher (п) ['то/э] мошер {представитель неформальной субкультуры) motionless (adj) ['mauj(a)nlas] неподвижный move (v) [mu:v] 1) двигать, сдвигать, перемещать; 2) переезжать, переселяться movie (AmE) (n) ['muivi] фильм musket (n) [‘m as kit] мушкет {старинное фитильное ружьё крупного калибра) mysterious (adj) [mi'stiarias] таинственный, загадочный mythical (adj) ['mi0ik(9)l] мифический mythology (n) [mi'0Dl9d3i] мифология Nn nail (n) [neil] ноготь nail varnish (n) ['neil .vainij] лак для ногтей naturai disaster (n) [,пзеф(э)гэ1 di'zaista] стихийное бедствие, природная катастрофа natural resources (n pi) [,naetj(9)r9l ri'zoisiz] полезные ископаемые neck (n) [nek] шея negative (adj) ['negativj 1) отрицательный, негативный; 2) лингв, отрицательный aeccsssical (adj) [,ni:9u'klaesik(a)l] архит ■-"ассический {относящийся ~<жлассицизму) •'ear s Resolution (n) [,njui jiaz reza'luijan] ie-аание, данное самому себе в Новый год ^'eport (п) ['njuiz ri.poit] новостное г^С’б^ение, новостной репортаж %■ шеу! [,пэи 'wei] Ни в коем случае!, Ни за что! тог . Inod] кивать то—1-rate (v) ['nomi.neit] номинировать -г ‘'лкую-л. награду) пц- nation (п) [,nDmi'neiJ(a)n] номинация nc»*-commercial (adj) [,попкэ'тз:/(э)1] -е*.оммерческий *o“-ffCtion (п) [nDn'fikJ(a)n] документальная, -^беллетристическая литература Vrse т) [nois] норвежский язык *cs€ stud (n) ['nauz ,stAd] серьга-гвоздик для П/^рсинга ноздри 'c**adays (adv) ['nauadeiz] в наши дни, в наше =семя - jciear power (n) [.njuiklia ’раиэ] атомная ергия, ядерная энергия T'_^iear waste (n) [.njuiklia 'weist] радиоактивные с^оды iij-raver (n) [,nju:'reiva] нью-рейвер {приверженец ы/зыкального жанра нь 'ю-рейв и одноимённой субкультуры) ссеу V} [a'bei] подчиняться ccjective (п) [ab'dsektiv] цель rcstacle (п) [’Dbstak(a)l] препятствие, трудность retain /' [ab'tein] добывать rcvTously (adv) [’obviasli] очевидно, явно occur [э'кз:] случаться, происходить octave п) [’oktiv] лит восьмистишие, октет о ' [oil] нефть г- tanker (п) ['di! .taepka] (нефтеналивной) танкер r>c-fashioned (adj) [,auld'faej(a)nd] старомодный г* oehalf of [on bi'haif av] от лица, от имени •oro-л.) ror'^ space (n) [,aupan 'speisj открытое "сосфанство DC"'diophobia (n) [a.fidia'faubia] офидиофобия ~г~ологическая боязнь змей) го»г.юп (п) [a'pinjan] мнение reoertunity (п) [npa'tjuinati] (благоприятная) Е-сз-можность; шанс гсссл п) [Фр/(а)п] выбор, альтернатива, вариант огге' ^3ida] 1 (п) 1) порядок, расположение Е пгоеделённом порядке; 2) заказ; 3) архит. :ссео: 2. (v) 1) располагать в определённом псс-=лке; 2) заказывать ггс - [э:] руда adj) [ai'gaenik] натуральный, полученный гез “рименения химических удобрений, «схервантов аггз-ге V) ['piga.naizj 1) организовывать; ■—аивать; 2) систематизировать organizer (п) ['oiga.naizaj организатор originally (adv) [a'rid3(a)n9li] изначально; по происхождению out of control [,aut av kan'traul] из-под контроля out of date [,aut av 'deitj c истекшим сроком годности, просроченный outgoing (adj) [.aut'gauig] общительный, коммуникабельный overcome (v) [.auva'kAm] преодолеть, подавить {какое-л. чувство)', победить oxygen (n) ['Dksid5(a)nj кислород Pp paint (v) [peint] 1) рисовать, писать {красками)] 2) красить, раскрашивать painter (п) ['peintaj художник, живописец painting (п) ['peintir]] 1) живопись, 2) картина palace (п) ['paelas] дворец paralysed (adj) ['paeralaizd] парализованный part-time (adv) [.pait'taim] на условиях неполной занятости part-time job [.paitaim ’d3Db] работа на условиях неполной занятости part-time study [.paitaim 'stAdi] учёба неполный день patron saint’s day (п) [.peitran 'seints dei] день святого покровителя peaceful (adj) ['pi:sf(a)lj 1) мирный; 2) тихий, спокойный peasant (п) ['pez(a)ntj крестьянин pedestal (п) ['pedist(0)l] пьедестал pelvis (п) ['pelvis] анат таз people person ['р1:р(э)1 ,рз:5(э)п] коммуникабельный / общительный человек perfectly (adv) ['p3:fik(t)li] прекрасно, идеально perform (v) [рэ'Ь;т] 1) делать; выполнять, 2) представлять; играть, исполнять {пьесу, роль) (the) performing arts (п pi) [(5э) ps.fDimir] 'aits] исполнительские виды искусства permission (n) [рэ'т1/(э)п] разрешение perpendicular (adj) [.psipan'dikjula] перпендикулярный pesticide (п) ['pestisaid] пестицид {сельскохозяйственный ядохимика т) petrol (п) ['petral] бензин pharaoh (п) ['fearau] фараон phobia (п) ['faubiaj фобия, страх, боязнь piercing (п) ['piasig] пирсинг pigtail (п) ['pig,teilj коса {заплетённые волосы) pillar (п) ['pile] колонна pinch (v) [pintj] сжимать, зажимать plain (adj) [plein] 1) одноцветный, без узора (о материи)] 2) простой, незамысловатый plait (п) [plaet] коса {заплетённые волосы) plan (v) [plaen] 1) планировать, составлять план; 2) строить планы, намереваться plastic (п) ['plaestik] пластик, пластмасса Plastics (п pi) ['plaestiks] = Barbie Girls Барби {представительницы стиля Барби) platypus (n) ['plaetipas] утконос plug in (phr v) [,р1лд ’in] подсоединять plumber (n) ['р1лтэ] водопроводчик, слесарь-сантехник pocket money (n) ['pokit ,тлп1] карманные деньги (на мелкие расходы) polar bear (п) ['рэи1э ,Ьеэ] белый медведь или полярный медведь political rights (п р1) [p9,litik(a)l 'raits] политические права pollute (v) [pe'luit] загрязнять {окружающую среду) pollution (п) [рэ'1и:/(э)п] загрязнение {окружающей среды) Pompeii [pom'peii] Помпеи {древнеримский город, погребённый под слоем пепла в результате извержения Везувия в 79 году н. э.) popuiation (п) [,pDpju'leiJ(9)n] (народо)население portrait (п) [’poitrit] портрет {жанр и произведение изобразительного искусства) possessions (п р1) [pa'zejr(a)nz] имущество potter (п) ['pota] гончар pottery (п) ['potari] 1) гончарное изделие; 2) гончарное дело pour (v) [рэ:] 1) лить; 2) наливать poverty (п) [’povati] бедность, нищета, нужда power (v) ['раиа] питать (электро)энергией predict (v) [pri'dikt] предсказывать; прогнозировать prediction (п) [pri'dikj(a)n] предсказание; прогноз prefer (v) [pri'fsi] предпочитать prejudice (n) ['predsudis] предубеждение prevaient (adj) ['prevalent] (широко) распространённый, преобладающий pride (n) [pride] гордость priest (n) [pri:st] священник primary sector (n) ['praimari ,sekta] первичный сектор (экономики) primary school (n) ['praimari skuil] начальная школа print (n) [print] гравюра; эстамп printmaker (n) ['print,meika] художник-гравёр prison camp (n) ['priz(a)n .kaemp] лагерь военнопленных prize-giving ceremony (n) [.praizgivir] 'seramani] церемония награждения problem-solving (n) ['problem .solvig] решение проблем или задач process (n) ['prauses] процесс procession (n) [pra'sej(a)n] процессия, шествие produce (v) [pra'djuis] 1) производить; 2) давать, приносить progress (n) ['praugres] 1) достижения, успехи; 2) течение, развитие prohibition (n) [,praui'bij(a)n] запрет promise (v) ['promis] обещать properly (adv) ['propali] должным образом, как следует protagonist (n) [prau'taeganist] главный герой, главное действующее лицо (в литературном произведении) protect (v) [pra'tekt] защищать; охранять protection (n) [pra'tekj(a)n] защита public speaking (n) [.рлЬЬк 'spiikig] публичное выступление publish (v) ['pAbliJ] издавать, публиковать punctual (adj) ['рлдк^иа1] пунктуальный, точный pyramid (n) ['piramid] пирамида Qq qualification (n) [,kwDlifi'keiJ(a)n] диплом, свидетельство quaternary sector (n) ['kwoitanari ,sekta] четвертичный сектор (экономики) quatrain (n) ['kwD.treinj лит четверостишие, катрен queue (v) [kju:] стоять в очереди Rr R’n’B (n) [.airan'bii] (сокр. от Rhythm and blues) ар-н-би, ритм-н-блюз {обобщённое название массовой музыки, основанной на блюзовых и джазовых направлениях) racism (п) ['reisiz(a)m] расизм rainforest (п) ['rein.fDrist] тропический лес ramp (п) [raemp] пандус {пологая наклонная площадка для въезда и съезда инвалидных колясок) rand (п) [raend] ранд или рэнд {денежная единица ЮАР) rap music (n) ['гаер ,mju;zik] рэп {музыкальный жанр) rapper (п) ['гаера] рэпер {исполнитель рэпа) rat race (n) ['raet ,reis] разг., неодобр. «крысиная возня» работа в условиях жестокой конкуренции без возможности расслабиться rave (п) [reiv] рейв {массовые дискотеки, на которых исполняется электронная музыка стилей эйсид-хаус, техно, хардкор и др.) raven (п) ['reiv(a)n] ворон reach the stars [.riitj" ба 'staiz] добиться успеха, достичь сложных целей real (adj) [rial] реальный, реально существующий, настоящий, действительный real life (n) [,rial 'laif] реальная жизнь reality (n) [ri'aelati] реальность, действительность receipt (n) [ri'siit] (кассовый) чек recently (adv) ['ri:s(a)ntli] недавно recording studio (n) [ri.kDidig 'stjuidiau] студия звукозаписи recycle [ri:'saik(a)l] 1 (n) повторение; 2. (v) повторно использовать; возвращать в оборот {отходы производства) recycling (п) [rii'saiklir]] переработка отходов {для повторного использования) reef (п) [riif] риф re-enactment (п) [,ri:in'aektm(a)nt] восстановление/ реконструкция какого-л. события refer to (phr v) [ri'fs: tu:] относиться к; обозначать; обращаться к c^i:] беженец г - :refju'd3ii ,кэетр] лагерь для ' возврат (денег) 1) отказывать, отклонять, =.^5а~ъся aeksir]] расслабляющий :s; " (п) выпуск в свет, публикация; .г:*.ать в свет, публиковать 'п !а1эЬ(э)1] надёжный, достойный = - [п тэш] далёкий, отдалённый 'Т1 и:v] удалять, устранять *с€ ''i [ri'neisns] возрождение (the -^'^^ssarce - Ренессанс, эпоха Возрождения) energy (п) [п,п]и:эЬ(э)1 'enad3i] в: :<:с-С£-~-емая энергия (энергия из оег‘~аемых источников) ~1 [п реэ ,w3:k] ремонтные работы " Г 'eolika] иск. реплика, точная копия -sxrzBf " [п. pDita] корреспондент [п kwaia] требовать(ся) >e5kju:] спасать г,1 Г reskju: ,ra:ft] спасательный плот [п 5з:^; 'ri:s3itjl исследовать, изучать вгл [Tezid(a)nt] житель; постоянно *ис* . "Ea->_iee лицо -*SwSCT2t!Ofi [n,SASi'tei/(a)n] искусственное ^розничная торговля '“Г “ а-з- ребро -сг г Tjtnents [ntj еп 'njuitriants] богатый и веществами •se подниматься, повышаться “зопд - [г: zDiau] ризотто -ГОГ - /ок] горная порода -о»гзг -.50 ") [ гок .mjuizik] рок-музыка -0О1-С —o«ng (п) [’rDk.klaimir]] скалолазание "j«= Z =j - [ гэи1 .plei] ролевая игра -и " рулон =о-.а- =3 [ гэитэп] римский -oi~^~esque adj', [.rauma'nesk] архит романский •.JZC-S- о п п) ['глЬх/ ,bin] мусорная корзина, урна д”« ел'с'сооа -je >лП править; управлять г»>- O'"-' V [,глп 'aut] кончаться; истекать [ FAn.wei] взлётно-посадочная полоса ^ seikrid] священный sa'fairi] сафари seila] моряк saelari] заработная плата; оклад “ [Csaenklj’uari] заповедник ' saetaraiz] высмеивать (в сатирическом г • :ззлении) ’ 1^'] 'сокр. от Scholastic Assessment Test) —:—^зз~>‘ЗОванный тест для приёма в высшие заведения США save (v) [seiv] 1) спасать, 2) = save up откладывать, копить (деньги) saw (n) [s3i] пила say a prayer [,sei э 'ргеэ] молиться, читать молитву say sorry [,sei 'sorij извиняться say thank you [,sei '0aer]k ju:] благодарить scarf (n) [skaif] шарф scene (n) [siin] место происшествия, события school-leaving exam (п) [,sku:l liivin ig'zaem] выпускной экзамен science fiction (n) [.saians 'fikj(a)n] научная фантастика scream (v) [skriim] (пронзительно) кричать sculpt (v) [skAlpt] ваять; лепить, высекать sculptor (n) ['skAlpta] скульптор sculpture (n) ['skAlptfa] скульптура sea cliff (n) ['si: klif] береговая / прибрежная скала или утёс sea levei (n) ['si: ,lev(9)l] уровень моря sea life (n) ['si: ,laif] жизнь в морской среде secondary sector (п) ['sek9nd(9)ri ,sekt9] вторичный сектор (экономики) security guard (п) [si'kju9r9ti ,ga:d] охранник, сотрудник службы охраны sedimentary (adj) [.sedi'menteri] геол. осадочный see the sights [,si: 69 'salts] осматривать достопримечательности sell-by date (n) ['selbai ,deit] срок годности (past sell-by date - просроченный) Senate Square (n) ['senat .skwea] Сенатская площадь (одна из центральных площадей в Санкт-Петербурге) sense of humour (п) [.sens 9v 'hju:m9] чувство юмора sestet (n) [.ses'tet] шесть последних строк итальянского сонета sexism (n) ['seksiz(9)m] сексизм (гендерная дискриминация) shake hands [,Jeik 'haendzj пожимать руки shake your head [,/eik ja 'hed] качать головой share (v) [fear] использовать совместно shed (n) U'ed] сарай shipbuilder (n) ['/ip.bilda] судостроитель, кораблестроитель shirt (n) [f3:t] рубашка shoe (n) [fu:] туфля shoelaces (n pi) ['J’u:,leis9z] шнурки shop assistant (n) ['Jop a.sistant] продавец shopping centre (BrE) (n) ['Jopir) .sente] торговый центр shorts (n pi) [/D:ts] шорты shoulder (n) ['/aulda] плечо show off (phr v) [,/bu 'of] выставлять напоказ shrink (v) [frink] садиться (о материи) shrug your shoulders [.JrAg ja '/auldaz] пожимать плечами shy (adj) [Jai] стеснительный, застенчивый sight (n) [salt] 1) зрение; 2) взгляд; 3) вид silk [silk] 1 (adj) шёлковый; 2. (n) шёлк silver ['silva] 1. (adj) серебряный; 2. (n) серебро similar (adj) ['similaj подобный, похожий, аналогичный sink (v) [sir]к] тонуть (о морском судне) size zero (n) [,saiz 'ziarauj нулевой размер или размер О {размер женской одежды по размерной сетке США) skill (п) [skil] умение, навык skinny (adj) ['skini] худой, тощий skirt (n) [sksit] юбка skyscraper (п) ['skai.skreipaj небоскрёб sleeping potion (n) ['sliipir] ,рэи/(э)п] усыпляющее снадобье smash (v) [smaej] разбивать, крушить smell [smel] 1 (n) 1) запах; 2) обоняние; 2. (v) 1) пахнуть; 2) чувствовать запах smile (v) [smail] улыбаться snail (n) [sneil] улитка snake (n) [sneik] змея sneakers (n pi) ['sniikazj спикеры {подвид спортивной обуви, промежуточный между кроссовками и кедами) snore (v) [sno:] храпеть snorkelling (v) [’snD:k(a)lir]] сноркелинг, снорклинг {вид плавания под поверхностью воды с маской и дыхательной трубкой) (до snorkelling -заниматься сноркелингом) soccer (AmE) (n) ['sokaj футбол social networking (site) (n) [,sauj(a)l 'netwsikir] (salt)] социальная сеть social situation (n) [,s9uj(9)l sitfu'eij(a)n] положение в обществе social work (n) ['s0oj(a)l ,w3ik] социальная работа society (n) [sa'saiati] 1) общество; 2) общество, организация sock (n) [sok] носок solar panel (n) [,зэи1э 'раеп(э)1] панель солнечной батареи, солнечная батарея solar power (n) [,s0ula 'раиэ] солнечная энергия solstice (n) ['sDlstis] солнцестояние soluble (adj) ['sDljub(a)l] растворимый solution (n) [s9'lu:/(0)n] 1) решение {проблемы и т п.у, 2) раствор sonnet (п) ['sonit] сонет soul (п) [s0ul] душа speck of dust [,spek 0v dASt] соринка spell-check facility (n) ['speltfek fa.silati] возможность проверки орфографии (о компьютерной программе) spider (п) ['spaida] паук spina bifida (n) [.spaina bifida] мед. расщепление позвоночника spirit of adventure (n) [.spirit av ad'ven^a] любовь к приключениям spray paint (n) ['sprei .peint] аэрозольная краска stadium (n) ['steidiam] стадион stain (n) [stein] пятно stalactite (n) ['staelaktait] сталактит stalagmite (n) ['staelagmait] сталагмит starvation (n) [sta:'veij(0)n] голод, истощение (the) Statue of Liberty (n) [(бэ) .stae^u: av 'libati] статуя Свободы stay out late ['stei aut ,leit] гулять допоздна steel (n) [still] сталь tick (v) [tik] делать отметку, ставить галочку stock (v) [stnk] иметь в продаже stone [staun] 1. (adj) каменный; 2. (n) камень stop the bleeding [.stop 5a 'bliidir]] остановить кровотечение stormy weather (adj) ['stoimi ,we5a] штормовая / ненастная погода stranger (n) [streind3a] незнакомый человек street party (n) ['striit ,pa:ti] уличный праздник striped (adj) [straipt] в полоску, полосатый structure (n) ['strAk^aj 1) структура; 2) постройка, сооружение studded belt [.stAdad 'belt] ремень, декорированный заклёпками studious (adj) ['stjuidiasj трудолюбивый, усердный stunt (n) [stAnt] (каскадёрский) трюк submerge (v) [sab'm3id3] погружать в воду; затоплять subsistence level (n) [sab'sistans ,lev(a)l] прожиточный минимум substance (n) ['sAbstansj вещество subway (AmE) (n) ['sAb.wei] метро succeed (v) [sak'siid] достигать цели, преуспевать successfully (adv) [sak'sesf(a)li] успешно suffer (v) ['sAfa] страдать suffocate (v) ['sAfakeitj подавлять, удушать summer school (n) ['sAima ,sku:l] летняя школа suntan (n) ['sAntaenj загар supporter (n) [sa'poita] сторонник, приверженец surprising (adj) [sa'praizig] удивительный Surrealism (n) [sa'rializ(a)m] сюрреализм {направление в искусстве) survival (n) [sa'vaiv(a)l] выживание survive (v) [sa'vaiv] выживать, продолжать существовать sweatshirt (n) ['swet,j3it] спортивный свитер, толстовка sweatshop (n) [’swetjop] небольшое предприятие, на котором люди работают в тяжёлых условиях и получают крайне низкую зарплату symbol (п) ['simb(a)l] символ symbolize (v) ['simbalaizj символизировать Tt take care [,teik kea] быть осторожным; беречь take off (phr v) [,teik 'of] авиац. взлететь take part in [,teik 'pait in] принимать участие, участвовать в чём-л. take photos [,teik 'fautauz] фотографировать take revenge on someone [,teik ri'vend3 an .SAmWAn] мстить, отомстить кому-л. talent contest (n) ['taelant .kontest] конкурс талантов (l^ tall (adj) [tDil] высокий tank (n) [taenk] резервуар; бак target (v) [’taigit] выбирать в качестве целевой аудитории; предназначать tartan ['ta:t(a)n] 1 (adj) в шотландскую клетку; 2. (п) тартан, шотландская клетка {традиционный шотландский орнамент) taste [teist] 1 (n) вкус {одно из пяти внешних чувств)] 2. (v) иметь вкус technique (п) [tek'niik] методика, технология teen movie (n) ['ti:n muivi] кино для подростков teenager (n) ['tiin,01639] подросток tell a lie [,tel э lai] лгать, говорить неправду tell a story [,tel э 'stoiri] рассказывать историю tell the truth [,tel бэ 'tru:0] говорить правду temporarily (adv) [.tempa'rerali] временно terrifying (adj) ['tera.faiir]] ужасающий, пугающий territory (n) [’teratri] территория terrorism (n) [Чегэп2(э)т] терроризм tertiary sector (n) ['tsijari .sekta] третичный сектор (экономики) text (v) [tekst] отправлять СМС-сообщение throat (n) [0raut] горло throw away (phr v) [,0rau a'wei] выбрасывать, выкидывать 'thumbs up’ sign (n) [0Amz 'лр sain] жест «большой палец вверх» tidal wave (п) ['taid(a)l ,weiv] гигантская волна разрушительной силы; цунами tide (п) [taid] прилив и отлив {на море, океане) tie-dyed (adj) [.tai'daid] окрашенный вручную, разг «варёный» (о ткани, которую окрасили вручную, скрутив узлом и связав нитью, чтобы получить эфсректные разводы) tight [tait] 1 (adj) плотно прилегающий; тесный (об одежде)] 2. (adv) крепко, сильно tightrope walk (n) ['taitraup ,wDik] хождение по канату (on) time [(,on) 'taim] вовремя tilt (v) [tilt] наклонять, откидывать tin (n) [tin] олово together (adv) [ta'geba] 1) вместе; 2) вдвоём topic (n) [’topik] тема, предмет обсуждения, вопрос totem (n) ['tautam] тотем {предмет культа у некоторых примитивных племён (животное, реже растение, явление природы), считающийся родоначальником и покровителем племени) touch [tAljl 1 (n) осязание {одно из пяти внешних чувств)] 2. (v) (при)касаться, трогать tour guide (п) ['Ша ,gaid] гид, экскурсовод tourism (п) ['tuariz(a)m] туризм tourist attraction (n) [,tuarist a'traekj(a)n] туристическая достопримечательность tracksuit bottoms (n pi) [,traeksu:t 'botamz] спортивные брюки a-ade (n) [treid] 1) торговля; 2) профессия; дело (trade union - профессиональный союз (профсоюз) train driver (n) [,trein 'draiva] машинист {электровоза, тепловоза) trainers (n pi) ['treinaz] кроссовки training programme (n) ['treinir) .praugraem] программа подготовки trampoline (n) ['traempa.liin] батут transform (v) [traens'foim] трансформировать(ся), превращать(ся) transportation (п) [,traenspD:'teiJ(a)n] транспортировка, перевозка treat (v) [triit] обращаться, обходиться (с кем-л. каким-л. образом) trendy (adj) ['trendi] (ультра)модный; стильный trousers (п р1) ['trauzaz] брюки T-shirt (п) ['ti: Jsit] футболка tunic (n) ['tjuinik] солдатская куртка tunnel (n) ['tAn(a)l] 1) тоннель; 2) подземный ход turn off (phr v) [,t3in 'of] выключать; гасить {свет) turret (n) ['tArit] башенка {например, зймка) Tuscan (adj) ['tAskan] архит тосканский {об одном из пяти классических архитектурных ордеров) tutor (п) [’tjuita] гувернант, гувернантка Uu underground ['Anda.graund] 1 (adj) подземный; 2. (BrE) (n) метро uniform ['Juini.fDim] 1 (adj) равномерный (uniform motion - равномерное движение); 2. (n) форма (school uniform - школьная форма) unite (v) [jui'nait] объединять upset (adj) [Ap'set] расстроенный, огорчённый urban climbing (n) [,з:Ьап 'klaimig] билдеринг {восхождение на здания по их внешней стороне) ‘urban tribe’ (n) [,з:Ьап 'traib] «городской клан» use (v) [juiz] использовать, пользоваться usually (adv) ['ju:5uali] обычно, как правило Vv vacation (AmE) (n) [va'kei/(a)n] каникулы; отпуск Valentine’s card (n) [Vaelantainz ,ka:d] валентинка {маленькая открытка, которую принято дарить любимым в День святого Валентина) vanity fair (n) [.vaeniti Tea] ярмарка тщеславия {крылатое выражение, употребляется как характеристика общественной среды, основным стимулом деятельности которой являются тщеславие и карьеризм) vegan (п) [Viigan] веган, строгий вегетарианец {веганы отказываются от использования всех продуктов животного происхождения как в питании, так и в быту) vegetarian (п) [,ved3a'tearian] вегетарианец vegetarianism (п) [,ved3a'tearianiz(a)m] вегетарианство velvet [Velvit] 1 (adj) бархатный; 2. (n) бархат vending machine (n) ['vendig majiin] торговый автомат vertigo (n) ['v3itigau] головокружение violence (n) [Vaialans] жестокость, насилие virtual tour (n) [.vsiij'uel 'tua] виртуальная экскурсия vocational course (n) [v9u'keij(a)nal ,lo:s] курс профессионального обучения (б Великобритании профессиональное образование является альтернативой обучению по программам A-level) volcanic crater (n) [vol'kaenik .kreita] кратер вулкана voluntary work (n) ['vDlant(a)ri ,w3ik] волонтёрский (добровольческий)труд volute (n) [va'Iuit] архит волюта, завиток {особенность ионического стиля) Ww wage (n) [weid3] заработная плата {выплачивается обычно еженедельно за труд, требующий физических усилий, и рассчитывается, исходя из количества отработанных часов или дней) waterfall (п) ['woita.bil] водопад wedge-shaped (adj) ['wed3jeipt] клинообразный, клиновидный waiter (п) [’weita] официант waitress (n) ['weitras] официантка wake up (phr v) [,weik 'лр] 1) просыпаться; будить; 2) пробудиться {стать активным, деятельным, выйти из состоянии покоя, апатии) wallaby (п) ['wolabi] валлаби {маленький кенгуру) warn (v) [wDin] предупреждать; предостерегать waste [weist] 1 (п) 1) ненужная трата; расточительство; 2) отходы; 2. (v) терять даром, тратить впустую {деньги, время, энергию и т п.) wear (v) [wea] носить {одежду, причёску, украшения и т. п.); быть одетым (во что-л.) well-paid (adj) [.wel'peid] хорошо оплачиваемый well-prepared (adj) [.welpri'pead] хорошо подготовленный wheelchair (п) ['will ij'ea] инвалидная коляска Whereabouts ...? [.weara'bauts] Где ..? Около какого места...? wig (п) [wig] парик wildlife (п) ['waild.laifj анималистика, aHHMaansN {жанр изобразительного искусства) wind power (п) ['wind ,раиа] энергия ветра window cleaner (п) ['windau ,kli:na] мойщик око wink (v) [wigk] подмигивать wonderful (adj) ['wAndaf(a)!] замечательный, изумительный, поразительный, удивительный (the) Wonders of the World (n pi) [(6a) .wAndaz a' 6a 'w3ild] чудеса света wooden (adj) ['wud(a)n] деревянный wool (n) [wul] шерсть woolly (adj) ['wulij шерстяной work experience (n) [,w3ik ik'spiarians] учебнопроизводственная практика work of art (n) [,w3ik av 'aitj произведение искусства worker (n) ['w3ika] 1) рабочий; 2) работник, сотрудник working environment (n) [,w3ikir] in'vairanmant условия труда world record (n) [,w3ild 'rekoid] мировой рекорд wrong (adj) [rog] неправильный, неверный (go wrong - идти не так, как надо; не получат! the wrong way round - иначе, не так; наоборот wrap (v) [гаер] обёртывать Хх xenophobia (п) [.zena'faubia] ксенофобия {бояз. незнакомых лиц) Yy yen (n) [jen] иена {денежная единица Японии) Irfequlat^^inbs •-J- • *#'r Past simple Past participle Infinitive Past simple Past participle was were been keep kept kept ceat beaten know knew known ;-=c.; ~rr cecame become learn learnt / learned learnt / learned гет'" cegan begun leave left left 2ГЪЗ~’ broke broken lose lost lost rr-Г Drought brought make made made С built built meet met met bought bought pay paid paid z^::r caught caught put put put C«I>r^ chose chosen read read read :c.“^ came come run ran run — CKj done say said said ЭГ2.Л d’'ew drawn see saw seen drank drunk sell sold sold 3^.r crove driven send sent sent r-cT ate eaten sing sang sung *3i fallen sit sat sat fed sleep slept slept XZ *%■ felt speak spoke spoken ~'Г^ fought spell spelt spelt '■"■I —•-* о found spend spent spent *•* flown steal stole stolen ':r^ forgotten swim swam swum pr IC* got take took taken 3*^e cE^’e given teach taught taught X E — gone tell told told "«EC had think thought thought heard understand understood understood ' if hit wear wore worn hurt win won won write wrote written