Учебник Английский язык 8 класс Афанасьева Михеева

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Английский язык о. в. Афанасьева И. В.Михеева Новый курс английского языка ДЛЯ российских школ f 4-й год обучения класс Учебник для общеобразовательных учреждений Допущено Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации Я-г издание, стереотипное ^ р р о ф а МОСКВА • 2007 step One Do It Together Q Listen to this traditional English song and sing along. One Man Went to Moor One man went to moor^, Ф C О Q. Ф »] (D- 1. 2. 3. Went to moor on meadow^. One man and his dog, One man and his dog Went to moor on meadow. Two men went to moor, Went to moor on meadow. Two men, one man. One man and his dog Went to moor on meadow. Three men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Three men, two men. One man and his dog Went to moor on meadow. ^ (the) USA [,ju: es 'ei] = the United States of America — Соединенные Штаты Америки' ^ a moor [тиэ] — вересковая пустошь ^ a meadow ['medau] — луг 4. Four men went to moor, Went to moor on meadow. Four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. 5. Five men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Five men, four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. 6. Six men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Six men, five men, four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. 7. Seven men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Seven men, six men, five men, four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. 8. Eight men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Eight men, seven men,.six men, five men, four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. 9. Nine men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Nine men, eight men, seven men, six men, five men, four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. 10. Ten men went to moor. Went to moor on meadow. Ten men, nine men, eight men, seven men, six men, five men, four men, three men, two men. One man and his dog went to moor on meadow. I Complete the tag-questions’ and answer them. Example: You travelled a lot during your summer holidays, ... ? — You travelled a lot during your summer holidays, didn't you? — Yes, I did. (No, I didn't. 1 stayed at home.) a tag-question = a disjunctive question — разделительный вопрос 1) You didn’t go anywhere, ... ? 2) You stayed in your home town, ... ? 3) The weather was terrible in the summer, ... ? 4) It never rained in the summer, ... ? 5) You often went boating, ... ? 6) Nobody went with you, ... ? 7) You didn’t make sandcastles on the beach, ... ? 8) You had a lot of fun, ... ? 9) You couldn’t go abroad, ... ? 10) Your parents were with you during the summer, 11) You weren’t in the north of our country, ... ? 12) You didn’t go to the forest much, ... ? 13) You saw a lot of interesting places, ... ? 14) You didn’t write a diary, ... ? 15) You invited nobody to visit you, ... ? .. ? I You have just come back to school. Tell your friends a few words about your summer holidays. Follow the plan. A. If you travelled • With whom did you travel? • How long did you stay there? • What did you do in the morning and in the afternoon? • Where did you go in the evening? • Did you have fun? • What are the places you visited famous for? • Where are they situated? • What souvenirs did you buy? • Were your holidays interesting? boring? Я. If you Ht.ayed in your home town • When did you usually get up? • What did you do in the morning? • Did you go to the forest (river, mountains)? • With whom did you go there? • What did you do about the house? • How much did you read? • What games^ did you play? With whom did you do it? a game [geim] — игра • Did you ride a bike? • What did you do in the evening? • Did you write a diary? • What films did you see? • What museums did you visit? • Who came to your place? • Were your holidays interesting? boring? Listen to the tape, (2), and choose the right item. Diulo^u.i A 1) John went to the USA with .... a) Yura b) his family 2) People calP New York .... a) “the Big Apple” . b) “the Little Apple” 3) Yura would like to see New York’s .... a) streets b) bridges 4) John’s going to Washington, D.C... a) at the weekend b) on Friday 5) John is going to send Yura a ... . a) letter b) telegram Dialogue Is 1) John ... it in New York, a) likes b) hates 2) New Yorkers are ... . a) selfish b) kind 3) It’s raining in ... . a) Moscow b) New York 4) Yesterday’s show was .... a) not good b) rather good 5) John’ll ... from Washington, D.C. a) write b) go away c) his friends c) “the Apple” c) skyscrapers^ c) on Monday c) postcard c) doesn’t like c) friendly c) Washington, D.C. c) very good c) call * to call [ko:I] — называть ^ a scyscraper ['skai, skretpa] небоскреб с) in an old castle Dialogue C 1) In Washington, D.C. John is staying ... a) at a hotel b) with friends 2) John is going to see Washington .... a) in the morning b) in the afternoon c) in the evening 3) John and Sally are going to see .... a) the White House and the Cathedral b) the White House and the Potomac [pa'taumsek] River c) the White House and the Capitol 4) Yura and Sally are going to the city centre with .... a) their mother b) their father c) their cousins 5) Yura is going to get some of John’s .... a) CDs b) e-mails c) photos John Barker and his family visited the USA in the summer. He knows a lot about America now. How much do you know about it? Say: true or false. 1) New York is the capital of the USA. 2) Russians came to America in the 18**' century. 3) America is a country of immigrants. 4) Chicago [fi'kagau] is situated in the south of the USA. 5) There are fifty states* in the USA. 6) There are fifty stars on the American flag. 7) All American states are situated in South America. 8) The United States is smaller than Russia. 9) The Mississippi is the longest river in the world. 10) There are no high Mountains in the USA. 11) California is a US city. 12) Texas ['leksss] is the biggest state of the USA. [You can find the right answers at the end of the Unit.] a state [steit] — штат I Listen to the tape, (3), and repeat. 'V, > J ■4^ ..s U \ ;v,. Ч* “ы у V continent ['kontinantj: Africa is a continent. South America and North America are continents too. Europe ['juarap]: Italy, Finland, Spain are situated in Europe. Asia ['eija): Russia is situated in Europe and Asia. Australia [o'streilia]: Australia is a country and a continent, nationality [,naeja'naeliti]: I am Russian. It is my nationality. John is English. It is his nationality, historic [hi'stonk]: Red Square is a historic place. Germany ['фз:тэп1]: Germany is situated in Europe. Ireland ['aiabnd]: Ireland is to the west of Great Britain. I Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, [Д (4), and repeat. A. bring [brio] — приносить, приводить build [bild] — строить moon [mu:n] — луна only [bunli] — 1) adv только; 2) ad] единственный proud [praud] — гордый skyscraper ['skabskreipa] — небоскреб state [steit] — 1) штат; 2) государство remember [ri'memba] — помнить same [seim] — такой же wild [waild] — дикий n. bring — brought [bro:t]: John brought me a cup of tea. Summer brings warmer weather. We are going to have a party, come and bring your friends. Bring back my book, please. build — built [bilt]: What is grandpa building? When did they build the new road near your farm? They built it last year, building: Houses, schools, shops, hotels are buildings, the moon: the sun and the moon, on the moon. Can you see the moon in the sky? only: 1) Only Fred can help me. I know only one foreign language. 2) an only child, an only friend. Benny is an only child in the family. proud: a proud man, a proud woman, proud people. He was too proud to go back to his parents’ home. be proud of: Susan is proud of her parents. Alex says he is proud of his job. skyscraper: Skyscrapers are very high buildings. There are many skyscrapers in New York. state: 1) How many states are there in the USA? Which is the biggest state? 2) France is a state in Europe. remember: I never remember when she was born. Do you remember her address? Did you remember to buy bread? same: the same clothes, the same answer. It’s the same old story, I don’t want to hear it again. at the same time: 1) I can’t understand what you are saying if you all talk at the same time. 2) Moscow is a very old city. At the same time it is young and modern. wild: a wild animal, a wild flower. What wild animals do you know? Match the words in the two columns. 1) to be proud of 2) to build 3) to bring 4) to walk on 5) to remember a) the moon b) the country c) the question . d) a bridge e) a cup of tea Complete the sentences. Use the words. high, historic, only, proud, same, wild 1) Ben has no brothers or sisters in the family. He is an ... child. 2) Mrs Davidson is ... of her children. They are so talented. 3) There are so many ... buildings in New York. 4) I am ... to say that John is one of the first pupils in our class. 5) The Kremlin is a ... place in Moscow. 6) You can see a lot of ... animals in the zoo. 7) We can buy this computer I think. The ... problem is — we haven’t got so much money. 8) We are staying at the ... hotel as you. 9) It’s the ... film that they showed last year. 10) Have you got any ... flowers in your garden? 11) Are there many ... monuments in St. Petersburg? A Read the text and match the titles^ with the paragraphs. There is one extra paragraph. 1. Country of Immigrants 2. New Home for English-Speaking People 3. The Old and the New Hand-in-Hand 4. American Traditions The New World a) The United States is a young country. It is only a few hundred years old. Millions of people from other countries and continents — Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and South America — find their new home in the United States. b) The people of the United States are of many different nationalities. These different people brought to the new home their traditions, holidays and festivals. From Germany they brought Christmas trees. From Ireland they brought St. Patrick’s Day celebrations. From Scotland they brought Halloween. Americans celebrate the festivals of the Old World. But there are new American festivals and traditions too. c) Americans like new ideas. They built the first skyscrapers and they put the first man on the moon. They like to be modern. They enjoy big modern cities, new houses and new cars. At the same time Americans love old things. They like to visit historic houses and museums. They remember their country’s history and the days of the “Wild West”. Most of them are very proud of their country and love it. B. Listen to the tape, (5), and read the text again after it. ' a title ['taitl] — название, заголовок Q Answer the questions. 1) What is the New World? 2) Why is the USA a country of immigrants? 3) From what continents do immigrants come to the USA? 4) What do immigrants bring with them? 5) Do Americans celebrate only new holidays and festivals? 6) Who put the first man on the moon? 7) Are many Americans patriots? Why do you think so? Щ Speak about the people of the USA. Use exercises 10 and 11. Do It on Your Own Q Write what they are. r.'i. \ \ \ >- 1. 2. У r'" ®'S 4. 5. 7., 8.. Q Write the English for. Историческое здание, пятьдесят штатов, вернуть тетрадь, построить мост, высокие небоскребы, полевые цветы, мой единственный друг, тот же ответ, гордиться этой страной, луна и звезды, помнить российскую историю, самое большое государство. step Two Do It Together I Listen to the text "The Big Appie" tences are true. (6), and say which of the sen- 1) a) All jazz musicians wanted to work in Washington, D.C. b) All jazz musicians wanted to work in New York. 2) a) They called New York “The Big Apple” because it was the best city to work in. b) They called New York “The Big Apple” because it was the biggest city in the USA. 3) a) More than twelve million people come to visit New York every year. b) More than twenty million people come to visit New York every year. 4) a) The name of New York’s park is Central Park, b) The name of New York’s park is Quiet Park. 5) a) New York has no beaches. b) New York has a lot of beaches. 6) a) Broadway is famous for its shows. b) Broadway is famous because it’s five kilometres long. I Match the items in the columns. 1) Asia 2) Texas 3) California 4) the Potomac River 5) Europe 6) New York 7) Washington, D.C. 8) Australia 9) the Mississippi 10) the USA 11) the New World a) The continent where Italy, Spain, France and Germany are situated. b) The capital of the USA. c) The American state where Hollywood is situated. d) One of the biggest states in the USA in the south of the country. e) The name of the continent and at the same time of the country. f) The continent where India is situated. g) The country which has got fifty states. h) The city people call “the Big Apple”. i) The longest river of the USA. j) The river on which Washington, D.C. is situated. k) North, Central and South America. Complete these sentences. .4. the day when ... the place where the song which . the man who ... the time when .. the book which . 1) 1 remember 2) I remember 3) I remember 4) I remember 5) I remember 6) I remember B. 1) I am proud of ... . 2) My parents are proud of 3) My friend is proud of ... 4) My teacher is proud of 5) We are proud of ... . J3 о a 0i Q Answer the questions. 1) How many states are there in the USA? 2) On what continent is the USA situated? 3) People of many nationalities live in the States, don’t they? 4) In what American cities can you see a lot of tall buildings? 5) What do people usually call the tall buildings of New York and Chicago? 6) What names of American cities and states do you remember? 7) Is Washington and Washington, D.C. the same place (thing)? 8) What are Americans proud of? 9) What tradition did they bring from Germany? 10) What celebration did they bring from Scotland? 11) What holiday did they bring from Ireland? Q Say what they built in the city of Norton and when. Example: They built a bridge in the dty Norton in 1840 (eighteen forty). 1754 1995 1968 __дуЮхЯ». 1981 1986 1920 Listen to the tape, (7), repeat the names and find these places on the map. 7 < >1^ H4 iwalh n Isit nds 1) the United States of America 2) Canada ['kaenada] 3) Mexico ['meksikao] 4) the Pacific Ocean [pa,sifik 'aujan] (the Pacific) 5) the Atlantic Ocean [at,laentik 'aujan] (the Atlantic) 6) Alaska [a'laeska] 7) Hawaii [ha'waii] 8) the Rocky Mountains [,roki 'mauntinz] 9) the Appalachian [ySepa'leitfian] Mountains (the Appalachians) 10) the Grand Canyon [,graend 'kaenjan] 11) the Great Plains 12) Death Valley [,de0'va:li] 13) the Mississippi River (the Mississippi) 14) the Colorado [,kDla'ro;dau] River (the Colorado) 15) the Great Lakes I Say what they are. Example: California is a state. 1) the Pacific 2) Canada 3) the Appalachians 4) Mexico 5) the Mississippi 6) the Ontario 7) the Colorado 8) Alaska 9) Hawaii 10) the Atlantic 11) the USA 12) the Huron I Learn some new words. Listen to the tape and repeat, [^(8). A. lie [lai] — лежать mighty ['maiti] — могущественный, могучий part [pa:t] — часть plain [plein] — равнина stretch [strey^ — тянуться, простираться -valley ['vffili] — долина border (on) ['boids] — граничить (c) chain [tfein] — цепь coast [kaust] — побережье deep [di:pj — глубокий flow [Паи] — течь island ['ailand] — остров large [la;cfe] — большой В. border: to border on sth. What countries does Russia border on? The USA borders on Canada in the North. chain: a golden chain, a chain of mountains. That day Anne had a beautiful chain round her neck. The Urals are a chain of mountains situated in Europe and Asia. coast: the Atlantic coast, on the coast. My town is situated on the coast. deep: a deep river, a deep lake. My younger brother is afraid to swim in deep water. How deep is this canyon? flow: to flow west, to flow north, to flow into the ocean. The Volga flows into the Caspian Sea. The Colorado flows south, island: an island in the ocean, a chain of islands. What islands are situated to the east of Russia? I can take you to the island in a boat. large: a large city, a large family. We stayed in a large hotel on the sea coast. lie — lay [lei]: to lie on the sofa, to lie on the river. He lay down on the floor. The farm lay three kilometres from the sea. mighty: a mighty river, a mighty king. The Mississippi is a mighty river in the US. We hope that Russia will always be a mighty country. part: a part of the country, four large parts, part of the time. Great Britain has four parts or four countries. This is the most beautiful part of the garden. plain: a low plain, the Great Plains of the US. The Great Plains are situated in the western central part of the country, stretch: to stretch far, to stretch west, to stretch north. The forest stretched as far as the eye could see. Russia stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Baltic Sea. valley: a green valley, a deep valley, lily-of-the-valley (lilies-of-the-valley). There is a river lying in the valley. Valleys are usually situated in the mountains. A. Look at the map and say what countries: a) the USA, b) Canada borders on. B. Answer the questions. '' 1) Germany borders on France, doesn’t it? 2) France borders on Spain, doesn’t it? 3) Spain doesn’t border on Italy, does it? 4) Germany borders on Russia, doesn’t it? 5) Greece doesn’t border on Italy, does it? с. Say 1) what country Russia borders on in the north-west 2) what country Great Britain borders on in the west 3) what country Spain borders on in the north 4) what country Germany borders on in the south-west 5) what country the USA borders on in the south - Ш Use the new words and complete the sentences. chain, islands, lies, large(2), largest, flows, parts, stretching, lily-of-the-valley, deep, deepest, coast, plains 1) The ... is a beautiful spring flower. 2) There are a lot of ... in the Pacific Ocean. 3) The Baikal is the... lake in the world. 4) Masha spent her holidays on the Black Sea .... 5) Moscow is a very ... city. 6) The Mississippi is a ... river, it is the ... river in the USA. 7) The Mississippi ... south. 8) The Urals is a famous ... of mountains. 9) Is the Volga a ... river? 10) There are four ... in Great Britain. They are England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. 11) Are there any ... in Europe? 12) Washington, D.C. ... on the Potomac River. 13) The forest was ... to the cast. Match them. 1) The Great Lakes 2) Texas 3) The Colorado 4) Washington 5) Washington, D.C. 6) Florida 7) The Appalachians 8) The Rocky Mountains a) stretch in the east b) lie in the north of the USA c) borders on Mexico in the south like Arizona and New Mexico d) is the capital of the USA e) stretch along^ the coast f) is a state in the north-west g) flows south h) lies in the south of the USA ‘ along [3'1do1 — вдоль г =3 в английском языке еаь два похожих слова other и another, которые следует различать. Another означает 1) «другой», «еще один», «дополнительный» (I'd like another of tea, please.) и 2) «другой», «иной» (Give me another of tea, please. I don't like this one.). Местоимение используется только с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе: another day, another place, another man. Other означает 1) «другие», «дополнительные» (You are my good friend. I have no friends.) и 2) «другие», «иные» (Let's go to the zoo or do you have plans?). Слово о?/??/" обычно используется с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе: other pupils, other places, other traditions. Сочетание other + существительное в речи часто заменяется словом others. Например, I'd like to meet other teachers too. = I'd like to meet others too. Ш Complete the sentences. Use another, other, others. 1) I can’t talk to you now. Come ... day, please. 2) I have just one sandwich. May I have ... one? 3) This is a very bad road. Are there ... roads to the castle? 4) Some people like fish and ... don’t. 5) There is ... big river in this part of Scotland. 6) Are there any ... mountains in Wales? 7) I can carry this big bag and some ... too. 8) Tomorrow will be ... sunny day. 9) We are going to visit France and some ... countries too. 10) If you like these postcards, I can bring you some ... . 11) Where are my ... exercise-books? I can’t find them. 12) Some people travel by train, ... like travelling by car. 13) “Tom Sawyer’’ is a book about a young boy. ... book about a boy is “Oliver Twist”. 14) After going to New York I’d like to see some ... towns in the USA. \ Do It on Your Own Ask for more things. Use the words from the box. box, bag, cup, carton^, jug, plate 1) Can I have another ... of coffee? 2) Can we ask for another ... of milk? a carton ['ka:tn] — пакет (картонная упаковка для продуктов) 3) Have you got another ... of sugar? 4) May I have another ... of chalk, please? 5) I’d like to buy another ... of pears. 6) Will you give me another ... of orange juice? 7) I’d like another ... of ham and eggs, please. 8) Could I have another ... of chocolates? 9) Could you give me another ... of tea? 10) Have you got another ... of pencils? Ш See how well you know geography of the USA. Give it a name. 1) Five big lakes in the north of the USA. 2) The largest city in the USA. 3) The biggest river of the USA. 4) The chain of mountains in the east of the USA. 5) The chain of mountains in the west of the USA. 6) The biggest state of the USA. 7) The capital of the USA. 8) The plains which are situated in the central part of the USA. Step Three Do It Together Listen to the tape, (9), and say what places in the USA they visited. 1.Robert 2. Fred 3. Jim Say what can be deep, large, mighty. 1) (a) deep forest, ,,,, ... 2) (a) large continent, ..., ..., ..., ...,.. 3) (a) mighty queen, ........... Match the pictures with the words and word combinations. a) a golden chain b) a lily-of-the-valley c) a part of the apple d) the Atlantic coast 1. e) a deep valley f) a plain g) a chain of mountains 4. О Complete the sentences with the missing words. lie, lies, flow, flows, flowed, stretch, stretched 1) Washington, D.C. ... on the Potomac River. 2) The Great Plains ... to the east of the Rocky Mountains. 3) The Volga ... from the Valdai Hills to the Caspian Sea. 4) The road ... ahead for miles. 5) Did the river ... into the sea? — No, it didn’t. It ... into the lake. 6) Kazan and Samara ... on the V^olga. I A. Read the text and say what information about American geography you knew/didn’t know before you read the text. The United States of America The United States of America is the world’s fourth largest country. Only Russia, Canada and China have bigger territories f'teritanz] than the US. There are fifty states in the country. Forty-eight are in the same part of North America. The other two are Alaska in the north, and Hawaii situated on eight islands in the Pacific. The United States stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean, which wash the country in the west and in the east. Long mountain chains run down the Pacific coast. In this part of the country is Death Valley, the lowest place in North and South Americas. Here, too, is the Grand Canyon which the Colorado River made millions of years ago. In some places it is about 6 km deep. Farther east lie the tall peaks of the Rocky Mountains that run from Canada to Mexico. Beyond them stretch the Great Plains where the mighty Mississippi River flows. Another mountain chain, the Appalachians, runs down the eastern part of the United States. The USA borders on Canada in the north, where the five Great Lakes are situated, and Mexico in the South. B. Listen to the tape, (10), and read the text again after it. Match the two columns. 1) The USA 2) Alaska 3) Hawaii 4) The Pacific Ocean 5) The Atlantic Ocean 6) Death Valley 7) The Grand Canyon 8) The Mississippi 9) The Rocky Mountains 10) The Appalachian Mountains 11) Canada 12) Mexico =0 a) the American state situated on the islands. b) the chain of mountains in the east of the USA. c) the ocean that washes the USA in the east. d) a very deep cut in the ground^. e) the country that borders on the US in the north. f) the fourth largest country in the world. g) a mighty river that flows through the Great Plains. h) the lowest place in North America. i) the American state situated in the far north. j) the ocean that washes the USA in the west. k) the chain of mountains in the west of the USA. l) the country that borders on the US in the south. The Present Perfect Tense (Настоящее совершенное время) 1. Описать событие, о котором извеано, когда оно произошло, можно, используя знакомое вам время past simple. I washed the dishes an hour ago. Если же неизвестно или не важно, когда совершено какое-либо действие, а важен его результат, который связан с моментом речи/с настоящим, используется время present perfect [’’рз.Шх]. 23 О) а Ф ^ cut in the ground [graund] — разлом земной коры Результат; Посуда вымыта, она чистая. Дейавие: Я вымыла посуду. (когда — неизвестно, неважно) Джон разбил вазу. -♦ Ваза разбита. (Вазы нет, есть только осколки.) 2. Образуется present perfect пр\л помощи вспомогательного глагола have/ has и третьей формы основного глагола Му have/has V3 Для правильных глаголов эта форма V, совпадает с формой прошедшего времени. 1 II III answer answered answered cook cooked cooked visit visited visited finish finished finished I have answered the question. — Я ответил на вопрос. (Результат: мой ответ известен.) Mum has cooked supper. — Мама приготовила ужин. (Результат: ужин готов.) John has visited the USA. — Джон посетил США. (Результат; у Джона есть представление об этой аране.) We have finished the work. — Мы закончили работу, (Результат: работа завершена.) 3. У неправильных глаголов эту форму V, нужно запомнить. Ты найдешь ее в таблице неправильных глаголов. Для начала запомни формы глаголов to see и to be. 1 II III see saw seen be was/were • been Nick has seen a lot of French films. We have been to Australia. We like' it. Обрати внимание на то, что с глаголом be в этом времени часто употребляется предлог to. I have been to Moscow. — Я бывал в Москве. She has been to London. — Она бывала в Лондоне. Make up sentences. I We My friend Jane They These people You and I have has played football before, seen all the new films. visited the best museums of the town. cleaned the classroom. been to the city centre. watched the news on TV, asked a lot of questions. cooked a very good dinner. finished the work. decided to have a holiday, started to write a diary. listened to some very good songs. 25 01 0^ a 01 Say what has happened. Example: Sam. His shoes are clean, (clean) Sam has cleaned his shoes. 1) James, His car is clean. (wash) 2) Kate. Her plants look green and fresh (water) 3) Mum and dad. Their bedroom window is open. (open) 4) The children. They are not doing their homework. They are playing in the garden. (finish) 5) Mary. She knows what the film is about. (see) 6) My friends. They know what the British Museum is like. (visit) 7) Emma. Her hands are clean. (wash) 8) The Smiths. They know where they’ll spend their weekend, (decide) 9) Margo. There is a lot of food in her fridge. (be to the shops) 10) Jake. His supper is ready. (cook) ^ fresh [frej] — свежий |Today Cinderella is very tired. Can you say why? Example; She has washed her sisters' clothes. 6. .si-- 3. 4. 11. 12. l)wash, 2) carry, 3) clean, 4) cook, 5) clean, 6) work, 7) wash, 8) wash, 9) be, 10) water, 11) walk, 12) paint □ Say what places they have been to (seen, visited) and what places they are going to see. Example: 1) Ted — New York — Washington, D.C. Ted has been to New York. He is going to visit Washington, D.C. 2) Roy and Alice — France — Germany Roy and Alice have been to France. They are going to see Germany. 3) John — California — Washington 4) Billy and Beth — Canada — Mexico 5) Harry — the Appalachians — the Rocky Mountains 6) The Moles — the Mississippi — the Colorado 7) Miss Robertson — Alaska — Hawaii 8) Ann — Florida — the Great Plains 9) The friends — the Atlantic Ocean — the Pacific Ocean 10) Kitty and David — South America — North America 11) My cousins — the Pacific Coast — the Atlantic Coast Ф Ф a. Ф Do It on Your Own 24 Complete the sentences. 1) Julia (has/have) visited the Grand Canyon. 2) Ed and his sister (has/have) travelled about the Atlantic Coast. 3) My cousins (has/ have) seen “The Big Apple”. 4) John (has/have) played five games of tennis. 5) The Richardsons (has/have) been to the Great Lakes. 6) Alice (has/have) listened to the song “America, the Beautiful”. She likes it. 7) Boris (has/have) walked in Central Park of New York. Now he knows what it is like. 8) Kim’s parents (has/ have) been to the Rocky Mountains. 9) We (has/have) seen the Appalachians. They are great. 10) You (has/have) washed your hands. You may sit down to table. Щ Write what is missing in the text. The States 1) The ... is the fourth largest country in the world stretching from the ... Ocean in the east to the ... west. 2) It is situated in ... America. 3) It borders on ... in the north and on ... in the south. 4) There are a lot of mountains in the USA. The highest and largest are the ... in the west. 5) The ... are in the east, they are lower and older. 6) The mighty ... is the longest river in the USA. Some other rivers flow into it. 7) The ... Lakes in the north of the USA are very deep. The... Lake is the largest and the ... Lake is the smallest. 8)... is the capital of the USA. It is situated on the ... River. Step Four Do It Together I Listen to the song, ["J (11), and sing along. Billy Boy Oh, where have you been, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Oh where have you been. Charming Billy? 1 have been to seek a wife, She’s the joy of my life, She’s a young thing And cannot leave her mother. Очаровашка Билли искать молоденькая Did she ask you to come in, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Did she ask you to come in. Charming Billy? Yes, she asked me to come in, There’s a dimple in her chin. She’s a young thing And cannot leave her mother. ямочка на подбородке 29 Э О Сап she bake а cherry pie, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Can she bake a cherry pie. Charming Billy? She can bake a cherry pie. Quick as you can wink an eye. She’s a young thing And cannot leave her mother. печь, испечь; вишневый пирог моргать о. Ф Сап she make а feather [Тедэ] bed, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, Can she make a feather bed. Charming Billy? She can make a feather bed. While standing on her head. She’s a young thing And cannot leave her mother. перо, перьевая стоя на голове How tall is she, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, How tall is she. Charming Billy? She is tall as any pine. And as straight as a pumpkin vine. She’s a young thing And cannot leave her mother. сосна плеть тыквы How old is she, Billy Boy, Billy Boy, How old is she. Charming Billy? She is sixty times eleven, 660 Twenty-eight and forty-seven. She’s a young thing And cannot leave her mother. \a. Say under what categories these words go and where you must use the article "the". Check, [«j (12). ...? ...? ...? ...? ...? Mexico Alaska Washington, D.C. Hawaii Atlantic ...? ...USA ...? ... Texas ...? ... Asia ...? ... Grand Canyon ...? ... Death Valley ...? ... Rockies ...? ... Pacific ...? ... Great Plains ...? ... New York ...? ... California ...? ... Superior ...? ... Mississippi ...? ... Canada Washington ...? ... Appalachians ...? ... Ontario ...? ... Huron ...? ... Big Apple ...? ... Potomac B. Say what you know about these places. Continents: Oceans:_____ Countries: _ States:_____ Cities:_____ Lakes:______ Rivers:_________ Mountain chains: Others:_________ I Say where you have been in your country and abroad. Example: I have been to Kiev. We have been to Tarasovka. Look at the pictures and say what games the children have finished playing. 31 Э о a (/> 6. I Say what has happened. Example: Nick has opened the window. 1. t . 8. Say how we can form negations^ in present perfect. I have been to London. We have been Washington. You have been to Boston. They have been to Chicago. She has been to the Great Lakes. He has been to the USA. I haven’t seen the Pacific. We haven’t seen the Atlantic. They haven’t seen the Ontario. I have not been to Moscow. We have not been to Oxford. You have not been to Leeds. They have not been to New York. ’ She has not been to Miami. He has not been to Spain. She hasn’t seen the Potomac. He hasn’t seen the Colorado. You haven’t seen the Huron. 3 о Q. Ф I Say what these people have not done. Example: Max's boots are dirty, (clean) Max hasn't (has not) cleaned his boots. 1) Mr Porter’s work is not ready, (finish) 2) Julia doesn’t know what New York is like, (be) 3) Mrs Johnson’s plants are dry. (water) 4) I don’t know if Peter is at school today, (see) 5) The paint on the walls in Paul’s kitchen is old and dark, (paint) 6) Polly’s cups and plates are unwashed, (wash) 7) Jerry hasn’t seen the news on television today, (watch) 8) Mary and I are thinking about what film to see. (decide) 9) Most of us don’t know how to play baseball, (play) 10) Jim doesn’t know what the job of a journalist is like, (work as) 11) I’d like to know if the “Star” is a good hotel, (stay) 12) Samantha [sa'mamGa] can’t teach you to make chocolate pudding. (cook) 13) My son wants to read “Hamlet”, one of the most famous plays written by W. Shakespeare, (read) ’ negation [m'geijan] — отрицание 2~Лфанасьева. 8 кл. I Say how we can form questions in present perfect. Yes, you have. Have I asked you for your address?'' Have you washed; your hands? No, you haven’t. Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. Have we seen this film? Yes, we have. No, we haven’t. ^ "/f Have the Greens visited Red Square? Have the boys closed the window? Yes, they have. '■ No, they haven’t. Э о Q. Has Bob been to New York? Has Helen been to Moscow? Yes, he has. No, she hasn’t. 2* I Answer these questions. 1) Have you been to Moscow? 2) Have you seen Red Square? 3) Have you travelled a lot this year? 4) Has your father visited the USA? 5) Has your mother cooked pizza? 6) Have you played baseball? 7) Have your friends played tennis? 8) Have you helped your parents a lot this year? 9) Have you seen any of the Harry Potter films? 10) Have you asked your parents “difficult” questions? =0 Запомни три формы следующих глаголов. do did done [dAn] begin began begun [Ы'длп] ring rang rung [глр] run ran run [глп] swim swam . swum [swAm] come came come [kAm] become became become [bi'kAm] j^Ann helps Mrs Hicks about the house. She does everything Mrs Hicks asks her to do very quickiy''. Complete their dialogues. A. Mrs Hicks: Ann, ring up the post-office about the letter, please. Ann (in several minutes): I have done it, Mrs Hicks. I have rung the post-office. They know about the letter. В Mrs Hicks: Ann, do my bedroom, please. Ann (in half an hour): Mrs Hicks, I... . Your bedroom is clean. Mrs Hicks: Ann, begin cooking lunch, please. Ann: IMrs Hicks. I am making some chicken soup now. quickly ['kwiklQ — быстро D. Mrs Hicks: Ann, go shopping but come back quickly. Ann {in 40 minutes): I ... back from the shop, Mrs Hicks. Now we’ve got all the vegetables you wanted. j Elizabeth Foster has six children. Say what their jobs are. Example: Eliza has become a doctor. ' 37 3 о Q. Eliza Tom Ann Colin Rob Polly Щ Say how many a) kilometres they have run, b) metres they have swum. Example: a) Boris — 10. Boris has run ten kilometres. b) Helen — 25. Helen has swum twenty-five metres. a) Bob — 2 b) Emma — 50 Frank — 4 Jane — 100 Sarah — 1 Samantha — 150 Andy — 5 Toby — 200 Tracy — 3 Mark — 125 Do It on Your Own Ш Complete the sentences. Use present perfect. 1) Mrs Johnson (become) a writer. 2) Bob and Charles (be) to the States many times. 3) You (swim) in the Pacific? 4) We (not, do) our lessons. 5) I (not, remember) all their traditions. 6) The girls (jump) high. Their results are very good. But they (run) 5 kilometres badly. 7) Betty (begin) learning English. 8) Polly (ring up) Doctor Gordon? 9) Boris (come) back? — No, he hasn’t. He never comes back earlier than six. 10) Jane says she (not, see) any of the Harry Potter films. Here are some answers. What are the questions? Use present perfect. 1) ...? — Yes, I have. I rang up granny in the morning. 2) ...? — Yes, he has. He came home at 6. 3) ...? — Yes, they have. They did their homework in the afternoon. 4) ...? — Yes, we have. We swam in the lake in summer. 5) ...? — Yes, she has. She began learning English when she was eight. 6) ...? — Yes, I have. I became a teacher long ago. 7) ...? — Yes, they have. They visited the British Museum when they were in London. 8) ...? — Yes, she has. She cooked the chicken after work. 9) ...? — Yes, he has. He saw this film some time ago. 10) .. .? — Yes, we have. We were in Vladimir last summer. Step Five Do It Together Ц Listen to the tape, (13). and say where Captain Drake has and hasn't been. Yes No Asia India ' China Australia Sydney North America South America Brazil Venezuela I Say why they are happy. Use present perfect. 1) James is happy because he (do) his homework and can go to the cinema with his friends. 2) Peter is happy because he (swim) 100 metres in two minutes. 3) Samantha and Jenny are happy because the bell (ring). There are no more classes and they can go home. 4) Tom and Roy are happy because they (see) a film with their favourite actor, Jackie Chan. 5) Pauline is happy because her mum (come) home early today and they are having dinner together. 6) Jack is happy because he (become) captain of his football teamh 7) Mary and Kate (be) to New York. Now they know a lot about this city. 8) Anna is happy because she (begin) learning French. 9) Peter is happy because he (arrive) at school on time. He is usually late. 10) Julia is happy because she (play) her favourite sonata on the piano very well. 39 > o. (U Present Perfect чаао используется с наречиями already [orlVedi] (уже), ever (когда-нибудь), just (только что), never (никогда), yet (еще), которые служат своеобразными указателями этого времени и в предложении обычно стоят после вспомогательного перед основным глаголом. Yet может употребляться и в конце предложения. I have already done it. — Я это уже сделал. Не has just come. — Он только что пришел. They have never seen her. — Они ее никогда не видели. We haven't visited Mexico yet. — Мы еще не посетили Мексику. Have you ever been to the USA? — Вы когда-нибудь бывали в США? ' а team [ti:m] — команда I Mr Morgan lives in Spain. He has never been to South or North America but he has travelled a lot in Europe. Work in pairs, ask Mr Morgan questions and answer these questions for him. Mexico, Death Valley, Covent Garden, Trafalgar Square, the Tretyakov Gallery, the Hermitage, Milan, the Grand Canyon, Washington, D.C., the Great Lakes, Buckingham Palace, the Rocky Mountains, the Seine Example: — Have you ever been to Seattle? — No, I haven't. I have never been to Seattle. — Have you ever seen the Louvre? — Yes, I have. I have just come from Paris. Запомни три формы следующих неправильных глаголов. 1 II III read [ri:d] read [red] read [red] write wrote written speak spoke spoken take took taken eat ate [et] eaten fall fell fallen Mary loves travelling. Look at the map and say where she has and hasn't been in the USA. 41 OI > Q. 01 Ask and answer the questions. 1) Have you ever written a letter abroad? 2) Have you ever read books by English writers? 3) Have you ever spoken to English people or Americans? 4) Have you ever eaten traditional English or American food? 5) Have you ever fallen in love^ with a town or a city in Russia or abroad? 6) Have you ever taken photos of interesting or unusual buildings and monuments? 7) Have you ever given your friends pictures as a souvenir? 8) Have you ever been abroad? 9) Have you ever done foreign towns and cities? 10) Which of these things would you like to do? I A. Learn to form special questions in present perfect. Where have you been? What have we done? How many books have they read? How much porridge has the dog eaten? How well have they learnt the poem? Whose pen have I taken? Why has he come? Who(m) has she seen? * to fall in love — влюбиться в. Complete the dialogues and act them out. 1) — Have you been to the US? — Yes.... — What cities ...? — I have visited Washington, D.C. and some small towns on the Atlantic Coast. 2) — Have you read any of the Harry Potter books? — Yes.... — How many books ...? — I have read three books. — What books ...? — ...“Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone”. (“Harry Potter and the Chamber ['tfeimbo] of Secrets”, “Harry Potter and the Prisoner ['рпгэпэ] of Azkaban”, “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire”, “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince”.) 3) — Has Frank taken any pictures? — Yes, ... . — How many pictures of the school building has he ...? — ..., I think. 4) — Has Harrison spoken to Robert? — Yes, I think he ... . — Has he given him the photos? — Yes, ... . — What photos ...? — I don’t know. I Look at the pictures and answer the questions. A. Example: — Who has been to the cinema? — Mr Hopper has. Mr Hopper Mr Blake 1) Who has written the letter? Emma 2) Who has read the book? Mrs Gordon and Polly 3) Who has taken the umbrellas with them? 43 OJ > a Ш the girls 4) Who has played the piano? Lizzy 5) Who has given Rex the bone? Mr Ford 6) Who has spoken 7) Who has eaten all to the people in the hall? the porridge? B. Example: — Mr Hopper hasn't been to the cinema, has he? — (But) yes, he has./No, he hasn't. 1) Mr Blake has written the letter, hasn’t he? 2) Emma hasn’t read the book, has she? 3) The girls have played the piano, haven’t they? 4) Mrs Gordon and Polly haven’t taken umbrellas with them, have they? 5) Lizzy has given a bone to the dog, hasn’t she? 6) Mr Ford has spoken to the people in the hall, hasn’t he? 7) Sally and Terry haven’t eaten their porridge, have they? \a. Read Kate's letter to Tanya and say what places Kate has visited In Washington. D.C. Kate’s Letter 8/23/04 Holiday Inn Washington, D.C. Dear Tanya, I am writing to you to tell you about our stay in Washington, D.C. You have asked me to write about the US capital. So I am doing it in this letter. We really love the city. It is so green and so clean. It is situated on the Potomac River, on a piece [pi:s] of land called^ the District of Columbia [ka'Umbia], which is why people call the ' a piece of land called — кусок земли под названием -iijY- rfr. It» '® '>» 45 O) > a o> US capital Washington, D.C. It is not the biggest city in the United States, but it is the most important. The buildings are not very tall, the streets and avenues ['aevinjurz] are straight, green and beautiful. The longest and the biggest avenues are named after^ American states. We have already done the centre of the city. We have been to the White House and seen the Capitol. The Capitol is really great. This is where the United States Congress meets and makes laws^. The building of the White House is very beautiful with tall columns ['knlamz] and the flag on the roof. It is the US president’s residence. This is where the president lives and works. It is one of the most famous buildings in the world. Its name comes from the fact that it is a white house. Tourists can’t see the part where the * are named after — названы no 2 a law [Id:] — закон president lives, but they can see the Red Room, the Blue Room and the Green Room and some other rooms. By the way, the city is famous for its museums. I have been to the Natural History Museum but I haven’t seen the others yet. Love, Kate B. Listen to the tape, (14). and read the text "Kate's Letter" again after it. Q Read out what the text says about. а) the Capitol b) the White House 2Q Answer the questions on the text from ex. 8. 1) What is Washington and what is Washington, D.C.? 2) Do you think there are many parks, trees and flowers in Washington, D.C.? Why do you think so? 3) On what river is the US capital situated? 4) Why do people call their capital Washington, D.C.? - 5) Are there any skyscrapers in Washington, D.C.? б) In what building do American Congressmen work? What do they do there? 7) What colour is the US President’s residence? 8) Can tourists visit all the rooms in the White House? What places can’t they visit? 9) Are there any famous museums in Washington, D.C.? Social English 11 Learn to speak about your likes and dislikes in Engiish. Likes: I really enjoy/like/love ... I rather enjoy/like/love ... I’ve always enjoyed/liked/loved... I'm (rather) fond of ... think ... is (are) great wonderful lovely enjoyable very nice Dislikes: I'm afraid I don't like ... I can't say I like ... I've never liked ... I (really) hate ... I can't stand ... I don't think ... is (are) good nice wonderful think ... is (are) bad horrible awful Say what you feel about • skiing and skating • shopping for food • shopping for clothes • pop songs • strong coffee • milk chocolate • cats Ф > a. Ш old cars rain cold winters travelling spiders black-and-white films doing your flat porridge taking pictures autumn roller skating washing up 13 Act out dialogues about your likes and dislikes. Example: A: What do you feel about pets? B; I'm rather fond of them. A; And what pets do you like? B: I've always liked dogs. I think they are very nice. pets animals school subjects sports food hobbies working about the house Do It on Your Own ED Complete the sentences. Use present perfect come, write, become, eat, fall, do, read, take, give, see 1) What’s your cousin’s job? — He ... just... a photographer. 2) Do you know how to make porridge? — I’m afraid I don’t. I ... never ... it before. 3) What are you doing? — I’m writing Christmas cards. I.....two and now I’m writing the third one. 4) What’s the dog playing with? — I....him my tennis ball. 5) What’s the matter? — I... just... down. Look at my clothes! They look awful! 6) I am going out, mum. — ... you ... your umbrella? It’s raining. 7) Autumn .... — Yes, it has. The leaves are falling off the trees. 8) What are you looking at? — This beautiful flower. I... never ... such flowers before. 9) Tell us the poet’s biography, Peter. — Sorry, sir, I... not... the book. 10) What is goulash ['ди:1а:Я like? — I don’t know. I... never ... it. Write ten true sentences. Use present perfect. Example: I have read the Harry Potter books many times. Unit Step One Do It Together Q Listen to the tape, (15), and complete the text. The English Language More people speak English than any other language except^. People speak English in Britain, Ireland, , New Zealand, (3) (4) million Another and some other countries. Altogether^ more than people speak English as their everyday language million or more speak English as a foreign language. Most English words come from old Anglo-Saxon®, or words. Some people think that the English language is one of the richest languages of the world and has up to a words. I Explain why it is so. Example: — There are no pies on the plate. John (eat). — John has eaten them. 1) — Their house is now yellow! — Yes, they (paint) ... . ^ 1 except [ik'sept] — кроме ^ altogether [,э:кэ'дебэ] — в целом ® Anglo-Saxon [,aeogbu'ScEks3n] — the language of the Anglo-Saxons, the people who lived in England in early times, from about 600 AD. 2) — Не knows everything about Moscow. — I think he does. He (be) ... there many times. 3) — John, your car looks so clean! — It should be. I (wash) .... 4) — Your grandparents are tired. — Yes, they (come) back from the shops. 5) — Does Harry know about it? — Yes, I (give)... him a call. 6) — Is the book interesting? — I don’t know yet. I just (begin)... reading it. 7) — Why is Jason in hospital? — He (fall)... off his bike. 8) — Roy knows nothing about our meeting. — Sorry. I (not, speak)... to him yet. Запомни, что у следующих глаголов вторая и третья формы совпадают. 1 II III catch caught caught teach taught taught bring brought brought buy bought bought fight fought fought think thought thought build built built send sent sent spend spent spent meet met met leave left left find found found get got got have had had Look at the pictures and answer the questions. 1) What has Frank bought for his little sister? 2) What has Polly just brought home? 3) What have the children found? 4) What has little Bob built? 5) Whom have the Morgans met? 6) Has Jim had an apple? What has he just had? 7) Where have the friends left for? 8) What has Tom caught? 9) How many letters and how many postcards has Lena sent to her granny? 10) How much money have the girls spent on books? 51 0) c о Cl 0» ] Work in pairs. You have a lot of things to do. Write a plan and tick what you have already done. Tell your friend about your day. Example: I have washed up after breakfast. I haven't bought bread and milk yet. Present perfect часто употребляется со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: this morning this evening today this week this month this year I haven't seen Victor this morning. (Утро еще не закончилось.) We have been to Moscow this month. (Месяц еще не завершен.) I Ask your friends 1) what places they have visited this year 2) what books they have read this week 3) what they have bought this month 4) what they have written today 6) where they have been this week 6) what films they have seen this month 7) whom they have spoken to today 8) what they have eaten today I Say what you haven't done this year, this week, this month, today but would like to do. Example: I haven't travelled much this year. I would like to go to England and France next year. Если надо узнать, совершил ли уже кто-то какое-либо действие или нет, в конце вопроса в present perfect часто используется наречие yet. Have you been to the bank yet? — Вы уже были в банке? Have you done your room yet? — Ты уже убрал в комнате? Has he come yet? — Он уже пришел? Иногда в подобных вопросах можно также встретить наречие already. John, have you been to the bank already? — Ты что, уже в банке побывал? Have you already eaten all the cake, Ann? — Ты что, уже весь пирог съела, Аня? Как видишь, задающий Джону и Ане эти вопросы скорее выражает свое удивление или недоумение. |When Jim comes home after school, there is nobody in. His mother usually calls him to ask if he has done what he should do. What are her questions? Example: (have dinner) — Jim, have you had dinner yet? 1) to change clothes 2) to read the textbook 3) to do the exercises 4) to listen to the English tapes 5) to play the piano 6) to water the flowers 7) to ring up granny 8) to work on the computer 9) to take Rex out 10) to give milk to the cat \S3 Ф c о Q. Ф IA Read the text and say what the figures^ 450,000; 35,000; 10,000— 12,000 mean in it. Words... Words... Words... We say them, we hear them, we read them and write them. And telephones, mobiles, radios, televisions, computers are all there to carry words to all parts of the world — and even to the moon and back. How many words must a language have? For example^, there are more than 450,000 words in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. No person ['рз:$эп] knows all of them, but most people are able to understand about 35,000 * a figure [Tiga] — цифра ^ for example — например and use about 10,000—12,000. Usually you use only one-tenth (1/10) as many words as you understand. If you hear or read a new word and want to know what it means, you look the word up in a dictionary. Modern dictionaries are very different. Most of them give words alphabetically. With the word they give information about how to pronounce [pra'nauns] it, what meaning or meanings it has, if there are any difficulties in its grammar and use. There are three big categories ['kaetiganz] of dictionaries: monolingual [,mDnau'ln3gw3l], bilingual [bai'liggwal] and multilingual [/mAlti'liogwal]. They give information about words in one (mono-), two (Ы-) or more than two (multi-) languages. B. Listen to the tape, [;^ (16), and read the text again after it. H Look at the two dictionary entries’ and answer the questions. a) library ['laibrari] n {pi libraries) a room or building for books, librarian [lai'brearian] n someone who works in a library. {Oxford Basic English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1995.) b) handy I'hasndi] adj (handier, handiest) 1 (clever with hands) умелый, мастеровой, рукастый (coll^); he is ~ у него золотые руки. 2 (easy to handle) удобный для пользования. 3 (convenient) удобный, сподручный (coll); it may come in - это может пригодиться. {Oxford Russian Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2000.) Questions 1) Which of the two words comes from a monolingual (bilingual) dictionary? 2) Where can you find information about how to pronounce the words? 3) How do you know that one of the words is a noun and the other is an adjective? 4) Which of the words has one and which more than one meaning? 5) Which of the dictionaries gives word combinations? 6) Which of the dictionaries gives derivatives^? 7) What does ~ stand for? ' a dictionary entry ['ciUri] — словарная статья * соП. »= colloquial [ka'bukwial] — разговорный * a derivative [dl'rivativ] — производное слово ш Listen to the tape, (17), and repeat the names of some countries, languages and nations. I. Country Language (official) People Nations America (the USA) English an American/ Americans (the) Americans Australia English an Australian/ Australians (the) Australians Canada English/ French a Canadian/Cana-dians (the) Canadians Germany German a German/Ger-mans (the) Germans Italy Italian an Italian/Ital-ians (the) Italians Mexico Spanish a Mexican/Mexi-cans (the) Mexicans Norway Norwegian a Norwegian/ Norwegians (the) Norwegians Russia Russian a Russian/Rus-sians (the) Russians China Chinese a Chinese/Chine-se (people) the Chinese Portugal Portuguese a Portuguese/ Portuguese(people) the Portuguese Japan Japanese a Japanese/Japanese (people) the Japanese Vietnam Vietnamese a Vietnamese/Vi-etnamese (people) the Vietnamese II. Country Lan> guage People Nations Sing. PI. Holland Dutch a Dutchman/ a Dutchwoman Dutchmen/ Dutchwomen the Dutch Britain English a Briton = a British person Britons = British people the British England English an English-man/an Englishwoman Englishmen/ Englishwomen, English people the English Ireland Irish an Irishman/ an Irishwoman Irishmen/Irish-women, Irish people the Irish France French a Frenchman/ a Frenchwoman Frenchmen/ Frenchwomen the French *0. I Обрати внимание на то, что • название нации в целом обычно употребляется с определенным артиклем — the English (англичане); the French (французы), the Chinese (китайцы), the Russians (русские). Однако в случае слов на -ап — (the) Americans, (the) Canadians — он может опускаться; • в некоторых случаях наименование отдельных предаавителей нации образуется при помощи сложных слов или словосочетаний — ап English-тап/ап Englishwoman, English people, • во фразах типа «Я русский», «Он англичанин» чаще используется прилагательное, чем существительное. Ср.: I am Russian. Не is English. They are American. (I am a Russian. He is an Englishman. They are Americans. — возможные, HO значительно реже употребляемые варианты.) Look at the maps and say what countries you can see there, people of what nationalities live there and what languages they speak. Example; Number 1 on Map II is Russia. (The) Russians live in Russia. They speak Russian. Map I У > . ' V '' 2 Ч -V Чз'-f zr-;^ Мар II Мар III ■ \ • X <:7 Do It on Your Own Q Complete the sentences. Use nationality words. 1) Did you eat... cheese when you were in Holland? 2) ... tea comes from China. It is world-famous. 3) Sumo is a ... sport in which two very large men fight. 4) In some ... restaurants you can eat borsh, blini and drink tea from a samovar. 5) The ... live on the British Isles. 6) Do people in Mexico speak ... like people in Spain? 7) Mike and Jack are Canadians. Do they speak ... or ...? 8) The ... celebrate the New Year holiday in the hottest time of the year. 9) When Paul was in Paris, he met some very nice .... Now they are good friends. 10) The Grimm brothers are .... They wrote their tales in the ... language. J This is John Barker. Write questions and ask if he has already 1) been to Washington, D.C. 2) seen the Capitol 3) taken some pictures of the White House 4) sent home some postcards 5) had a trip to New York 6) found many places of interest in the US 7) brought some souvenirs from America 8) met interesting people in the USA 9) bought some American books t e p Two >o It Together I Listen to the poem, (18), read it aloud and say what can help you to see the wind. In which lines of the poem Christina Rossetti uses present perfectl The Wind Who has seen the wind? Neither 1, nor you; • ■ But when the leaves hang trembling, The wind is passing through. Who has seen the wind? Neither you nor I; But when the trees bow down their heads. The wind is passing by. {Christina Rossetti) ни Я, ни ты дрожа проходит сквозь них кланяются, склоняют головы проходит мимо I Which is right: а) or Ь)? Say in which four cases both are rights 1) a) The Chinese have come this evening, b) Chinese have come this evening. 2) a) Is he Norwegian? b) Is he a Norwegian? ' Say in which four cases both are right. — Скажи, в каких четырех случаях правильны оба варианта. 3) а) The French are famous for their beautiful clothes, b) French are famous for their beautiful clothes. 4) a) Russians are brave people. b) The Russians are brave people. 5) a) Irish live on an island. b) The Irish live on an island. 6) a) Those people who live in Holland speak the Dutch, b) Those people who live in Holland speak Dutch. 7) a) The Japanese is a difficult language, b) Japanese is a difficult language. 8) a) The Italians like having fun. b) Italians like having fun. a. I Work in pairs. Ask if your friend has done these things this week (month, year, today). Example: to do the room — Have you done your room this week? — Yes, I have./No, I haven't. 1) to learn a poem by heart, 2) to take pictures, 3) to buy a dictionary, 4) to swim in the swimming bath, 5) to find some money, 6) to be to the shops, 7) to see a good film, 8) to bring some flowers to your mum, 9) to give a call to your grandparent(s), 10) to visit the school library, 11) to spend a lot of money, 12) to catch a cold I Colin Baxter is having a birthday party this evening. He wants to know if everything is ready. Say what questions he asks Alice, his helper. Example: to send e-mails to my friends — Have you sent e-mails to my friends yet? 1) to get answers from my friends 2) to clean the floors 3) to do the dining room 4) to make an/the apple pie 5) to bake a/the cake 6) to buy fruit and sweets 7) to send for the flowers 8) to ring up my mother 9) to bring more chairs from the library 10) to think of some nice music Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (19), and repeat. Л. slowly ['slauli] — медленно also ['d:1s3u] — тоже way [wei] — 1) путь, дорога; 2) метод, способ develop [di'vebp] — развивать(ся) grow [дгэи] — расти by and by — постепенно belong [bi'lDij] — принадлежать land [leend] — 1) земля; 2)страна speech [spi:tj] — речь sound [saund] — 1) л звук; 2)V звучать В. belong: to belong to someone, to belong to some place. These exercise-books don’t belong to me. This land belongs to a big family. Which swimming-club do you belong to? land: \) {countable) Si beautiful land, foreign lands. I’d like to see a lot of lands and to meet a lot of people. 2) {uncountable) dry land, stony land. Columbus’s sailors didn’t see land for a long time. speech: a good speech, a long speech, to make a speech. James made a very interesting speech in Parliament yesterday. His speech is very difficult to understand. sound (л): the sounds of music, strange sounds, beautiful sounds. Strange sounds were coming from the kitchen, sound (u): to sound good, to sound English, to sound like the truth. That sounds like a train. Your new song sounds beautiful. This sentence sounds like good English. forget (forgot, forgotten): to forget a word, to forget a/the address, to forget slowly (easily). I’ve forgotten her telephone number. She’s forgotten where she has left her car. I’ll never forget my first teacher. forget-me-not: Forget-me-nots are blue and pink, they are spring flowers. slowly: to walk slowly, to speak slowly. He slowly opened his eyes. We drove slowly down the country road. also: He speaks English and he also speaks German. I like bananas and I also like oranges. way: a short way, a long way, an easy way, a funny way, the best way. 1) Which is the way to the city centre? Will you be able to find your way to my house? 2) What is the best way to learn a language? He has a strange way of talking. develop: to develop into sb/sth, to develop from sth. A boy develops into a man. That little village has developed into a great city. I’d like to develop this idea. French developed from Latin, grow (grew, grown [дгэип]): to grow well, to grow slowly. Grass grows after rain. Oranges grow on trees, you know. The farmer has grown a lot of apples this year, grow up: When I grow up, I will be a librarian, by and by: They will change by and by. [Answer the questions. 1) Does English belong to the same language group as German? French? Russian? 2) Do you think languages develop? 3) Do you think you are able to make a speech in English? in Russian? 4) To what foreign lands have you been? Would you like to go? 5) Why do teachers call some children “slow learners”? 6) What is the right way to read the word c-a-u-g-h-t? 7) How many sounds are there in the word c-a-u-g-h-t? And how many letters? 8) What’s the best way to learn English? 9) Is your love of the English language growing by and by or not? 10) Are you also thinking of learning another foreign language? 11) Do you think people can forget their own language living in a foreign land? 12) Do you easily forget names? I A. Read the text and choose the right item' in the sentences after it. Why Don’t We All Speak the Same Language? There is a theory ['Giori] which says that at one time, at the beginning of history all the people of Europe spoke one and the same language. They call it a parent language. Maybe there were two or more parent languages in Europe. At first they belonged to small groups of people. By and by these groups became bigger and went to live in new lands. In their new countries they first spoke their Ql 01 an item — пункт; зд.: вариант old language but with time their speech began to sound different. In the new places those people stopped using some of the old words and so they forgot them. The structure ['strAkt/a] of their sentences slowly changed too. They also made new words to speak about new things they found in the new lands. After a long time the changes in words, pronunciation [pramAnsi'eiJsn] and grammar were so great that their language began to sound like a different one. That was how a new language was born. In just these ways, Spanish, French and Portuguese developed from Latin ['Isetin] and English, Norwegian, Dutch and some other languages grew from Old German. 1) A parent language is the language ... modern languages developed. a) from which b) into which 2) At first the parent language belonged to ... people, a) a lot of b) rather few 3) With time bigger groups of people ... the new lands, a) left b) left for 4) In the new lands their language began to ... . a) change b) become worse 5) In the new lands people forgot ... of the old words, a) all b) some 6) A new language is born .... a) slowly b) overnight^ 7) English and Spanish belong to ... . a) one and the same group of languages b) different groups of languages 8) Norwegian and Dutch developed from .... a) Old English b) Old German B. Listen to the tape, [;^ (20), and read the text again after it. Уже известное тебе слово too и Hosoe слово also переводятся одинаково, с помощью русского «тоже». Обрати внимание на то, что too обычно стоит в конце предложения. She speaks French too. overnight [,3UV9'nait] — зд.\ очень быстро Слово also чаще используется в середине, обычно перед основным глаголом (кроме глагола to be). She also speaks French. She can also speak French. Flo: She is also French. /4/so иногда используется в начале предложения. Fie has written two letters. Also he has written three postcards. Для разговорной речи более типично употребление слова too. Q Paraphrase these sentences. Example: I've been to the USA. I've been to Canada too. I've been to the USA and also to Canada. (I've been to the USA and I've also been to Canada.) 1) I like growing roses. I like growing forget-me-nots too. 2) Great Britain is a beautiful island. Ireland is a beautiful island too. 3) Watching television tonight sounds good to me. Watching videos sounds good too. 4) Spanish developed from Latin. Italian developed from Latin too. 6) English grew from Old German. Norwegian grew from Old German too. (i) French sounds beautiful. Italian sounds beautiful too. 7) Going abroad is a good way of learning English. Listening to tapes and reading books is a good way of learning English too. H) Lilies-of-the-valley belong to spring flowers. Forget-me-nots i)elong to spring flowers too. ''63^ о 5 a =0 Запомни три формы следующих глаголов. 1 II III break broke broken choose chose chosen drive drove driven ride rode ridden qo went gone [gnn] I Complete these sentences. Use present perfect. 1) Sorry, I (break) your favourite pen. 2) Which of the mobiles you (choose)? 3) Little Dick never (ride) a horse. 4) Is Frank at home? — Yes, he just (drive) back. 5) Where Nick (go)? — He (go) to the bank. 6) Jane says she never (break) her leg. 7) You (choose) a birthday present for Mary yet? 8) You ever (ride) a bike? 9) I already (drive) my father’s car. 10) Where is Ann? Where she (go)? — She (go) to the cinema. There is a very good film on at the “Rossiya” cinema. c=(3i Обрати внимание на разный смысл предложений, 1. Не has gone to the bank. (Он ушел в банк. Он сейчас в банке.) 2. Не has been to the bank today. (Он был (побывал) в банке, но его уже там нет.) Complete the sentences. Use gone or been. 1) Mark has ... to the swimming bath. 2) Sid has ... to the library. 3) Diana and Polly have ... to the shops. 4) Mr Hunt has ... to the airport. 5) The girls have ... to the cinema. 6) Greg and Tony have ... to the museum. 65 о 5 Q. Ol Do It on Your Own Q Write the same in English. Принадлежать семье, постепенно, развиваться, медленно, произнести речь, латинский язык, меняться медленно, лучший способ, длинный путь, приятные звуки, расти на юге, сухая земля, прекрасная страна, превратиться в мужчину. Q Мг Norman Andrews has had a very busy day today. Write what he has done. Example: to be to the bank Norman has been to the bank. 1) to make a speech at the meeting 2) to have lunch with his boss 3—Лфапасьеян. 8 кл. 3) to send some business letters 4) to drive to the airport 5) to choose a birthday present 6) to ride a bike in the park 7) to go to bed early >tep Three [)o It Together Ц Listen to the tape, (21), and say what their nationaiities are. E X a m p i e; Paul Davis is British. Paul Davis Nina Anna Julia Martha Chris Max Samuel Swen Frida Say how good you are as a pupil. Choose a, b or c. 1) You come to school a) well before the bell. b) just before the bell. c) after the bell. 2) You remember to bring a) all your school books. b) some of your school books. c) very few of your school books. 3) You ... forget to do your homework. a) never b) sometimes c) always 4) Your answers a) always sound correct. b) sometimes sound correct. c) do not often sound correct. 5) Your tests are a) usually good. b) sometimes good. c) practically never good. 6) You have developed ... in your school subjects. a) a great interest b) some interest c) no interest 7) This interest is a) growing. b) growing very slowly. c) not growing at alP. 8) You ... being a pupil. a) love b) rather like c) hate Sum up your points: a — 3, b — 2, c — 1. If you have 20—24 points, you are a fantastic pupil. If you have 16—20 points, you are a good pupil; if you have less than 16 points, you should try again. a> a. (V ' at all — совсем 3* 3^ Ты уже знаешь, что новые слова в английском языке можно образовать при помощи суффиксов и префиксов (приставок). Познакомься с новыми. Суффикс -fess указывает на отсутствие чего-либо, какого-либо качества и служит для образования прилагательных. child + less = childless (бездетный) end -♦- less = endless (бесконечный) speech + less = speechless (немой) use -I- less = useless (бесполезный) cloud -I- less = cloudless (безоблачный) Суффикс -ly служит для образования наречий и реже прилагательных. deep -ь 1у = deeply (глубоко) ugly — некрасивый slow -I- 1у = slowly (медленно) lovely — прелестный terrible -f- 1у = terribly (ужасно) Обрати внимание, что если прилагательное оканчивается на у, то в наречии эта буква меняется на i; easy — easily happy — happily busy — busily heavy — heavily lazy — lazily dry — dryly/drily I Form adverbs from the adjectives and use some of them in the sentences. cold, dry, nice, warm, bad, happy, sad, brave, busy, free, heavy, honest, lazy, light, neat, selfish, special, stylish, sure, terrible, traditional, real 1) Mr Robinson always speaks to me ... . 2) Pat walked ... in the park looking at the trees. 3) Jenny dress ... and always wears fashionable shoes. 4) Many teachers ... begin teaching English with present progressive. 5) Bob fought... but didn’t win. 6) Mrs Davidson stood up ... from her chair and went to the kitchen to cook. 7) Patrick told me ... that he didn’t like my results. 8) Old Mrs Brown lives ... with her children. 9)... she didn’t mean it. She just said it without thinking. 10) Old Mrs Clark can’t forget her friends and always smiles ... when she remembers them. I Paraphrase these sentences as in the examples. Л. Example: Mr Brown has no children. Mr Brown is childless. 1) There are no clouds in the sky. 2) Jack has no hair. 3) There is no use in this job. 4) The valley did not have an end. 5) Mrs Loveday didn’t have any hope. 6) The last leaf has fallen down from the tree. 7) There were no stars in the sky that night. B. Example; It is not important. It is unimportant. 1) The boy’s manners are not pleasant. 2) Jack is not able to do it. 3) That was not a usual job. 4) Mr Flint is not a successful businessman. 5) Jane’s clothes are stylish. 6) Helen is not a selfish girl. 7) Bob is not sure of our success. 8) Theirs was not an official visit. 69 (U (V Q. Описать TO, что человек сделал, можно, используя разные времена. Если извеано КОГДА, а часто и ГДЕ произошло действие в прошлом, и оно непосредственно не связано с нааоящим, употребляется past simple. We went to the USA last year. (Известно, когда и где мы были.) Если говорящему не важно, когда действие произошло, а важен его результат, который связан с настоящим моментом, используется present perfect I have read the book. (Книга прочитана, я знаю, о чем она.) past simple present perfect 1 wrote а letter yesterday, (известно когда) 1 have written a letter. (важен результат — письмо написано) Bob broke my cup two days ago. (известно когда) Bob has broken my cup. (важен результат — чашка разбита) Обрати внимание на то, что в диалогах часто первый вопрос (реплика) задается в present perfect, а последующий разговор, выяснение деталей происходит в past simple. — Have you written the letteT, — Yes, I have, — When did you write it? — I wrote it yesterday. Mary? I Past simple or present perfect! 1) I (see) Mr Jackson a minute ago. He (be) in the school yard. 2) I am so sorry. I just (break) your favourite vase. 3) Father, look, we (buy) a new boat! 4) Alice (buy) a new dress last Saturday. 5) Fred (ride) his horse in the park yesterday. 6) Jane already (finish) doing her room. It is very clean. 7) I (choose) this dress. Do you like it? 8) Where is John? Where he (go)? 9) You ever (eat) sushi? What is it like? 10) I’m not hungry. I (have) already lunch. 11) Last week I (teach) my son swimming. 12) Last summer Victor (get) Up very late. 13) Mum, have a look! I (find) a beautiful stone. It is brown, yellow and orange. 14) Jack (fight) with his best friend last Tuesday. 15) Bob says he never (be) here. H Complete the dialogues and act them out. Example: — Have you bought the dictionary? —- Yes, I have. — When did you buy it? — I bought it three days ago. 1) — Have you seen this film? — Yes, ... . — When...? 2) — Has your brother rung up, granny? — Yes, .... — When ...? 3) — Have they been to Paris? — Yes, ... . — When ...? 4) — Have the children found their pet? — Yes, ... . — When ...? 5) — Have you begun your French classes? — Yes, ... . — When ...? 6) — Has she had lunch yet? — Yes, ... . — When ...? 71 Ш OJ a. Ф 7) — Have Mary and John finished their homework? — Yes, ... . — When ...? 8) — Has Bobby played the piano? — Yes, ... . — When ...? Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (22), and repeat A. kind [kaind] — вид, сорт, тип, разновидность kind of — вроде бы (разе.) popular ['pnpjub] — популяр- ный culture ['kAltJb] — культура true [tru:] — правдивый, правильный, настоящий, истинный truly ['tru:li] — правдиво, действительно probable ['ргоЬэЬэ!] — возможный probably ['probabli] — возможно vocabulary [va'kaebjubri] — словарь, словарный запас science ['saians] — наука scientist ['saiantist] — ученый scientific [,saian'tifik] — научный technology [tek'nolocfei] — техника, технология voice [vois] — голос air [еэ] — воздух в. kind: different kinds of food, a good kind of job. What kind of dog is that? It is a rottweiler ['rotvaiis]. He is the kind of boy who is always fighting. There are no notes of any kind on the table. kind of: He is kind of unhappy. He looked kind of angry, popular: a popular song, a popular sportsman; to be popular with sb. This hotel is popular with the tourists, culture: modern culture, Russian culture, the cultures of Eastern countries. They are people of different cultures, true: a true story, a true answer, a true friend. Is it true that Jennifer is a child prodigy? His book gives a true picture of life in South Africa. truly: I truly believe all her words. Roy loved Jane truly, probable: a probable result. This is probable but I don’t think it will happen. probably: I’ll probably telephone you this evening, vocabulary: Shakespeare’s vocabulary, a poor vocabulary. John has a vocabulary of about ten thousand words, science: Biology, Chemistry and Physics are sciences. Susan is a science teacher. He works in the field of science, scientist: D.I. Mendeleev was a great scientist, scientific: a scientific fact, scientific instruments, technology: a college of science and technology, information technology. Science and technology develop in each,country. voice: a deep voice, a pleasant voice. Fred spoke in a quiet voice, fresh: fresh flowers, fresh water, fresh vegetables. You are looking fresh this morning. The swimming bath has fresh water in it, not sea water. air: high in the air, in the open air. Mrs Reynolds went out into the street to get some fresh air. in other words: English is very important for your future job. In other words you should begin learning it really well. ] Complete the sentences using the new words. 1) A. S. Pushkin had more than 20,000 words in his v... . 2) My doctor says I must spend a lot of time in the open a... . 3) You’re my friend, my only and t... friend. 4) Frank is very busy this week. I am not sure but p... he will find some free time and visit US. 5) What к... of pupil is Helen? 6) M. V. Lomonosov was a great Russian s... . 7)V. V. Vernadsky’s s... works are well-known abroad. 8) The new teacher is very p... with children. 9) Our nurse always speaks in a very quiet v... . 10) On the 6*^* of June people bring f... flowers to the monument of A. S. Pushkin in Pushkin-skaya Square. 11) Valya is very much interested in s... and t... . 12) If you are looking for c..., then Paris is the place for you. 73 A. Read the text and say where people use English internationally. Different Kinds of English (part I) In the 16^^* century the people who lived in Europe did not know English. They couldn’t understand English words. Only those who lived on the island called Great Britain, spoke English. English was useless for the people of the continent. In those years Latin, French, German and Italian were popular and widely known. Four hundred years later the speakers of English travelled into every corner of the globe carrying their language and culture with them. Today English is more important than any other language has ever been. It has become the language of the planet, the first truly global language. Of all the world’s languages it is probably the richest in vocabulary. Now it is the language of technology and science, business and sport. English is the official language of the Olympics, the official voice of the air and of the sea. People use English as the first language in English-speaking countries such as Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It has become the second language in countries like India, Nigeria [паГфэпэ] and Singapore [/Siqa'po:]. Then there is English as a foreign language. People teach and learn English as a foreign language in Europe and Asia, in Africa and South America, in other words, all over the world. But English is not the same everywhere. Several kinds of English have appeared. They are American English, Canadian English, Australian English, etc. People who live in Britain speak British English, (U 01 a Ф B. Listen to the tape, (23), and read the text again after it. 3 Read out of the text "Different Kinds of English" sentences that mean the same as the sentences below. 1) At that time Europeans did not speak English. 2) Only the British spoke this language. 3) People who lived in other European countries could not use this language. 4) English-speaking people brought their language to every part of the world. 5) English may have the largest number of words of all the languages. 6) People use English in air and sea navigation. 7) English is different in all the countries where they speak it. 8) A few types of English have developed. Do It on Your Own Paraphrase the sentences. Use adverbs. Example: Mrs Ross leads a happy life. She lives happily. 1) John is a slow reader. 2) They sing this song in a different way. 3) Jim is free to speak as he likes. (Jim can speak...) 4) Barbara always wears stylish dresses. (She dresses...) 5) Jack always gives me a warm smile when,we meet. (He always greets me...) 6) Mary has a strong dislike for cats. 7) Tom knows a clever way of doing this job. 8) Put on your warm clothes, the weather is very cold today. 9) When Jane was speaking, her words sounded sad. 10) The news gave me a great surprise. I Express the same in English. Настоящий друг, правдивый ответ, разные культуры, какой-то сердитый, свежие фрукты, большой запас слов, теплый воздух, возможный ответ, наука и техника, популярный среди туристов, высокий голос, великий ученый, любые виды (разновидности), научные факты. step Four Do It Together Q Listen to the tape, (24), and say why they are not doing it. 1) Colin, 2) Jenny, 3) Ruth, 4) Chris, 5) Polly, 6) Sue Q Roy and his friends like learning foreign languages. They know the language of the country where they are from and the language of the country where they are living now. Say what languages they can speak. Example: Tom comes from Italy. He is in Spain now. Tom speaks Italian and he can also speak Spanish. 1) Patrick comes from Germany. Now he is in China. 2) Barbara comes from Norway. Now she is in Japan. 3) Oleg comes from Russia. Now he is in Canada. 4) Victor comes from France. Now he is in Holland. 5) Kate comes from Mexico. Now she is in Portugal. 6) Zara comes from Australia. Now she is in Vietnam. 7) Sue comes from Ireland. Now she is in New Zealand. 8) Peter comes from Belorussia. Now he is in the USA. w. I Complete the dialogues. Choose the answers from part В Л. 1) Do you want some lunch? B. 2) What are you going to have? 3) Can you draw pictures with your computer? 4) Your brother’s cetr looks very new. 5) Is it cold this morning? 6) Where are the sandwiches? 7) What about our present for Sue? 8) Do you know when Doris is flying to America? a) No wonder^. He has just bought it. b) Yes, it is. I’ve just been otit. c) No, thanks. I’ve just had some. d) No, I haven’t spoken to her yet. e) I don’t know. I have never done it. f) I haven’t decided yet. g) I’ve eaten them all. I’m sorry. h) Sorry, I haven’t bought it. * no wonder [’wxnda] — неудивительно =0 у следующих глаголов вторая и третья формы совпадают. 1 II III burn burnt burnt dream dreamed dreamed dreamt [dremt] dreamt hear heard heard learn learned learned learnt learnt let let let make made made mean meant meant put put put say said said tell told told spell spelt spelt stand stood stood strike struck struck understand understood understood win won won ]Work in pairs. Ask questions and answer them. Begin your questions with "Have you ever...?" Example: Have you ever written a poem? — Yes, I •have. A. 1) burn your hand 2) win chess games 3) make a cake 4) send e-mails 5) spend your holidays abroad 6) buy a pet 7) teach any school subject 8) grow vegetables 9) speak German 10) write a poem Ji. 1) tell lies 2) learn French 3) hear “The Beatles” 4) spell your name in English 5) dream of going to China or Japan 6) fall off a bike 7) read poems by John Keats 8) buy brown rice or brown sugar 9) build a house 10) eat mangos ^ Make up dialogues and act them out. Example: to drive (my new car)/last Sunday A: I have already driven my new car. B: When did you drive it? A: I drove my car last Sunday. 1) to cook (lunch)/an hour ago 2) to begin reading (a Harry Potter book)/last week 3) to leave (for Moscow)/two weeks ago 4) to choose (a present)/a minute ago 5) to break (my mother’s cup)/yesterday 6) to ride (my new bike)/last weekend 7) to speak (to our new teacher)/last Friday 8) to send (a birthday card to mum)/three days ago 9) to learn (the poem by heart)/yesterday 10) to do (exercise ten)/last evening 11) to make (a dress)/a few days ago a 01 Обрати внимание на то, что с указателями t/)/s morning, this afternoon могут употребляться и present perfect, и past simple. Выбор того или иного времени зависит не от того, когда конкретно происходило действие, а от того, когда о нем говорят. Сравни: 1) I have seen him this morning. (Разговор происходит до 12:00, утро еще не закончилось.) I saw him this morning. (Разговор происходит после 12:00, утро уже закончилось.) 2) I've spoken to Alan this afternoon. (Разговор происходит до 18:00.) I spoke to Alan this afternoon. (Разговор происходит вечером после 18:00.) What is Sarah saying? Example: to send an e-mail this morning (16:00) I sent an e-mail this morning, to meet John this afternoon (15:30) I've met John this afternoon. 1) to play volleyball this morning (13:00) 2) to watch an interesting film this morning (11:00) 3) to call my friend this morning (15:00) 4) to see Anna this afternoon (21:00) 5) to speak to Dr Ross this afternoon (14:00) i Focus Vocabulary (/D/vocabularies) 1) all the words in a language {словарный состав) English has one of the largest vocabularies, 2) a list of words in a lesson or a book (список слов) How many words are there in your textbook vocabulary? 3) all the words that a person' knows (запас слов) A young child has a small vocabulary. Dictionary (/o/dictionaries) a book that gives words from A to Z with their meanings I have bought two English-Russian dictionaries. 01 Fill in the missing words. 1) Doctors use a special ... when they talk about medicine. 2) Where did you buy this ... for children? 3) The baby’s ... is very small, he knows only ten words. 4) There is a ... at the end of the book. You can find all the difficult words there. 5) What famous ... of the English language do you know? 6) This book is a German-English .... 7) Pupils write the new English words in their .... 8) When you open a ... you can learn a lot about words. 01 A. Read the text and say why it can be difficult for American and British people to understand each other. Different Kinds of English (part II) As you already know people speak different kinds of English. For example, we can hear different forms of English in different parts of the English-speaking world. Those people who live in India speak Indian English, in Canada — Canadian English, in Australia — Australian English. British English and American English are the most important kinds of the English language be- • a person ['рз:5эп] — человек, личность cause people use them very widely. And they are not really that much different. If you meet people who come from the USA, you can say that their language sounds different from British English. You will be able to say that these people are not British. But you won’t probably have much difficulty in understanding what they say. It is so because the vocabulary and grammar of the language is very much the same. But some things have different names in Britain and America. Compare these. Russian word American word British word осень fall autumn лифт elevator ['elrveits] lift грузовик truck lorry кинофильм movie ['mu;vi] film кинотеатр movies cinema конфета candy ['ksendi] sweet печенье cookies ['kukiz] biscuits [biskits] бензин gas(oline) ['gaes9li:n] petrol ['petral] жареный картофель (тонкими ломтиками) chips (French) fries [frarz] кран (водопроводный) faucet ['fo:sit] tap плита cooker stove свитер sweater jumper мусор garbage ['ga:bicl5] rubbish мусорный ящик/бак garbage can dustbin ['dAStbin] тротуар sidewalk ['saidwo:k] pavement ['pervmsnt] автостоянка parking lot car park аптека drugstore ['drAgsto:] chemist’s ['kemists] брюки pants trousers 79 Э о a B. Listen to the tape, (25), and read the text again after it. Л|тЬе Robinsons live in Britain and the Wilsons live in the US. Their lives are very much the same. They do the same things every day. Read the text about the Robinsons and describe the Wilsons' day. Use American English. The Robinsons are a British family. They live in Manchester. This is their usual weekday. They get up at 6:30. Tom Robinson goes to the bathroom. He turns on the tap, has a shower, cleans his teeth and puts on his favourite clothes — a dark blue jumper and old grey trousers. Tom is a lorry driver so he doesn’t wear any good clothes to work. While Tom is dressing, his wife Mary gets his breakfast ready. She cooks eggs on the stove. Tom likes a big breakfast before he goes to work. Mary doesn’t eat much for breakfast — just a cup of coffee and some biscuits after which she puts her favourite sweet in lier mouth and washes up. After breakfast Tom kisses his wife and leaves home at seven. He has a busy day in front of him. He drives his lorry to the petrol station and starts off. He has lunch at 12:30. He usually has fish and French fries in a small cafe and drinks two mugs of the strongest tea. Tom works until five and returns home at six. In the morning Mary cleans the flat, takes the rubbish out and puts it in the dustbin standing on the street pavement. Then she goes to the chemist’s where she works. She also comes back home at six. Tom and Mary like to go out in the evening. They get their old Ford out of the car park and drive to the cinema. They are fond of watching new films and never miss them. )o It on Your Own U Write the names of these things in American English and British English. Mi J4 JJMH Лк.«/V/ 4. э о Ql G3 Develop these situations. Example: Peter has learned 15 English words. Peter has learned 15 English words. He learned them because he wanted to be ready for his English class. 1) Jane has burnt the apple pie. 2) Samantha has put on her new dress. 3) Little Willy has spelt his name correctly. 4) Tina has made no mistakes in the test. 5) The teacher has let me miss his class. 6) We have already heard the news. 7) Boris has not told us the truth. 8) James has won the game. 11 е р Five )o It Together I Listen to the text, (26), about Daniel Radciiffe and complete the sentences Daniel Radciiffe 1) Daniel was born .... 2) Daniel’s pets are .... 3) Daniel loves playing .... 4) In future he would like to become ... . 5) His favourite subject at school is ... . I You have had a bad day. Your elder sister or brother is not happy about It. Make up a dialogue. Be ready to act it out in class. Example: not to clean the floors/to forget — Why haven't you cleaned the floors? — Sorry, I forgot, etc. 1) not to eat the porridge/not to be hungry 2) not to finish your homewdrk/my friend, ring up 3) not to clean your room/to be busy 4) not to ring the doctor up/to forget his telephone number 5) not to do the shopping/to leave the money at home 6) not to watch the new film/to miss it 7) not to learn the poem/to find it too difficult 8) not to win the race/not to be ready for it 9) not to make your chocolate cake/to have no butter at home Present perfect часто употрёбляется 1) с такими обстоятельствами, как before [biTo:] — прежде; lately ['leitli] — недавно, в последнее время; several ['sevarsl] times — несколько раз; many times — много раз; the first time — в первый раз: I have never eaten a mango before. I haven't seen him lately. Jack has been to Norway several times. We have heard this melody many times. It's the first time I'd come to this disco. 2) в предложениях с именами прилагательными в превосходной степени типа: It's the best film I have ever seen. She is the most beautiful lady Jack has ever seen. I A. Complete the sentences. Use present perfect. I have (never) been seen eaten played bought met read visited lately. before. several times, many times. Q. Ф B. It's Martin's first visit to America. Say what he has done for the first time. Example: He has never been to New York before. It's the first time he has been to New York. 1) He has never done [d\n] the Metropolitan Museum before. 2) He has never played baseball before. 3) He has never swum in the ocean before. 4) He has never seen skyscrapers before. 5) He has never eaten American food before. 6) He has never driven in a limo^ before. 7) He has never enjoyed a Broadway musical before. 8) He has never stayed in the Carlton Hotel before. 9) He has never listened to^concerts in Carnegie Hall. 10) He has never travelled about the country so much. ^ a limo ['limsu] = a limousine Complete these sentences using present perfect of the verbs and the adjectives in the superlative. Example: The temperature is +35 °C today. It's the hottest temperature we ever (have). It's the hottest temperature we have ever had. 1) I really love this film. It is (interesting/see). 2) I don’t think you should read this book. It is (boring/read). 3) Your marks are terrible. They are (bad/have). 4) Jane, you look wonderful today. You are wearing a very nice hat. It is (good/see). 6) This year winter is so cold. It is (cold/have). 6) The basketball player is so big. He is (tall/see). 7) The children are really enjoying their holidays. They are (good/ have). 8) The result of the game is terrible. It is (bad/see). Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (27), and repeat 1. fast (fa:st] — 1) adj быстрый; rich [ritj] — богатый such [sAtJ] — такой perfect ['p3:fikt] — совершенный need [ni;d] — нуждаться wait [weit] —'ждать pronunciation [ргэ,плп51'е1/эп] — произношение maybe — может быть, возможно 2) adv быстро prefer [рпТз:] — предпочитать follow [TdIou] — 1) следовать (за); 2) понимать following [Тп1эшг)] — следующий regular ['regjub] — регулярный regularly ['reqjubli] — регулярно В. fast: 1) а fast train, а fast car. My watch is fast. 2) to talk fast, to walk fast, to drive fast, to think fast. I can’t run very fast, prefer (preferred): to prefer tea-to coffee, to prefer (to do) doing something. John preferred riding a bike to walking, follow: 1) to follow some rule, to follow a person. Tuesday follows Monday. I was sure that someone was following me. 2) to follow a speech, to follow a film. Do you follow what I am saying? following: On the following day. Read the following carefully. Г' regular(ly): regular meetings, to meet regularly. He regularly visits his granny. rich: a rich woman, a rich country. Alan Parson is a rich Englishman. the rich = rich people such: such an interesting book, such a boring film, such rich people, such fast cars. It is such sweet tea that I can’t drink it. perfect: a perfect day, a perfect lady, perfect results. This room is absolutely perfect for our meeting. Practice makes perfect means: if you do something regularly, you will learn to do it perfectly. need: to need water, to need food, to need to go to school. You’ll need some warm clothes for the winter. You can stay longer if you need to. wait: to wait for the teacher, to wait for the bus. Let’s sit down and wait until Bobby comes here. pronunciation: the right pronunciation. Her pronunciation is getting better. maybe: Maybe I’ll come too. There were maybe fifteen people there. Maybe it will snow tonight. in fact: I thought Betty was in her room but in fact she was in the garden. to grow up: She is really starting to grow up now. She is not a child anymore. at the beginning: At the beginning of the story we didn’t understand anything. At the beginning I didn’t think about becoming a journalist. to come with practice: You’ll learn to do it easily, it comes with practice. a Ф I A. Name three things that can be 1) popular 5) rich 2) fresh 6) probable 3) true 7) scientific 4) regular 8) perfect ' B. Paraphrase using the new words. 1) to like tea more than coffee, 2) to walk behind somebody, 3) to train sounds, 4) probably, 5) a car that is not slow, 6) a man who is not poor, 7) to come every day с. Find the opposites. early — ... seldom — ... popular — ... poor — ... modern — ... slow — ... good — ... forget — .. to tell a lie to stay — .. После слова such может идти: a) имя существительное в единственном числе с неопределенным артиклем Alex is such а good pupil. It is such an interesting book! b) имя существительное во множеавенном числе без артикля I like such pupils. c) имя существительное неисчисляемое без артикля It is such terrible weather we're having today. Such juice is very tasty. I Write what these people say. Example: wash/dirty clothes I have never washed such dirty clothes. 1. ф > а Ф 8. 9. 1) hear/terrible music, 2) meet/а beautiful girl, 3) read/a boring book, 4) see/a sad film, 5) eat/ a tasty cake, 6) drive/a bad car, 7) write/a long letter, 8) watch/interesting shows, 9) play difficult games Q A Read the dialogue and say how Masha. Boris and Sergey are going to use English in the future. Interview Interviewer: I know that you are all learning English. Do you find it difficult? Masha: No, not really. I think language learning is fun. And I can learn it fast. Sergey: I find it rather difficult. Especially grammar. My teacher says I make a lot of grammar mistakes. In fact I prefer reading. Interviewer: And what about you, Boris? Boris: I liked learning English at the beginning, but now it is getting more difficult and less fun. There are so many things to remember — words, grammar, spelling, pronunciation. English has such a rich vocabulary... And I don’t always understand my teacher. Interviewer: I see. And what do you do to learn English successfully? Have you got any special rules that you follow? Masha: I try to do my homework regularly. It helps me to practise English when there are no classes. I know that “practice means perfect’’. I also watch films in English and listen to tapes. Boris: I listen to English songs. Eminem is my favourite singer. English songs help me to understand English better. I have learned some of them and sing them with my friends. Sergey: I do a lot of exercises, watch American video films in English and read adapted books. That’s what I like most of all. Interviewer: And may I ask you how you are planning to use English in the future? Sergey: I’d like to learn to speak English well because I want to visit many countries of the world and meet different people. I hope I’ll be able to speak English to them. ' Boris: I’d like to be a computer programmer and I’ll need English for my future job. A lot of modern computer programmes are in English. Masha: I don’t know how I am going to use my English yet. I just like learning it. Maybe I’ll learn another language — French, Spanish or Italian. Maybe I’ll become a linguist. I can’t wait to grow up and go to university. B. Listen to the tape, (28), read the dialogue in groups of four after it and then act the dialogue out. How would you answer the interviewer's questions? 1) Do you find language learning difficult? 2) What do you do to learn English successfully? 3) How are you planning to use English in the future? 4) Why are you learning English? г Ю А. Learn to show your surprise in English. Oh! Dear me! {Боже мой!) Really? {Неужели?) Is that so? ( Так ли это? Неужели?) You don't say so! {He может быть!) Fancy that! {Подумайте только!) Well, I never... {Вот так так!) I am surprised. {Я удивлен.) I am shocked. {Я потрясен.) It’s incredible! {Невероятно!) В. Read out the sentences and give your reaction to them. 1) Nowadays about 400 million people speak English. 2) Nowadays English is second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. 3) About 300 million people living in more than 60 countries speak English as a second language. 4) There are about 5,000 languages and dialects in the world today. About 845 come from India. 5) People use 65 different alphabets today. 6) There are no languages without the [a] sound. 7) There were only 30,000 words in Old English. Some people say there are about 600,000 words in Modern English. 8) Modern English has the largest vocabulary in the world. 11 Act out dialogues, exchange the news and show your surprise. Example: — I hear that we are going on a school trip next weekend. — Is that so? Where are we going? — To St. Petersburg. — Fancy that! Bi Do It on Your Own - Щ Complete these sentences. Use prepositions where necessary. 1) Ruth asked me to wait... her. 2) ... the beginning of the lesson we practised ... writing. 3) “I know the way,” Mr Hillar said. “Follow ... me.” 4) ... the following day the weather was hot and sunny. 5) Who does the book belong ... ? 6) Rose says she prefers travelling ... air ... travelling train. 7) His answer was really good, ... fact it was perfect. 8) Peter Pan was a boy who didn’t want to grow .... Ш Article or no article? 1) Such ... people also live near us. 2) Those were such ... short stories. 3) Bob has seen such ... interesting film. 4) Only rich people can buy such ... things. 5) Fanny is such ... beautiful woman. 6) Where do they buy such ... tasty ice-cream? 7) We’re such ... good friendsi 8) I’ve never done such ... difficult work in my life. 9) I hate such ... rainy weather. 10) There was such ... deep snow in the forest that the travellers couldn’t walk. Living Tilings Step One Do It Together Ц Listen to the tape, (29), and complete the sentences. 1) Darwin was born on ... . 2) His father was .... 3) Darwin became a medical student at... . 4) He got interested in geology and .... 5) The expedition on the “Beagle” went to the coasts of ... . 6) Darwin died in ... . 7) He was buried^ in ... . I Look at the pictures, listen to the tape, (30), and learn the names of these birds. 1) a (sea) gull 2) a pigeon ['picfein] 1 he was buried [Ъепс1] — он был похоронен 3) а swallow ['swolau] Ш 5) an ostrich ['ostritj] 4) a nightingale ['naitiogeil] 6) an owl [aul] \ш 9) a magpie ['masgpai] 8) a woodpecker ['wud,peka] 7) a parrot ['paerat] 10) a crow [кгэо] 12) a blackbird ['bl3ekb3:d] jSay a) which of these birds you have seen and when you saw them b) which of the birds you have never seen c) about which birds you have never heard d) what you know about these birds • where they live • what colour they are • if they are big/small, strong/weak, etc • which of them can sing/talk e) what other birds you know f) which of these birds you may have as a pet g) which of these birds you have (had) as a pet and what it was like Известные тебе слова other и others могут употребляться в таких ситуациях, когда речь идет об определенных людях или предметах. В этих случаях необходимо использование определенного артикля. Сравни; There are two armchairs in the room. An old lady is sitting in one of them, the other (armchair) is free. (Другой из двух упомянутых.) Wendy has got two dresses, one is red, the other (dress) is blue. (Другое из имеющихся двух.) Vera has been to Canada but she has never been to the other English-speaking countries. (Другие; ограниченное число англоговорящих аран, за исключением Канады.) There were five children in front of the house. One of them was a girl, the other four (the others) were boys. (Bee другие члены этой группы, кроме одной девочки.) Обрати внимание, что сочетание the other существительное во мн. ч. часто заменяется в речи сочетанием the others. the other boys = the others This apple is mine and the other is yours. (Ha тарелке два яблока.) This apple is mine and the others are yours. (Ha тарелке несколько яблок.) _93 Oi c C c a What are they? 2. 4. 3. 1) This is a magpie. What is the name of the ojiher bird? 2) The sparrow is grey. What is the colour of the other birds? 3) The woodpecker is in the tree. Where are the other birds? 4) The seagulls are eating fish. What food is the other bird eating? 5) The nightingale is singing. What are the other birds doing? 6) The lark is a small bird. The other bird is big. What is it? I Complete the sentences. Use the words from the box. another, other, the other, others, the others 1) Yesterday morning I met two girls. One was Matilda but I didn’t know ... girl. 2) Where are the children? — John went to play football, ... went with him. 3) There are three cakes on the plate. I’d like to have one and you may take .... 4) There are two cakes on the plate. I’d like to have one and you may take .... 5) This pencil belongs to Betty, ... pencil is mine. 6) I am stilU hungry. May I have ... sandwich, please? 7) Some people like it when it is hot, ... like it when it is not. 8) Jane’s house is on ... side of the street. 9) Some books are better than .... 10) We must all know this. I’ll call Ann. Will you tell...? 11) Come ... day. 12) I wanted to spend our holidays in California but Roland had ... ideas. 13) Not now. We’ll talk about it some ... time. 14) One of the children was Rob, what was ... boy’s name? 15) One boy fell off his chair and all ... laughed. '■f 95' OJ c о a 0) Для того чтобы подчеркнуть, что то или иное действие началось в прошлом, происходило какое-то время в прошлом и продолжается в настоящем, в английском языке используют настоящее перфектное продолженное время (present perfect progressive). Have/has been + V|,,y I have been living in Moscow for 10 years. — Я живу в Москве 10 лет. (Действие началось 10 лет тому назад, все эти 10 лет я жила в Москве и сейчас тоже живу в этом городе.) Магу has been playing the piano for 40 minutes. — Мэри играет на пианино 40 минут. We have been learning English for four years. — Мы учим английский 4 года. Помимо указателя for в подобных предложениях часто употребляется since — с (какого-то времени), а также all (day, night, etc). Sue has been talking on the phone since 2 o'clock. — Сью разговаривает по телефону с 2 часов. It has been raining since morning. — Дождь идет с утра. They have been working in the garden all the morning. — Они работают в саду все утро. 1 still — все еще Say what language and how long the children have been learning. 1) Tom — Russian — for 3 years 2) Jenny — French — for 5 years 3) Peter — Latin for a year 4) Robin — German for 2 years 5) Diana — Italian — for 4 years 6) Sam — Chinese since 2003 7) Brian — Japanese since 2000 8) Matilda — Greek since 1998 9) Nora — Irish — since 2004 10) William — Spanish since 1999 It is autumn and it often rains in many cities of Europe. Say how long it has been raining. It is 8 p.m. now. Example: It began raining at 3 p.m. in Rome. It has been raining for 5 hours. 1) It began raining at 9 a.m. in Bonn. 2) It began raining at 2 p.m. in Berlin. 3) It began raining at 11 a.m. in Paris. 4) It began raining at 7 p.m. in Madrid. 5) It began raining at noon (12 o’clock) in Moscow. 6) It began raining at 10 a.m. in St. Petersburg. 7) It began raining at 4 p.m. in Oslo. 8) It began raining at 6 p.m. in Vienna. 9) It began raining at 8 a.m. in London. / / / a / d- сам(а) себя she herself [ha'self] it itself [it'self] we ourselves [aua'selvz] you (вы) yourselves [ja'selvz] > сами себя they themselves [darn'selvz] 1) The boy found himself in a big room. — Мальчик очутился в большой комнате. 2) Have you made the cake yourself? — Вы сами приготовили торт? 3) Не never speaks of himself. — Он никогда не говорит о себе. Возвратные местоимения, как правило, не употребляются при следующих глаголах: to wash, to dress, to bathe [beid] (купаться), to shave (бриться), to hide (прятаться). Сравни также: Она плохо себя чувствует. — She feels ill. а U X I What does it mean in Russian? 1) Look at yourself! Your face is dirty, 2) Pam dressed and went downstairs to the kitchen. 3) They never speak of themselves. 4) Mary always does the shopping herself. 5) Bob is very small. He can’t open the door himself. 6) I don’t know anything about it my- self. 7)You yourselves heard it, didn’t you? 8)We’ll go there ourselves and see what is going on. 9) I enjoyed the music but didn’t like the playl itself. 10) Think yourself, I won’t tell you. I Complete the sentences. Use reflexive pronouns where necessary. 1) I can’t tell you what to do, you must decide for .... 2) Nobody helped him. He did everything ... . 3) The child was ill yesterday. How is she feeling ... today? 4) He got up early, washed ... and shaved ... and at 7 o’clock he was ready to leave the house. 5) I think that they understand everything .... 6) Jenny looked at ... and saw that her skirt and blouse were not very clean. 7) Don’t go to the shops, I’ll buy everything .... 8) The day was hot and the girls decided to bathe ... in the river. 9) Look at this new chair. We’ve made it... . Isn’t it beautiful? 10) They don’t buy bread in the shop. They make it.... I Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (37), and repeat Л. include [m'klu:d] — включать including [m'klu:dio] — включая species ['spi:Ji:z] — образец, образцы discover [dis'kAva] — обнаружить, открыть discovery [dis'kAvsri] — открытие air [еэ] — воздух soil [soil] — почва, земля root [ru:t] — корень В. include: to include something/somebody, to include on the list. The class of twenty includes seven girls. Did you include me when you made the list? insect ['insekt] — насекомое move [mu:v] — двигаться common ['котэп] — 1) общий; 2) часто' встречающийся, обычный earth [з:0] (also Earth) — 1) земля, земной шар; 2) Земля (планета) desert ['dezst] — пустыня breathe [bri:d] — дышать support [sa'poit] — 1) поддерживать; 2) содержать * а play [plei] — пьеса including; I have seen all his films including the last. species {pi. species): a tropical species. There are more than 120 species of birds in the National Park. discover: to discover sth. To discover means to find out something for the first time. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. Fleming discovered penicillin [,penrsilrn]. discovery: to make a discovery. Mr Johnson made his discovery when he was very young. air: cold air, fresh air, in the air, by air = by plane. I’d like to open the window, I need some air. The boy jumped into the air. soil: to grow in (the) soil. Plants grow well in good soil, root: A root is the part of a plant or a tree that is in the soil, insect: An insect is a small animal with six legs. Ants and bees are insects. move: to move fast (slowly), to move in = to move into a flat (a house), to move something. It is cold in the room, move your chair nearer the fireplace. We’re going to move in next week, common: 1) a common language, to have something in common. The English and Americans have a common language. I have a lot in common with my brother. 2) Double-deckers are common in London. Rabbits and foxes are common in Britain, earth: The earth is a planet where we live. The moon goes round the earth. The austronauts returned successfully from the moon to the earth. desert; the Gobi Desert, the Sahara Desert. There are a lot of deserts in Africa. breathe: to breathe in, to breathe out. Fish cannot breathe out of water. Breathe in deeply. support: to support a family, to support children, to support a plan. Her father supported her till she was twenty-five. IT Complete the sentences with your new words (see Ex. 6). 1) I know that my friends will always s... me. 2) This place looks like a d..., there are no plants growing here. 3) Bees and ants, as people think, are i... that live in big groups. 4) Doctors say it is very good to b... a sea . 5) Rabbits and hares look nearly the same but in fact they are two different s... . 6) The century was the time of great geographical d...s. 7) My favourite subjects i... biology and chemistry. 8) Cactuses ['kaektasis] can grow in dry s..., practically without any water. 9) At home Id... all my family waiting" for me. 10) It’s not always easy for me to find a c... language with Paul, I think he is rather stupid. 11) The Browns are planning to m... from Glasgow to Edinburgh. 12) How many oceans are there on E...? 13) Plants get their food and water from the s... with the help of r...s. 14) Planes are a lot heavier than a... but they can fly. =0 Обрати внимание на то, что для обозначения понятия земля в английском языке используется несколько слов; Earth — Земля (планета) land — земля (суша) soil — земля (почва) The planet Earth is so beautiful! After two weeks on the sea we saw land at last. She put some soil in the pot and planted a rose. I Which word to use — Earth, land or soHl 1) Mrs Wilier prepared the ... for the flowers. 2) Is the ... nearer to the Moon than Mars is? 3) The children planted the tulips in the .... 4) “Water, water nhd water everywhere. When shall we see ...?” 5) Mr Parson is interested in the geography of the .... 6) The captain wanted to walk on dry ... . 7) She planted the forget-me-nots in wet sandy .... 8) After working at sea for eight years, I got a job on ... . I A. Read the text and say in what way animals are different from plants. Animals and Plants As scientists say, an animal is any living thing (including people) that is not a plant. No one knows how many different species of wild plants and animals there are on our planet. People discover hundreds of new kinds every year. In what way are animals different from plants? This question is not always easy to answer. Animals and plants get their food differently: animals eat plants or other animals, while plants get their food from the air and soil with the help of their leaves and roots. But we know that some plants catch and “eat” insects. Also animals can move about while plants grow in the same place but there are some plants that can travel and some animals that never leave their place. As you see plants and animals have very much in common. There are more than 300,000 different species of plants on earth. Some plants grow very tall and live a very long life. Other plants are so tiny that you can see them only through a microscope ['maikraskbup]. The same is true about animals. You can find plants and animals in the oceans and deserts, in mountains and in cold tundra ['Undrs] plains. When people first learned to cultivate ['kAltiveit] plants and domesticate [da'mestikeit] animals, our civilization [/Sivalai'zeijsn] began. We can’t live without them. Plants are able to use sunlight to build themselves up. They use carbon dioxide^ gas and “breathe out” life-giving oxygen^. They support life on the planet. B. Listen to the tape, (38), and read the text again after it. ВЭ Answer the questions on the text "Animals and Plants". 1) What do living things include? 2) Can we say that we have studied all the plants and animals that live on our planet? 3) In what way are plants and animals different? 4) Why is it not always true? 5) The text says that some plants are tiny and some are very big. Is that true about animals? Can you give examples? 6) Why can’t we live without plants and animals? In what ways do we use them? 11- Do It on Your Own a Complete the sentences. Use for or since. 1) The boys are tired. They have been playing football ... an hour and a half. 2) Alex has been talking on the phone ... I came home. 3) The telephone has been ringing ... about a minute. Why doesn’t someone answer it? 4) Mr Williams has been writing his book ... half a year and hasn’t finished it yet. 5) People have been working on this ... the beginning of the century. 6) John has been washing his car ... nine o’clock this morning. 7) Sarah has been waiting for her sister ... a long time. 1 carbon dioxide [,ка:Ьэп dai'oksaid] — углекислый ^ oxygen ['nksidjan] — кислород I Write the same differently. Example: No one helps Danny to grow vegetables. Danny grows vegetables himself. 1) No one helps me to do my homework. 2) No one helps Anna to learn Spanish. 3) No one helps the children to decorate their classroom. 4) No one helps Mr and Mrs Page to plant the trees. 5) No one helps Jason to move the desks in the office. 6) No one helps us to make porridge. 7) No one helps them to make photos for their album. 8) No one helps the bee to make honey. Step Four Do It Together Q Listen to the tape, (39), and choose the right item. 1) a) Sally is fifteen this year. b) Sally is going to be fifteen this year. 2) a) Sally is thinking about her career. b) Sally is not thinking about her career. 3) a) Sally goes to the park to watch birds all by herself. b) Sally goes to the park to watch birds with her friends. 4) a) Sally knows a lot of species of birds living all over the world, b) Sally knows a lot of species of birds living in Britain. 5) a) Sally loves reading books about plants and animals, b) Sally loves reading books about birds and animals. 6) a) Sally’s teacher gives her books about animals to read, b) Sally’s teachers give her books about animals to read. 7) a) Bears and wolves do not live in Great Britain any more, b) There are a lot of bears and wolves in Britain now. 8) a) Sally gave a talk on British birds. b) Sally gave a talk on British animals. 9) a) Sally is going to university to do biology. b) Sally is thinking about going to university to do biology. Q Think of the beginnings to these sentences. Use present perfect progressive. Example; ... since I bought it. I have been watching this video since I bought it. 1) ... since I came back. 2) ... since I began learning English. 3) ... since we moved in. 4) ... since I made it. 5) ... since my mother showed me how to do it. 6) ... since my friends gave it to me. 7) ... since my parents bought it for me. 8) ... since my cousin left. 11! 1. Для ТОГО чтобы описать действие, которое началось в прошлом и длится до сих пор, глаголами, которые не употребляются в продолженных временах (to know, to have, to be, to want, to love), употребляется present perfect. I have been here for 3 days already. — Я здесь уже три дня. How long have you been here? — Сколько времени ты находишься здесь? I have had this camera for years. — Этот фотоаппарат у меня уже давно (много лет). She has known Boris all her life. — Она знает Бориса всю жизнь. I have always wanted to visit London. — Мне всегда хотелось побывать в Лондоне. I have always loved you. —- Я всегда тебя любил(а). 2. В некоторых случаях время present perfect progressive употребляется, чтобы описать дейавия, которые начались в прошлом и только что закончились, при этом видны явные результаты или признаки этой деятельности. a) — Why are you so dirty? — We have been playing football. b) — Why is the kitchen so messy, Rose? — I've been cooking. I How long have they been doing these jobs? 1) Mrs Wenders 3) Jim 4) William, Bob 5) Patrick 1) since 2001, 2) for ten years, 3) since he finished school, 4) for three years, 5) since 1998, 6) for a year and a half Q How long have they had these? 1) The Croppers 2) Miss Simpson 3) Megan 4) Harry 5) Alan 6) Alice 1) for three years, 2) for years, 3) since last summer, 4) since his parents bought it, 5) since last month, 6) for two weeks A, How long have they known them? Example: Dr Cross — Mr Harrison — since 2000 Dr Cross has known Mr Harrison since 2000. 1) Rose Smith — John Parker — for 6 months 2) Simon — Alan Wilier — all his life 3) Mrs Parson — Roland Scott — since she visited Britain 4) Roger Gordon — Tony Dobson — for two years 5) Miss Hook — Fanny Devlin — for years 6) Walter — Sam — for 3 days B. Say what they have always wanted to do. 1) Roy — to become a journalist 2) Sarah — to learn Spanish 3) Ann — to visit Canada 4) Tom — to write a poem 5) David and Chris — to go to the Great Lakes 6) The Lovedays — to move in a new house 117 Э о a Match the sentences in the two columns. 1) Why are your hands red and green? 2) Why are you so tired? 3) Why are your shoes wet? 4) Why are your eyes red? 5) Why is the kitchen so messy? 6) Why are you breathing so fast? 7) Why is your face so red? 8) Why are you so cold? a) I have been working all day. b) I have been running all the way. c) I have been out in the street for 3 hours. d) I have been cooking dinner. e) I have been watering the flowers. f) I have been sunbathing. g) I have been crying. h) I have been painting a picture. A. Read the text and match the' paragraphs with their titles. There's one extra title. a) Common Birds b) Common Animals c) Common Plants d) Common Insects e) National Symbols Flora and Fauna^ of the British Isles 1) rhe warm and wet climate ['kaimit] of Great Britain is very gO)d for plants. That’s why the cointry looks like a big beautiful ga-den. Ceituries ago there were a lot of forests on the British Isles but noA^ you can find big forests only in a few parts of the country — th* north of Scotland and the soith-east and south-west of En-ghnd. The most common trees in Ergland are oaks, elms and beech-68 while Scotland has a lot of pi>es. firs and birches. 2) The fauna or animal life on the British Isles is like in the north-wet of Europe. Many larger ani-mils such as bears and wolves doi’t live on the British Isles any mere but there are a lot of smaller an male: foxes, rabbits, hares and helgehogs. Deer live in the forests of Scotland and England too. Tlare are also different kinds of fish, snakes, lizards, frogs, butterflies and dragonflies. 3) More than two hundred species of birds live on the British Isles anl about two hundred kinds are visitors of the place. Many of thsm are songbirds, in spring the laid rings with their singing. The m(st common are blackbirds and spirrows. A lot of waterbirds — sw^ns, ducks, geese and gulls — liv3 on the lakes and rivers and on th* sea coasts of Great Britain. fbra ['flxra] and fauna [Тэ;пэ] — флора и фауна 4) It may be interesting that the robin, one of Britain’s common birds, has become the national bird of the country. There are also plant symbols ['simbalz] of the country: the red rose is the national emblem ['emblom] of England, the thistle ['0iS3l] is the national emblem of Scotland, the yellow daffodil and the leek are emblems of Wales and the shamrock ['Jaemrok] is the emblem of Ireland. B. Listen to the tape, (40), and read the text again after it. I Listen to the tape, (41), and repeat these names of plants and animals. a grizzly bear ?<■/ 119 a flamingo 3 О a an alligator a polar bear a koala a crocodile a coyote an anteater an evergreen a water lily an edelweiss Speak about the fauna in these countries. Country Common animals Common birds The USA black bears grizzly ['gnzli] bears deer mountain sheep i . ., . . , . МП the mountains mountain goats J rabbits hares foxes opossums [a'posamz] grey and red squirrels snakes crocodiles woodpeckers owls swallows sparrows geese ducks magpies flamingos (in Florida) alligators ['asligeitaz] in Florida Canada brown bears j black bears ^be north grizzly bears i polar ['рэи1э] bears buffaloes ['bAfabuz] wolves coyotes ['koiauts] deer mountain goats Canada geese ducks owls sparrows magpies Country Common animals Common birds Australia kangaroos [,kaei)g3'ru:z] buffaloes rabbits crocodiles dingoes ['diijgauz] koala bears anteaters parrots other Australian birds Russia ? ? 121 Ц|] Where do these plants 1) wild flowers 2) firs 3) pines 4) maples^ 6)oaks 6) birches 7) beeches 8) evergreens 9) palms^ 10) water lilies 11) forget-me-nots 12) grasses 13) edelweisses EQ Listen to the song, (42), and sing along. I’ve Been Working on the Railroad {American Song) grow? a) in the north/south (of). b) on dry soil c) on wet soil d) on sandy soil e) in the forest f) in the valley g) high in the mountains h) in the water i) everywhere Э о a ai I’ve been working on the railroad All the live-long day. I’ve been working on the railroad Just to pass the time away. .. Can’t you hear the whistle blowing? железная дорога весь день напролет провести время как свистит свисток ' п maple ['meipal] — клен * а palm [pa:m] — пальма Rise up so early in the morn! Can’t you hear the captain shouting, “Dinah, blow your horn!” Dinah, won’t you blow, Dinah, won’t you blow, Dinah, won’t you blow your horn, your horn? Dinah, won’t you blow, Dinah, won’t you blow, Dinah, won’t you blow your horn, your horn? Someone’s in the kitchen with Dinah, Someone’s in the kitchen I know! Someone’s in the kitchen with Dinah Strumming on the old banjo And singing: Fee, fie, fiddlee-yie-o Fee, fie, fiddlee-yie o-o-o-o. Fee, fie, fiddle-yie-o Strumming on the old banjo! поднимайся рано утром как кричит капитан подуй в свой рожок бренчит на старом банджо Do It on Your Own Q Write symbols of what countries they are. * 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7., 8. I Complete the situations. Use the verbs in brackets in the right verb forms. 1) The boys (play) football now. They (be) tired. They (play) football for an hour and a half. 2) Tom (begin) talking on phone an hour ago. I think he should finish. He (talk) on the phone for an hour already. 3) Roy came to see the dentist at nine o’clock. It (be) 9:30 now. Roy (wait) for the doctor since 9:00 a.m. 4) Colin (become) a professor in 1998. He (work) at the University since he (become) a professor. 5) The Greens (move) to Canada last summer. They (live) in Canada now. They (live) in Canada for about a year. 123 0» > Ql Step Five Listen to the tape, (43), and say which sentences are true and which are false. 1) Ostriches have no wings. 2) Ostriches can run as fast as horses. 3) Ostriches live in Asia, Africa and South America. 4) Ostriches hate water because they can get themselves wet. 5) Ostriches eat only plants and nothing else. 6) Ostriches live only in the wild. 7) Not everything that people believe about ostriches is true. I Work in pairs. Act out dialogues. Example; — What have you been doing? — I've been eating apples. 4. I It Is 9 p.m. now. Say how long it has been raining/ snowing in these cities. Example: It has been snowing in New York since 8 p.m. It has been snowing in New York for an hour. - WiV 1) since 9 a.m. 2) since 11 a.m. 3) since morning 4) since 3 p.m. 5) since 4 p.m. 6) since noon Act out dialogues then make your own dialogues with the words on the right and act them out too. 1) — I like this dress. Is it new? — Oh, no! I’ve had it for years. 2) — I love these jeans. Are they new? — Oh, no! I’ve had them for years. 3) — Your blouse is so beautiful! Is it new? — Oh, no! I’ve been wearing it for years. bag, hat, scarf, coat, belt, umbrella trousers, socks, sandals, pyjamas, shoes, boots, shorts coat, raincoat, jacket, gown, scarf 125 Ф > a Ф Обрати внимание на различия времен present perfect и present perfect progressive. I. Present Perfect 1) I have read the book. 2) He has written a letter. Present Perfect Progressive 1) I have been writing a book since July. 2) He has been writing a letter for half an hour. (Действие началось в прошлом, продолжалось в прошлом и длится до сих пор.) Your eyes are red. Have you been crying? (Действие только что закончилось, признаки его налицо.) (Действие произошло. Когда конкретно — не важно, налицо результат, связь с настоящим.) II. I have flown an airplane many times. (Действие происходило один или несколько раз за определенный период времени и до момента речи.) III. I have liked such movies ever since I was a child. (Действие началось в прошлом и длится до сих пор. Действие выражено с помощью глаголов, не употребляющихся в продолженной форме). IV. С глаголами to live, to work в предложениях с since и for оба времени практически взаимозаменяемы. I have lived here since 2003. He has worked at this hospital for ten years. I have been living here since 2003. He has been working at this hospital for ten years. I Present perfect or present perfect progressive! 1) It (snow) all day. When will it stop? 2) Hi, Tom. I (see, not) you for weeks. What (you, do) all this time? 3) I (write) to them three times, but I (get, not) any answer yet. 4) Bill (be) here since the 5*^*' of November. 5) I (meet) Mrs Gordon many times this week. 6) Colin, you (miss) already very many classes. 7) I (phone) Diana for three hours already, but she is not at home yet. 8) It’s 11 p.m. I (work) on the computer since six and I (finish, not) yet. 9) I always (want) to make a tour of Spain. 10) The telephone (ring) for almost a minute. Why doesn’t someone answer it? Возвратные местоимения часто употребляются после предлога by для того, чтобы подчеркнуть, что действие выполнено самостоятельно. Не did it all by himself. — Он сделал это абсолютно самостоятельно. She lives Ду herself. — Она живет совершенно одна. Susie and Kate made the dress all by themselves. — Сьюзи и Кэйт сшили платье абсолютно самостоятельно. 127 > а (К I Answer the questions. 1) Do you usually make breakfast yourself or does mother or somebody else do it for you? 2) Do you usually do English exercises all by yourself or does anybody help you? 3) Have you ever driven a car yourself? 4) Do you live all by yourself or with your parents? 5) Did you learn to read yourself or did anybody teach you? 6) Do people speak to themselves? Do you speak to yourself? Why does it usually happen? I A. Read these texts about flowers and say what months you associate^ them with and why. 1) The snowdrop is as white as snow and grows when snow still lies in the forests. You can try to grow snowdrops in your garden too. ' to associate [s'saujleit] — ассоциировать 2) This month’s flower is the primrose I'primrsuz]. The primrose may have many different colours: white, yellow, red, pink, orange and purple. This little flower looking like a star is one of the earliest spring flowers. They are common in Europe, Asia and North America. 3) The flower of this month is the daffodil which grows and blooms early in spring. It has been a garden favourite for centuries. It has long leaves and bright yellow petalsh It belongs to the narcissus family. In Greek mythology, Narcissus was a young man who could love nobody else but himself. So gods^ got angry with him and turned him into a flower. 4) Water lilies grow in ponds and lakes. These flowers are large. Some are deep yellow, some are pinkish white and some are blue or even purple. The best known water lily is Victoria Regia. The leaves of this plant grow over a meter and a half in diameter. Its big pink-white flowers open in the evening. 5) The chrysanthemum [kri'ssenGmiDm] is one of the oldest flowers people grow. It has been grown in Japan for nearly two thousand years and is the national flower of that island country. Travellers brought it to Europe in the 17**' century. This lovely flower can be white, yellow, red, purple or pink. Chrysanthemums are welcome flowers because they grow and open when there are not many other flowers around. 6) This sweet flower is probably everyone’s favourite. Roses please us with their beauty from June to September and in England, whose emblem they are, you can sometimes see roses opening in November or even December. The most common colours are red, pink, white and yellow. If you want to say that a job or a situation includes some unpleasant things, you often say “it is not all roses”. ' a petal ['petl] — лепесток ^ gods — боги в. What is your favourite flower? What is it like? poppy ['pDpi] — мак; lilac ['laibk] — сирень; pansy ['psnzi] — анютины глазки; daisy ['deizi] — ромашка, маргаритка; dandelion ['dasndilaian] — одуванчик; carnation [kai'neijsn] — гвоздика; cornflower ['кэ:пАаоэ] — василек; bluebell ['bluibel] — колокольчик; tiger lily ['lili] — тигровая лилия; sunflower ['sAnflaua] — подсолнух 129 Soda! E I 8 I Learn what people say on special days in English. Congratulations! [kan'graetju'lei/anz] — Поздравляю! Congratulations to you! — Поздравляю вас! My heartiest congratulations to you! — Сердечно поздравляю вас! Happy Birthday! I „ Many happy returns of the day! f ^ днем рождения! Best wishes for your birthday! — Наилучшие пожелания вам! Take my best wishes! — Примите мои наилучшие пожелания! I wish you luck! — Желаю удачи! Good luck! I „ All the best! [ наилучшего! May all your dreams come true! — Пусть сбудутся все ваши мечты! Enjoy yourself! I Have fun! ^ Желаю хорошо повеселиться! Have a good time! — Желаю хорошо провести время! Have а nice day! — Хорошего тебе дня! Happy New Year! — Счастливого Нового года! С Новым годом! Merry Christmas! — С Рождеством! (V > а =С' 1. Обрати внимание, что в ответ почти на все поздравления и пожелания обычно говорят: The same to you. Thank you. Thanks (a lot). Thank you very much. 2. В ответ на поздравление с Новым годом обычно говорят "Happy New Year!". — Happy New Year, Linda! — Happy New Year, John! 5“Лфаняс1.ооа. К it.i. 3. Поздравляя кого-либо с другим праздником, англичане чаще всего пользуются выражением Happy + something или Greetings on... Happy Teacher's Day! — Поздравляю c Днем учителя! Happy Holiday! — Поздравляю c праздником! Happy Mother's Day! — Поздравляю c Днем матери! Greetings on Women's Day! — Поздравляю c днем 8 Марта! Greetings on the Russian Army Day! — Поздравляю c Днем защитника Отечества! 4. Выражения со словом congratulations, а также глагол to congratulate используют только тогда, когда поздравляют кого-то с успехами и личными достижениями, например: I know you've finished school. My congratulations! I Complete these dialogues and then act them out. 1) — Гт so glad you’ve become a student. I know it was not easy. 2) — Happy New Year, dear! — ..., mom! 3) — Good-bye, Fred. I wish you luck and happiness and success! 4) — I’m going on holiday tomorrow. — Bye, George..... 5) — Well, John, I hear you’re fifteen today. 6) — So you’re ready for the party. You look wonderful, dear. B3 Work in pairs, greet or congratulate one another on a) a birthday b) Mother’s Day c) the New Year d) one of you getting a diploma e) one of you going away on holiday f) one of you getting a new job g) Easter Day h) Christmas i) St.Valentine’s Day Do It on Your Own Ш Write the same in English. A. Храбрый заяц, удивительные насекомые, глупый страус, умная обезьяна, ленивый медведь, белая ромашка, большой дуб, славная белочка, вечнозеленая ель, высокая сосна, тонкая береза, голубые незабудки, маленький соловей, прекрасная сирень, яркий подсолнух, синий василек, красная гвоздика, сильный слон, могучий лев, английские дубы. B. Покормить кроликов, сфотографировать жирафа, увидеть слона, встретить ежа, посадить жасмин, полить желтые нарциссы, выращивать анютины глазки, наблюдать за лебедями. 13 Use the right verb form to complete the sentences. 1) Your mother is in the kitchen. She (cook) all morning. 2) We never (see) a pheasant. 3) You (learn) English for four years! 4) I (know) Victor since I (come) to St. Petersburg. 5) (See) you Tanya this week? When you (see) her? 6) Rose (wait) for her friend for an hour already. She (come) yet? 7) We always (want) to have a small house in the country. 8) My elder brother always (love) animals. He has a lot of pets at home. 9) How long the children (sleep)? 10) What you (do) all afternoon? 11)1 (have) this watch since my birthday. lEl The painter forgot to put the names of the flowers under the pictures. Do it for him. 13' 5* Step One Do It Together Qj Listen to the tape, (44), and say when these people are talking. 1 January, 14 February, 30 April, 2 September, 25 December, 5 October Qj Listen to the tape, (45), and sing along. Green Fields (by Terry Gilkyson, Rich Dehr, Frank Miller) Once there were green fields kissed by the sun. Once there were valleys where rivers used to run. Once there was blue sky with white clouds high above. Once they were part of an everlasting love. We were the lovers who strolled through green fields. однажды когда-то текли в вышине вечная бродили ecology [1'ко1эф] — экология Green fields are gone now, parched by the sun, Gone from the valleys where rivers used to run. Gone with the cold wind that swept into my heart. Gone with the lovers who let their dreams depart. Where are the green fields that we used to roam ? I’ll never know what made you run away. How can I keep searching when dark clouds hide the day. I only know there’s nothing here for me. Nothing in this wide world left for me to see. But I’ll keep on waiting till you return. I’ll keep on waiting till the day you learn. You can’t be happy while your heart’s on the roam. You can’t be happy until you bring it home. Home to the green fields and me once again. исчез.чи; освещенные проник в мое сердце упустили свою 133 мечту 0J с о когда-то гуляли заставило тебя уехать продолжать искать скрывают о. ш ничего не осталось буду продолжать ждать, till = until блуждает Запомни третью форму следующих глаголов: blow — blew — blown [Ыэип] — дуть draw — drew — drawn [dro:n] — рисовать fly — flew — flown [flaun] — летать grow — grew — grown [grsun] — расти wear — wore — worn [woin] — носить I Choose the right form of the verbs to complete the sentences: past simple or present perfect. 1) What Nick (wear) at the party? — I don’t know. I (see, not) him then. 2) Look! Bob (draw) a very good picture. I like it. 3) John (fly) to Paris yesterday. 4) Jane is not in Moscow. She (fly) to St. Petersburg. 5) Mrs Stubbs (grow) beautiful forget-me-nots in her garden last spring. 6) My little granddaughter (grow) a very big tomato. Would you like to look at it? 7) How tong you (wear) this dress? — I don’t remember. I know that I (wear) it for years. 8) A cold wind is blowing out in the street. It (blow) since morning. 9) Have you ever (fly) a kite? 10) Mr Dixon (fly) to Canada last week. 11) How quickly these flowers (grow)! 12) Look, what animal your cousin (draw)! I Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (”j (46), and repeat. collect [ka'lekt] — собирать population [,pDpju'leiJbn] — население, популяция number ['плтЬэ] — 1) количество; 2) число size [saiz] — размер behaviour [br'heivja] — поведение nowadays" ['nauadeiz] — в наши дни survive [sa'vaiv] — выжить 1. influence ['infiuans] — влиять study ['sUdi] — изучать between [bi'twiin] . — между (двумя) relation [ri'leijan] — 1) отношение; 2) родственник each [i:t[| — каждый environment [in'vaiaranmant] — окружающая среда surround [sa'raund] — окружать health [helG] — здоровье В. influence: to influence people, to influence somebody’s life. His speech influenced the students. Computers have influenced the world of science a lot. study: to study to be a journalist, to study music, to study science at school. She often goes to the library to study there, between: between the two streets, between you and me. The pencil lay between the books. relation: our relations, their relations. What are the relations between these countries? In relation to sth. I have a lot (nothing) to say in relation to this problem. each: each species, each boy, to speak to each other, to know each other. We often send e-mails to each other, environment: an unhappy home environment. We should always think of our environment. surround: to surround a garden, to surround a playground. The air that surrounds us is not always good for breathing, surroundings: He was happy to be at home again in his usual surroundings. health: poor health, good health, to be in good health. My granny is rather old but she is in good health, healthy: healthy surroundings, healthy food, collect: to collect pictures, to collect dolls, to collect postcards. Some children love collecting different things, collection: a wonderful collection of books, population: the population of the city, the population of the country. What is the population of London? Tanzania’s elephant population is about 55,000. number: 1) a/the number of animals, a/the number of birds. I have a number of English books at home. The number of children in our family is three. 2) 5 — is a number, 397 and 78 are also numbers. size: the size of a room, the size of a vocabulary. Your flat is the same size as mine. What size shoes do you wear? — Size 36 (shoes). behaviour: bad behaviour, the pupils’ behaviour, to watch animals’ behaviour, problem behaviour. Ann was sick of her brother’s behaviour. nowadays: A lot of people travel by air nowadays. People use computers everywhere nowadays. survive: to survive the fire, to survive in the ocean. He survived in the desert for a week on biscuits and water. 135 0) c о a Ф I Say the same differently. Use the new words. Example: Jenny buys all the interesting postcards she can find. It is her hobby. Jenny collects postcards. l)John spends a lot of time learning geography. 2) These two countries have very good contacts. 3) The science that studies how living things live in relation to each other and their environment is one of the most important sciences nowadays. 4) These days people work a lot on computers. 5) People should think a lot about the surroundings in which they live. 6) Mr Robinson decided to put a high wall around the castle. 7) Why is it important for children to eat good food? 8) What is the number of people who live in London? 9) Julia has got a lot of good books at home. 10) I’d like to ask you some questions. I A. There are words that sound alike in many languages and mean the same. We call them "international" words. Read the text and find in it 12 international words. What Is Ecology? No living thing or group of living things can live and grow in isolation [^aisa'lei/an]. All organisms, both plants and animals, need^ energy to develop and all species of living things influence the lives of others. Ecology is a science. It studies how plants, animals and other living things live in relation to each other and to their environment. People have always studied living things in their natural ['nastfsrsl] environment, in other words, they have always studied the air, the water, the soil and all the other things that surround a person, animal or plant. The environment can influence the growth and health of living things. Ecologists also study what happens to different species. They collect information [,inf3'mei/an] about their population number, diet ['daiat], form, size and behaviour. Ecology is one of the most important sciences nowadays. It teaches us how to survive in the modern world. B. Listen to the tape, (47), and read the text again after it. I A. Read the text "What Is Ecology ?" aqa\n and complete the sentences. 1) Ecology is a ... . 2) Ecology studies .... 3) A natural environment is ... . 4) Ecology teaches us ... . 5) Ecologists collect information about.... B. Answer the questions about ecology. 1) Why do people so often speak about ecology nowadays? What makes ecology an important science? 2) When did people first start speaking about ecology? 3) The information of what sciences ' to need sth — нуждаться в чем-то does ecology use? 4) What are some of the problems ecologists are trying to solve^? 5) How can the environment influence a living thing? Can you give an example? 6) What is human ecology? What does it study? 7) What is your natural environment? Do you think it is healthy? I What is their natural environment? What do they feed on? Example; Fish. Fish live in water. Rivers, lakes, seas and oceans are their natural environment. They feed on other fish, water plants and other water organisms. 1. 137 c о a 11. 12. 13. * to solve [sdIv] a problem — решить проблему Как ты уже знаешь, многие слова в английском языке образуются при помощи сус|зфиксов. Познакомься с некоторыми из них. -tion collect — collection inform — information populate — population -th wide — width (ширина) long — length (длина) grow — growth (рост) -ance important — importance -1st science — scientist ecology — ecologist piano — pianist -ment develop — development I Read the text and complete it with the derivatives of the words on the right. Mr Fowles is a He collects facts about wild birds. For example he is interested in and (5) facts related to puffins, very. sea birds. Mr Fowles often goes to one of the islands in the North Sea to study the of puffins living there. He knows a lot about these birds: the and of their wings, the number of chicks they have, the birds’ and Ji2L. The local say Mr Fowles is of great help to them. =0 science inform interest differ usual populate wide long develop grow ecology All, Both, Each Слово all (все) относится к предметам или людям численностью больше двух. Определенный артикль после него используется в тех случаях, когда речь идет о конкретных предметах или людях. АП people want to be happy. (Имеются в виду все люди вообще.) АП the pupils in my class like school parties. (Имеются в виду конкретные люди.) Слово both [Ьэи0] [оба, обе) относится к предметам или людям, число которых — два. Определенный артикль после него может как употребляться, так и не употребляться. Both children like biology. Both the children are very young. Обрати внимание, что слова all и both в предложении употребляются: 1) после глагола to be (We are both happy. They are allaX home now.); 2) a также после модальных глаголов и первого вспомогательного глагола. (They сап both speak English. We have a//come back.) В отличие от слов both и all, слово each (каждый) сочетается с глаголами в третьем лице единственного числа. Both students know this. Each student knows ХЫ\%. All the books are new. Each of these books is new. (Ho: They all like rock music.) Ш Put the words a//and both in the right place in the sentences. Example: The stories tell us about life in older times. Both stories tell us about life in older times. 1) We are ready to help you if you need our help. 2) People know that they need friends. 3) The singers have come to the concert hall. 4) The two brothers enjoy playing tennis. 5) These six chairs should stand around the table. 6) The two friends are from Scotland. 7) My parents watch comedies and dramas. 8) We can understand other people’s problems. 9) Chemistry and physics are sciences. 10) The children are playing in the school garden. 11) Ann’s parents are doctors. 139’ c о a (U Do It on Your Own - Q Complete the sentences with the new words. 1) The man was in good h... because he lived in happy s...s. 2) Barbara is c... money for our trip. 3) The soldiers s... the town but did not attack it. 4) People all over the world talk a lot about е... and its problems. 5) It is difficult to s... in a desert if you have no water. 6) It is fun to watch the g... of a sunflower. 7) What’s her c... of pictures like? What is its s...? 8) What subjects do they 8... in the 8**' form? 9) Jane says her parents i... her interests when she was very young. They taught her to like sciences. 10) How big is the p... of Moscow n...? Fill in prepositions'' where necessary. 1) People have always studied living things ... their natural environment. 2) How does our environment influence ... our children? 3) I don’t think people living ... isolation could be happy. 4) Ecologists study what happens ... different species of birds and animals. 5) What size ... shoes do you wear? 6) What are the relations ... the two families? 7) Young people often send e-mails ... each other. 8) Mr Brown is 92 years old but he is ... good health. 9) What’s the number ... children in your family? 10) Nowadays people often travel... air. Step Two Do It Together Ц Now you will hear a text, [«*J (48), about climate. Listen to the text and say which of the facts are true, false or not mentioned^ in it. 1) Climate all over the world has become hotter. 2) Climate is changing nowadays. 3) Climate influences the life of people more than the life of plants and animals. 4) Climate in Europe has changed recently. 5) Winters in Europe are colder nowadays than in the twentieth century. 6) Summer temperatures in Europe can be more than thirty degrees above zero. ' fill in prepositions [.prepa'zijanz] — вставьте предлоги * not mentioned ['menj'snd] — не упомянуты, не упоминаются 3=1 Известный тебе предлог меаа between обозначает «между двумя объек-тами/субъектами». Если же количество объектов больше чем два, то употребляется предлог among [э'тлп], который переводится словами между, среди. I could see а small house between the two trees. I could see a small house among the old trees (more than two). Запомни следующие словосочетания: between you and me — между нами (говоря) Between you and me, she has some problems with her best friend, in between = between — между She sat in between her two sons. Только in berweer? употребляется в конце предложения. Kate has English at 10 a.m., science at 2 p.m. and music in between. 141 0 1 t- Q. Look at the pictures and say where they are. 3) the red car 2) Peter Sam Kate 4) the low table 6)the monkey 5) the road =с Тебе хорошо знаком английский модальный глагол must, означающий должен, должны. Необходимость выполнения какого-либо действия или обладания каким-либо предметом можно выразить также при помощи глаголов need (to) и have (to). Sue needs to buy herself a new pen, she has lost her old one. Заметь, что глаголы have и need в этом значении не являются модальными и строят вопросы и отрицания при помощи вспомогательного глагола (do, does, did). They don't need to come until six o'clock. They don't have to come at six. Если нужно сказать, что человек вынужден что-то делать из-за независящих от него обаоятельств, следует использовать глагол to have (to). We have nothing to eat, somebody has to go to the shop. В TOM случае, если следует подчеркнуть, что нечто требуется кому(чему)-либо, так как оно крайне необходимо для дальнейшей деятельноаи (существования), используется глагол to need. Plants need light in order to survive. Если же требуется сказать, что человеку нужно сделать что-то единожды, употребляется оборот have got to. I've got to take Rex out. (Usually my father does it but now he is ill.) У A. Fred works for Mr Brown. Speak about Fred's duties'*. Use the word has (to). Example: get up at six Fred has to get up at 6 a. m. 1) make tea 2) answer telephone calls ' duty (duties) — обязанность, долг 3) clean Mr Brown’s clothes 5) take Mr Brown’s dog out 4) buy books and maps in the shop 6) water the flowers 7) wash Mr Brown’s car 8) put the letters on Mr Brown’s desk 143 о $ h- Q. Ш в. And what are your usual duties? 1) Do you have to get up early? 2) Do you have to make breakfast? 3) Do you have to make your bed? 4) Do you have to feed your pet(s)? 5) Do you have to wash the plates? 6) Do you have to do the room(s)? 7) Do you have to go to the shops? 8) Do you have to help any members of your family? 9) Do you have to wash the car? 10) Do you have to clean the floors? 11) What other things do you have to do? C, Name 3—5 things you've got to do this evening (tomorrow). I What do these words mean? a) being with others. 1) Isolation means 2) An organism is 3) Environment is 4) Ecology is; 5) An ecologist is b) not being with others. .a) a living animal or plant, b) a very small organ. . a) the place where we live, b) our planet. a) the study of people’s behaviour and the way people, animals and plants live together. b) the study of the environment and the way people, animals and plants live together. . a) a person who loves the natural world. "b) a scientist who studies the environment. 6) Population is: a) a group of people living in the same place or plants growing in the same place. -b) a group of people or animals living in the same place. Qj Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (49), and repeat A. cut [kAt] — резать without [wid'aut] — без nature ['neitfs] — природа natural ['naetjsrsl] — природный, естественный pollute [p9'lu:t] — загрязнять pollution [p3'lu:j9n] — загрязнение waste [weist] — отходы dump [dAmp] — свалка danger ['Ьешфэ] — опасность li. dangerous ['deincfearas] — опасный pour [рэ:] — лить, сливать factory ['faektari] — фабрика power ['раиэ] — сила, мощь; власть powerful ['pauafal] — сильный, мощный; обладающий большой властью power station ['paua,steijan] — электростанция cut (cut, cut): to cut an apple, to cut bread. I’m going to cut the cake now. To cut down forests. without: without food or water, without air. I can’t make soup without potatoes. Without doing sth. They left without saying goodbye. nature: beautiful nature, mother Nature. I would like to visit the Far East to enjoy its nature. natural: natural gas, natural talent. A river is a natural waterway, but a canal [ka'nasl] is not. It is natural to smile when you are happy. pollute: to pollute the water (air, soil). People mustn’t pollute the environment. pollution: water pollution, air pollution. Where does air pollution in the cities come from? waste: Where do you put waste? Things that we throw away are waste. waste of time: It’s a waste of time .to water the garden when it is raining. 145 0 1 h- a 0; dump: a large dump, a town dump. Take all these things to the town rubbish^ dump. danger: a big danger, a danger to small children, to be in danger, to be out of danger. This is a place where children can play without danger. The red colour usually means danger, dangerous: a dangerous animal, a dangerous plant, a dangerous sport. Air pollution is a dangerous thing. pour: to pour coffee into a cup, to pour water into a pot, to pour toxic waste into rivers and seas. Sit down and I’ll pour you some juice. factory: a big factory. There are very few factories in this town. At the Ford factory, they make cars. power: electric power, a lot of power, to have power, to do everything in one’s power. He did everything in his power to help me. power station: There are a lot of power stations in Russia, powerful: a powerful car, a powerful president. They say Sir Winston Churchill was a powerful man. Q Look at the pairs of words. In each pair there is a word you know. Read the sentences below and guess what the other word in each pair means. • to influence — influence • • • dump — to dump • waste — to waste • diet — to diet • relation — to relate • environment — environmental • pollute — polluted • polluted — unpolluted 1) Television has a strong influence on people. 2) People often dump waste in the forests. 3) Don’t waste your time, do something useful. 4) Would you like some cake, Jane? — No, thanks, I am dieting. 5) Ecology and biology relate (to each other). 6) Nowadays we have a lot of ecological environmental problems. 7) The water here is polluted and dangerous to drink. 8) The rivers in this part of the country are unpolluted. rubbish ['rAbifJ — мусор; зд.\ мусорная (свалка) I >Ч. Read the text "Our Environment" and find in it equivalents of the words and word combinations after it. Our Environment The environment is all the things we need to be able to live — clean water to drink and to wash with, air to breathe and healthy food to eat. We can’t live without plants and animals. They help to make the soil, they clean the water and air, and they give us all our food. The world is our home and we want to see it clean and beautiful. At the same time we take from nature as much as we can. We cut down forests and build farms, houses, roads and factories on the land. While doing it we pollute the environment. We make a lot of waste some of which is toxic. We dump domestic and industrial waste in the country and pour toxic waste into our rivers, seas and oceans. Cars and factories, plants^ and power stations pollute the air and make it dangerous to breathe. People have to think about all these ecological problems if they want to survive. 1) чтобы мы могли жить 2) воздух, чтобы дышать 3) формировать почву 4) столько, сколько можем 5) мы вырубаем леса 6) мы загрязняем окружающую среду 7) мы производим массу отходов 8) мы сбрасываем бытовые и промышленные отходы 9) сливаем ядовитые отходы 10) опасный для дыхания 11) выжить В. Listen to the tape, (50), and read the text again after it. I In how many ways can you complete these sentences? 1) People can’t live without.... 2) People need to make our planet.... 3) We would like to see our rivers and lakes .... 4) It is dangerous to ... . 5) There are a lot of things we can take from nature: .... 6) We pollute the environment when we ... . 7) People should always remember that .... 8) Let’s make our country .... 147 о г ;tJ a 01 ^ a plant — a factory that makes cars, machines, etc. Make up 8 sentences about ecology. planet country air rivers, lakes and seas food forests people water Our should be healthy to eat. safe^ to live on. clean and not dangerous to bathe in. powerful and happy to live in. unpolluted and clean to breathe. rich in birds and animals. clean and safe to drink. healthy and happy. В текае "Our Environment" и упражнениях после него тебе встретились сочетания с инфинитивом типа; water to drink, air to breathe^ food to eat Bo всех этих случаях инфинитив поясняет, уточняет имя существительное и является его определением. Подобные предложения часто используются в современном английском языке и могут вызывать некоторые трудности при переводе. Ср.: water to drink — вода для питья (чтобы пить) air to breathe — воздух для дыхания (чтобы дышать) food to eat — продукты, предназначенные для еды (чтобы есть) вз Put the statements below in the right categories. Dos Don’ts Plant more trees to make your Cut down trees, which make country green. our air clean. Turn^ the rivers into dumps. Build factories on river banks. Feed animals in cold seasons. ' safe — безопасный * to turn [t3:n] — зд.\ превращать Help animals to survive. Pour toxic waste into the rivers and lakes. Dump old cars in forests. Burn toxic waste. Clean rivers and lakes. Be careful with farm waste. Use rivers for washing cars. Use fewer cars. Make Clean Air laws. Take lorries out of city or town centres. Pay big money if you’re a polluter. Make laws to control pollution. Q| Say what is pollution and why it can be dangerous. 149 о $ I- a Do It on Your Own £3 Use between or among. 1) Julia couldn’t choose ... two dresses. 2) We spent last summer ... friends in Canada. 3) Elephants are ... the largest animals in the world. 4) The new American singer is popular ... young people. 5) I don’t like Paul very much, but that’s ... you and me. 6) The revolver lay ... the two boxes. 7) The tents were situated ... the high trees. 8) There is a bridge ... the island and the bank of the river. 9) I had English and Geography class and lunch ... them. 10) You can choose ... cucumber salad and tomato salad. Щ Complete the text using the new words. Everyone knows that life in modern world has become rather d P) ■ In big cities there are a lot of f_l^s and cars that p_i®l_ the air. The water is p_lil_ too because factories and plants p_i5L_ their w into the rivers, lakes and seas. In the country the e_ill_ can be also p . People (LJ2L the industrial and domestic wJ12L everywhere: in the forests, fields, near the rivers and lakes. The food people eat is not always hJilL. All these are serious e problems and we must solve them soon. Step Three Do It Together Ц Listen to the story of dinosaurs^ (51), and say which of the facts beiow are true and which are faise. Dinosaure — Very Big Lizards^ 1) People have never seen dinosaurs alive^. 2) All dinosaurs ate plants. 3) Plant-eating dinosaurs could be as tall as 8 metres. 4) Tyrannosaurus^ killed other animals to eat. 5) They found dinosaur bones only in Antarctica. 6) Scientists know about 30 different species of dinosaurs. 7) Scientists don’t know why dinosaurs died out. John Trent got up very iate and didn't do many of the things he usuaily does in the morning. Say what he didn't do. Example: John didn't do morning exercises. John left the house without doing morning exercises. 1) John didn’t make his bed. 2) He didn’t take a shower. 3) He didn’t take his dog out. 4) John didn’t have breakfast. 5) He didn’t drink his usual cup of tea. 6) He didn’t help his mother to wash the plates. 7) He didn’t take his lunch with him. 8) He didn’t say goodbye to his granny. 9) He didn’t kiss his mother goodbye. ' a dinosaur ['dainssDi] — динозавр * a lizard ['lizsd] — ящерица ^ alive [o'laiv] — живые a tyrannosaurus [ti.rasns'soiras] — тираннозавр Match the two columns. 1) the place in which people live and work 2) a scientist who studies the environment and the way plants, animals and people live together in relation to each other 3) to make air, water and soil too dirty and dangerous for people 4) useless materials 5) a place usually outside^ a town where people collect waste 6) the world with all living things, the land and the seas 7) a large building with machines that give electricity [blek'trisiti] 8) good and useful for your health a) waste b) pollute c) nature 151 d) environment OJ e) healthy o; w h- f) power station a Ф g) ecologist h) dump I A. Read the text and match its paragraphs with the titles. There are 6 titles but only 5 paragraphs. One title is extra. a) Land without Trees b) No Air to Breathe c) Dangerous Waters d) Toxic Food e) Problems Important for Everyone f) No Food for Animals 1) The word environment means what is around us. People who live in big industrial centres, cities and towns live in a town environment. For others their environment is the countryside^. Everybody who lives in towns or in the country breathes air, drinks water, uses soil which should be clean. But are they really clean? 2) The water in the oceans, seas, and rivers has become polluted in many places. If people drink this water, they can get ill or even die. People use oceans and seas as big dumps and pour industrial ^ outside — вне, за пределами ^ countryside ['kAntrisaid] — сельская местность and domestic waste into them. And so fish become toxic. It is very dangerous for people to eat such fish. Water birds leave places with toxic water, A lot of trees on the coast die, too. 3) The food we eat is not always healthy as fruit and vegetables can grow on polluted soil and become dangerous too. The meat we get from sheep and cows can be bad for our health if these sheep and cows eat grass that grows on polluted land. 4) People cut down trees and many birds and animals can’t have homes in their usual places and they begin dying out. If the situation doesn’t change, soon we shall live in a very different world — a world without a number of species that we know now. 5) Nowadays people feel that it is more difficult to breathe: in big cities the air has become badly polluted. Most of the pollution comes from cars and buses. Old people and little children feel bad and get ill because of the polluted air. B. Listen to the tape, (52), and read the text again after it. в английском языке существует конструкция used to, используемая в повествовании о событиях, которые случались в прошлом, особенно если нужно подчеркнуть, что больше они не происходят. I don't skate now but I used to skate a lot when 1 was a child. — Сейчас я не катаюсь на коньках, но я много катался, когда был ребенком. When my granny was younger, she used to travel to different places of our country in summer. — Когда моя бабушка была моложе, летом она много путешествовала по нашей стране. Вопросы и отрицания с данной конструкцией образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола did. Did you use to work here? We didn't use to read books about dinosaurs. Обрати внимание на то, что после этой конструкции обычно употребляется инфинитив, но в некоторых случаях он опускается. I don't play the piano now, but I used to (do it). I Mr Wilson is a very old man. Look at the pictures and say what he used to do when he was a small boy. 153 01 01 a 0) I Say what your relatives or friends used to do but don't do anymore. Example: My sister used to get up late but she doesn't any longer. to take long walks, to live in the country, to go to the cinema, to watch television a lot, to work in the garden, to collect pictures, to write poems, to work on the computer, to read at night, to dance, to drive a car Say how things happened some time ago and how they happen now. Example; light their streets and houses with gas/use electricity Some time ago people used to light their streets and houses with gas but now they use electricity. 1) travel on horseback/travel by car, train and bus 2) wash things by hand/wash things in a washing machine [m9'ii:n] 3) write letters/send e-mails a) б b) 22 c) 4,600 4) write books by hand/print^ books 5) read more books/watch a lot of television 6) have big families with a lot of children/have smaller families 7) die early/live longer lives 8) walk upstairs and downstairs/use lifts 9) know not so much about our planet/know a lot about it 10) dream about flying to the stars/do it I Read the information below and complete it with the right figures. (The answers are on page 155.) How Long Does It Take? 1) Some scientists think that it took the Solar System^ about... million years to form from a cloud of gas. 2) It takes the Earth ... days to go around the sun. 3) It takes the moon just over ... days to travel round the Earth. 4) It took the English language about ... years to develop into the language we speak today. 6) When Romans came to the British Isles in 53 BC, they built some very good roads. In those days it took only ... days by horse to get from London to Rome. About 1,500 years later in the century it took just as long. 6) It takes only ... minutes to fly from Westray Island to Papa Westray near Scotland. It is the shortest flight we know. 7) An early bike that was popular in the 17*^ century had no pedals. It took ... years to make a bike with pedals. 8) The eucalyptus^ grows quicker than any other tree: it takes about... year to grow 10.5 metres tall. 9) The sloth'* is the slowest land animal in the world. It takes a sloth about ... minutes to go 100 metres. The best runner in the world can do this distance in under 10 seconds. d) 200 e)2 f) 27 g) 1,600 h) 365 1/4 i) l ' to print [print] — печатать * .Solar System — Солнечная система * a eucalyptus [ju;k3'lipt3S] — эвкалипт ‘ a sloth fsIsuG] — ленивец {зоол.) [Read and act out the dialogues. Then change parts of the dialogues using the words in the right column and act them out again. 1) — Could you wait a second? Г11 change my clothes and come back. — A second? It usually takes you hours to change your clothes. — Don’t be silly! It won’t take me more than five minutes, you’ll see. 2) — I hate washing the plates, it usually takes me hours. — Does it? I wash the plates very quickly. It doesn’t take me more than 10 minutes. — Really?! 3) — How long will it take me to do the History Museum? — It will take you rather long, it’s a very big museum. — I see. make tea water the plants walk the dog call Sally wash the plates doing my homework cleaning the room cooking washing the car to get to St. Petersburg to grow a fruit garden to learn English to do this exercise 155 0) I.. »- Q. Ф Answers to exercise 8, page 154. 1 c, 2 h, 3 f, 4 g, 5 a, 6 e, 7 d, 8 i, 9 b Do It on Your Own |]]] Use the word take in the right form. 1) In older times it ... people weeks to travel from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Now it ... us from 1.5 to 8 hours. 2) I am going to the shops. It ... me rather a long time to buy everything I need. Don’t wait for me. 3) It ... people a long time to understand that the future of our planet is in danger. 4) Yesterday it ... us half an hour to clean the classroom and decorate it for the holiday. 5) How long ... you to finish writing the story? Will it be ready tomorrow? 6) It never ... me longer than 20 minutes to do my room. I do it very quickly. 7) Last year it... the Browns two weeks to find a nice house in the country. 8) It usually ... my father about an hour to get home from work. 9) My brother has just become a student. It ... him five years to complete his university course. 10) How long ... you to learn English? You speak it very well. Q Insert the missing words, where necessary. 1) Nowadays a lot of animals and birds are ... danger. 2) It is dangerous to cut ... forests. 3) Reading such books is just a waste ... time. 4) The population ... tigers ... the Far East is getting smaller ... number. 5) There was a narrow road running ... the trees in the forest. 6) Scientists want to know how living things develop in relation ... each other. 7) A lot of factories pour their industrial waste ... rivers, seas and lakes. 8) Ecologists can help us to live ... our planet... making our environment dangerous. 9) Mr Poller is 92 but he is ... good health. 10) How does the sun influence ... the people of the Earth? Step Four Do It Together A. Listen to the text "Rainforests", [««j (53), and complete these sentences. 1) Rainforests used to grow on different continents: in ... . 2) A hundred million years ago rainforests grew .... 3) The ... rainforest is famous all over the world. 4) In rainforests it rains .... 5) In rainforests the usual temperature is ... . 6) In the twentieth century people began .... B. Why do you think rainforests are so important for the life on the planet? Work in pairs. Find out how long it takes your partners • to do their room (flat) • to do the shopping • to get to school • to wash the plates • to do their homework • to help their grandparents Where Mr Richardson used to live and what he used to do there. 10 years old (on the farm) • to feed animals • to plant trees • to grow fruit and vegetables • to ride horses • to help his parents about the farm • to go to University • to travel by underground • to visit museums • to meet a lot of interesting people • to have a lot of friends 157 Э о u. a OJ I Say what life used to be like on our planet many years ago — in prehistoric’ times. water land ice climate forests animals people Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (54), and repeat. A. badge [Ьаеф] — значок member ['memba] — член группы (организации, общества) protect [pra'tekt] — защищать protected [pra'tektid] — защищенный endangered [in'deincfead] — вымирающий extinct [ik'stipkt] — вымерший, исчезнувший destroy [di'stroi] — разрушать habitat ['hsebitaet] — естественная среда обитания prehistoric [,pri:hi'sto:nk] — доисторический в. badge: old badges, to collect badges, a wonderful collection of badges. In some English schools pupils wear school badges on their uniforms. member: a member of the group, a member of the party. There used to be ninety members in our club but there are only thirty now. protect: to protect life, to protect birds and animals, to protect from danger. We should protect wildlife on the earth. John wore a jacket to protect himself from the cold. protected: a protected species. Lily-of-the-valley is a protected species of flowers. endangered: endangered species, endangered animals. Elephants in Africa have become endangered animals. There are many endangered animals nowadays, for example African and Indian lions, mountain gorillas [ga'rilaz] in Africa. extinct: to become extinct, extinct species, extinct animals. The Tasmanian tiger became extinct in 1936. What extinct animals can you name? destroy: to destroy towns, to destroy a castle. People have destroyed half of the world’s rainforests. habitat: a habitat of plants, a habitat of animals. What is the natural habitat of tigers? I Answer these questions. 1) What is the natural habitats of fish, bears, elephants, gorillas? 2) What animals are extinct animals? 3) There are a lot of endangered species of animals and plants nowadays. Can you name some of them? 4) How can people protect endangered animals? 5) Can you give an example of how man destroys the habitats of birds, animals and plants? 6) Why do people destroy forests? How does this influence the wildlife? the life of people?" 7) Do you think it is easy for different animal species to survive in the 2century? Why? 8) Have you ever been a member of some ecological organization? Would you like to become one? I Listen to the tape, (55). Read the text and find in it some important information about WWF and Greenpeace. Then act the dialogue out. WWF An Unusual Badge Jane: Miss Chapman, may I ask you something? Miss C h.: Yes, Jane, what is it? Jane: What’s that badge you are wearing? Miss C h.: This panda badge? It shows that I am a member of WWF. Jane: What’s WWF? I’ve never heard of it. Miss C h.: WWF means “Worldwide Fund for Nature”. It’s an international organization that protects wildlife on the planet. I believe WWF needs our support because it is very important to help wild animals to survive. Jane: What do they do to help animals to survive? Miss C h.: Different things. Mostly they help endangered animals. For example, if the population of some species is very small, it means they can become extinct. Ecologists protect them and try to make their population larger. Jane: I see. That’s very interesting. They are like Greenpeace. I’d like to work with Greenpeace. I think they are very active and brave. They stop those people who kill endangered animals and destroy their habitats. Miss C h.: I know. All ecological organizations are useful. The more of them the better. Everyone should do what they can. 159 Э О u. a Of I Whose badges are they? Example: Badge one belongs to a pupil. 1. Do It on Your Own Write 5 true sentences. 1) The more time I spend with my friends, .... 2) The longer I learn English, .... 3) The older I get,.... 4) The more I think about the future, .... 5) The better I understand life, .... □ Use the new words to complete the sentences. 1) Tigers living in the Far East of Russia have become e... species. 2) Flamingos live in the tropics. They are water birds, so their h... is lakes and animals. 3) The names of all pr... species of Russia are in the Red Book of plants and animals. 4) Greenpeace tries to stop those who d... nature. 5) When people cut dow-n forests, a lot of species become ex... . 6) It’s not easy to p... our world from air, water and soil pollution. 7) M...S of ecological organizations often wear b...s to show what their interests and idea^ are. Step Five Do It Together Ц Read the text, then listen to the tape, (56), and say what information is missing^ in the text. As Dead^ as a Dodo You have never seen a dodo. Your friends and teachers have never seeti a dodo. Your grandparents never saw a dodo. The last of these large quiet birds died m^ny years ago. The dodo lived on the island of Mauritius [тэ'п/э5]. Dutch ships came to that island and * is missing ['misiol — отсутствует ^ dead [ded] — мертвый found these big fat birds. Dodos could not fly but they were not afraid of people. Visitors to Mauritius killed all the dodos on the island. By the 1690s there were no dodos in the world. Nowadays you can see only bones of these birds and their pictures. The story of the dodo is very sad and it shows you how dangerous man can be and how easy it is to destroy wildlife. This is what some people think about ecological problems. With which of their ideas do you agree^? What Can I Do? Anna: They are beginning to build a new road near our beautiful park. Birds and small animals are afraid of people and the noise from roads. So they will leave this place. My friends and I are going to write to our local politicians [,pnli'tijanz] and ask them to stop building the road. 163 Liza: I am an animal lover, so I don’t eat meat. Sheep, pigs and cows aren’t in danger, but they don’t live in their natural environment and they die young for meat eaters. Mike: I always walk or go by bike. People can do something about pollution from cars. Mr Potter: I give money to protect wild animals — whales and dolphins^. I think it is very important to help these wonderful sea animals to survive. ^ to agree — соглашаться ^ whales [weilz] and dolphins ['dnlfinz] киты и дельфины 6* Mrs Colton: I used to wear a fox coat and I loved it. But now I think it is terrible to wear a coat from a dead animal. Г11 never do it again. Mark: I never go to the zoo. I hate zoos because I think that animals are not happy there. Zoos are not natural places for any animal. Sofia: I never buy early spring flowers. Most of them are endangered and I think it is very bad to make money by destroying them! >C*’ в английском языке восклицательные предложения строятся с помощью слов what и how. Сравни; What а wonderful day (it is)! How wonderful the day is! What a clever boy he is! How clever he is! What interesting stories! How interesting the stories are! What cold water! How cold the water is! Обрати внимание на использование артиклей в восклицательных предложениях с what. 1) В предложениях с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе нужен неопределенный артикль. What а big park it is! What ^ interesting book! 2) В предложениях с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном wc/7e употребляется нулевой артикль'. , What kind gentlemen! What tasty sweets! 3) В предложениях с неисчисляемыми существительными тауже употребляется нулевой артикль. What fresh air! What fine weather! * ну.чевой артикль (zero article) — отсутствие артикля перед именами существительными Щ Say the same in a different way. What...I How...! 1) ... 1) How dangerous this place is! 2) What fresh air! 2)... 3) What beautiful valleys! 3)... 4)... 4) How powerful the King is! 5)... 5) How charming the babies are! 165 6) What slow animals! 6)... Ф 7) ... 7) How rich this area is! > 8) What funny monkeys! 8)... Um O. 9)... 9) How fast the rabbits are! 10) What tasty chocolate! 10) ... 1/1 Learn some new words, listen to the tape, (57), and repeat. save [seiv] — спасать law [b:] — закон government ['gAvamant] — правительство responsible [n'sponsibal] — ответственный hunt [ЬлШ] — охотиться В damage ['daemicfe] — повредить, нанести урон unfortunately [An'foitfanitli] — к несчастью recycle [,ri:'saik3l] — перерабатывать necessary ['nesisari] — необходимый save: to save people, to save from danger. The house was on fire but he saved the pictures. Only hard work can save our project, law: good laws, to make a law, to be against the law. Killing endangered species of animals is against the law. government: the Russian government, the British government. The Government is the people who rule a country or a state, responsible: a responsible person, a responsible post, to be responsible for sth. Who is responsible for buying the food for dinner? damage: to damage buildings, to damage forests. Pollution has damaged the island’s ecology. hunt: to hunt animals for sth. People have been hunting crocodiles for their teeth. John spent the whole day hunting deer, hunter: a well-known hunter. unfortunately: unfortunately for sb. Unfortunately we are leaving Moscow tonight. Unfortunately for Garry the weather has changed for the worse. He can’t go hunting. recycle: to recycle waste, to recycle paper (glass). Japan recycles 40% (forty per cent) of its waste. necessary: to be necessary for sb. Such food is necessary for your health. I have packed all the necessary things for our trip. You should come at noon if Alice says it is necessary. I Complete the sentences. Must or Must Not? 1) Governments ... put laws into practice^. 2) Governments ... build factories to recycle waste. 3) We ... support people who damage endangered plants. We ... buy early spring flowers such as the lily-of-the-valley. 4) Politicians ... listen to scientists and do all they can to protect nature. 5) Governments ... make laws that can damage the environment. 6) All people ... be responsible for the future of our planet. 7) Nobody ... hunt endangered animals. 8) We all ... work together to save our planet. I These children belong to the Young Ecologists Club. They are going to have a conference ['kcnfarans ] soon. Say how they are preparing for it. Example: to make badges for the conference members Pete is responsible for making badges for the conference members. 1) Pete 3) Tom 5) William 2) Mary 4)John ' to put laws into practice — претворять законы в жизнь 6) Kate 8) Helen 7) Rob 1) to interview a famous scientist 2) to invite a well-known ecologist to school 3) to decorate the hall 4) to talk on endangered species of plants and animals 5) to talk on the main ecological problems 6) to write questions to the members of the local government on the ecology of the place 7) to take photos of the local National Park 8) to write a letter to the local government to build a new recycling factory A. Read the text and say what governments should do to protect nature in their countries. Shall We Survive? People have been polluting the planet on which they live for many years. The result [п'глк] is very sad. We all live in a polluted world. Pollution started in a small way, but then it began growing and soon we all shall be in danger. The time has come to save our planet, to protect people, animals and plants from dying. First of all countries should have strong laws to control pollution, to protect animals and plants. Governments should be responsible for protecting nature. Today the law in some countries says: “The polluter must pay. If a person damages trees or animals, he must also pay.” But unfortunately such good laws don’t always work. Scientists often meet and talk about ways of helping nature, and politicians in many countries listen to them and are beginning to talk about this too. Countries can open national parks. They are big and usually very beautiful places without buildings. These are homes for animals 167 (U > a living freely and also for birds, trees and flowers. Visitors can go there but they can’t hunt there. Politicians can think of ways to stop hunting. Governments should also find ways to recycle things we have used: paper bags and plastic bags, plastic bottles and cans^, glass and metal things. They should build recycling factories. Governments must control and if necessary close dangerous plants and factories. We all must work together to make our planet a safe and beautiful place to live. B. Listen to the tape. (58), and read the text after it again. I Read the text "Shall We Survive?" again and say • why we all shall be in danger soon • how laws can help to protect nature • why politicians must listen to scientists • in what way national parks can help to protect wildlife • what things we can recycle and why it is important • who is responsible for making our planet a safe and beautiful place A. Learn instructing [in'strAktio ] people how to do things. The first thing you should do is... — Первое, что нужно сделать, это... The next thing you do is... — Следующее, что ты сделаешь, это... By the way, don't forget to... — Между прочим, не забудь... Remember to... — He забудь... Another thing to remember is... — Еще о чем нельзя забыть, так это... Be careful not to... — Смотри не... B. Complete the text. Use the "instruction" phrases. Grow Your Own Violets^ is to choose a healthy leaf and cut it off from the plant. is to prepare a pot of good soil. By the way, to wet the soil well. to make the soil soft. Put the leaf into the soil as you see in the picture. not to damage it. Take a glass jar ' cans — консервные банки ^ a violet ['vaialit] — фиалка and coved the leaf with it. The soil should always be wet. (6) is that your young plant should not stand in direct sunshine. You'll see that your violet will soon develop roots and new leaves. Do It Together Use the articles {a/an, the) where necessary. l)What ... big ears you have, grandma! 2) How dangerous ... place looks! 3) How ... empty the islands are! 4) What ... unusual clock it is! 5) How brave ... boys are. 6) What... interesting films! 7) How polluted ... lake is! 8) How sunny ... weather is! 9) What ... funny clothes she wears! 10) What ... tasty vegetables I’ve bought! ^ Write the same in English. Спасать вымирающих животных, создавать законы, влиять на экологию, загрязнять реки, изучать вымершие виды, перерабатывать отходы, быть ответственным за охрану (защиту) природы, охотиться на диких животных, наносить урон лесам, разрушать места обитания животных. 169 (U > а 01 ’ to cover |'клуэ1 — зд.: накрывать step One Do It Together Q Listen to the tape, (59). You will hear two texts. Choose titles for them from those below. There is one extra title. a) The Ecology of Man b) How to Stop Pollution c) What We Need Is Working Together Qcive your reaction^ to these phrases as in the example. Example: The Mississippi is the longest river in the USA. a) (What/mighty) What a mighty river it is! b) (How/mighty) How mighty the river is! 1) Sid’s brother is a famous journalist. (How/proud) 2) Everybody in Russia knows Saratov, Samara and Volgograd that lie on the Volga. (What/famous) 3) These are the longest instructions I have ever read. (How/diffi-cult) 4) Nowadays many governments have good laws protecting nature. (What/responsible) 5) This badge belongs to a member of our ecological society. (What/unusual) reaction [ri'aek/ati] — реакция 6) Jane is on a diet. She eats only fruit and vegetables. (How/ healthy) 7) A lot of factories dump their waste into this river. (What/dan-gerous) 8) Mr Richardson is a successful businessman. So many men work for him. (What/powerful) 9) There are some unpolluted places around Moscow. (What/safe) В английском языке есть еще одно грамматическое время из группы прошедших времен — past perfect (прошедшее совершенное). Оно строится по следующей модели: had + Vj I had done... He had written... We had met... Данное время используется для обозначения дейавия, которое произошло до определенного момента в прошлом. I had done my flat by 3 o'clock. I had done my flat by the time mother came back. Обычно pa5f yoer/ipcf употребляется, когда нужно рассказать о двух действиях в прошлом, подчеркивая, что одно из них произошло раньше, чем другое. Jane couldn't find the key I had given her. — Джейн не могла найти ключ, который я ей когда-то (некоторое время тому назад) дал. Past perfect часто употребляется со словами after, before, when, as soon as, because, by the time. As soon as 1 had washed the plates, mum came. After Mary had done the shopping, she went back home. Robin had left before Alice returned. When Betty phoned, Jim had already sent the e-mail to her. ^ Look at the pictures and say what they had done by four o'clock yesterday. Example: Rose had written a letter by four o'clock yesterday. 171 OJ c о a 0) Rose Mrs Rogers Max Wood Henry Say what these people had just done when it started raining. Example: Mr Robinson/to put his car into the garage Mr Robinson had just put his car into the garage when it started raining. 1) Larry/to leave his office 2) Bobby/to get on a bus 3) Mr Newman/to enter the shop 4) Dan/to decide to go for a walk 5) Ms Forester/to come out into the garden 6) The Trembles/to finish supper 7) Charles/to turn on the television 8) Sharon/to clean the floors 9) Lizzy/to wash her sweater 10) Mr Mole/to start working in the garden 173 Ш c 0 a 01 Say what you had done yesterday. a) before your parent(s) came back home b) by the time supper was ready c) by 6 p. m. you returned from school Learn how to use these new words, (60). курить 1) наркотик; \) adj тяже- 2) adv тяже- 4 exercise ['eksasaiz] — физические упражнения, моцион enough [1'пл1] — достаточно join [cfeoin] — присоединяться relax [ri'lasks] — расслабляться keep [ki:p] — держать, хранить, оставить себе harm [ha:ni] — вред И. exercise: а lot of exercise, to get exercise, to take (have) exercise. Boris should take more exercise. enough: enough food, enough time, tall enough, quickly enough. Are there enough vegetables to make a salad? Does Ann play the piano well enough? Join: to join the club, to join the group. Alan joined us for a walk, relax: Sit down and try to belax for half an hour. smoke [smauk] — drug [бглд] — 2) лекарство hard [ha:d] — ЛЫЙ, усердный; ЛО, усердно, сильно ’ junk food ['(^лг)к fu:d] — не полноценная пища keep (kept, kept): to keep sth, to keep doing sth, to keep a secret, to keep a diary, to keep (to) a diet, to keep fit. Where can I keep my books? I always keep a carton of milk in the fridge. John kept walking without listening to her. She has kept a diary since childhood. You should take a lot of exercise to keep fit. Try and always keep your word. harm: a lot of harm, no harm, to do some harm. It’ll do you no harm to have some exercise, in fact it will do you a lot of good. If you spend so much time working on the computer, it’ll do you more harm than good. harmful: harmful food, to be harmful for sb or sth. Reading in bed can be harmful for your eyes. smoke: I don’t smoke. Mr Brown smokes only cigars, he doesn’t smoke a pipe. Stop smoking, it will damage your health. No smok-ing! drug: 1) to take drugs, to use drugs. Jenny has never taken drugs in her life and she says she never will. No drug-taking. 2) Aspirin is a well-known drug that often helps. hard: 1) hard work, a hard day, hard life. It’s hard to believe that we are leaving this place forever. 2) to work hard, to breathe hard, to fight hard. I was trying very hard to remember her name. junk food: Junk food is not healthy, there is a lot of fat, salt and sugar in it. I Complete the sentences. Use the new words. 1) Paul is a member of our football team now, he ... it not long ago. 2) Some children prefer ... food to having a real lunch at school. So they buy chocolate, sweets and chips. 3) We have a number of very good pupils in my class. They all work very ... and get good marks. 4) I’m afraid I haven’t got... money to buy this new disk. 5) Victor ... his word and brought us a good dictionary. 6) It said “No ... !” on the wall but there stood a man who was ... a cigarette. 7) Where do you ... your books? I can’t see any bookcase or bookshelves in your room. 8) After I had broken my arm, my doctor told me to ... it as much as possible. 9) After we had done all the exercises we decided to ... and turned on the music. 10) There is a very important law which says that one must not bring ... to the school. 11) Drinking alcohol does people more ... than they think. It destroys their minds and personalities^. 12) Jane looks wonderfully slim. Has she been ... to a diet? 175 В английском языке сущеавует много сложных слов, в которых первой частью является основа over- со значением «больше, свыше необходимости». Сравни: overpopulation — перенаселение overeat — переедать overtired — переутомленный overwork — перенапрягать(ся), зааавлять слишком много работать Q Say the same in Russian. 1) I don’t like the taste of this fish, you’ve overcooked it. 2) I’ve paid 300 roubles for this souvenir and I’m afraid I’ve overpaid. 3) Not everyone likes soft overripe bananas but I enjoy eating them. 4) When Max opened his eyes in the morning, his clock was showing ten: he had overslept. 5) Please, don’t overfeed the dog, too much food does nothing but harm. 6) This time I shall ask you to do not two but three exercises. I hope I’m not overworking you. 7) Yesterday I felt overtired, but wasn’t able to sleep. 8) We are going to have problems if we overspend the money. Q Read the text and say which of these rules you follow and which you don’t follow and why. How to Keep Fit 1) Take a lot of exercise. Physical [Tiziksl] activity is good for all of us at any age. 2) Begin your day with morning exercises. They give you enough energy for the day. № c о a 1 mind [maind] and personality — р'азум и личность 3) Be sporty. Join a sports club or go to the gym and work out^. 4) Take enough sleep. Most people need eight hours of sleep to feel well. 5) Leave some time for relaxing after a hard working day. 6) Spend some time out of doors every day. Fresh air does us a lot of good. 7) Limit the time you spend in front of your television or computer to an hour — an hour and a half. 8) Keep to a healthy balanced diet. Don’t overeat. 9) Don’t eat junk food. Some kinds of food are harmful. 10) Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Never use drugs. 0^ Which of the rules (ex. 8) do you think are the most important and why? Put them all in order of importance^. Обрати внимание на сочетания слова enough с различными чааями речи. enoug.H ■ ;iouh _ .-idjsct-ve - c;nougn adv*r;i- ^ ‘Ugn to have enough time ' " ^ enou'- h to get enough money to be long enough to make enough sandwiches to run quickly enough not to practise enough I Complete these sentences. 1) John is (old enough/enough old) to go to school. 2) Don’t hurry. There is (time enough/enough time) to do it. 3) There is (food enough/enough food) for everyone. 4) The poor man doesn’t (eat enough/enough eat). 5) Have I made (enough coffee/coffee enough)? 6) Have we (enough apples/apples enough) for everyone? 7) The days have become (long enough/enough long). 8) Kevin doesn’t work (hard enough/enough hard). 9) The road is not (wide enough/enough wide) for two cars. 10) Are there (enough pencils/pencils enough) for all the pupils? ’ to work out — поддерживать физическую форму ^ Put them all in order of importance. — Расположи их (правила) в порядке важности. т Do It on Your Own Write it in English. Достаточно усердно, достаточно сильный, достаточно воздуха, достаточно быстро, достаточно вопросов, достаточно сложный, достаточно успешный, достаточно энергии. Ш Match the two parts of the sentences. Compare your results. 1) We had just finished the job 2) They had written the exercise 3) Alice had read the book 4) John had finished watching TV 5) Mary had already had breakfast 6) Victor had heard the news 7) Brian had just left the school building 8) I had already known everything a) before the bell rang. b) when I entered the kitchen. c) by 3 o’clock yesterday. d) before I gave it to her. e) when it started raining. f) before I told him about it. g) when Tom brought us some more. h) by the time I got the telegramme. 177 0 1 h- O. Ш Step Two Do It Together О Listen to the text “Fast Food", (61), and complete the sentences. 1) We can find fast food restaurants ... .’ 2) It doesn’t take ... to have meals in fast food restaurants. 3) Nowaday scientists talk a lot about.... 4) Some scientists think that many people have become fat because .... 5) In fast food restaurants there is ... . I Read the examples and say how we can form questions and negative sentences in past perfect. 1) When Tom came to his office he was hungry. He hadn’t had breakfast. 2) Jane was unhappy when she came back home. She hadn’t written her test. 3) I didn’t know what to do, Martin hadn’t phoned me. li. 1) Had Tom gone home when you came? — Yes, he had. 2) Had Mary cleaned the floor by 7 o’clock? — No, she hadn’t. 3) Had you cooked lunch before granny got up? — Yes, I had. Read the text "Prodigy Child" and find in it sentences in past perfect. Why are they used in this text? n Prodigy Child Kevin was a prodigy child. By the age of two he had learned to read and write. Before his fifth birthday his parents had taught him to speak French and German and he played the piano rather well. Kevin was a great lover of books and by the age of ten he had already read all the books in his father’s library. When all his friends were still in the second form, he had already left school. After he had finished college, he went to University to become a microbiologist. At sixteen he was ready for his final exams and soon became the youngest scientist in the history of his country. He was happy because he hadn’t wasted his time and got a good profession that he loved. The only problem with Kevin was that he had never played football or basketball with his friends and had no idea of sports, games or children’s parties: he hadn’t had time for them. 1. в предложениях с after и before вместо past perfect в английском языке чаао употребляется past simple, так как слова after \л before сш\л указывают на очередность действий. Ср.: Sam had left before Ann got there. Sam left before Ann got there. After the guests had left, I went to bed. After the guests left, I went to bed. 2. Past simple, a не past perfect в том случае, когда действия в прошлом происходили одно непосредственно за другим. Ср.: Pete came home and helped his sister to cook dinner. Larry opened the door and his dog ran in. 179 о 5 H- Q. (U Choose the right item to complete the sentences. 1) 1 was really surprised when I learned that Harry .... a) became a champion b) had become a champion 2) When Tom went to medical school, he already ... a lot of books on anatomy. a) read b) had read 3) 1 ... from school rather tired and decided to relax for half an hour in front of the television. a) came b) had come 4) The child didn’t feel very well. I think he ... too much junk food. a) ate b) had eaten • 5) By the beginning of the new year Paul ... our team and was playing for the school. a) joined b) had joined 6) I kept my word and ... hard during the rest of the school term, a) worked b) had worked 7) Father began to feel much better because he ... up smoking, a) gave b) had given 8) The garden looked terrible: the wind and’the rain ... it badly, a) damaged b) had damaged Make up sentences about Andy with because. Use past perfect. Example: Andy was sick when he smoked a cigarette. Andy was sick when he smoked a cigarette because he had never smoked before. 1) Andy decided to go to the disco. 2) Andy bought the new disc of his favourite singer. 3) Andy got very tired of roller-skating. 4) Andy didn’t play baseball very well. 5) Andy bought a beautiful new jacket. 6) Andy went to bed early yesterday. 7) Andy fell off the horse. 8) Andy was afraid to drive. 9) Andy wanted to watch “Lord of the Rings” on television. 10) Andy began to learn Italian. 11) Andy went to a Japanese restaurant. 12) Andy didn’t know how to grow roses. Learn some new words and word combinations. Listen to the tape, (62), and repeat. t. 1) ме- nicdicine ['mcdsan] — дицина; 2) лекарство lose [Iu:z] — терять weight [well] — вес weigh [wei] — весить still [stii] — еще, все еще habit ['hffibtt] — привычка joff — бегать трусцой hardly ['ha;dli] — едва to get a cold . to catch a cold 1 просту- to come down ' диться with a cold 1 to have a cold — быть простуженным to do one’s best — постараться изо всех сил medicine: 1) to study medicine. Sandra studied medicine for five years before she became a doctor. 2) to take medicines, a medicine for sth. Penicillin is a medicine. What medicine do you take for a high temperature? lose (lost, lost): to lose keys, to lose money. Mike lost his job last year. I can’t find my address book anywhere. I think I have lost it. weight: the weight of a suitcase, in weight, to lose weight, to put on weight. The box was about 12 kilos in weight. Have you lost weight? Susan has put on weight since the summer. weigh: to weigh much, to weigh little. The baby weighs three kilos. The shop girl weighed the tomatoes for me. still: I’m still busy. Johnny still goes to school. It is still raining, habit: a good habit, a terrible habit, to give up a habit. My sister has healthy eating habits. My elder brother has some very bad habits. He sometimes smokes in bed and doesn’t wash up after his meals. jog (jogged, jogged): to jog in the morning, to go jogging. When people jog, they run slowly usually for exercise or pleasure. I go jogging every morning. hardly: Boris can hardly speak English. There was hardly any wind. Bob has hardly eaten anything. Hardly ever: He hardly ever does anything interesting. catch (get/have) a cold: When you catch a cold, doctors usually tell you to stay in bed. Joanna has a bad cold and doesn't go to school. come down with a cold: What’s the matter? — I think I’m coming down with a cold. do one’s best: I don’t know if I can do it but I’ll do my best. Nick says he will do his best to keep his word. 181 о S a. 01 В 1999 году в Британии закончился официальный переход на метрическую систему измерения веса и расстояния. Английские школьники, как и российские, учат в школе, что километр состоит из тысячи метров, а в килограмме — тысяча граммов. Однако все жители Британии хорошо помнят старую систему измерений и продолжают ею пользоваться. Так, на рынках и в магазинах вам взвешивают продукты в фунтах, объем напитков исчисляется в пинтах, а расстояние — в милях. Для многих людей, особенно старшего поколения, это гораздо более привычно. То же положение дел характерно и для США. Length 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 foot = 0.3048 m 1 yard = 3 feet = 0.9144 m 1 mile = 1.609 km Liquids 1 pint [paint] = 0.4732 dm^ 1 gallon = 3.7853 dm^ Weight 1 ounce [auns]/oz/ = 28.35 g 1 pound /lb/ =0.454 kg 1 stone = 14 pounds = 6.35 kg Обрати внимание, что на письме англичане отделяют десятичные дроби от целого числа точкой, а не запятой, как принято у нас. Сравни: Russian style: 27,58 English style: 27.58 [,twenti 'sevan point 'fifti eit] I Answer the questions using the new words. 1) What makes jogging such a popular exercise? 2) What good and bad habits have you got? 3) How often do you catch colds and what do you do when you have them? 4) What are some of the things you can hardly do? 5) Learning which school subjects do you do your best? 6) How much do you weigh? And what is your weight in stones? (This is the way the English measure^ their weight.) 7) Do you put on and lose weight easily? What do you do to lose weight? 8) Some medicines can help you to lose weight. Do you think such medicines do good or harm to your body? I Say: a) which of these you can hardiy do; b) which of these you hardiy ever do. play the piano jog in the morning ride a bike take photos work in the garden come home late B. — swim in winter — go to museums — read books on ecology — wear school uniform — sing English songs — go to the zoo ’ to measure ['тезэ] — измерять 183 0 1 а. 01 Hard or hardly! They are very different! 1) I’m so tired, I can (hard/hardly) move. 2) Sofia (hard/hardly) speaks any Italian, she’s never learned it. 3) The way home was long and (hard/hardly) and we returned only late at night. 4) The text is very (hard/hardly). I don’t think I’ll be able to read it. 5) Two more tests coming tomorrow! Isn’t it a (hard/hardly) life? 6) Jack is not my friend, I (hard/hardly) know him. 7) It is raining so (hard/hardly) that soon our garden will be under water. 8) This is (hard/hardly) the time for buying new clothes: we have very little money just enough to buy food. 9) It’s (hard/hardly) to understand Nina when she speaks English fast. 10) This is a very (hard/hardly) question, I don’t know how to answer it. ED A. Read the interviews and say what Andrew and Sarah do right and what they do wrong. Two Interviews Interview 1 Interviewer: Do you think you’re a healthy person? Andrew: Yes, I get a cold one or two times a year and that’s all. And I hardly take any medicines. Interviewer: And do you think that’s because of what you eat and the exercise you take? Andrew: Maybe. I try to eat healthy food — fruit, vegetables and lots of salad. I do my best not to overeat and seldom eat sweets or cakes or just junk food. Interviewer: What about smoking? Do you smoke? Andrew: No, I’ve never smoked at all. Interviewer: Do you drink alcohol? Andrew: Yes, but only wine^ Sometimes I have it with my meals. Interviewer: And do you take much exercise? Andrew: I’m afraid not enough. In summer I ride a bicycle^ and in winter I try to do some swimming once a week but I feel that’s not enough. I’m beginning to put on weight. Interview 2 Interviewer: Sarah, you look fine and healthy. Do you think you’re a healthy person? Sarah: Well, I feel healthy. I’m not too bad. Interviewer: And what about smoking? Do you smoke? Sarah: Yes, I still do. Not too much, two or three cigarettes a day. I know it’s a bad habit. I tried to give it up but found it too hard. Interviewer: Do you keep to any diet? S a r a h: Not really because I enjoy my food too much. I like fried^ food and sweet things. It’s difficult to say that my diet is healthy. Interviewer: And what about exercise? Do you jog or play tennis or anything? Sarah: No, I’m afraid I don’t. I try to walk to work and other places. So that’s the only exercise I take. B. Listen to the tape, (63), and read the text again after it. ■ wine — вино ^ a bicycle = bike ■'* fried [fraicij — жареный ^ А. Act out one of the interviews (ex. 10). B. Interview one of your classmates. Ask him or her what they do to keep fit. Русское слово «еще» может передаваться на английский язык двумя словами: still, yet. При этом st/7/ означает «все еще», а yet — «еще не» и употребляется в конце отрицательных предложений. It is 5f///early. — Еще рано. (Все еще...) Не hasn't come yet. — Он еще не пришел. (Еще не...) 185 0 1 (- а. Ф [5f/7/or yet? Which word to choose? 1) I haven’t finished the book ... . 2) John is ... sick. He doesn’t go to school. 3) I ... don’t understand you. Why haven’t you come on time? 4) I came into the room and saw they were ... having tea. 5) I came into the room and saw that they hadn’t finished having tea ... . 6) Where is Steve? — He is ... jogging, I think. 7) Sharon has put on weight but she ... eats too many sweets. 8) I can’t go with you because I’m ... busy. 9) Harris hasn’t left ..., he’s ... in the office. 10) Helen hasn’t taken her medicine .... Do It on Your Own ^ Complete the text. Use past simple or past perfect. Yesterday I (meet) Betty at the bus stop. I (can) hardly believe my eyes. Betty (change) a lot. She (lose) weight. She (become) beautiful. (5) very slim. In fact, she (look) young and Make up one sentence out of two. Use after ot before. 1) I took the medicine. I felt a little better. 2) Jane came to the party (at 6). Nick left (at 5:30). 3) The film began (at 7). We got to the cinema (at 7:15). 4)1 told my parents everything. I felt much better. 5) I learnt it by heart. I found a new poem. 6) I read one of the “Harry Potter” books. I saw the film. step Three Do It Together Ц Listen to the dialogue, (64), and say if the facts are true, false or there is no information about them in the text. 1) Jane hasn’t seen Alice for 5 years. 2) Alice has put on weight. 3) Jane keeps to a diet. 4) Alice doesn’t take a lot of exercise. 5) Alice jogs in the evening. 6) Alice doesn’t have much free time. 7) Alice rides a bike very well. 8) Jane likes sweets very much. Match up the parts of sentences in the two columns. Compare your results. 1) When he had painted the door, 2) After Larry had washed the car, ; 3) When Rose had given up smok- ing, 4) Tommy had come to school 5) Eric didn’t come to the meeting 6) By the time mother returned 7) After Greg had finished his homework. a) he went to play football. b) she began looking much better. c) Terry had washed all the plates. d) it looked as good as new. e) befpre the lesson started. f) because Fred hadn’t phoned him. g) he drove to the city centre. Complete the texts. Use past simple or past perfect of the verbs in brackets. A. When we came home from grandma’s yesterday, our room was in a terrible mess. We (leave) ‘-IIL the window open and the wind (break) the vase. There (be) a lot of small pieces^ of glass on the carpet and the carpet itself (be) wet. a piece [pi:s] — кусочек в After we (paint) the door we (not, put) the boxes with paint where they belonged. We (be) in a hurry as we (have) to meet our friends at the airport at seven p.m. When we (return) home, we (see) that something terrible (happen) AIL.. Our dog Rex (become) yellow in many parts of his body. He definitely (lie) on the sofa or maybe (sleep) on it, as there (be) yellow marks all over. I (put) my new white blouse on the armchair before we (leave) JAL. I (not, have) JilL a fashionable blouse any more. Rex (touch) it too. 187 0^ Ф Q. 01 1, Обрати внимание на то, как происходит перевод прямой речи (direct Speech) в косвенную (reported speech), если глагол, который вводит прямую речь, употребляется в past simple. (1) John said: "I live in New York." Present Simple John said (that) he lived in New York. Past Simple Bob said: "I can't swim." Bob said he couldn't swim. (2) Bob said: "1 am learning French." Bob said he was learning French. We said to Tom: "We are leaving soon." We told Tom we were leaving soon. (3) Ann said: "Jack went home." Ann said Jack had gone home. Ann said to Helen: "I bought a good book." Ann told Helen she had bought a good book. (4) Fred said: "I have done it." Fred explained^ he had done it. Jill said to Ann: "You have made a mistake." Jill explained to Ann that she had made a mistake. 2. Past perfect часто используется в косвенной речи после глаголов said, toid, asked, thought, explained, wondered'^. I said I had never been to India. She asked if John had read the book. Present Progressive Past Progressive Past Simple Past Perfect Present Perfect Past Perfect ’ to explain [ik'splein] — объяснять 2 to wonder ['wAnda] — интересоваться 1 told them I hadn't met Andrew before. She wondered who had left the door open. We thought the Browns had bought a new cottage. They explained that they had lost their keys. I Report what they said. Use the verbs tell, explain. 1) Frank said to Val: “I go jogging every morning.” 2) Mary said to Victor: “Don has caught a cold.” 3) David said to John: “I’m doing my best to learn it by heart.’ 4) Robert said to Polly: “It was interesting.” 5) Alice said to Betty: “I have put on weight.” 6) Harry said to Lena: “We have bought a new disc.” 7) Lizzy said to Kevin: “I had a high temperature.” 8) Sarah said to Kevin: “I don’t know anything.” 9) Rose said to Brian: “We are keeping a healthy diet.” 10) Kate said to Ann: “I can keep your secret.” Если глагол, который вводит прямую речь, стоит в past simple, при переводе прямой речи в косвенную следует помнить о том, что необходимо производить определенные лексические изменения. here -♦ there this that today -* that day ago — before now then these those yesterday — the day before last night (week, year) — the previous [prkvias] night (week, year) Report what John said. Use the verbs ask, wonder, tell, explain. Example; "How long have you been here, Paul?" John wondered how long Paul had been there. 1) I am going to the cinema this afternoon. 2) These days we usually have lunch in the nearby cafe. 3) Jimmy has come to London today. 4) We had a conference on ecology yesterday. 5) I always stay here when I am in Glasgow. 6) Last week I gave up smoking. 7) Where did aunt Polly go last night? 8) Why is Sarah keeping to a diet now? 9) What club did Larry join three days ago? 10) Where were his friends last month? I Mrs Loveday wants to know what these people said. But she can't hear very well. Help her and report their words. Example: Bob: It is dangerous to live here. Bob explained it was dangerous to live there. 189 01 01 a Q) 1) D i a n a: Jane is relaxing now. She is having a holiday on the coast. 2) F r a n k: The population of the city is growing. 3) Mrs Crawford: We have done a lot today. 4) S t e V e: I kept a diary three years ago. 5) M s Evans: These medicines are well-known. 6) Barbara: I bought a new badge yesterday. 7) M a r y: I worked at the factory last year. Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (65), and repeat. swallow ['swolau] — глотать examine [ig'zaemin] — осматривать prescribe [pn'skraib] — прописывать prescription [pn'sknpjsn] — рецепт cure [kjua] — вылечить complication [,котр1Гке(/эп] — осложнение .1 ache [eik] — ноющая, тупая боль, обычно не очень сильная .sneeze [sni:z] — чихать cough [kof] — кашлять pain [pein] — боль painful ['peinfal] — причиняющий боль, болезненный hurt [h3:t] — 1) ушибить, повредить; 2)причинить боль П. ache: а headache, (а) backache, (а) stomachache^ Tanya is ill, she has a high temperature and a headache. sneeze: to sneeze badly. There was a lot of pepper in the salad and Mike began sneezing. cough: to cough badly. Sarah is coughing badly because she has a cold. To have a bad cough. James has been ill for a week but he still has a bad cough. Laura gave a little cough and began speaking. pain: a lot of pain, to give sb a lot of pain, to have a pain in the leg. John was having terrible pains in his left side, painful: a painful operation, painful words. It was painful to look at the sick child. hurt (hurt, hurt): 1) to hurt badly. I hurt my hand when I fell down. Jack hurt his foot playing football. I’ve hurt my toe. 2) My leg hurts. Where does it hurt, Mr Jones? — Just here, doctor. Is that shoe hurting you? — It hurts to walk, swallow: Tim swallowed and answered the question. Irene had a cold and it hurt her to swallow. prescribe: to prescribe some medicines for an earache. Doctor, will you prescribe something for my headache? Alice’s doctor prescribed her some antibiotics [,3entibai'ntiks]. prescription: a prescription for some medicine, to write out a prescription. The doctor has written out a prescription for antibiotics. This prescription is for my headaches. a stomachache ['stAmakeik] — боль в животе examine: to examine a suitcase, to examine a patient. My doctor examined my throat and prescribed a medicine for my cough. After examining the patient. Dr Harris wrote out a prescription. cure: to cure a patient, to cure somebody of something. The old lady says nothing can cure her of her headaches. Unfortunately there is no medicine to cure diabetes [,dai3'bi:ti:z]. complications: to develop complications, to have complications. Viruses ['vaiarasis] can be dangerous because of the complications. Some people develop complications after a cold. 191 01 OJ Answer the questions using the new words. 1) How often do you catch colds? What do you feel when you have a cold? Do you have a headache, an earache or a pain in the stomach? Does it hurt to swallow? Do you usually sneeze or cough when you have a cold? What about your temperature? Is it usually high? 2) Do your parents always call a doctor when you have a cold or catch a virus? What do doctors do when they come to see you? What questions do they usually ask you? What do doctors usually prescribe for your cold or virus? Do they always prescribe some medicine or just ask you to stay in bed and drink warm milk? How long does it usually take to cure a cold? a QJ (Л Прилагательные ill и sick могут характеризовать людей, которые нездоровы. The boy is ill/sick. The children are ill/sick. Однако только одно из них — прилагательное s/c/lr жет употребляться как определение. Сравни: The sick boy had a very high temperature. How long has he been ill/sick? What medicine do sick people take for their colds? I didn't know that your brother was sick/ill. в этом значении мо- А. Read the dialogue and choose the right item in the sentences after it. Dr Gordon: Come in and sit down, Paul. What’s the matter with you? You don’t look your best today. Paul: I’ve got a bad headache, doctor. I’ve been feeling bad since yesterday night. Dr Gordon: Have you taken your temperature? Paul: No, I haven’t. I never have a temperature. Dr Gordon: Never say never, my boy. Let’s take it now. Here is a thermometer. Please tell me more. Are you sneezing or coughing? Is your nose running? Is there any pain in your chest? Paul: No, doctor, I don’t think so. I just have this headache and it hurts me to swallow, just a little. Dr Gordon: Will you open your mouth wide? I’d like to see your throat. I think you’re coming down with a cold, Paul, or maybe you’ve caught a virus. Paul: A virus? My younger sister has been in bed all week with a virus. Dr Gordon: Then it’s very likely that you’ve got it too. Let’s look at your temperature. Tut-tut. What did I tell you? Never say never. Your temperature is 37.8. I’ll write out a prescription. Ask one of your parents to take it to the chemist’s. You need this medicine to bring down the temperature and fight the virus. Paul: What else shall I do, doctor? Dr Gordon: Stay in bed, drink a lot of.warm tea or milk, take the medicine I’ve prescribed and something for your headache. I’ll call tomorrow afternoon and examine you again. Viruses take about a week to cure and may be dangerous because of their complications. Paul: Thank you for your time. Doctor. Dr Gordon: Get well, Paul. I’ll see you tomorrow. b) a temperature b) two problems b)throat b) prescription for a medicine 1) Paul comes to see Doctor Gordon because he has .... a) a headache 2) Paul has just.... a) one problem 3) The doctor examines Paul’s a) nose 4) The doctor gives Paul a ... . a) medicine 5) The doctor is ... . a) going to visit Paul soon b) asking Paul to come to his office again B. Listen to the tape, (66), and read the dialogue again after it. C Act out the dialogue. ВЭ Make up these dialogues. a) mother and daughter / son • have a problem • call the doctor • have a pain in my /your/ chest • cough • take /my/ your temperature • go to the chemist’s • buy a medicine for your /my/ cough b) doctor and patient • hurt to walk • fall down while playing basketball • examine the leg • stay at home • write out a prescription • rub the medicine in c) two pupils (on the telephone) • stay home from school • stay in bed • have a temperature • come down with a cold • cough and sneeze • take a lot of medicines • get better 193 a* Ф a Ф 7~A(|)aiiact»<*Ha, 8 lyi. Do It on Your Own Complete the sentences. 1) What do you usually take ... your headache? 2) Wait a second. I want to write ... two or three prescriptions for you. 3) What’s the matter? — I’m afraid I’m coming down ... a cold. 4) I hope this medicine will be able to bring ... your temperature. 5) What do doctors usually prescribe ... earache? 6) Cough sweets can cure you ... a painfully sore throat. 7) What’s this prescription ...? — My painful coughing. 8) I have a bad pain ... my chest. What shall I do? D Write a short story about how you came down with a cold. Step Four Do It Together Q Listen to the tape, (67), and match the names with the pictures. p\v\VW Mary Kevin Jack Mr Smith Ml 195' Э О а ф j Paraphrase these 1) to have a pain in the back 2) to have a pain in the stomach 3) to have a pain in the ear 4) to have a pain in the head 5) to have a pain in the tooth [ How do you know that you are coming down with a cold? What do you usually do to get better? I Yesterday Richard felt he was coming down with a cold. He went to see his doctor. Read the dialogue and then report the doctor's questions and Richard’s answers. Use the verbs to ask, to explain, to say, to tell, to think, to wonder. Doctor: Next, please. Ah, good morning, Richard. What can I do for you today? Richard: Well, doctor, I have a running nose and it hurts to swallow. Doctor: I see. And your cough sounds bad. How long have you had it? When did you begin coughing like that? Richard: Sorry, I don’t remember, doctor. 7* Doctor: All right. Let me take your temperature first. Oh, you’re running a temperature, Richard. I think you have got a virus. Richard: What can I take to bring down the temperature, doctor? Doctor: Well, I am going to prescribe some medicine for your temperature. Take this medicine three times a day after meals^. Richard: Thank you, doctor. Goodbye. Doctor: Goodbye, Richard. Next, please. =C' Обрати внимание на изменения, которые происходят в глагольных формах при переводе предложений из прямой речи в косвенную, если глагол, который вводит прямую речь, аоит в past simple. Kevin said: "I have been coughing for a week." Kevin explained he had been coughing for a week. Alice asked Bob: "How long have you been taking this medicine?" Alice wondered how long Bob had been taking that medicine. . • Alice asked Bob how long he had been taking that medicine. present perfect progressive past perfect progressive present perfect progressive > past perfect progressive IA lot of patients^ came to see Dr Morrison last Friday. They all had had some problems for some time. Report what Dr Morrison said about his patients' problems. Use the verbs to explain, to think. Example: Dr Morrison said: "John has been sneezing for two days." Dr Morrison said John had been sneezing for two days. 1) Dr Morrison said: “Jane has been coughing for a week.” 2) Dr Morrison said: “Alice has been taking aspirin for three days.” 3) Dr Morrison said: “Bob’s leg has been hurting him for a month.” 4) Dr Morrison said: “Mrs Gatewood has been putting on weight for a year.” ' after meals [mi;lz] — после еды 2 a patient ['peijont] — пациент 5) Dr Morrison said: “Mr Williams has been overworking himself for a long time.” 6) Dr Morrison said: “Ms Sandfrod has been trying to give up smoking for four months.” I Say what questions Dr Morrison asked his patients. Example: Dr Morrison wanted to know if his patient was coughing. — Are you coughing? 1) Dr Morrison wondered how long his patient had been coughing. 2) Dr Morrison asked if his patient often had headaches. 3) Dr Morrison wanted to know if his patient was feeling worse. 4) Dr Morrison wondered if his patient had had any pain in that side before. 5) Dr Morrison asked how long his patient had been keeping to a diet of vegetables and fruit. 6) Dr Morrison asked why his patient hadn’t come to see him earlier. 7) Dr Morrison wanted to know how long his patient had been overworking himself. 8) Dr Morrison asked what medicines his patient had been taking. 9) Dr Morrison wondered who had prescribed those medicines. 10) Dr Morrison wondered if the medicines were helping. { Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (68), and repeat. Э о a OJ pastime ['pa:staim] — времяпровождение team — команда support [s3'po:t] — 1) u поддерживать; 2) n поддержка race [reis] — 1) n гонка, бег на скорость; 2)v участвовать в гонке, в состязании на скорость, бегать наперегонки climb [klaim] — 1) u лазить. подниматься; 2) п подъем, восхождение advantage [ad'vointi^] — преимущество thrill [6п1] — 1) л дрожь, трепет, восторг; 2)v заставить трепетать excitement [ik'saitmant] — возбуждение, волнение score [sko:] — 1) u выиграть (очко), забить (гол); 2) п счет (в игре) в. pastime: an unusual pastime, Mary’s favourite pastime. We played word games in the car as a pastime during the long drive, team: a football team, a popular team, a famous team. A football match is between two teams of players. support: 1) to support the government, to support each other, to support the family. Mr Donovan has to support a large family. Do many people siapport that candidate? Which football team do you support? 2) to show support, to give support. My friends gave me real support during the difficult times. race: 1) an important race, a difficult race, famous motor races (horse races). Our horse won the race. 2) to race someone. The two cliildren raced each other to school. Will you race me to that tree? climb: 1) to climb the mountains, to climb the hills. The boys climbed the tree and fell down. 2) A long climb up the mountain. The trip includes a climb up the volcano. advantage: an advantage, to give an advantage, to have an advantage over sb, to get an advantage. The home team always have an advantage over their opponents. Quick thinking is an advantage in many professions. thrill: a great thrill, a pleasant thrill; to give (get) a thrill. Seeing the ocean for the first time gave me a great thrill. It was a thrill to see the famous runner in person. excitement: real excitement, great excitement. We could hardly sleep because of our excitement about starting the trip tomorrow. There was great excitement when the teacher told us about the coming trip. score: 1) to score a point (some points), to score a goal (some goals). I scored twenty points in the game. Who scored the goal? 2) The final score. What’s the score? The final score was 5 to 4. I Match the items in the two columns. 1) what you like to do when you are not working 2) a group of people who play sports together on one side 3) to move up, down or across sth using hands and feet 4) to help 5) to run to find out who is (the) fastest a) climb b) support c) race d) team e) pastime Q A. Read the text and decide which of these titles is the best for it. a) Sport and People b) Popular Sports c) Sport and Health Sport is one of the most popular pastimes all over the world. Lots of people watch sports programmes on television, support their teams at stadiums ['steidismz] and go in for different kinds of sport. Some sports are common, others are not. It is difficult to find a person who has not heard about such team games as football or basketball or such athletics [aeG'letiks] as running and jumping. At the same time there are sports and games that are less common, for example motor races, rock climbing and parachute ['pseraju:!] jumping are not to everyone’s tasteh Going in for sport gives you a lot of advantages. It gives you physical [Tizikal] exercise, you spend a lot of time in the open air, you meet people who enjoy the same sport. Just think of the excitement of the moment when your favourite footballer scores a goal at the last moment of the match. B. Look at the pictures and match them with the names of sports and games. 199 Э о a d> 1. 3. * are not to everyone’s taste = not everybody likes them sports a) boxing b) cycling c) long jumping d) figure skating e) weight lifting f) judo g) water skiing games h) golf i) baseball j) ice hockey k) volleyball l) badminton m) water polo n) rugby C Read the text again and say which of these facts are not in it. 1) Sport is an activity that most people know of and enjoy. 2) The most popular sports in England. 3) Some sports are more popular than others. 4) Sports that are more useful than others. 5) Why people go in for sport. 6) Some of the best-known athletes. Слово sport означает спортивную деятельность в самом широком смысле, в этом значении это существительное является неисчисляемым. Do you like sport? Going in for sport is very good for children. У слова sport еаь и другое значение — «вид спорта». В этом значении оно исчисляемое. Football is а popular sport. Basketball has always been one of school sports. В функции определения перед существительным всегда используй форму sports', sports jacket, sports club, sports news. из In what sports do they use them? 1) balls: big balls, smaller balls 2) skates 3) rackets 4) racing cars 5) horses Q Answer the questions. 1) What traditional Russian games do you know? 2) What sports and games are most popular in Russia now? 3) What sports are new or uncommon in this country? 4) What summer and winter sports do you know? 5) What sports would you enjoy most? Why? 6) What famous Russian and foreign athletes do you know? In what sports did they become famous? 7) What sports are the most dangerous and the least dangerous? 8) What water sports do you know? 9) What team games do teenagers^ usually play in Russian schools? 10) Why is it necessary for teenagers to go in for sport? 11) Are there enough stadiums, gyms and swimming baths in the place where you live? 12) What can local and national governments do to make sport more popular? Э о a Ф a teenager ['tiinei^a] — подросток Do It on Your Own IQ This is what Julia, a famous sportswoman said about herself in an interview. Report it to your friends. Example: Julia said she had always liked sport. I have always liked sport. I have been skating for about ten years now. I have won some medals and prizes. At this moment I am preparing for something very important. I am going to skate for my town. My friends and I hope to win again. We have been training for two months very hard. I think we are in good form. Write these in English. Иметь преимущество над своим другом, взбираться на гору, забить гол, выиграть очко, настоящее волнение, скачки, мое любимое времяпровождение, вызвать трепет (возбуждение), поддерживать друг друга, трудные гонки, бежать с Анной наперегонки, получить настоящую поддержку, трудное восхождение. Step Five Do It Together Q Listen to the tape, (69), and say if the facts about Laila All are true, false or there is no information about them. 1) Muhammad Ali is a famous boxer. 2) He has 9 children. 3) He doesn’t like the idea of women boxers. 4) People were very interested in Laila’s first fight. 5) Muhammad Ali came to see his daughter’s first fight. 6) April Fowler was Laila’s opponent during the first fight. 7) Laila’s first fight lasted less than a minute. 8) Laila has a talent for boxing. [ Listen to the song, (70), and sing along. We Shall Overcome^ We shall overcome, we shall overcome. We shall overcome some day. Oh, deep in my heart^ I do believe That we shall overcome some day. We shall live in peace, we shall live in peace. We shall live in peace some day. Oh, deep in my heart I do believe That we shall overcome some day. We’ll walk hand in hand, we’ll walk hand in hand. We’ll walk hand in hand some day. Oh, deep in my heart I do believe That we shall overcome some day. 01 > Q. 01 При описании занятий различными видами спорта в английском языке часто используется структура to do sth.: to do boxing to do high jumping to do water skiing to do jumping to do figure skating to do horse riding to do long jumping to do weightlifting I Say what it thrills the teenagers to do. Example: It thrills Bob to do mountain climbing. Jane * to overcome [,эиуэ'к\т] ^ a heart [hcct] — сердце Work with a partner. Ask and answer. Report what your partner has said. • Do you take enough exercise? What exercise? How often do you go to the stadium? to the swimming bath? • What is your favourite pastime? Have you ever tried to do mountain climbing? When was it? Do you like playing football? Are you a member of the school team? Do you support your school team when they play? • Do you go in for sport? What sport? Does it thrill you to watch motor races? horse races? Do you know any favourite sportsmen or sportswomen? • Do you think about your diet? Do you eat things that are good (bad) for you? Do you have enough sleep? Do you take a lot of medicine? Are you healthy? How often do you see your doctor? Ф > Q. Ф =C] обрати внимание, что при переводе предложений, содержащих future simple, из прямой речи в косвенную вспомогательные глаголы will и shall изменяются соответственно на would и should, если глагол в основном предложении употребляется в past simple. John said; "I will have an advantage over Bob." future simple John said he would have an advantage over Bob. future-in-the-past We said: "We shall win the game." future simple We said we should win the game. future-in-the-past Alice said: "I shall race Pat to the tree." future simple Alice said she would race Pat to the tree. future-in-the past Report what they said. Use these verbs. tell wonder think want (to know) Jenny said: “I will play water polo next Sunday.” Peter said: “We shall support our team tomorrow.” John said: “I shall do a lot of physical exercise soon.’ Val said: “I shall go to the stadium in the evening.” Robert asked: “Shall we go cycling on Saturday?” Mr Cook asked: “Will they play rugby next week?” Mrs Evans asked: “Where shall we meet?” Miss Ford said: “Who will win the game?” Ms Cox asked: “Who will play golf?” I Bob and John have different life styles^ Which of them do you think has an advantage and why? Example: Bob has an advantage over John because Bob is strong and active and John is weak. is fond of playing water polo and rugby gets up early goes to a swimming bath 3 times a week does mountain climbing in spring keeps to a healthy diet goes to the stadium regularly does a lot of physical exercise is strong and active ' life style [stall] — образ жизни : In column A there are some words you know. What do the words in column В mean? A. 1) History is an interesting science. 2) Sports like running, jumping are athletics. 3) I shall never forget my excitement when I first entered the Bolshoi Theatre. 4) The head is above the neck. B. write books 1) Historians about history. 2) Many athletes take part in the Olympic Games. My grandparents are very athletic, they love to swim and ice-skate. 3) The tickets to the zoo will excite the children. Paul was excited about his first trip in a plane. What exciting news! 4) Our best hockey player heads the school sport. 207 01 > O. Ш I Learn some new words and word combinations. Listen to the tape, (71), and repeat. A. ancient ['einjant] — древний compete [kam'piit] — соревноваться competition [,knmpi4if9n] — соревнование performance [,рэТэ:тэп5] — выступление, исполнение, представление event [I'vent] — событие, спортивное состязание war [wo:] — война peace [pi:s] — мир B. ancient: ancient times, ancient Greece, an ancient city. There are ancient walls around the old city of York. compete: to compete in the race, to compete with/against each other. The two sisters always compete with each other. to take part in — принимать участие в to take place — иметь место, происходить hero ['Нтэгэи] — герой organize ['o:g3naiz] — организовывать noble ['пэиЬэ1] — благородный field [fi:ld] — поле battle [Лэзе!!] — сражение honour ['ппэ] — честь competition; an important competition, to win the competition. Our team was in competition with three others. I think Г11 enter the swimming competition. performance: an evening performance, an afternoon performance, the actor’s performance. We all enjoyed last night’s performance of the school play. His performance of/as Othello [э'0е1эи] was very good. event: an important event. The first day at school is a big event in a child’s life. The next event will be the high jump, war: at war, to start a war, to go to war. In 1775 England was at war with her American colonies. They were a warlike nation, peace: Peace on the planet is very important for all of us. hero: to become a hero, a national hero. The winners of the Olympic Games are national heroes. organize: to organize a meeting, to organize a trip. Our teacher has organized a class trip to Stratford-upon-Avon, organization: She is busy with the organization of her daughter’s party. The letters UNO stand for the United Nations Organization. noble: a noble person, a noble profession, a noble family, noble thoughts. Mr Patrik Morgan comes from a noble family, field: a green field, in the field, on a football field. We could see a farmer in the field. The players have just come out onto the football field. battle: to fight a battle, the Battle of Trafalgar. Battles happen during wars. The two armies fought a battle, honour: a great honour, a big honour. He is a man of honour. It is a great honour to meet you. take part in: Who will take part in the swimming competition? John hardly ever takes part in our meetings, take place: The meeting took place on 17 March. What took place after the performance? =0 Обрати внимание на употребление предлогов со словом field. in the field — на поле on the football field — на футбольном поле on the battle field — на поле боя Use the new words and make the sentences complete. 1) Our team will c... with the best athletes of the town. 2) Who will take p... in our concert? 3) All the people of Russia remember the b... of Stalingrad which took p... in 1943. 4) I have never seen any international boating c... . 5) Where shall we go after the p...? 6) The two countries have never been at w... . 7) Many people say that Pavel Bure is our national h... . 8) Andrei Dmitrievich Saharov was a man of h... . 9) We drove past large green f...s and could see bright yellow dandelions here and there. 10) What do you know about the B... of Trafalgar? about the B... of Waterloo? 11) Mahatma Gandi, the n... leader of the Indian people, is famous all over the world. 12) Have you read “W... and P...” by Leo Tolstoy? 13) The a... castle gave the city of Newcastle its name. 14) Greenpeace is a world-famous ecological o... . 209 Ф > Q, ДЗ The text " The Olympic Garnet' falls into two parts. Read the text and make up titles for these parts. CITIUS 99 FORTIUS ALTIUS The Olympic Games a) ... The Olympic Games are an international sports festival that began in ancient Greece. In those days Greek games took place every four years. They included not only sports competitions but also competitions in music, oratory^ and theatre performances. The earliest information about the Olympic Games goes back to 776 BC, but historians think that the Games began long before that. The ancient Olympics had only one athletic event — a footrace or a race for runners of about 183 metres (the length of the stadium). Only men could compete or watch the Games. During the Games there was peace in the country. When the powerful, warlike^ Spartans began to compete, they changed the programme of the Games and included more sports in it. The winners of the Games became national heroes. The Roman emperor-'^ Theodosius [Ois'dausjss] ended the Olympics in 394 AD because he thought that they were a pagan'* festival . b) ... In the 19**' century the French nobleman Pierre de Coubertin ['pjer da 'киЬз:1эп] got the idea to bring the Olympic Games back to life. With the help of the people who supported him he organized the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. They were a success. Athletes from thirteen countries came to Greece to compete in nine sports. Russia took part in them, too. Now the number of countries taking part in the Olympic Games is much larger and so is the number of sports in which athletes compete. Like in ancient times, the Olympic Games take place every four years, yet in 1926 the tradition of the Winter Olympic Games also began. The noble idea of the Olympic Games-is to make all people friends by com- * oratory ['oratari] — ораторское искусство ^ warlike = liking war * an emperor ['empara] — император * pagan ['peigan] — языческий peting on football fields, courts and stadiums. The International Olympic Committee [ks'miti] (IOC) heads the Olympic movement. Among other things the Committee chooses the place for the coming Olympics. It is a great honour for a city to become an Olympic one. The Olympic Games are probably the most important international sports event. Millions of people watch them, supporting their favourite teams and athletes. Many things have changed but like in ancient times winners of the Olympics become national heroes in their countries. B. Listen to the tape, (72), and read the text again after it. ^Read the text "The Olympic Garnet' again and make up questions to which these are answers. 1) ...? — In ancient Greece. 2) ...? — Every four years. 3) ...? — No. They also included competitions in music, oratory and theatre performances. 4) ...? — Only one. It was a footrace. 5) ...? — In 394 AD. 6) ...? — Because he believed that they were unchristian. 7) ...? — His name was Pierre de Coubertin. 8) ...? — Yes. He had some supporters. 9) ...? — In 1896. 10) ...? — In Greece. 11) ...? — The IOC. 12) ...? — They choose the city for the next Olympics. 23 A. What were ancient Olympic Games like and what are modern Olympic Games like? Compare them. Example: In ancient times only one country took part in the Olympic Games. Now a lot of countries do it. B. Do you know anything about the latest* Olympic Games? Together with your classmates remember • in what city they took place and when • which of the countries won the most medals 211 a Ф latest ['leitist] — последние, недавние what athletes were successful how good was the Russian team what competition or match you remember best and why Social Епд11Щ5^ [l^ A Learn to make proposals and react to them. Making proposals • Let’s watch the final match on TV, • What/How about playing a game of tennis? • I feel like jogging this morning, will you join me? • Why don’t you play for the school team? • Why not take part in this race? Saying yes • I’d love to (do it). • I’d be glad to (do it). • I’d like that very much. • That sounds good. •OK. •All right. • With pleasure ['р1езэ]. Saying no • I’m afraid I can’t. • I’d love to but I’m afraid I can’t. • I’m sorry but I really can’t. B. Work with a partner. Make a proposal. Say yes or no. Your idea is that • he/she should spend a quiet evening at home • you both should play a game of chess • he/she should start doing some physical exercise • he/she should learn to play baseball • you both should watch the hockey match on TV • he/she should join the school athletic club • he/she should take part in the 100 meter race • he/she should take pictures of the skiing competition • you both should try to keep fit Do It on Your Own Q Use prepositions where necessary. 1) Richard has an advantage ... his friends, he goes ... the stadium regularly. 2) Everyone knows that it’s very hard to climb ... Everest. 3) I am afraid that ice hockey is not quite ... my taste. 4) You say you are a good runner. Race me ... the school building and we shall see. 5) How many countries took part ... the latest Olympic Games? 6) The boy who has won ... the 100 meter race is my best friend. 7) I can see two cows ... the field. 8) Lookl The two teams are already ... the football field. They have just come out... it. 9) The Battle ... Waterloo took place in 1815 near Brussels, Belgium. 10) We are competing ... our neighbours, school 1220, in basketball. 213 Ф > a Ф Step One Do It Together Ц Listen to the tape, [«] (73). and put the right names into these sentences. Their Free Time 1) ... does maths after school. 2) ... has very little free time because there are two young children in the house. 3) ... meets friends at weekends. 4) ... does a lot of sport. 5) ... likes to spend free time with friends. 6) ... travels about the country at weekends. I How would you answer these questions about your free time? You and Your Free Time 1) How much free time do you have? a) more than 3 hours a day b) between 1 and 3 hours a day c) less than 1 hour a day 2) Do you budget^ your free time? a) yes b) no c) sometimes 3) In what way do you prefer to spend your free time? 215 f) do sport g) spend it on self-education h) spend it on your family i) spend it some other way a) stay indoors and relax b) watch TV and video films c) read books d) meet your friends e) travel 4) What is your usual pastime or pastimes? 5) Are you happy about the way you spend your free time? a) yes b) no c) not always 6) What would you like to change? o< c о a Ф The Passive Voice^ Bee уже известные тебе глагольные формы были использованы в так называемом активном залоге (the active voice), когда глагол показывает, что действие выполняется лицом или предметом, выраженным подлежащим. ’ Richard broke the window yesterday. Susan wrote the project last Sunday. Однако, когда говорящий либо не знает, кто совершает действие, либо не придает этому значения, в предложении обычно используется страдательный залог (the passive voice). В английском языке арадательный залог образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be и третьей формы основного глагола. ’ to budget [ЪлфИ] — распределять ^ the passive voice — страдательный залог Для прошедшего времени это; was/were translated = был/были переведены was/were played = был/были сыграны was/were shown = был/были показаны was/were read = был/были прочитаны Если же возникает необходимость назвать лицо, которое совершает действие, пользуются предлогом by. The book was written Joanne Rowling. Обрати внимание, что одно и то же предложение в страдательном залоге может переводиться на русский язык по-разному. The letter was sent last evening. 1) Письмо было отослано вчера вечером. 2) Письмо отослали вчера вечером. I Translate these sentences into Russian. 1) The castle was built in the I?*** century. 2) The books were brought from the library. 3) The lunch was eaten in no time. 4) These cameras were made in Japan. 5) The English language was spoken only in England in the 16^** century. 6) The living room was cleaned an hour ago. 7) Two bottles of mineral water were drunk because it was very hot. 8) The vegetables were brought in the morning. 9) The boy was asked to come back at 9 p.m. 10) The work was done at once. 11) America was discovered in 1492. I Change the sentences in the active voice into passive. Example: The team played the match very well. The match was played very well (by the team). 1) John found a small silver box in the garden. 2) Mr Morrison hung the picture on the wall. 3) Jason learnt the poem by heart, 4) Our school football team won the final match with the score 5:2. 5) The girls did the exercises after class. 6) Barbara took these pictures while travelling in Africa. 7) Jane chose the blue dress because it was longer. 8) Mr Harrison built the cottage at the beginning of the 19‘^ century. 9) Alice cut the cake into small pieces. 10) Mrs Biggs kept the old letters in a small green box. I Look at the sentences and say how negations and questions are made in the passive voice. The floor was not cleaned last night, The cars were not washed in the evening. Was the book bought last weekend? Were the churches built last century? When were the apples bought? [Wh?J Where was the car made? Why were the letters burnt? I Disagree’ with the statements. Correct them using the passive voice. Example; The teacher collected the projects. | not the teacher, the students — No, he didn't. The projects were not collected by the teacher, they were collected by the students. 1) Professor Jackson informed everybody about the lecture. 2) John broke their mother’s favourite vase. 3) Little Sarah built a small sand-castle on the beach. 4) Emma painted the door yellow. 5) Tourists killed a lot of dodos. 6) Marion took two eggs from the fridge. 7) Henry scored the last goal in the game. 8) Mr Jason preferred Plan A to Plan B. 9) Miss Harper included Tom on the list. not Professor Jackson, Professor Davidson not John, Florence not Sarah, little Alice not Emma, her little brother Steve not tourists, sailors not Marion, Sharon not Henry, Max not Plan A, Plan В not Tom, Boris 217 Ф C О Q. Ф ^ to disagree [,diS3'gri:] — не соглашаться, возражать Ask questions to get more information about these facts. Give answers. Example: Kevin's plan was supported. When was his plan supported? Where was his plan supported? By whom was the plan supported? Why was the plan supported? 1) The poem was written. 2) The sandcastle was built. 3) The story was told. 4) The new land was discovered, 5) Some species of animals were killed. 6) A lot of historic facts were remembered. 7) The trees were cut down. 8) A lot of power stations were built. 9) Some rivers were polluted. 10) Some money was collected. Last week. At the Congress. By everyone. It was really good. Work in pairs. Ask and answer. You want to know 1) when America was discovered a) 1392 b) 1492 c) 1429 2) on what continents rainforests were mostly destroyed a) Europe c) North America b) Australia d) South America e) Asia 3) when “Eugene Onegin” was written a) 1823—1831 b) 1832—1837 c) 1810—1819 4) when Moscow was founded^ a) 1047 b)1147 c) 1417 5) when the electron was discovered a) 1807 b) 1877 ' c) 1897 6) when the second World War was finished a) 1945 b) 1948 c) 1946 7) by whom “Robinson Crusoe” was written a) Daniel Defo b) Jonathan Swift c) Rudyard Kipling to found [faund] — основывать 8) when the first clock was made a) in the early Middle Ages b) in the late Middle Ages c) in ancient times 9) where the Eiffel Tower was built a) Dijon b) Lion c) Paris 10) by whom “The Mona Lisa” was painted a) Michelangelo bmaikal'aend^alau] b) Leonardo da Vinci [Дгэ'псгЬэи da'vmtji] c) Raffaello Santi [Taefei9lD:,saenti] 11) when “The Mona Lisa” was painted a) 1603 b) 1403 c) 1503 12) when the first plane was flown by the Wright brothers a) 1903 b) 1913 c) 1923 I Listen to the tape, (74), and read what these people say about their interests. Whose interests do you share’? Hi! I’m Nina. I go to school in St. Petersburg. My school is not usual. We study a lot of chemistry and biology. Biology is my favourite subject. I have always been interested in wildlife. After school I spend most of my time in the club. We call ourselves “Young Biologists”. We meet two times a week to discuss some interesting problems. During school holidays we go to different places where we can watch wildlife and study their ecology. I keep some pets at home too. I like playing with them and looking after^ them. I’m Mark. I live in Liverpool, England. My hobby is music. We have the Beatles Museum in Liverpool which I have visited many times. I have a big collection of books about the musicians and a lot of their recordings^. I think there is nothing that I don’t know about the group. Of 219 c о Q. Ф ’ to share [/еэ] — разделять ^ to look after — заботиться ® a recording — запись all the musicians I like John Lennon most- He had many hit songs. Lennon was killed in 1980 by a mad^ fanatic. But people in different countries remember him. Hi there! I’m Andy Scott. I come from Sacramento, California, USA. I think I spend all my free time playing basketball. I play for the school team and they say that I’m one of the best players. I go to the stadium to watch basketball games with my dad or with my friends. I support the LA Lakers, they are the best team in the NBA^. If I can ever play for Lakers, I’ll be the happiest person in the world. My name is Denis. I live in Vladivostok in the east of Russia. My hobby is computers. I got a computer two years ago and now I spend a lot of my free time in front of it. Sometimes my friends and I go to the Internet cafe and surf the net^. I used to play a lot of computer games but now I think they are rather boring. Using the computer helps me with my school as I can get all the information I need from the Internet. I’m Julia and I come from Scotland. I have a hobby that is not very common nowadays — I read books. Very few of my classmates do any reading at all. They prefer television or videos but I love reading a lot. I go to the local library and read books there. I’m very lucky because my parents have a good home library and I can take any book I like. My friends call me a bookworm^ but they like it when I tell them what I have read in books. I think I could spend all my life reading. That’s the most exciting pastime I can think of. * mad — безумный, сумасшедший * NBA = National Basketball Association ^ to surf the net = to move from site to site on the Internet * a bookworm ['bukw3:m] — книжный червь ш Speak about your hobby or favourite pastime and find out who else in your class is interested in the same activity. I have always been interested in ... . I spend a lot of time (doing something).... I have a big collection of ... . There is very little that I don’t know about.... It’s a rather (un)common hobby. I think it’s an exciting pastime. Do It on Your Own 221 Ф C О о. О) I The active voice or the passive voicel 1) a) Cristopher Columbus (discover) America in 1492. b) Nobody knows when this fact (discover). 2) a) The Post Office Tower in London (build) in 1964. b) It (build) to make the telephone and television systems of the British Capital better, c) Who (build) the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow? 3) a) The small island (not, show) on the map. b) Mrs Pitkin (not, show) me her garden when I came to visit her. 4) a) Mr Woodriff (paint) very good portraits when he was younger. b) A lot of strange animals (paint) on the wall. We couldn’t see all of them. 5) Jonathan Swift (write) “Gulliver’s Travels” in the 18*^ century, “Battle of the Books” (write) by him too. Щ Write these sentences in the passive voice. 1) People grew this coffee in Brazil. 2) Someone made this piano in the 18“' century. 3) Somebody sent a Christmas postcard to me. 4) Somebody bought a lot of vegetables and put them in the fridge. 5) Andrew took us to the living room. 6) People killed the last dodo many years ago. 7) They built a new hospital in our city last month. 8) People translated this book into many languages. 9) They taught reading in the first form. Step Two Do It Together Ц Listen to the text, (75), about William Shakespeare and his home town and say which facts are true, false or not mentioned’' in it. 1) William Shakespeare was born in 1546. 2) One of William’s grandfathers was a farmer. 3) William’s family was not poor. 4) William went to a grammar school. 5) In the 16''^' century Stratford was a rather small town. 6) There were about 2,000 houses in it. 7) Stratford stands on a river. 8) The name of the river is Avon. 9) Now Stratford is a tourist centre. 10) The house where William Shakespeare was born is a museum now. 11) In the museum one can see not only some 16‘^ century books but also a collection of 16**’ century clothes. 12) The museum garden is not a usual one. On Saturday the Greens had lots of things to do. they worked very hard and at the end of the day everything was done. What was done by the Greens? Example: Mr Green spent two hours washing the car, so the car was washed. 1) Mr Green spent the afternoon making a bench, so ... . 2) Mrs Green spent a lot of time planting the flowers and cutting the grass, so ... . 3) Jake Green spent an hour and a half painting the garage, so ... . 4) Margo Green spent three hours cleaning the windows in the house, so ... . 5) Barbara Green spent the afternoon preparing dinner for the family, so ... . to mention ['menjan] — упоминать 6) Sam Green spent a few hours building a new garage roof, so ... . 7) Young Polly Green spent all the afternoon making and hanging new curtains, so ... . В английском языке в пассивном залоге употребляются только те глаголы, после которых может следовать прямое или косвенное дополнение. I saw him at school yesterday. He was seen at school yesterday. John told me about it. I was told about it. Заметь, что в значении «мне сказали» возможна только английская фраза "/ и/(35 told". (Соответственно, he was told — ему сказали, she was told — ей сказали и т. д.) Глагол says этом значении не употребляется. Глаголы типа соте, до, live, s/Ги т. д. в пассивном залоге не употребляются. Не came home late. Jack went to the library a minute ago. I Change the active voice into the passive voice where it is possible^ 1) A beautiful town lay on the river. 2) Someone remembered these facts. 3) The valley stretched for miles. 4) People built a lot of skyscrapers in New York. 5) People saved some extinct animals and their habitats. 6) A small polar bear lived in the city zoo. 7) My granny grows daisies and pansies in her garden. 8) Dick travelled to Australia last spring. 9) What happened in the class yesterday? 10) They discovered a small island in the middle of the lake. 223 о S Q. OJ Обрати внимание, что если предложение в активном залоге содержит два дополнения, прямое и косвенное, то в пассивном залоге возможны два варианта. 1. They gave Andy an apple. ( The active voice.) — Они дали Энди яблоко. An apple was given to Andy. Andy was given an apple. { The passive voice.) — Энди дали яблоко. where it is possible — где это возможно т Мне показали новый словарь. 2. Someone showed me а new dictionary. — Кто-то показал мне новый словарь. А new dictionary was shown to me. I was shown a new dictionary. При этом второй вариант является более употребительным. Сравни: 1 was told а very interesting story. — Мне рассказали очень интересную историю. They were asked about the score of the game. — Их спросили о счете игры. Sarah was given two sweets. — Cape дали две конфеты. Bob was shown the new library. — Бобу показали новую библиотеку. I Read the sentences and say how present simple passive is formed. Then translate the sentences into Russian. I am told to come back at 5. Coffee is grown in Brazil. Butter and cheese are made from milk. African languages are not usually taught in Russian schools. I am not included in the team. This poem is not translated into French. Are the Hobsons invited to your party? Is English spoken here? ©Why are you asked to go there? What kind of music is played at Christmas in your country? Change the active voice into passive. 1) We form the passive voice with the help of the verb to be. 2) People grow oranges in Italy. 3) They build a lot of new houses in our country. 4) People often make tables of plastic ['plaestik]. 5) They translate the Harry Potter books into many languages. 6) They don’t teach foreign languages at this primary school. 7) They don’t show such films on TV. 8) My granny doesn’t grow tomatoes here. 9) People don’t build tall buildings on this island. 10) What questions does your teacher usually ask you in class? 11) Do you hear such melodies here? 12) What books do they usually buy for their children? 13) Does Mr Ross usually invite his neighbours to his parties? 14) What poems do the pupils learn by heart in the form? Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, (76), and repeat. circus ['s3:kas] — цирк connect [ks'nekt] — соединять, подключать consider [kan'sida] — считать, полагать (рассматривать, тщательно обдумывать) appear [э'рхэ] — появляться play [р1ет] — пьеса audience ['oidians] — аудитория, публика, зрители as well — также, тоже by and by — постепенно 1 entertainment [,еп1эЧеттэп1] — развлечение act [aekt] — 1) действовать, поступать; 2) играть в пьесе или фильме possible ['posibsl] — возможный impossible [im'pnsibsl] — невозможный god [god] — бог recite [ri'sait] — декламировать, читать наизусть introduce [,intr9'dju:s] — представлять кого-либо, вводить куда-то В entertainment: real entertainment, the usual entertainment, the world of entertainment, to enjoy entertainment. I think all people enjoy entertainment. Let’s take a look at the world of entertainment. Cinema is the entertainment of the 20*'*' century, act: to act as sb, to act quickly, to act in a performance. We have talked enough, it’s time to act. Helen sometimes acts as her father’s secretary. A famous actor, a popular actress, possible: a possible visit, it is possible that..., if (it is) possible, as soon as possible, when/whenever possible, where/wherever possible. Everything is possible. I relax with a good book wherever possible. impossible: impossible children. It is impossible for elephants to fly. god: In ancient Greece people had a lot of gods. Mars was the Roman god of war. 225 о S a Ф в“Лфаиасьена. 8 кл. God {no plural): God is the being who made the world and controls all things. recite: to recite a poem, to recite a dialogue. Alice had to recite her poem in front of her class. introduce: to introduce sb to sb, to introduce actors to a play. My parents introduced me to their guests. Let me introduce myself. He introduced himself as Doctor Desmond Morton, circus: to go to the circus, to take sb to the circus. My little granddaughter asks me to take her to the circus again, connect: to connect sth to/with sth (sb), to connect the printer to the computer, to connect the two farms. How are you connected with the business? We are not connected to the Internet, consider: to consider facts, to consider doing sth. Max is considering my idea. I’m seriously considering leaving the company. Professor Harvey is considered (to be) a real expert, appear: to appear on television (in the film), to appear from the room, to appear from behind the tree. One day a stranger appeared on my doorstep. disappear: to disappear suddenly. The sun disappeared behind the clouds. reappear = to appear again.. play: a modern play, a funny play, an exciting play. People believe that Shakespeare wrote 37 plays. audience: an unusual audience, a thankful audience, a young audience. Audiences all over the world loved Chaplin’s films, offer: to offer entertainment, to offer a cup of coffee, to offer to help. They haven’t offered me the job yet. We’ll be happy to offer you all the help we can. as well = too = also. Buy some potatoes, please, and some carrots as well. by and by = after a short time. By and by they got to know each other. I Complete the rows of words. Л. answer (a) possible to act in a circus to connect to consider to appear nations the problem in a play 227 1) read (..., ...) entertainment 2) a sad (..., .... ...) play 3) a fantastic (..... ...) offer 4) a wonderful (..., ...) audience о s Q. Ф 1/Ч Ты уже знаешь, что русские слова гоже, также в английском языке соответствуют разным единицам — too и also. Это же значение могут передавать единицы as well, either ['атбэ]. 1. Когда мы просим кого-либо что-то сделать (или требуем это), следует использовать слова too или as well. Also в подобных случаях не употребляется. Open the door, and open the window as well/too. 2. И too. и as well всегда употребляются в конце предложения. Му sister speaks English, too. My sister speaks English as well. 3. Also обычно употребляется в середине предложения либо перед основным глаголом, либо после вспомогательного глагола или после глагола to be. Не also speaks English. She can also speak English. He is also a fine actor. Иногда also может использоваться в начале предложения. John goes in for swimming. Also he often plays basketball. 4. Обычно also не используется в отрицательных предложениях. В этом случае употребляется слово either. I don't know him either. If you don't go, I won't either. 8* I Complete the sentences using also, as well, either or too. 1) Vera speaks English and she ... speaks Chinese. 2) Do exercise 5 and do exercise 6 .... 3) Does Mr Gordon ... live in Oxford? 4) I went home early, and John did ... . 5) I never read such fairytales to little children .... 6) We can ... buy tickets for this show. 7) “Harry Potter” is a children’s book. “Peter Pan” is ... a book for children. 8) We haven’t seen “Titanic” ... . 9) Translate the text and write exercise one .... I A. Listen to the sentences, (77). and guess what the new words mean. 1) Prehistoric [,pri:hi'stDrik] people did not have a developed language. 2) The drama ['draima] of A. P. Chekhov is very well-known in the world. 3) We organized [o/ganaizd] a party to celebrate the end of the school year. 4) A chorus ['кэ:гэ5] is a group of people who sing together. 5) D’Artagnan is the main character ['kaenkta] of “The Three Musketeers” by Alexandre Dumas. 6) “Othello” is a tragedy ['tractjidi] and “Twelfth Night” is a comedy ['komadi] by William Shakespeare. 7) Spartacus is probably the most famous Roman gladiator ['glasdieita]. 8) We sat near the arena [a^rima] and could see the circus animals very well. 9) Easter and Christmas are religious [ri'licfeas] festivals. 10) The Renaissance [n'nersans] was the period in Europe between the 14**' and 17**’ centuries, when the art, literature and ideas of ancient Greece were discovered again and widely studied. 11) A moral ['moral] person always does the right things. 12) 1 forgot the words of the song and had to improvise ['impravaiz]. Everyone laughed. 13) The speaker stood on a high platform ['plaetfaimj and all the people around could see and hear him well. 14) At our geography lessons we use a lot of maps and a big globe [glaub]. 15) A.N. Ostrovsky was one of the best Russian dramatists ['draematists], he wrote a lot of interesting plays. 16) Have you ever been to a concert ['knnsat] of classical music? B. Read the new words again, learn to pronounce them right. А. Read the text below and say which of these ideas are not in it. 1) The history of entertainment is very old. 2) Prehistoric people had special places for singing, dancing and story-telling. 3) Greek drama was the first public entertainment in Europe. 4) We know two kinds of Greek drama. 5) Greek tragedies always ended in the most important character dying. 6) There were new forms of entertainment introduced by ancient Romans. 7) In the Middle Ages the church didn’t let the theatre develop freely. 8) The first performances took place in the streets. 9) The Renaissance was the time when the theatre developed fast and became very important. 10) Comedies and tragedies by William Shakespeare were written in the Golden Age of Theatre. 11) Cinema is the most popular of modern entertainments. 12) Television has become the number one entertainment for modern people. The History of Entertainment Nearly everyone enjoys entertainment. The beginnings of popular entertainment go back to prehistoric times, when dance, music and story-telling were very important. The traditions of entertainment began in ancient Greece about 2,500 years ago with the development of Greek drama. In those days festivals were organized to celebrate Dionysus [,daia'naiS9s], the Greek god of wine and new life, with song and dance. Later poets began to write stories for a large group of performers (a chorus and an actor to recite). Then another actor was introduced which made a dialogue between characters possible. There were two forms of classical ['klaesikal] Greek drama — tragedy and comedy. The Romans continued the traditions of Greece and developed other kinds of entertainment as well. The beginnings of the circus are connected with gladiators fighting in public arenas. 229 о ? Q. Qi In the Middle Ages^ the church considered entertainment and drama wrong, but by and by drama reappeared with religious and moral plays. In the time of Renaissance the theatre became less religious and there was a new interest in Greek and Roman drama. Common people^ preferred comedies performed by a travelling group of actors. At first, the actors had no text, only an idea of what was going to happen and had to improvise. They usually performed on high platforms in public places. The actors offered entertainment which included plays, songs and dances. The Golden Age of Theatre began when the first special theatres were built. The first of such theatres was opened in London in 1652. Soon there appeared a few others including the famous Globe Theatre. Among the writers who worked for these theatres was William Shakespeare, one of the greatest dramatists in any language. Shakespeare gave his audience great literature but at tlie same time he gave them popular entertainment. Nowadays people entertain themselves by listening to music, watching TV programmes, films and videos, going to concerts and circus shows but the theatre is still among our favourite entertainments. B. Listen to the tape, (78), and read the text again after it. ' the Middle Ages — Средние века ^ t-ominon people — простые люди £Q Read the text “The History of Entertainment" again and say the same in one word. Example: A theatre or a film show, a concert, etc. — entertainment 1) Belonging to the time before history was written down. 2) Belonging to the time of very long ago. 3) Plays for acting. 4) A group of people singing together. 5) Talk between two people, often in films or plays. 6) A person in a play, film or story. 7) A drama about sad events with a sad end. 8) A show with performances by acrobats ['ffikrabaet], clowns [klaun] and animals, often travelling from place to place. 9) The period between the 11*’' and lb*** centuries in Europe. 10) A writer working for the theatre. 11) People watching or listening to a performance. 12) Musical entertainment. 231 о г (- о. Ш Q Answer the questions. 1) Were music, dancing and story-telling in prehistoric times forms of entertainment or were they connected with magic*? 2) In what country did the history of drama begin? When did it happen? With what event was it connected? 3) Whom did they call an “actor” in ancient Greece? 4) What are the two forms of classical Greek drama? 5) What do you know about Euripides [ju:'npidi:z] and Sophocles ['snf9kli:z]? 6) What popular entertainment of nowadays began in ancient Rome? 7) Why weren’t the Middle Ages the best time for the development of drama? 8) What did Renaissance people rediscover? 9) What were theatrical performances like before there appeared real theatres? 10) How do you understand the meaning of Golden Age? What time is considered to be the Golden Age of Theatre? magic ['maecfeik] — магия 11) How much do you know about William Shakespeare? 12) What are the most popular forms of entertainment today? Which of them do you prefer? Do It on Your Own ] A. Write who these pictures were painted by. 1) “Morning in the Pine Forest” a) Claude Monet b) Victor Vasnetsov c) Leonardo Da Vinci d) Vincent Van Gogh e) Karl Brullov f) Ivan Shishkin 2) “The Horse Rider” 3) “The Mona Lisa” 4) “Alenushka” 5) “Sunflowers’ fc'i, Э'. f* 6) “Waterlily Pond’ I в. Write who these books were written by. 1) “Life on the Mississippi” 2) “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone” 3) “Peter Pan” 4) “Oliver Twist” 5) “Robinson Crusoe” 6) “War and Peace” a) Leo Tolstoy b) Joanne Rowling c) Mark Twain d) Daniel Defo e) Charles Dickens f) James M. Barry 233 say where they are taking place. Q Complete the text with theatre words. Check, L"J (80). The theatre at Delphi in Greece was built in the 300s BC. It was so well built that even people sitting right at the back could hear every word the actors spoke. Theatre A th... is a place where p...s are performed by a...s and watched by an au... . The earliest theatres we know about were in Greece where d... in the form of t...s and c...s was enjoyed by theatre lovers. Greek theatres looked like big stadiums open to the sky but they were so Q. 0) well built that everyone could see and hear the p...ers well. Roman th...s looked like Greek th...s. The Romans built a th... in nearly every large town in the country. Some of the Greek and Roman d...s are remembered today and their p...s are performed in modern th...s. I Read out the sentences in the passive voice from exercise 2. I Read the sentences and say how future passive is formed. Then translate the sentences into Russian. Ann will be invited to the party. The room will be cleaned tomorrow. The fruit will be bought on Sunday. Tom won’t be helped. — ) The letter won’t be sent tomorrow. The cake won’t be made by granny. Will flowers be grown here? Will the tickets be brought in the morning? Will the story be translated soon? When will the car be washed? Why will the letter be written in French? Where will the flowers be planted? I Say the same in a different way. Use the passive voice. 1) We'll remember the play. 2) People heard a loud noise in the garden. 3) Ann won’t clean the carpet tomorrow. 4) She will do it next Saturday. 5) What will you grow in the kitchen garden in summer? 6) 1 won’t forget your help. 7) They speak only English in their club. 8) They did not include all endangered birds on the list. 9) They will make a discovery soon. 10) Will somebody draw the emblem of our club? ■*-J в английском языке в страдательном залоге употребляются также глаголы, которые требуют после себя предлога: to talk about, to send for, to listen to, to look at, to think of, to look after, to laugh at, to speak to/about, to ask for, to wait for. В страдательном залоге эти предлоги всегда сохраняются. Не is much spoken about. — О нем много говорят. The doctor was sent for. — За доктором послали. She is often waited for. — Ее часто ждут. Such jokes are not laughed at. — Над такими шутками не смеются. The children will be looked after. — 3a детьми присмотрят. John will be spoken to. — C Джоном поговорят. I How can you say the same using the passive voicel 1) People speak a lot about this film. 2) They spoke to Mr Hard-son. 3) My cousins will look after my pet. 4) People will laugh at you. 5) They sent for my parents. 6) The boy is so unusual, everybody looks at him. 7) People often ask for such dictionaries. 8) Nobody spoke to me in such a way. 9) People will never talk about such things. 10) I’m sure everybody will listen to Harry. I Look at the pictures and read the theatre words. Check, 23! C C ъ s h C ( 1,5. А. 1) stalls [sto:lz] 2) stage [steid5] 3) balcony [Ъге1кэп1] 4) gallery ['gaelari] 5) rows [rauz] of seats [si:ts] ft. 10) cloakroom ['kisukrum] tit—ot 12) box office ['bDks,Dfis] 6) circle ['s3:kal] 7) curtains ['k3:tnz] 8) orchestra-pit ['o;kistr9,pit] 9) box f 15) opera ['орэгэ] 16) programme ['ргэидггет] 237 17) opera glasses ['орэгэ 'gla:siz] 18) costume ['kostjum] 0) Ф 0 01 C обозначением мест в театре употребляется предлог in: in the stalls, in the box, in the balcony, in Row B, но on the stage. j A Listen to the dialogue "At the Box Office'’, [Д (82), and act it out. At the Box Office A: Hello. How can I help you? B: I’d like two seats for tomorrow. A: Morning or evening performance? B: Evening, please. A: Where do you want your seats? B: In the stalls, back or middle rows. A: I am sorry, but the stalls are sold out^. We have two good seats in a box at 35 pounds. B; That’s more than I wanted to pay. A: Then I can offer you two seats in the circle, front row, at 12 pounds. B: I think I’ll take those. Thanks very much. A: You’re welcome. B. Can you buy a theatre ticket? Work in pairs and practise. * are sold [ssuld] out — проданы Learn some new words and word combinations. Listen to the tape, (83), and repeat. Л. invite [in'vait] — приглашать invitation [,invrteij3n] — приглашение arrive [9'raiv] — прибывать ticket ['tikit] — билет expensive [ik'spensrv] — дорогой (о цене, стоимости) fantastic [faen'taestik] — фантастический, потрясаюш,ий impress [im'pres] — производить впечатление impression [im'prejan] — впечатление rise [raiz] — подниматься scenery ['sknari] — декорации applause [9'pb;z] — аплодисменты applaud [9'pb:d] — аплодировать to go down/up — гаснуть/загораться {об огнях, свете) at last — наконец В. invite: to invite sb to/for sth, to invite to the theatre, to be invited to the performance. Why don’t you invite them for supper? invitation: Nobody in the office received an invitation to the party. arrive: to arrive in/at some place, to arrive home, to arrive at the house, to arrive in the country. They arrived in Moscow in late October. arrival: an early arrival, on arrival, the arrival of the flight. Johnson was arrested on his arrival to New York, ticket: a cinema ticket, a theatre ticket, a lottery ticket, a match ticket; to get tickets for the game (performance, show, concert, trip); to get a train (bus, plane) ticket. expensive: an expensive car, expensive tastes. My cousin always wears expensive clothes. The seats in the stalls were very expensive. fantastic: a fantastic idea. It’s a fantastic performance! You’ve done a fantastic job. impress: to impress sb. His answer impressed me. I was impressed by what he said. impression: the first impression, to make an impression on sb. 1 know you want to make a good impression on everyone you meet. rise (rose, risen): to rise in the sky, to rise up, to rise from the table. As the sun rose in the sky, it became much warmer. Bob rose up and went to the window. The plane rose in the air. Edward finished his meal and rose from the table. scenery: (always singular, no indefinite article). They don’t use a lot of scenery in modern performances. The scenery on the stage was really wonderful. applause: a loud applause, a storm of applause. There was a loud applause at the end of the performance. applaud: to applaud a speech, to applaud an actor. The audience laughed and applauded. be over: The performance was over at 11 p.m. When are your classes usually over? The meeting was over and everybody went home. go down (up): The lights went down and the performance began. The lights went up and we could see the room well, at last: They have come back at last. At last we got the answer we wanted to get. 239 Шт- обрати внимание на употребление предлогов. 1. После глагола ^/r/Ve могут следовать только два предлога (когда речь идет о прибытии в здание, на станцию, небольшое селение или иное не очень крупное место) и in (когда речь идет о стране, крупном городе). We arrived in Moscow late at night. When we arrived at the hotel, Mr Fox hadn't conne yet. Ho: to arrive home. I finally arrived home. 2. После слова Г/с/геГиспользуются предлоги Гои for. Сравни; for а ticket for а performance (play) а ticket for a film a ticket for a concert a ticket for a show to a ticket to the theatre a ticket to the cinema a ticket to the concert hall a ticket to the music hall a ticket to Moscow a ticket to Britain 3. Сравни английские сочетания со словом tickets их русские эквиваленты. а train ticket — билет на поезд а bus ticket — билет на автобус а plane ticket — билет на самолет а boat ticket — билет на пароход Щ Use the prepositions to complete the sentences where necessary. at, in, on, to, for, of, by, from I 1) A plane ticket... London is more expensive than a train ticket. 2) When we arrived ... the hotel we were asked to wait. 3) When Florence arrived ... the theatre, the performance had already begun. 4) Can I have a ticket ... Rome? 5) How much were the tickets ... the performance? 6) The Thompsons arrived ... Australia ... the beginning of June. 7) Have you received an invitation ... the party? 8) Our seats were not ... the stalls, they were ... the balcony. 9) The ballet made a strong impression ... the girl. 10) I was impressed ... her words. 11) Johnny rose ... his seat and went ... the window. 12) There was a storm ... applause after the performance. 13) Have you invited Paul ... dinner? 14) Do they use a lot ... scenery in “Swan Lake”? Q A Read the paragraphs of the text and put them in the right order. Lisa’s First Visit to the Bolshoi Theatre a) During the interval we walked around in the foyer. I told Alec how much I liked the ballet. It was really wonderful. I said I would love to see some other ballet some day. So we went to the box office and bought two tickets for “The Nut-cracker”^. Then we had ice-cream and coffee in the buffet. b) When we arrived at the theatre, we left our coats at the cloakroom. Our seats were in the stalls. I had a look at the tickets. They were not very expensive but we could see the stage very well. Alec bought me a programme and gave me his opera glasses. The curtains were fantastic. As we had some time before the beginning I walked to the stage and the orchestra-pit and looked at the hall. Its red and golden interior [in'tisria] impressed me very much. ‘ “The Nutcracker” ['пл1,кгагкэ] II. И. Чайковского) в Щелкунчик» {балет на му.зыку c) Last autumn my cousin invited me to the Bolshoi Theatre. I had never been there before and was really excited when Alec told me we were going to see “Swan Lake”, the famous ballet by P. I. Tchaikovsky. d) When at last the ballet was over and the music came to an end, there was a storm of applause. I applauded loudly too. I really enjoyed myself. e) Soon the lights went down, then the curtains rose and the dancers appeared on the stage. I liked every minute of the first act [aekt] — the scenery, the costumes, the music and the way they danced. B. Listen to the tape, (84), and read the text again after it. I Use some of these word combinations and tell your friends about your or somebody else's visit to the theatre. (You can use Lisa's story as a model.) • to buy tickets at the box office • to be invited to the theatre (to invite sb to the tiieatre) • to feel excited • to listen to an opera (to see a ballet, a drama, 0- comedy, a tragedy) • to arrive at the theatre • to leave the clothes at the cloakroom • to have seats in the stalls (gallery, circle, balcony, in a box) • (not) expensive tickets • to buy a programme • to have one’s opera glasses • to go down/up (about the lights) • to walk to the stage (orchestra-pit) • during the interval • to go to the buffet 241 Ф Ф O. Ф • to be over (about the performance) • to rise/fall (about the curtains) • to applaud loudly • to enjoy oneself Do It on Your Own Щ1 Open the brackets to complete the text. Use the passive voice where necessary. Theatre in the Time of William Shakespeare The first real theatre (build) by a carpenter^ and part-time actor called James Burbage. It (call) the Theatre. Burbage’s son Richard (become) the country’s first well-known actor. In those days the theatre (be) very different from the theatre today. There (be) no actresses^, young women’s parts (perform) by the company’s clowns. All the actors (have) to be musicians and dancers. Poetic drama (introduce) by Christopher Marlowe ['ma;bu], a great dramatist who (kill) in a duel ['djuisl] at the age of 29. The audiences also (enjoy) the plays which (write) by Thomas Kyd, Ben Johnson and John Lyly. UJ Write the same in English. Вечернее представление, место в партере, красивые декорации, театральный бинокль, потрясающие (фантастические) костюмы, шквал аплодисментов, билет на пьесу, прибыть на вокзал, приглашение на обед, произвести хорошее впечатление на зрителей, приехать домой, билет на оперу, во время антракта. Step Four Do It Together Qj Listen to the text " The Movies Come to HoHywood", (85), and say which of the facts were not mentioned in it. 1) At first the Willcoxes bought two lemon farms near Los Angeles. 2) The Willcoxes called the land they had bought Hollywood. ' a carpenter ['kaipinta] — плотник ^ an actress ['aektris] — актриса 3) Until 1910, audiences did not know the names of their favourite actors and actresses. 4) Good weather attracted film-makers to California. 5) Actors and actresses didn’t talk in the first films. Hollywood studios Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 243 Э о a Ш The Fox Company Universal Studios Warner Brothers Columbia Pictures Paramount Studios у Work in small groups and find out who takes the greatest interest in theatre. Ask and answer. Find out • if your friends have ever been to the theatre • what theatre(s) they go to or have been to • if they often (not very often, seldom, hardly ever, never) go to the theatre • if they know any names of famous Russian theatres • if they know any names of famous Russian actors and actresses • if they can give 3—5 names of well-known Russian dramatists • if they can give 3—5 names of famous dramatists from other countries • wliat names of popular operas and ballets they know • what composers write and wrote music for opera and ballet • what famous opera houses around the world they know and wliere they are situated [| Here are some facts about films and film-makers. Read the text and say which sentences can be used in the passive voice. Some Facts from the History of Hollywood F^eople remember “The Birth of a Nation”^ as one of the most famous Hollywood silent^ films. They first showed it in 1915 and it took nearly three hours. The film was about American history, Л lot of people who had never been inside a cinema before saw this film. The Golden Age of Cinema began with the talkies^ — when the actors in the film were able to talk. In 1927 A1 Jolson, the Russian-born Hollywood actor and singer, said a few words and sang six songs in the film “The Jazz Singer”. The public loved him. In 1932 they introduced a new camera ['’кжтэгэ] which could make colour films for the cinemas. Soon big audiences enjoyed colour films. One of the most popular films of all times was probably the colour film “Gone with the Wind”, The audiences first saw it in 1939. The film won eight Oscars. They still show this legendary film in cinemas and on television all over the world. * “The Birth of a Nation” — «Рождение нации» (название фильма) * silent ['saibnt] — немой '* a talkie ['to;ki] — (разг.) звуковой фильм Cinema uses special effects when it is too difficult or dangerous to do something in the usual way. A good example is the popular film “Jurassic [dsuo'rassik] Park” (1993). The big dinosaurs in the film were not real, of course! They made lots of models of each of them. Today, they use computers more and more in special effects. In some cinemas which people call IMAX DOME ['aimaks ,doum] theatres they use a big, 30 metre screen^, and put the audience right in the centre of everything that is happening in the film. cardboard ['ko;dba:d] — картон wool [wul] — шерсть cotton ['kntn] — хлопок china ['tfaina] — фарфор 245 Обрати внимание на различие предлогов в следующих сочетаниях: быть сделанным из чего-то to be made of (Используется, когда материал, из которого сделан предмет, не подвергался качеавенной переработке, т. е. не изменил своей сущноаи: the реп is made of plastic.) The table is made of plastic. The bench is made of wood. The key is made of metal. The book is made of paper. to be made from (Используется, когда материал подвергся переработке и в результате стал чем-то иным, например, яблоки при варке превратились в варенье: the jam is made from apples. Обычно предлог from используется тогда, когда речь идет о приготовлении пищи). Butter is made from milk. Borsch is made from different vegetables. This fruit salad is made from apples, plums and apricots. |>4. Work with these material nouns. Listen to the tape, (86). and repeat. 1) learn them gold [gsuld] — золото silver ['silv9] — серебро steel [stiil] — сталь wood [wud] — дерево brick [brik] — кирпич Э о о. ф 1 а screen [skri;n] — экран 2) remember them stone rubber glass paper metal plastic B. What are these things usually made of? Example: Books are usually made of paper and cardboard. w • • J 'll Л 1, li : 1) matryoshka dolls 2) sweaters and warm socks 3) summer dresses and T-shirts 4) windows 5) cups and plates 6) planes and cars 7) houses 8) bridges 9) clocks and watches 10) boxes and cartons 11) CDs and tapes 12) money 13) city monuments 14) postcards 15) rings and earrings 16) balls and baloons 24 C. Say what your favourite food and drink are made from. - Модальные глаголы should, can, mustv\ эквивалент must— have to— часто употребляются с пассивным инфинитивом, при этом сказуемое ароится по следующей схеме: [модальный глагол] + [be] + [V J The letter must be written. — Письмо должно быть написано. (Письмо нужно написать.) The answer should be given. — Ответ следует дать. The record can be listened to. — Пластинку можно послушать. The books have to be returned to the library. — Книги необходимо вернуть в библиотеку. The text must be translated. — Тека должен быть переведен. I Complete the sentences with the given verbs, active or passive. 1) Kevin should (tell) about it as soon as possible^. 2) This letter must (answer) at once. 3) Fred has to (tell) about the meeting. 4) This text can (translate) into Chinese. 5) Tom should (invite) to the party. 6) Children should (teach) to speak politely. 7) It’s too hot. Milk must'(keep) in the fridge. 8) The film can (show) after lunch. 9) This fact must (explain) to the students. 10) The text must (read) by the children. as soon as possible — как можно быстрее Learn some new words. Listen to the tape, [^] (87), and repeat. I. action ['аек/эп] film — остросюжетный фильм, боевик thriller ['0п1э] — остросюжетный фильм, боевик, триллер science fiction ['saisns ,fikj3n] film — научно-фантастический фильм adventure [sd'ventfa] film — приключенческий фильм crime [kraim] film — детектив horror [Фогэ] film — фильм ужасов psychological [,5а1кэ'1п451кэ1] film — психологическая драма П. seem — казаться price — цена inagic(al) ['таеф|кэ1] — магический, волшебный screen — экран agree — соглашаться besides [bi'saidz] — кроме того attention [эЧеп/эп] ние attentive [a'tentiv] тельный кроме, — внима- внима- И. seem: to seem nice, to seem good, to seem all right. That apple is bad but this one seems all right. It seems cold today. He is not what he seems. It seems to me... price: the price of sth, low/high prices, at a low price, at half price, at what price. What was the price of your new bicycle? She has become very successful but at what price? We bought the video cassette at half price. Victor bought the pens at a small price, at the price of 5 roubles each. magic(al): a magic trick, a magic carpet, a magic show; a magical world (evening, melody). It was a truly magical night, screen: a wide screen, a computer screen, to appear on the screen, to come to the screen. A new action film will come to the screen later this month. agree: to agree with sb, to agree to do sth, to agree to a plan (an idea). We agreed to leave at once. Do you think John will agree with us? “Gone with the Wind” is one of the best films of the last century. — I couldn’t agree more. (I quite agree with you.) disagree: to disagree with sb. I strongly disagree with the last speaker. T besides: I don’t like this coat and, besides, it costs too much. There are many rivers in England besides the Thames, attention: to pay attention to sth/sb. You should pay attention to what your teacher says. attentive: to be attentive to sb/sth; an attentive listener, an attentive teacher. Our family doctor is friendly and attentive. Be attentive to your granny. I At TV shows people are often asked different questions. How will you answer the questions about cinema and film making? 1) What action films have you seen lately? 2) Are you fond of horror films? Why? Why not? 3) Sherlock Holmes ['/з:1пк ,h3umz] is one of the world-famous characters of crime films. Do you know any others? 4) Are psychological dramas popular nowadays? Why do you think they are (aren’t)? 5) Who do you think prefers to watch science fiction films more: men or women, young people or old people? 6) Can you call the film about Robinson Cruso an adventure film? Why? Why not? 7) What other adventure films have you seen or heard of? 8) Can you give the titles ['taitlz] of some thrillers? 9) Does it seem to you that cinema tickets are expensive nowadays? What is the usual price for evening/morning shows? 10) Do you think the size of a screen is important if you watch a film at the cinema? Which is better — a usual screen or a wide screen? 11) Some people say that the world of the cinema is a magical world. Do you agree (disagree) with them? Why? 12) What Hollywood studios besides Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer do you know? 13) What influences your choice of films? Do you pay attention to the ads^? 14) Do you think it is possible or impossible to watch all the new films of your favourite gem*e ['зопгэ] that come to the screen nowadays? 249 Э о a 01 A. Read the text and match the titles below with its four paragraphs. There is one extra title. a) Why We Go to the Cinema b) How Cinema Began c) Where We Watch Films - d) Cinema Is the Great World of Fantasy e) Tastes Differ^ ^ the ads (advertisements [3d'v3:tisrn3nts]) — реклама ^ Tastes differ. — О вкусах не спорят. Let’s Go to the Cinema! 1) Today it is possible to buy a video and watch a film at home, but millions of people all over the world still prefer to go to their town or city cinema for a “night out”. And before television arrived in people’s homes, a visit to the cinema was something really special and truly wonderful. 2) The Golden Age of film-making and going to the cinema — was between 1930 and 1950. Film stars seemed like kings and queens. Cinemas were “picture^ palaces” where, for the price of a ticket. picture = film = movie you could find yourself in a magical world. In that world anything and everything was possible. 3) Nowadays cinema audiences are much smaller and usually younger than the audiences of the Golden Age. Many of the “picture palaces” are now multi-screen cinemas with four or five small cinemas inside one building. Today’s films appear on video, and then on TV after cinema audiences have seen them. But some films don’t look so good on TV, they need a large screen to be really enjoyed. Television can’t do it. You may agree or disagree with it, but for many people the cinema is still the only place to watch a film. Besides, the cinema is the only place where you can watch a brand-new^ film before your friends do it and decide if you like it. 4) Of course, everyone has their own favourite kinds of films — action films or thrillers, comedies, psychological dramas, science fiction, adventure and crime films, horror films or musicals. But cinema is always in the focus of our attention; it thrills, entertains and educates us. B. Listen to the tape, (88), and read the text again after it. I Read the text "Let’s Go to the CinemaT again and find in it the words and word combinations which mean 1) an evening when you go out to a cinema, theatre or party 2) a period of time when the best work was done 3) a well-known actor or actress in cinema pictures 4) money you pay for a ticket 5) a place which is strange, wonderful and enjoyable 6) film-goers 7) having a few screens 8) new and not used 9) a film that tells a very exciting story, usually of crime or adventure 10) a funny film which ends happily 11) a film about imaginary^ future events and characters, often about travelling to other planets 12) a film where terrible and dangerous things happen, such as dead people coming to life - 13) a film with spoken words, songs and often dances 251 Э о u. a 0) ^ brand-new = new and completely unused ^ imaginary [I'maecfejnori] — воображаемый т Can you develop these ideas? Cinema some time ago • before television arrived • the Golden Age of Cinema • a special event • big audiences • film stars were like kings and queens • smaller cinemas • lower ticket prices Cinema today • prefer to watch video films or TV • smaller and younger audiences • higher ticket prices • modern multi-screen cinemas • brand-new films • better picture and sound • a lot of special effects [I'fekts] Cinemas and television • look better/worse on a large screen • watch brand-new films • watch a film before you can watch it on video • watch a film in the comfort of your home • watch a film with your friends Films of different kinds • tastes differ • films for older and younger audiences • favourite kinds of films • films that entertain us • serious films ■ some people prefer..., other people prefer... 1 Do It on Your Own Ш Use of or from to complete the sentences. 1) Is your new skirt made ... wool or cotton? 2) As everybody knows, Pinocchio was made ... wood. 3) This tasty cocktail is made ... milk, ice-cream and fruit juice. 4) We have made this juice ... fresh oranges. 5) A lot of old cottages in Scotland are made ... stone. 6) In Asia they often use tables and chairs made ... bamboo. 7) My grandmother’s jam made ... plums is really nice, we often have it for tea. 8) Watches made ... gold are very expensive. 9) What is this soup made ...? 10) The boat was not heavy because it was made ... rubber. m Complete the sentences with the words in brackets, active or passive. 1) Your friend (should/give) some unusual present for his 20’'*’ birthday. 2) Don’t you know that milk (should/keep) in a fridge? 3) I tried but I (couldn’t/open) the window. 4) Someone (have to/take) the child home. He (can’t/leave) here alone. 5) This new book (must/read). It’s wonderful! 6) They (shouldn’t/spend) so much time in front of the television. 253 01 > o. Step Five Do It Together I Listen to the text about a famous British music band’, (89). Say whose favourite pastimes they are. • singing • talking • eating Italian food • having parties and meeting new people ’ a music band — музыкальная группа Paraphrase these word combinations using of ox from. Example: A glass jug. The jug Is made of glass. Apple jam. The jam is made from apples. 1) paper money, 2) china vase, 3) fur coat, 4) vegetable salad, 5) metal ring, 6) tomato soup, 7) stone bench, 8) silver chain, 9) orange marmalade После некоторых глаголов английского языка: look (выглядеть), seem, appear, taste, smeir (пахнуть), sound, feel, в отличие от русского языка, не могут следовать наречия, после них используются прилагательные. Сравни: Russian English Музыка звучит громко. The music sounds loud [laud]. Джон выглядит молодо. John looks young. Алиса чувствует себя плохо. Alice feels bad, she doesn't feel well/good. (B последнем примере и/е//является старой формой прилагательного.) Обрати внимание на различия в значениях глагола to look. Jane looks sad. (После /оо/r следует прилагательное.) Джейн выглядит грустной. Jane looked at me sadly. (После /оо/rследует наречие.) Джейн посмотрела на меня грустно. I А. Complete the sentences with one of the verbs — seem, look, sound, taste, smell or feel'm the right form. 1) How are you ... today? — I’m fine, thank you. In fact I’ve never ... better. 2) The water ... so cold. I don’t think I’ll swim today. 3) I can ... something nice cooking in the kitchen. What’s for dinner? 4) The language they are speaking ... strange. I’m sure it’s not a European language. 5) Evening came. It was very ciuiet. The air ... of grasses and flowers. ' Глагол smell имеет две формы для прошедшего времени и второго причастия — smelled или smelt. 6) What’s the matter with George today? He ... very unhappy. 7) The cake ... lovely. May I have another piece, please? 8) I don’t like the music, it... so sad! 9) Hello, Jane! You ... wonderful today. 10) The child ... very young. I don’t believe he is ten years old. B. Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1) Please speak (quiet/quietly). 2) I can’t understand why you can’t be (quiet/quietly) when you see Rex. 3) Tom doesn’t like the porridge, it tastes (unpleasant/unpleasantly). 4) Doris smiled (unpleasant/unpleasantly) and looked at me. 5) I feel (bad/badly). I have a terrible headache. 6) Bob cooks (good/well), he is a (good/ well) cook. 7) Jane looks (unhappy/unhappily). What’s the matter? 8) Ralph looked at me (unhappy/unhappily) and said he was sorry. 9) The song sounded rather (pleasant/pleasantly). 10) The snowdrops smelt so (sweet/sweetly). I Work in pairs. Ask each other questions about cinema and theatre nowadays and answer them. Try and find out • if cinema is popular nowadays • how often people go to the cinema • if and how television and videos influence cinema • which of the two — cinema or theatre — is more popular now and why it is so • what cinemas are the most popular in the place where you live • where these cinemas are situated • what adventure and action films your partner knows • what kind of films are his/her favourite • if he/she watches horror films and likes them • if he/she often watches crime films and thrillers and why 255 Ф > a Ф =3- Обрати внимание на следующие особенности употребления артиклей. С названиями театров, кинотеатров, музеев, картинных галерей обычно употребляется определенный артикль. Museums Galleries the British Museum the National Gallery the Science Museum the National Portrait Gallery the Natural History Museum the Tretyakov Gallery !56 и Cinemas the Coliseum [jkoli'seiam] the Saturn ['saetan] the Odeon ['audjan] the Zenith ['zeniG] the Rossia the Forum Theatres the Bolshoi Theatre the Malyi Theatre the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden the Royal Shakespeare Theatre the National Theatre the Playhouse Complete the sentences. Use articles (a, the) where necessary. Л. The centre of theatre life in Britain is London but in most _Ш_ cities and towns of country there are theatres too. There are about hundred theatres in London, half of them are situated in West End. Probably most famous theatre is Royal Opera House at Covent Garden which is in central London. Seasons of opera are performed there and also of ballet by Royal Ballet, which has become very successful. There are many theatres and theatre companies for young people. National Youth Theatre and Young Vic Company in London are among them. B. This guide-book gives you information about Washington, D.C. Here you can find texts about all the museums of . city. For example, on page 56 you can read about National Museum of American History and some other museums as well. Children are often taken to Natural History Museum where they spend hours learning about how life developed on _iZl_ planet. Another must for visitor to Washington, D.C. is . National Air and Space Museum, possibly most popular of Washington’s museums and hi) most visited museum of world. I Learn some new words and word combinations. Listen to the tape. (90), and repeat. Л. СОЧИ- coinpose [kom'pouz] пять, создавать receive [ri'sLv] — получать, принимать emotion [I'moujon] — чувство, эмоция full [ful] — полный чего-либо devote [di'vout] — посвящать inspire [in'spaia] — вдохнов- conductor [kan'dAkta] — дири-лять жер graduate ['gradsueit] — окон- dead [ded] — мертвый; увяд-чить высшее учебное заведе- ший ние be based [beist] on — быть oc- conduct [kon'dAkt] — дирижи- нованным на чем-либо ровать Н. compose: to compose music, to compose an opera, to compose a ballet. Bizet ['bi:zer] composed an opera called “Carmen”, composer: Mozart ['mautsdt] was a famous composer, receive: 1) to receive a letter, to receive calls from school; 2) to receive visitors, guests^. We haven’t received your letter yet. Did you receive many presents on your birthday? He received his visitors with a smile. emotion: strong emotions, an uncomfortable emotion, to control one’s emotions. Love and hate are emotions. Happiness is an emotion too. full: a full glass of milk, a house full of guests for the party, to be full of sth. The hall was full of people. Her life is full of excitement. The packet is half-full. A full-time student, devote: to devote sth to sb/sth. Eric devotes all his free time to playing football. John has devoted most of his time to his painting. He devoted himself to writing music. A devoted friend, be devoted to sb/sth: We are devoted to our country, inspire: to inspire a poet, to inspire a painter, to inspire the audience. What inspired you to write poems? graduate: to graduate from a university, to graduate from college. My uncle graduated from Oxford in 2002. conduct: to conduct a work of music, to conduct an orchestra. Tchaikovsky conducted the first performance of his Sixth Symphony. conductor: a famous conductor. Our music teacher is also the conductor of our school orchestra. dead: dead flowers, dead animals, dead bodies. The plant was dead because it hadn’t got enough water and sun. be based on: The story is based on real life. The film is based on a true story. 257 Oi > a 0^ ^ a guest [gest] — гость 9—.Афанасьева. 8 к.ч. Q A. Match the words in the two columns. 1) to receive a) an orchestra 2) to compose b) a composer 3) to be full of c)letters 4) to graduate from d) a symphony 5) to devote to e) flowers 6) to inspire f) a university/conservatoire 7) to conduct g) one’s parents в. Write your own sentences with the new words. В английском языке существуют два слова, которые соответствуют русскому слову концерт: а concert ['kwnsat] — публичное исполнение музыкальных произведений и других номеров по определенной программе; а concerto [кэп'1/з:1эи] — крупное музыкальное произведение для сольного инструмента в сопровождении оркестра. We went to а concert of Vivaldi’s music. Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto is one of the best-loved melodies of all times. \a. Read the text and say which of these facts were not mentioned in it. 1) What people thought of Tchaikovsky’s music in his time and what they think of it today. 2) How Tchaikovsky started composing music. 3) Tchaikovsky’s career in music. 4) Tchaikovsky’s student’s years. 5) The ballets he composed. 6) The operas he composed. 7) What countries the composer visited in Europe. 8) The composer’s last music piece. 259 Р, I, Tchaikovsky and His Music Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840—1893) is one of the most important figures in the history of music. He wrote some of the bestloved melodies of all times. His ballet music is some of the happiest and most tunefuP music ever written. By the end of his life, in the late 19“* century Tchaikovsky was known as the greatest living composer. However, at the beginning of his career, his compositions were not always well received. Tchaikovsky’s music, which is so popular today, was at the time considered to be very modern and different. Some people thought it was too sentimental and emotional. But audiences everywhere came to love Tchaikovsky’s musical style which was full of feeling and could excite them. Tchaikovsky was born in Votkinsk, Russia, in 1840. Young Peter showed an early interest in music. He was given piano lessons at the age of five and very soon he learned to play better than his teacher. His mother died when he was fourteen, he felt unhappy and began to compose music which helped him. At the age of twenty-three he became a full-time student at St. Petersburg Conservatory [k3n's3:v3t3ri]. He graduated from it and was offered a post at the Moscow Conservatory, where he taught for the next twelve years. Then he devoted himself to composing. His music was often inspired by Russian folk^ tunes and includes some of the world’s best-loved melodies such as the “Romeo > CL at ^ tuneful ['tju:nf3l] — мелодичный 2 folk [fouk] — фольклорный, народный 9* ['rsumisu] and Juliet Fantasy Overture ['suvatjua]” and his First Piano Concerto [ksn'tfsdsu]. His ballets — “Swan Lake”, “Sleeping Beauty” and “The Nutcracker” — are still among the most popular ballets. Between 1888 and 1893 Tchaikovsky visited Europe and the USA conducting his own works. In 1893 he conducted the first performance of his Sixth Symphony ['simfani]. He called it the “Pathet-ique” (full of feeling), saying, “It is based on so much emotion and feeling that when I composed this work, I found myself crying.” Tchaikovsky considered this to be his greatest composition; it was also his last. Less than two weeks later he was dead. B. Listen to the tape, (91), and read the text again after it. Q Read the text about Tchaikovsky again and find in it sentences that prove’ the following. 1) Tchaikovsky’s music is not forgotten. 2) The beginning of Tchaikovsky’s career in music was not successful. 3) Tchaikovsky’s music is full of emotion. 4) Peter Tchaikovsky was a child prodigy. 5) Young Tchaikovsky left his home to study music. 6) Many years of Tchaikovsky’s life are connected with Moscow. 7) Tchaikovsky composed three ballets. 8) Tchaikovsky spent some time abroad. 9) The Sixth Symphony was Tchaikovsky’s swan song^. ppm |1ol A. Learn to express your opinion^ in English. I think... I believe... In my opinion... In my view [vju:]... > по-моему. As I see it... To my mind [maind]... If you ask me... мне кажется ' to prove fpruiv] — доказывать ^ swan song ['swDn,SDQ] = the last performance, speech or piece of work in the career of a well-known person opinion [ypmjsn] — мнение Agreeing That's just what I think. Yes, that's true. I fully agree. I couldn't agree more. I am of the same opinion. Disagreeing I see what you mean but... It may be right but... Well, I'm not so sure. I can't agree with you here. I shouldn't say so. Not at all! B. Work in pairs. Express your opinions on the following. React to them. Example: Chinese food — If you ask me, Chinese food tastes too unusual. I can't say that I like it. — Yes, that’s true. I had it once and didn't enjoy it at all. or: — I shouldn't say so. I had it once and rather enjoyed it. 261 > a 0/ 1) the film you watched recently 2) pop music 3) rock music 4) the book you are reading 5) symphony music 6) dangerous sports 7) folk dancing 8) a group or a singer popular at the moment 9) travelling 10) shopping Q Listen to the song, (92), and sing along. Pasadena^ {Karen and Alice Maywood) Come with me to Pasadena, Today at ten we will arrive. I have been in Pasadena For a great deal of my life. Refrain: Come with me to Pasadena If you want to have some fun. Watch the dancing seniorinas In the heat^ of the sun. When I woke up today I heard someone say, “Girl, it’s raining And they’re expecting^ snow.” ’ Pasadena [,pses3'di:n3] — a city in California, not far from Los Angeles. The city was founded in 1894. It’s a famous place for holiday-making. 2 heat [hi:t] — жара ® to expect [ik'spekt] — ожидать Refrain And it’s morning I knew What I had to do — Take the next plane And finally go. Refrain Do It on Your Own Щ Use prepositions where necessary. 1) Young Albert has always been devoted ... music. 2) The garden was full... beautiful flowers — pansies, daisies, poppies and bluebells. 3) The libretto ... the opera was based ... an old Italian legend. 4) John devoted himself ... writing songs. 5) We went ... a concert of Prokofiev’s music. 6) Our flat is not very large and we receive ... guests ... the living room. 7) Jane graduated ... college three years ago. 8) The famous ballet “The Nutcracker” ... Tchaikovsky is based ... the fairy-tale of the same name ... Hofmann. 9) Hard rock is the kind of music not... everybody’s taste. 10) Mr Morrison was a man ... honour and always kept his word. Ш Write English equivalents for these. A. Пахнуть сладко, чувствовать себя хоройю, чувствовать себя плохо, выглядеть молодо, звучать приятно, разговаривать холодно, смотреть сердито, звучать громко, разговаривать громко, быть на вкус сладким. B. Принимать гостей, сочинять музыку, музыка, наполненная чувством, заканчивать консерваторию, известный дирижер, преданный друг, быть основанным на сказке, мертвая птица, посвятить симфонию родителям, сочинить балет, посвятить свою жизнь пению, вдохновлять аудиторию, дирижировать оркестром, настоящее вдохновение. Dear All, We hope you have enjoyed your English. See you again next school year. Enjoy your summer holidays! The authors ^ f Англо-русский словарь I'l ) I- I •' , I' I ! '.t !ii (■ S ' г an ache [eik] боль a backache ['bsekeik] боль в спине an earache ['loreik] боль в ухе a headache ['hedeik] головная боль a stomachache ['stAm3k,eik] боль в животе to act [aekt] 1) действовать, поступать; 2) исполнять (роль), играть (театр.) to act in а performance играть в спектакле ап actor ['ccktar] актер ап actress ['iektris] актриса ап acrobat* ['aekrabaet] акробат ап adjective* ['aecfeiktiv] прилагательное ап advantage [od'vamticfe] преимущество ап advertisement [sd'vartismant] реклама to agree [a'gri:] соглашаться to agree to sth/with sb соглашаться c чем-л./кем-л. air [еэ] воздух in the open air на открытом воздухе alcohol ['aelkahni] алкоголь alive [o'laiv] живой all [d:1] все, весь, всё, вся at all совсем, вовсе an alligator ['aeligeita] аллигатор along* [a'log] вдоль, no an alphabet ['aelfabet] алфавит alphabetically [,ае1ГэЪс11кэ11] в алфавитном порядке already [od'redi] уже also ['o:lsDu] тоже, также altogether* [,э:11э'дедэ] в целом among [э'тлц] среди ancient ['einj'ant] древний another [э'плдэ] другой ап anteater ['aent,i:t3] муравьед to appear [a'pia] появляться to applaud [a'pb:d] аплодировать applause [a'pb:z] аплодисменты a storm of applause шквал (буря) аплодисментов 263 Звездочкой обозначены слова, которые встречаются в учебнике 1-и не предназначены для заучивания. -2 раза II: I: ■ nn arena [э'п:по] арена to arrive [a'rarv] прибывать to arrive at/in sth прибывать в nn arrival [a'raival] прибытие to associate [s'saujieit] ассоциировать an association [9,s3usi'eij9n] ассоциация nn athlete ['гевИ:1] спортсмен, атлет athletic [acG'letik] атлетический athletics [aeG'letiks] атлетика attention [аЧеп/эп] внимание to pay attention обращать внимание attentive [a'tentiv] внимательный to be attentive to sb/sth быть внимательным к кому-л./чему-л. an audience ['ordians] аудитория an autumn ['aitani] осень n badge [biecfe] значок badminton ['basdmintan] бадминтон to bake* [beik] выпекать хлеб a balcony ['baslkani] балкон a ballet ['balei] балет a band [baend] музыкальная группа, оркестр a banjo* ['baencfeau] банджо barefoot* ['beafut] босой, босоногий to walk barefoot ходить босиком baseball ['beisbo:!] бейсбол based (on) [beist] основанный (на) a battle ['baetlj битва to bathe* [bei5] купаться в beech [biitj] бук behaviour [bi'heivjg] поведение to belong [bi'lor)] принадлежать to belong to sb/sth принадлежать кому-л./чему-л. besides [bi'saidz] кроме, кроме того between [bi'twi:n] между {двумя объектами) а bicycle ['baisikol] велосипед bilingual [bai'liiigwal] двуязычный в biscuit ['biskit] печенье в blackbird [Ъ19кЬз:б] дрозд в bluebell* ['bluibcl] колокольчик в bookworm* ['bokw3:m] книжный червь (перен.) в border ['boids] 1) п граница; 2) о граничить to border on sth граничить c чем-л. a bow* [baiJ] поклон a box [bnks] ложа a box office ['boks ,Dfis] театральная касса boxing ['boksip] бокс brand-new [,br®nd 'nju;] новый, c иголочки to breathe [bri:d] дышать a brick [brik] кирпич to bring [brio] приносить to bring back вернуть a buffalo ['ЬлГэ1эи] буйвол, бизон budget [ЪлсЬп] 1) n бюджет; 2) v распределять время а buffet ['bufei] буфет to build [bild] строить a building ['bildig] здание, строение a butterfly ['bAtaflai] бабочка by [bai] y, около, рядом, возле, при by and by постепенно, мало-помалу 265 a cafe ['kaefei] кафе to call [ko:l] звонить, звать a can* [кагп] консервная банка a canary [ka'neari] канарейка a candidate ['kasndidit] кандидат a candy {AmE) ['kacndi] конфета a car park ['ко; ,pa:k] стоянка для машин carbon dioxide* [,ка:Ь9п dai'nksaid] углекислый газ a carnation ['kaniei/an] гвоздика a carpenter ['ka:pint3] плотник cardboard ['ka:dbo:d] картон a carton* ['ka:tn] пакет (упаковка) a category ['kaetigari] категория a chain [tfem] цепь a golden chain золотая цепь a chain of mountains горная цепь a character ['kjenkta] герой (действующее лицо пьесы, литературного произведения) charming* ['tfirmio] очаровательный а chemist’s ['kemists] аптека childless [’tfaildlas] бездетный а chin* [фп] подбородок china [ЧГашэ] фарфор chips (AmE) [tj'ips] хрустящий картофель (I chorus* ['korras] xop H chrysanthemum [kn'samGimam] хризантема a cinema f'sinims] кино, кинотеатр a circle f'ssrkal] бельэтаж a circus ['s3:kas] цирк to go to the circus пойти в цирк to take sb to the circus сводить кого-л. в цирк civilization [,siv3lai'zeij3n] цивилизация a climate ['klaimit] климат to climb [klaim] взбираться, лезть наверх a cloakroom ['kloukrom] гардероб (e театре) a clown* [klaun] клоун a coast [ksusl] побережье to collect [ka'lekt] собирать H collection [кэ'1ек|эп] коллекция colloquial* [ka'bukwisi] разговорный n column ['kulam] колонна a comedy ['komsdi] комедия a committee [ka'mrii] комитет common ['котэп] обычный, часто встречающийся to compete [kam'pkt] соревноваться a competition [,kDmpi'tij3n] соревнование a complication [,кптр1Гке1/эп] осложнение to develop complications вызывать осложнения to compose [kam'paoz] сочинять a composer [kom'pauzs] композитор a composition [Дотрэ'гфэп] сочинение a concert ['knnsat] концерт a concerto [kan'tfsrtau] концерт (муз. произведение) to conduct [kan'dAkt] дирижировать to conduct an orchestra дирижировать оркестром и conductor [kan'dAkta] дирижер a conference ['knnfarans] конференция to connect [ka'nekt] соединять to connect sb/sth to sb/sth соединить кого-л./что-л. с кем-л./чем-л. а conservatory [kan'ssivotan] консерватория to consider [ksn'sida] полагать to consider doing sth обдумывать какое-л. действие to be considered to be считаться кем-л. a continent ['kontinant] континент a cooker (AmE) ['кикэ] плита a cookie (AmE) ['kuki] печенье (домашнее) a cornflower ['кэ:пПаиэ] василек а costume ['knstju;m] костюм (театр.) cotton ['kntn] хлопок cough [kof] 1) rt кашель; 2) v кашлять to have a bad cough сильно кашлять a countryside ['kAntnsaid] деревня, сельская местность a coyote* ['кэюШ] койот a crocodile ['krokodail] крокодил a crow [кгэи] ворона to cultivate ['kAlliveit] выращивать, культивировать culture ['kAltfa] культура to cure [kjua] вылечить to cure of sth вылечить от чего-л. a curtain ['k3:tn] занавес to cut [кл1] резать to cut down рубить, срубать to cycle ['saikal] кататься на велосипеде cycling ['saiklip] катание на велосипеде 267 D а daffodil ['daefadil] нарцисс a daisy ['deizi] маргаритка, ромашка to damage fdgemi(^] повреждать, наносить ущерб a dandelion ['daendilaian] одуванчик danger ['deincfea] опасность dangerous ['demcfearas] опасный dead [ded] мертвый deep [di:p] глубокий deeply ['di:pli] глубоко a derivative* [di'nvatrv] производное слово a desert ['dezat] пустыня to destroy [di'stroi] разрушать to develop [di'velap] развивать to develop into sb/sth превратиться в кого-л./что-л. to devote (to) [di'vaut] посвятить to devote oneself to посвятить себя devoted [di'vautid] преданный a diabetes* [,daIэЪi:ti:z] сахарная болезнь, диабет (мед.) а dictionary ['dikjsnari] словарь а dictionary entry словарная статья а diet ['dai9t] диета а dimple* ['dimpal] ямочка а dinosaur ['dainasD:] динозавр to disagree [,diS3'gri;] не соглашаться to disappear [,diS3'pia] исчезнуть u disc [disk] диск n disco ['diskgu] дискотека to discover [dis'kAva] сделать открытие, открыть a discovery [dis'kAvari] открытие a dodo* ['daudau] дронт (палеонт.) a dolphin* ['dolfin] дельфин domestic* [da'mestik] домашний to domesticate* [da'mestikeit] приручать (о животных) a dragonfly ['dneganflaij стрекоза a drama ['dra:ma] драма a dramatist ['dramatist] драматург a duel* ['dju:alj дуэль a drug [dfAg] наркотик a drugstore (AmE) ['drAgsta:] аптека a dump [dAmp] свалка a dustbin ['dAStbin] мусорный бак ; E each [i:tj] каждый earth [з:0] земля easy ['i:zi] легкий • ' easily ['i:zili] легко an ecologist [i/kolacfeist] эколог ecology [k'knlacfei] экология an edelweiss ['eidlvais] эдельвейс electricity [r,lek'tnsati] электричество an elephant ['elifant] слон an elevator (AmE) ['eliveita] лифт an elm [elm] вяз an emblem ['embbmj эмблема emotion [I'msnfon] эмоция, чувство emotional [г'шэи/эпэ!] эмоциональный endangered [in'demdsad] исчезающий, вымирающий energy ['enacfei] энергия enough [I'nAf] достаточно an entertainment [,cnt3'teinm3nt] развлечение environment [m'vaiaranmant] окружающая среда an event [I'vent] событие ever ['eva] когда-нибудь evergreen(s) ['evagri:n] вечнозеленые растения to examine [ig'zaeminj осматривать (внимательно) an example [ig'zaimpol] пример for example например except* [ik'sept] кроме to excite [ik'sait] возбуждать, волновать excited [ik'saitid] взволнованный exciting [ik'saitir)] волнующий an exercise ['eksosaiz] упражнение (исчисл.), физическая активность (неис-числ.) to expand* [ik'spaend] распространять, расширять to expect* [ik'spekt] ожидать expensive [ik'spensiv] дорогой an expedition [,ekspi'dij3n] экспедиция to explain [ik'splem] объяснять extinct [ik'stigkt] исчезнувший, вымерший 26 а fact [ftekt] факт in fact в сущности а factory [Tasktari] фабрика а fall (AmE) [fo:l] осень to fall [fail] падать to fall in love влюбиться fantastic [faen'tcestik] фантастический, потрясающий fast [ftrst] 1) adj быстрый; 2) adv быстро a faucet (AmE) ['fa;sit] водопроводный кран fauna f'fana] фауна, животный мир a feather* ['feda] перо a field [fr.Id] поле a figure ['fi:ga] цифра, фигура a figure skating ['fi:ga ,skeitir)] фигурное катание a film [film] 1) кинофильм; 2) кинопленка an action film боевик an adventure film приключенческий фильм a crime film детектив a horror film фильм ужасов a psychological film психологическая драма a science fiction film научно-фантастический фильм a fir (tree) [fa:] ель ^ ^ a flamingo [fla'miygoo] фламинго flora ['Пэ:гэ] флора, растительный мир to flow [Пэи] течь to flow east (north, etc) течь на восток (север и т. д.) to flow into the ocean впадать в океан folk [Гэик] народный to follow ['fnlou] следовать за to follow sth следовать чему-л. following ['fnlamii] следующий on the following day на следующий день a foot [ful] 1) ступня; 2) фут {единица измерения длины = 12 дюймов = = 0,3048 м) to forget [fa'get] забывать а forget-me-not [fo'gat mi ,nnl] незабудка to found [faond] основывать a foyer [Tdici] фойе French fries ['frentf ,fraiz] жареный картофель fried* [fraid] жареный fresh [frej] свежий to look fresh выглядеть свежим, отдохнувшим fresh water пресная вода full |1Ы] полный to be full of быть наполненным full-time student студент-очник future ['fjuitfa] 1) adj будущий; 2) n будущее in the near future в ближайшем будущем G n gallery ['g^ebri] галерка gallon* ['gaebn] галлон {единица измерения объема = 8 пинт а game [geim] игра garbage ['даЫф] мусор а garbage сап АтЕ ['да:Ь1ф ,каеп] мусорный ящик gaH(oline) Ат£ fgaesaliin] бензин geology [cfei'nbcfei] геология а giraffe [cfei'ra;!] жираф а gladiator ['glasdieita] гладиатор а globe* [gbub] 1) глобус; 2) земной шар to go down (up) гаснуть; загораться {об огнях, свете) God [god) Бог gold [gauld] 1) п золото; 2) adj золотой gulf [gDlf] гольф good [god] хороший to be good at sth уметь что-то хорошо делать а government ['gAvanmant] правительство to graduate ['дгжфип] окончить высшее учебное заведение to graduate from university окончить университет grammar ['graema] грамматика 4,546 л) а grizzly bear [,gnzli: Ъеэ] медведь гризли to grow [дгэи] выращивать, расти (о растениях) to grow up расти (о животных и людях) to grow into sb превращаться во что-л. growth [grauG] рост а guest [gest] гость а gull [дл1] чайка н а habit ['haebit] привычка а habitat ['haebitiet] место обитания half-full ['ha:f ,ful] наполовину заполненный handy* ['haendi] ловкий, умелый, рукастый hard [ha:d] 1) adj тяжелый, трудный; 2) adv усердно, упорно hardly ['ha:dli] едва а hare [hea] заяц harm [ha;m] вред а head [hed]голова to head возглавить health [helG] здоровье healthy ['helOi] здоровый heat* [hi:t] жара a hedgehog ['hedjhng] еж herself [hai'self] сама себя himself [him'self] сам себя a historian [hi'sta:rian] историк historic [hi'stnnk] исторический a hole* [haul] нора homework ['haumw3:k] домашнее задание an honour ['nna] честь a horn* [ho:n] рог to hunt [Нлт] охотиться to hurt [h3:t] причинять боль It hurts to walk. Больно ходить. 27 ice [ais] лед an ice hockey ['ais ,hnki] хоккей на льду imaginary [I'maecfeinari] воображаемый an immigrant ['imigrant] иммигрант impossible [im'pnsibal] невозможный to impress [im'pres] производить впечатление an impression [im'prefn] впечатление to make an impression on sb производить впечатление на кого-л. to improvise* ['improvaiz] импровизировать inch* [intj] дюйм {единица измерения длины = 2,54 см) to include [in'klu:d] включать including [in'klu:diri] включая industrial [in'dAStrial] индустриальный, промышленный an influence ['influans] влияние nil insect ['msekt] насекомое to inspire [in'spaia] вдохновлять inspired [tn'spaiad] вдохновленный to instruct* [in'strAkl] инструктировать, учить an interior* [in'tiaria] интерьер international [,inta'najjanal] международный an interview ['intavju:] интервью to introduce [,intra'djas] представлять to introduce sb to sb представлять кого-л. кому-л. Let me introduce myself. Разрешите представиться, to invite [in'vart] приглашать to invite to some place приглашать куда-л. to invite for dinner приглашать к обеду an invitation [invi'leijn] приглашение an island ['ailand] остров isolation [,aiso'leij3n] изоляция an item* ['aitam] пункт jazz [ctjscz] джаз jog [ding] 1) rt бег трусцой; 2) v бегать трусцой to join [dinin] присоединяться judo ['d5u:d3u] дзюдо junk food ['djAijk ,fu:d] неполноценная пища just [dlASt] только что S'! К to keep [ki;p] держать kilometre ['kib,mi:ta] километр a kind [kaind] вид, род, разновидность kind of своего рода a kitten ['kitn] котенок a koala bear [кэи,а:1э Ъеэ] коала а land [Isend] земля, суша а piece of land клочок суши, участок а language ['leeggwi^] язык а parent language праязык large [1а:ф] большой last [Icust] последний at last наконец а law* [1э:] закон to make laws создавать (писать) законы lazily fleizili] лениво а leek [li;k] лук-порей length [1ег)в] длина а librarian* [lai'bronan] библиотекарь а library ['laibran] библиотека to lie [lai] лежать to lie on the river быть расположенным на реке а lift [lift] лифт liquid* ['likwrd] жидкость likes [laiks] то, что нравится likes and dislikes любимые и нелюбимые (занятия, вещи) а lilac ['laibk] сирень а lion ['laion] лев а lizard* ['lizad] ящерица local ['1эикэ1] местный long [1пц] длинный а long jump [,1пр'сЬлтр] прыжок в длину to look [luk] смотреть to look the word up смотреть слово в словаре а lorry flnn] грузовик to lose [lu:z] терять , loud [laud] громкий loudly ['laudli] громко love [Iav] любовь to be in love любить, быть влюбленным to fall in love влюбиться love of sth любовь к чему-л. mad* [maed] сумасшедший magical ['таефкэ!] волшебный н maple ['meipal] клен maybe fmeibi] может быть a meadow* ['medou] луг medical ['medikal] медицинский a meal |mi;l] трапеза measure ['тезэ] 1) n измерение; 2) и мерить medicine ['medson] 1) медицина; 2) лекарство a member ['membs] член to mention* ['men/эп] упоминать mentioned* ['men/and] упомянутый a metre ['mi:ta] метр a microscope ['maikra,skaup] микроскоп mif'hty ['maiti] могущественный a mile* [mail] миля (мера длины) mind [maind] ум, разум a monkey ['mAQki] обезьяна monolingual [,mDnau'lipgw3l] одноязычный moon [mu:n] луна a moor* [moa] вересковая пустошь moral* ['moral] мораль mostly ['maijstli] в основном to move [mu:v] двигаться a movie AmE ['ma'vi] кино multilingual [,mAltriir)gwal] многоязычный music ['mju:zik] музыка a music band ['mju;zik ,baend] музыкальная группа a musician [mjui'zijan] музыкант myself [mai'self] сам N a nationality [,naeJa'naEliti] национальность natural ['naetjaral] естественный, натуральный, природный nature ['neitfa] природа necessary ['nesisori] необходимый to need ['ni:d] нуждаться a nightingale ['naitiijgeil] соловей noble ['naubol] благородный a noun* [naim] имя существительное nowadays ['nauadeiz] в наше время н number ['пашЬэ] номер а nutcracker* ['пА1,кпекэ] 1)обык:к. р1 щипцы для орехов; 2) (the N.) Щелкунчик о an oak [эик] дуб official [э'б/э!] официальный only ['ounli] только an only child единственный ребенок an opera ['прэго] опера an opera glasses бинокль an opinion [o'pinjan] мнение an opossum [э'рпхэт] опоссум (зоол.) an opponent [э'рэипзШ] оппонент an orchestra ['oikistra] оркестр an orchestra pit* ['o:kistr3,pit] оркестровая яма to organize ['aganaiz] организовывать an ostrich ['nstritQ страус other ['лбэ] другие in other words другими словами others ['л5эг] другие an ounce [auns] унция (единица измерения веса = 28,35 г) ourselves [aua'selvz] мы сами over [эи%'э] сверх to overcome* [,3uva 'клт] преодолеть ап overture* ['auvatjna] увертюра ап owl [aul] сова oxygen* ['nksict^an] кислород 275 pain [pein] боль to be in pain испытывать боль painful ['pemfal] болезненный a palm [pa:m] пальма a panda ['pienda] панда pansies ['psenzis] анютины глазки (бот.) a parachute ['pasrajm] парашют a polar bear [,рэи1э Ъеэ] полярный медведь а politician [,pnli'tijan] политик to pollute [pa'lu:t] загрязнять a polluter [pa'luda] человек, загрязняющий что-то pollution [рэ'1и:/эп] загрязнение а poppy ['pnpi] мак popular ['pnpjula] популярный to be popular with sb пользоваться популярностью среди кого-л. population [,pnpju'leifn] население possible ['posibal] возможный whenever possible когда возможно wherever possible где возможно a pound* [paund] фунт (единица измерения веса = 0,453 кг) power ['раиэ] сила, власть, мощь powerful ['pauafal] мощный practically ['praktrkJi] практически to prefer [рп'Гз:] предпочитать to prefer sth to sth предпочитать что-л. чему-л. prehistoric [,pri;hrstDnk] доисторический to prescribe [pri'skraib] прописывать to prescribe sb a medicine for sth прописывать кому-л. лекарство от чего-л. prescription [pn'skripjan] рецепт to write out a prescription for sth выписать рецепт от чего-л. а president ['prazidsnt] президент previous* ['pri.vios] предыдущий a price [prajs] цена probable ['ргвЬэЬэ!] вероятный probably ['pmbabli] вероятно a programme ['prsugnem] программа to pronounce* [pra'nauns] произносить pronunciation* [pr3,nAnsieif3n] произношение to protect [prs'tekt] защищать protected [pra'tektid] защищенный proud [praud] гордый to be proud of sb/sth гордиться кем-л./чем-л. to prove [pni:v] доказывать a puffin* ['рлГш] тупик (зоол.) a pumpkin vine* ['рлтркш vain] тыквенный стебель R (the) rich [ntj] богатый (богатые) a rabbit ['r/) окрестности to survive [so'vaiv] выживать swallow ['swnbu] 1) n ласточка; 2) v глотать i а swan [swnn] лебедь sweet [swi:t] сладкий a symphony ['simfsni] симфония a tag question [,t£eg 'kwestfan] разделительный вопрос a talk [to:k] беседа, разговор a small talk* светская беседа a talkie ['to:ki] звуковой фильм a tap [tasp] водопроводный кран taste [teist] 1) n вкус; 2) о пробовать Tastes differ. О вкусах не спорят, а team команда technology [tek'nnlacfei] 1) техника; 2) технология а teenager* ['tiincKfea] подросток (тинейджер) а territory ['teritori] территория themselves [dam'selvz] они сами а theory ['01эп] теория а thistle ['Gisal] чертополох thrill [вп1] дрожь, трепет, восхищение thrilling ['0rilio] приводящий в трепет, восхищение а thriller ['0п1э] приключенческий фильм а ticket ['tikit] билет а cinema ticket билет в кино а lottery ticket лотерейный билет а plane ticket билет на самолет а train ticket билет на поезд а ticket for а performance билет на представление а ticket to а place билет куда-л. а tiger ['taiga] тигр а tiger lily [,taiga 'lili] тигровая лилия time [taim] 1) время; 2) раз several times несколько раз many times много раз the first time в первый раз toxic ['tnksik] токсичный a tragedy ['traecfeadi] трагедия to tremble ['trembal] дрожать trouble* ['trAbal] беда, неприятность to be in trouble попасть в беду a truck AmE [1глк] грузовик true [tru:] правдивый a true friend настоящий друг 279 truth [tru:6] правда truly ['trurli] действительно tundra ['tAndra] тундра tuneful ['tjanfal] мелодичный a tyrannosaurus* [ti,ra;n3'so:r3s] тираннозавр (разновидность динозавра) и unfortunately [лпЪд/эпэШ] к несчастью unpolluted [An,p9'Iu:tid] незагрязненный unwashed [,An'wn/t] невымытый useless ['juisbs] бесполезный й valley ['vffili] долина a lily-of-the-valley ландыш a violet [Vaialil] фиалка a virus* ['vaiarss] вирус a vocabulary [va'kaebjulari] вокабуляр, словарь a voice [vois] 1) голос; 2) залог a volcano [vDl'kemau] вулкан w to wait [weit] ждать to wait for sb/sth ждать кого-л./что-л. a war [wo;] война warlike ['woilaik] воинственный a washing machine ['wnJipmOjfrn] стиральная машина waste [weist] отходы a water lily ['wo:to ,lili] водяная лилия water skiing ['wo:to ,ski:io] катание на водных лыжах а water polo ['wo;to ,рэи1эи] водное поло а waterfall ['wo:tofo:l] водопад а way [wei] путь to weigh [wei] взвешивать a weight [weit] вес weight lifting ['weit,liftio] поднятие тяжестей a whale* [well] кит a whistle* ['wissl] свисток a width [wid0] ширина wild [waild] дикий wine* [wain] вино to wink* [wiijk] моргать, мигать without [wi5'aut] без a wolf [wolf] волк to wonder ['wAnda] интересоваться no wonder неудивительно wood [wud] дерево a woodpecker ['wud,pek3] дятел wool [wul] шерсть to work out ['w3:k aut] 1) тренироваться; 2) вырабатывать 28 fV' a yard* \]а.Л\ ярд. {единица измерения длины = 91,44 см) yet [jet] еще yourself [jo/self] ты сам yourselves [joi'selvz] вы сами а zebra ['гкЬгэ] зебра Таблица неправильных глаголов be [Ы;] j was/were [wDz]/[w3:| been [bi:n] быть 1 become [Ь|'клт] became [bi'keim] become [Ьт'клт] становиться, являться ' begin [bi'gm] began [bi'gaen] begun [Ьт'длп] начинать blow [bleu] blew [blu;] blown [bleun] дуть break [breik] broke [Ьгэик] broken [Ьгэик(э)п] ломать bring [brio] brought [bro:t] brought [bro:t] приносить build [bild] built [bilt] built [bilt] строить burn [Ьз:п] burnt [b3:nt] burnt [b3:nt] жечь, гореть buy [bai] bought [bo:t] bought [bn:t] покупать can [кзеп] could [kud] мочь catch [ksetj] caught [ko;t] caught [ko:t] схватить choose [t(u:z] chose [tfauz] chosen ['t/ouzn] выбирать come [клт] came [keim] come [клт] приходить cut [кл1] cut [кл1] cut [кл1] резать do [du:] did [did] done [dAn] ' делать draw [dro;] drew [dm:] drawn [dro:n] рисовать dream [dri:m] dreamed/ dreamt [dremt] dreamed/ dreamt [dremt] мечтать drink [driQk] drank [driepk] drunk [drAgk] пить drive [draiv] drove [drouv] driven ['dnv(o)n] водить {машину и т. п.) eat [i:t] ate [et] eaten ['i:tn] есть fall [fo:l] fell [fel] fallen [Ъ:1эп] падать fight [fart] fought [fo;t] fought [fo:t] драться, сражаться find [famd] found [faund] found [faund] находить fly [flai] flew [flu;] flown [Лэип] летать Продолжение таблицы forget [fa'get] forgot [fo'gnt] forgotten [fa'gntn] забывать get [get] got [got] got [got] получать give [gxv] gave [geiv] given ['givn] давать go[дэи] went [went] gone [gnn] идти, направляться grow [дгэи] grew [gru;] grown [graun] расти hang [haeg] hung [Ьлд] hung [Ьлр] вешать have [hasv] had [haed] had [haed] иметь hear [hia] heard [hard] heard [hs:d] слышать keep [ki;p] kept [kept] kept [kept] держать, содержать know [пэи] knew [nju;] known [naun] знать learn [1з:п] learned/learnt [l3:nt] learned/learnt [h:nt] учить leave [li:v] left [left] left [left] уезжать, покидать, остав лять let [let] let [let] let [let] позволять, давать lie [lai] lay [lei] lain [lein] лежать lose [lu;z] lost [lost] lost [lost] терять make [meik] made [meid] made [meid] делать, изготовлять mean [mi:n] meant [ment] meant [ment] значить, иметь в виду meet [mi;t] met [met] met [met] встречать put [put] put [put] put [put] класть read [ri:d] read [red] " read [red] читать ride [raid] rode [raud] ridden ['ridn] ездить {верхом на лошади, на велосипеде) 28 Окончание таблицы ring [по] rang [raeo] rung [ГАО] звонить run [глп] ran [rasn] run [ГАП] бегать. say [sei] said [sed] said [sed] сказать see [si:] saw [so:] seen [skn] видеть send [send] sent [sent] sent [sent] посылать ski [ski:] skied [ski:d] skied [ski:d] кататься на лыжах speak [spi:k] spoke [spauk] spoken ['spauk(o)n] говорить spell [spel] spelt [spelt] spelt [spelt] произносить по буквам spend [spend] spent [spent] spent [spent] тратить (деньги)', проводить (время) stand [staend] stood [stud] stood [stud] стоять strike [straik] struck [strAk] struck [strAk] ударять, бить (о часах) swim [swim] swam [swasm] swum [swAm] плавать take [teik] took [tuk] taken ['teikon] брать teach [ti:tr| taught [to:t] taught [to:t] учить, обучать tell [tel] told [tauld] told [tould]' сказать, рассказать think [0iok] thought [0o:t] thought [0o:t] думать understand understood understood понимать [Anda'staend] [Anda'stud] [Anda'stud] wear [wea] wore [wo:] worn [wo:n] носить, быть одетым win [win] won [wAn] won [WAn] выигрывать write [rail] wrote [rout] written ['ritn] писать 14 Таблица перевода некоторых англо-американских единиц измерения в метрическую систему Меры длины 1 дюйм (inch) = 2,54 см 1 фут (foot) = 30,48 см Меры веса 1 унция (oz) = 28,35 г 1 фунт (pound) = 373,2 г Меры объема 1 галлон (gallon) = 4,546 л (Великобритания) 1 пинта (pint) = < [3,785 л (США) 0,57 л (Великобритания) 0,47 л (США) Содержание Unit 1. Visiting the USA Step One.................................................. 3 Step Two................................................. 12 Step Three .............................................. 20 Step Four ............................................... 28 Step Five................................................ 38 Unit 2. English — a Global Language Step One................................................. 49 Step Two................................................. 58 Step Three .............................................. 66 Step Four ............................................... 75 Step Five................................................ 82 Unit 3. Living Things Around Us Step One............................................... 91 Step Two................................................ 100 Step Three ............................................. 107 Step Four .............................................. 114 Step Five............................................... 123 Unit 4. The ABC of Ecology Step One................................................ 132 Step Two................................................ 140 Step Three ............................................. 150 Step Four .............................................. 156 Step Five............................................... 162 Unit 5. Keeping Fit Step One................................................ 170 Step Two................................................ 177 Step Three ............................................. 186 Step Four .............................................. 194 Step Five............................................... 202 II Unit 6. Our Favourite Pastimes Step One............................................214 Step Two ...........................................222 Step Three..........................................233 Step Four...........................................242 Step Five ..........................................253 Англо-русский словарь .................................263 Таблица неправильных глаголов .........................282 Таблица перевода некоторых англо-американских единиц измерения в метрическую систему .................................285 28