Английский язык рабочая тетрадь 8 класс Афанасьева Михеева часть 1

На сайте Учебник-скачать-бесплатно.ком ученик найдет электронные учебники ФГОС и рабочие тетради в формате pdf (пдф). Данные книги можно бесплатно скачать для ознакомления, а также читать онлайн с компьютера или планшета (смартфона, телефона).
Activity book (активити бук), Workbook (воркбук) - Английский язык рабочая тетрадь 8 класс Афанасьева Михеева часть 1 - 2014-2015-2016-2017 год:


Читать онлайн (cкачать в формате PDF) - Щелкни!
<Вернуться> | <Пояснение: Как скачать?>

Текст из книги:
Тестовые задания Английский язык курс английского Ам ш I для российских школ d I Ши 4-U год обучения класс Рабочая тетрадь №1 3-е издание, стереотипное МОСКВА р о а 2010 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2Англ-922 А94 Авторы: О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева, К. М. Баранова, Ю. Е. Ваулина, Н. Ю. Петрова, О. В. Вострикова А94 Английский язык. 4-й год обучения. 8 кл. : рабочая тетрадь №1/0. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева, К. М. Баранова и др. 3-е изд., стереотип. — М. : Дрофа, 2010. — 112 с. : ил, — (Новый курс английского языка для российских школ). ISBN 978-5-358-08309-7 (№ 1) ISBN 978-5-358-08310-3 Тетради являются составной частью УМК-4, созданного известными специалистами в области преподавания английского языка. Они предназначены как для самостоятельной работы учащихся дома, так и для работы в K.iacce. В комплект входят также учебник, книга для учителя и аудиоприложение. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 Учебное издание Серия «Новый курс английского языка для российских школ* Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна, Михеева Ирина Владимировна, Баранова Ксения Михайловна, Ваулина Юлия Евгеньевна, Петрова Ната.лья Юрьевна, Вострикова Ольга Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК 4-й год обучешся. 8 класс Рабочая тетрадь № 1 Зав. редакцией Е. Ю. Шмакова, Ответственный редактор Е, В, Рубина Художественный редактор Л, П, Копачева. Художественное оформление С, В, Любаев. Технический редактор И, В, Грибкова Компьютерная верстка Е, Ю, Пучкова, Корректор Г, Н, Кузьмина Санитарно-эпидемиологическое заключение № 77.99.60.953.Д.009733.08.09 от 18,08.2009. Подписано к печати 07.06.10, Формат 70X90Vi6* Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура «Школьная^, Печать офсетная. Уел. печ. л* 8Д9. Тираж 50 000 экз. Заказ JvIe 26320 (п-£т)* ООО «Дрофа». 127018, Москва, Сущевский вал, 49. Предложения и замечания по содержанию и оформлению книги просим направлять в редакцию общего образования издательства ««Дрофа*: 127018, Москва, а/я 79. Тел.: (495) 795-05-41. E-mail: chief@drofa.ru По вопросам приобретения продукции издательства * Дрофа* обращаться по адресу: 127018» Москва, Сущевский вал, 49. Тел.: (495) 795-05-50, 795-05-51, Факс: (495) 795-05*52. Торговый дом «Школьник*. 109172, Москва, ул. Малые Каменщики, д. 6, стр. 1А. Тел.: (495) 911-70-24, 912-15-16, 912-45-76. Сеть магазинов «Переплетные птицы*. Тел.: (495) 912-45-76. * Интернет-магазин: http://www.drofa.ni ОАО «Смоленский полиграфический комбинат*. 214020, г. Смоленск, ул. Смольянинова, 1. ISBN 978-5-358-08309-7 (№ 1) ISBN 978-5-358-08310-3 © СХЮ «Дрофа*»2(Ю8 УУХУУХУУ Contents Unit 1. Visiting the USA Listening + Section................................... 4 Reading + Section.................................... 5 Speaking + Section.................................... 12 TVrifmg + Section..................................... 18 Project Work 1........................................ 34 Test 1............................................. 34 Unit 2. English — a Global Language Listening + Section.................................. 40 Reading + Section................................... 42 Speaking + Section................................... 48 Writing + Section.................................... 54 Project Work 2.................................... 74 Test 2.......................................... 75 Unit 3. Living Things around Us Listening + Section................... ............. 79 Reading + Section.................................. 81 Speaking. + Section............................... . .^ 89 Writing + Section ................................ 96 Project Work 3..................................... 107 Tests............................................... 107 VViVYXVV y W\ • * Unit 1. Visiting the USA Word Box already, another, to border, border, to bring (brought), to build (built), building, to call, chain, coast, continent, deep, to flow (flew, flown), game, historic, just, island, large, low, to lie (lay, lain), mighty, moon, nationality, only, part, plain, proud, to remember, same, state, skyscraper, team, valley, wild, yet Listening 1. Listen to the tape, cities. 1 1, and match the texts with the names of the Text А 1) Washington D. С. Text В 2) Chicago Text С 3) New York 1) 2) 2. Listen to the tape, in the right order. 3) 2, and put the names of the places Tom visited a) Washington D. C. b) the Great Lakes c) San Francisco d) the Mississippi e) Miami; Florida 1) 2) ^ National Examination Format формат ЕГЭ, 3) 4) 5) предлагаемое задание имеет 4 3. Listen to the dialogue, 3, and choose the right item. 1) Sue has been to places in the USA a) two b)three c)four 2) Sue has seen a) the Pacific Coast b) the Atlantic Coast c) the Pacific and the Atlantic Coast 3) Disneyland is a) a big forest b) a big valley c) a big park 4) Sue has taken some pictures of a) Disneyland b) San Francisco c) Washington D. C 5) Helen is going to see Sue a) this evening b) tomorrow evening c) this afternoon Reading + 4. Read the names of these places. Continents: Europe, Asia, Australia. Countries: the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Ireland, France. Mountains: the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachians. Oceans: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean. Rivers: the Potomac River, the Mississippi River, the Colorado River. Lakes: the Great Lakes — Lake Huron (the Huron), Lake Ontario (the Ontario), Lake Michigan (the Michigan), Lake Supe- rior (the Superior), Lake Erie (the Erie). States: Washington, Alaska, California, Texas, Hawaii. Cities: Washington D. C., Chicago, “The Big Apple’* York. Streets: Broadway. New 5 Museums: the Natural History Museum. Others: the World» the Old World, the Wild West, the Great Plains, the Grand Canyon, Death Valley, the Pacific Coast,, the Atlantic, the Capitol. 5. Read these words in transcription. [oilTedi] ['skai,skreip3] [steit] [cfeASt] ["maiti] [Чбэ] Get] [Пэи] [waild] ['ev3] [ka:l] [ksust] ["knntinant] [ri'memba] ['aibnd] [Vseli] [Ъэ:dэ] [э'плбэ] 6. Read the new words, word combinations and sentences. A. Already, remember, proud, nationality, historic, same, another, islands, mighty, coast, border, brought, built, lay. B. A famous state, the Wild West, a historic building, a proud father, a golden chain, an only child, a mighty river, a large island, a deep valley, another plain, a beautiful lily-of-the-valley; to bring back, to stretch far, to stretch south, to border on the country, to flow into the ocean, to remember well, to lie on the river; on the moon, at the same time, a chain of mountains. C. The river is very deep here. The family are poor but proud. The Capitol is a historic building in Washington D. C. There is no moon tonight. You can see some wild flowers in the corner of our garden. Great Britain is an island. The river flowed along slowly. King Solomon was really a mighty king of Israel in the 10^^ century BC^. 7. Read the texts (a—d) and match them with the numbers (1—5), There is one number you don*t need to use. ^ BC — Before Christ KJ до нашей эры 6 /■j. 1) Memorial Day a) George Washington was the country’s first president. Abraham Lincoln was another popular American president. Americans remember him because he was the head of the country at the difficult time of the American Civil War. Their birthdays were both in February and Americans celebrate them together. 2) Thanksgiving Day b) This is not an official holiday but it is a very special day. On this day children dress in costumes of witches, ghosts, monsters, etc. The windows of many houses have decorations. In the evening the children go from house to house, knock on doors and say “trick or treat”. The people in the houses usually give the children sweets or some other treat. 3) Presidents’ Day c) Americans celebrate this holiday every year in November. On this day a lot of Americans visit their families and have a traditional big dinner of turkey and different vegetables, sweet potatoes and pumpkin pie. All together they say thank you to God and to each other for help, as the first settlers did in the 17^^ century, when they gathered to have a feast^ with the Native Americans. 4) Christmas 5) Halloween d) This is an important time for giving presents. People begin buying presents long before the celebration. Many families piit up and decorate a fir tree and make special cookies. Small children think that their presents come from Santa Claus. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) а feast [fi:st] — пир 7 УУкУУкУУ) ■V‘*a vi Vi ( То what museum they would like to go? Match the numbers with the letters. There is one letter you don’t need to use. 1) Mr Pitch is interested in wild life. He wants to know more about America’s flora and fauna. 2) Mr John Escott is staying in Washington D. C. with his six-year-old daughter. He wants to please the child and take her to a museum where she can see something she understands and is interested in. 3) Mr Redcliff has a big collection of books on aviation. In one of them he has found the name of a pilot he didn’t know before. He would like to learn more about him but in the city library^ they haven’t been able to help him. a) The National Museum of American History. This museum is open every day from 10 a. m. to 5.30 p. m. People do not buy tickets to get into the museum. Here you can see wonderful original dresses of the US First Ladies. Here, too, is Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. You can also find here old cars, bicycles and wagons. b) The National Air and Space Museum is the most popular of Washington’s museums. People all over the world come here to see the history of aviation. In the museum you can see the plane in which Wright [rait] brothers were up in the sky in 1903. There are also rockets in the museum. You can see here Mercury [''m3:kjuri] in which John Glen, the famous American austronaut made his trip around the Earth in February 1962. In the museum you can see films about different planets and famous astronauts. Works every day of the week. c) The Natural History Museum is a very big museum where you can see a lot of animals — black and orange tarantula spiders and black scorpions. Visitors can also see 360-million-year-old fish and pieces of moon rock. Many halls have presentations of birds, sea life, items from the Pacific, Indian, Eskimo, Asian and African cultures [^кл]^Э2], minerals and meteorites. Works every day of the week. ^ a library ['laibrari] — библиотека 8 4) Mrs Loveday wants to know as much as she can about the life of the US Presidents and their wives. d) The National Building Museum is open from Monday to Friday. In its rooms the visitors can see the original plans for Washington D. C. and for the famous US monuments, e) The Dolls* House and Toy Museum is open from Tuesday to Saturday. It also works on Sunday afternoon. The visitors to the museum can see wonderful dolls* houses and toys. Many of them are of the Victorian era time. 1) 3) 4) 5) 9. Put the parts of this text in the right order. a) A few years ago, John and Barbara took their four children and left New York City for a small village^ in Alaska. They built a house and now their life is very simple but not always easy as they have to work a lot, b) The Strattons are not the only newcomers to Alaska. Many people have come north from big American cities. They want to have a more peaceful^ life, they want to live and watch the beauty of Alaska, its wide open spaces^, its beauty and wilderness. c) John and Barbara Stratton have four children. They are a typical American family with their problems, their good and bad days, their own'* ideas of life. Their children born in New York are Emily, Fred, Colin and Sarah. d) In the short summer Barbara and John spend much time in their garden where there are a lot of vegetables. Their children help them in the garden and about the house. John catches fish and crab and they often have them for dinner. The parents like their life in Alaska, so do their children. 1 2 3 4 a village ['vilith] — деревня peaceful ['piisfal] — мирный, спокойный spaces — пространства own [эип] — собственный 9 VVXYYXV V) е) The Strattons enjoy living in their new home, in the larg’ est state in the US where they can watch the beauty of the World, with its wild animals anH hirHc 1) 2) 3) 4) 10. Read the text and choose the right item in the sentences after it. Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus [кэЧлтЬэ5] (1451—1506) was a sailor^ He discovered^ America for Spain in 1492. After that he returned to America three more times. At that time they believed that the new land was not America, but Asia. Like many people of his time, Columbus knew that our planet is round. Sailors from Europe sailed east to the “Indies” (Asia). They brought back gold and many other wonderful things. Columbus thought that if he sailed west but not east he could get to Indies too. The queen and king of Spain gave him ships and money to sail there. ^ a sailor ['seib] — моряк ^ to discover [dis'kAva] — открывать, делать открытия 10 In 1492, Columbus sailed west on three small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Nina. The ships sailed for three weeks. The sailors didn’t see any land and became afraid. Then on October 12 they saw an island in the ocean. Columbus named it San Salvador. When he returned to Spain he had a hero’s welcome. Columbus thought that the new land was Indies, This is why he called the people he met Indians. These islands still have the name of the West Indies. When Columbus sailed to America for the third time he landed on the coast of today’s Venezuela. People think that it the first time in 500 years for a European to set foot on the American Continent, Columbus’s travels are some of the most important happenings in history. 1) Columbus travelled to America______________ times. a) two b) three c) four 2) Christopher Columbus a) was born in Spain b) worked for Spain c) died in Spain 3) Columbus’s idea was to sail a) east b) west c)south 4) Columbus a) had no idea that c) wanted to know if our planet is round. b) had a very good idea that 5) San Salvador is a) an island b) a country c) a river 6) The West Indies are part of a) India b) Indonesia c) America 7) Columbus was a) the first b) the second European to travel to America c) not the first 11 11 . Read the text and answer the questions after it. Hawaii Hawaii was not always a green sunny paradise^. These islands were born in fire. A chain of volcanoes [уоГкешэи] came up from underwater in the Pacific Ocean. Now» millions of years later, we can see the upper part of the 132 Hawaiian islands. One or two of the volcanoes are active. On Hawaii, the largest and youngest island, the volcano often sends hot red ash^ into the sky. People from many nations came to live in Hawaii. The newcomers brought new plants and animals. Foreign plants and animals have changed Hawaii little by little. Many of Hawaii’s smaller islands are too small for people. They give home to millions of sea birds, seals and turtles^. Visitors are few, and many of the birds are not afraid of people. Hawaii’s islands are famous for their beauty. It’s a wonderful warm place too. The capital of the Hawaiian Islands is Honolulu, on the Island of Oahu. It is a popular place for Americans to go on holiday. 1) Have Hawaii changed over the years? 2) Why does the text say that “the islands were born in fire”? 3) How many islands are there? 4) Are all volcanoes dead? 5) Can you give the name of one active volcano? 6) How have people changed the face of the islands? 7) Where do many birds and animals find their home? 8) Why are some of the Hawaiian islands a popular holiday place? Speaking + 12. Work in small groups. Decide what five places in North A you’d like to visit together. Give your arguments^. enca 1 2 3 4 paradise ['paeredaiz] — рай ash [asj] — пепел seals and turtles — тюлени и черепахи an argument ['cugjumsnt] — аргумент 12 y r^\ (r, n 13. How much do you know about America? What are they? 2) What oceans wash the coasts of North America? 3) Which mountain chain in North America is higher: the Rockies or the Appalachians? 4) What’s the name of the lakes situated in the north of the USA? 5) Are there any plains in the US? If there are, where are they situated? 6) What are the largest rivers in the US? 7) Which parts of the US are famous for their warm pleasant climate? 8) What big cities in the US do you know? Where are they situated? 9) How many states are there in the US? 10) Where is the capital of the country? 11) What ten facts about New York and Washington D. C. can you remember? 12> Who is the US President at the moment? 14. Speak about these places in the US. Use the following words and word combinations. A. Washington D. C, • to stand on the Potomac River • to have wide green streets and avenues • the capital • Congressmen • the Capitol • to make laws • the White House • the US President • a lot of interesting monuments • a city of museums • world-famous the National Air and Space Museum • the Natural History Museum B. New York • the Big Apple • to stand on the Hudson River 13 r'j. • а bigf port • to stand mainly on three islands • a big business centre • thousands of visitors • lots of bridges • world-famous skyscrapers • the Statue of Liberty • the Metropolitan Opera House • Broadway theatres • musicals • Avenue — a popular shopping street • Central Park — an island of green trees in a big city • people of many nationalities • more than 11 min people C. San Francisco • to lie on the Pacific coast • 43 hills • to be popular all over the world • to have a nice warm climate • wonderful sunny beaches • the most important part on the coast • the capital of California • a busy cultural and business life • the Golden Gate Bridge • a big Chinatown • more than 140 theatres • skyscrapers in the business part of the city • more than 130 parks • people of many nationalities • nicknames of Frisco, Bay City or The City 15. Complete this text with the new words from the box and speak about the US geography. Appalachian, Washington, plains, the Big Apple, North, Lakes, Atlantic, father, Canada, Colorado, Rockey, fifty, Mexico, Mississippi, New York, California, Texas 14 WXYVXV V> The USA is one of the biggest countries of the world. It is sit- listed in 1 America. The country borders on 2 in the north and 3 in the south. There are 4 states in the US, some of them are Washington, 5 The capital of the country is 8 ,6 7 . In the east the 9 Ocean washes the USA. Here the biggest city of the country is situated. It is 10 , Americans often call it 11 . The 12 Mountains stretch in the east. They are old and not very high. The 13 Mountains are situated in the west. They are younger and higher. There are many rivers and lakes in the USA. Americans are proud of the 14-River. It is the longest river of the country. People call it mighty and “the 15 of waters”. It begins in the north of the country. The 16 River is smaller. It flows near the Grand Canyon. The Great 17 are in the centre of America and the Great 18 are situated in the north-east and central US. They are the five largest lakes along^ the US and Canadian border. 16. Sasha and Pavel are at Kennedy Airport. They have come to the airport from different places. Pavel is flying from Russia and Sasha is leaving America. Complete their talk and act it out. S.: So where are you going, Pavel? P.: Washington D. C. I am going to stay there for a few days. S.: Is it 1 or 2 along [э"1о13] вдоль 15 Р.: It's а business trip. I’ve come to America on business. But I don’t think I’ll be busy all the time. And where are you flying Sasha? S.: Home. Back to Moscow. You know, I’ve just returned from Washington D. C. P.: Have you? It’s wonderful. You can help me and say where to go, what to see, what the city is like. S.: Oh, 3_______________, — stands on a beautiful river. P.: What river is it? and it S.: 4 . By the way, there are many museums there. P.: Where 5__________? S.: I think you can get to the Natural History Museum It 6__________ P.: Thank you. See you in Moscow soon. Remember me to your parents. Bye. 17. S.: Have a nice stay in the States. Match the names of the states with the information about them. You don’t need to use one of them. Speak about these states. 1) Florida (FL) 2) Alaska (AK) 3) Hawaii (HI) 4) California (CA) 5) Texas (TX) a) A large state in the American South. It is famous for its gas and oiP and farming. People often associate this state with cowboys. People sometimes say that in this state everything is bigger than in other places. The weather in this state is rather hot and dry. Some of the state’s cities are Houston ['hjuistan], Dallas, San Antonio. b) The largest state in the USA. Its territory is situated in the far north-west of America. Canada lies between this state and the rest of the country. This state is famous for its cold climate. The native people of this land are Escimoes or Inuits^. ' gas [gaes] and oil [diI] — газ и нефть ^ Inuits ['mjuits] — a better word for Escimoes 16 c) This state lies on the islands in the Pacific. The name of its capital is Honolulu. The state is very beautiful and has a warm pleasant climate. It is a popular place for Americans to go on holiday. This state is in the south-east of the country. It has good weather all year round. This state is famous for its wonderful beaches that are popular with holidaymakers. d) This state is situated in the south-west of the country. Some of the biggest cities are Los Angeles and San Francisco. Disneyland and Hollywood are situated here. This is a very sunny place. People often associate this place with success but it is not always true. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 18. Learn what British teens^ like and don’t like about their country. Think of what American and Russian teenagers can say about theirs. What Do They Love Most in Britain? 14% of young people love Britain because they think that they live in a democracy where they can say what they think. • They like living in a country where there are many different nationalities living together. • Most of the teens (33% ) love British music. • A lot of young people (21%) enjoy the beauty of the British countryside^ and coast. • British teenagers (21%) like British football.- • 20% of young people think that British comedy films are the best. -British teenagers are fond of British food. They enjoy eating bacon ['beikan], sandwiches, cheddar cheese and curry ['клп]. (Curry is not British but it is one of Britain’s most popular foods). • They like drinking a nice cup of tea in the morning. 16% of teens like the British weather (I) • Some like the BBC. • Some like Tower Bridge. • Some say they don’t like anything at all (I) ^ teens (teenagers) — подростки ^ countryside — сельская, загородная местность 17 Wliat £>o They Hate.Most in Britain? * - Rubbish’ in the streets. • The terrible rainy weather. • Some teens say that one must have a lot of money to live Britain, it is an expensive^ country. • The fact that people are not always kind to each other. • The British government^, that doesn’t listen to the people. • People who think that they can do what they want. in Writing + 19. Complete the new words 2 3 expensive [ik'spensivl — дорогостоящий, дорогой government ['gAVsmant] — правительство 1) al_ dy ii)p— ud 21)b Id 2)c .11 12) re er 22) st » e 3) w Id 13) na — -lity 23) br s 4) sa 14)con ■ ■ nt 24) br ght 5) d P 15) m n 25) his 6) pi 16)1 -ge 26) bu 7)ch 17)fl 27) str 8) val 18),mig У 28) у 9) an er 19) c t 29) er 10) i and 20)bor r 30) p t ^ rubbish ['глЬ1/] — мусор ing 18 20. Spell the words 1) ['vaeli] valley 2) [Ia:cfe] 3) ['evs] 4) ['maiti] 5) [п'тпетЬз] 6) [bilt] 7) [bild] 8) [lai] 9) [ko:l] 10) ['ailand] 11) ['bo:d3] 12) [kaust] 13) [waild] 14) [,naej3'naeliti] 15) [lei] 16) [bra:t] 17) [ol'redi] 18) [plein] 19) ['kontmant] 20) [stretj] 21) [pa:t] 22) [brip] 23) [э'плдэ] 24) ['лдэ] 21. Use the article the or no article and write the names in the right places Washington, Germany, Mississippi, France, Huron, Pacific Alaska, Hawaii, Colorado, Africa, Broadway, Asia, Ontario, Chicago, Appalachians, Rockies, South America, Texas, Detroit, Australia, California, Russia, Europe, Atlantic, USA, Superior Continents: States: Countries: Mountains: Rivers: Oceans 19 Lakes; Cities: Streets Complete the sentences where necessary E X a m p 1 e: a) The Mississippi flows. sissippi flows south. b) I like him but south. The Mis- the same time I dislike him. I like him but at the same time I dislike him 1) Paris lies the Seine [seinl 2) The Volga flows 3) We are proud the Caspian Sea our children. 4) The beach stretched 5) The coast stretched as far 6) France borders Rhine^. miles and was very beautiful. the eye could see Germany along parts of the 20 7) We c time. 8) She is very nice but the same thing you don’t like about her. 9) Have you ever fallen the same time there is some- love? 10) There are many islands the Pacific Ocean ^ Rhine [rain] — Рейн {река в Еоропе} 11) Does the river flow east or west? 12) The young prince fell when he saw her. love Cinderella 23. Write this in English. Л.Л) влюбляться в королеву 2) граничить с Мексикой 3) впадать в океан. 4) не забывать (помнить) купить молоко 5) гордиться Россией. 6) течь на восток (о реке) 7) находиться, стоять на реке (о городе) 8) простираться на север 9) простираться далеко. 10)вернуть 1) единственный ребенок 2) в то же время 3) цепь гор. 4) прекрасный ландыш 5) Дикий Запад 6) Старый Свет 7) на Луне 21 8) могучая река 9) глубокая долина II || 10) высокое здание 11) большой остров 12) другие равнины 24. Choose the right word and make the sentences Example: Jane is here. Where are the ? Where are 1) I’m thirsty, may I have cup of tea? 2) Some little children like porridge. do not 3) Some languages are difficult to learn * are easier. 4) I have already read “Matilda” by Roald Dahl, now I have be- gun reading book by this writer. 5) Some people like it when it rains. 6) Some people can drive cars and ride will never do it. don’t. people 7) John is hungry. Give him____ 8) I’ve already been to Germany. I sandwich, pi like to visit some European countries 9) This pen won’t write. Can I have 10) Some fruit are very tasty f 22 are not 25. Л. Write what they have just begun doing. Example: Max / making breakfast. Max has just ing breakfast. n mak 1) Sarah / learning French 2) Tom and Ben / playing tennis 3) Lizzy / reading “The Old Man and the Sea 4) Sam / eating his lunch 5) Mary / playing the piano 6) Mrs Townsend / driving her car 7) The Morgans / speaking Russian 8) The Beckets / building their country house B. Write what they have already finished doing. Example: Jane and Polly / watering the plants. Jane and Polly have already finished watering the plants. 1) Tom / watching television 2) Sally / speaking on the phone 3) Mr and Mrs Stubbs / eating breakfast 4) Doctor Gordon / writing notes 5) Grandma / cooking dinner 6) Charlie / riding his bike 7) The Williams / building their garage 8) Toby / doing his lessons 23 26. Write where they have just come from. Example: Olga / Moscow. Olga has just come from Moscow. Houston 1) Joe / Houston Mrs Hilton and her children / Detroit 3) George Finn / Chicago Chioaoo 4) Sam and Andy / San Francisco 5) Jessica / Washington D. C. 24 Wa$hlngtofi D, C. 1 6) Mr and Mrs Williams / New York 7) Barbara / Seattle 27. Write what they have just done. Example: cook fish. She has just 1) read the book 2) come to school SCHOOL 3) take a shower 4) swim one hundred metres 5) give a lesson 6) close the window 7) fall down 8) write a test 26 38. Look at the pictures and write what they haven’t done yet. Example: build a house. He hasn’t built a house yet. 1) wash up 2) water the flowers 3) do the room 4) be to the bank 5) take the dog out 29. Make up questions with these words. E X a m p 1 e: done, the friends, their, lessons, have? Have the friends done their lessons? 1) ever / have / to / been / you / Rome? 2) any / you / seen / have / ever / foreign film? 27 3) they / have / visited / ever / Spain? 4) Sam / ever / has / in / the sea / swum? 5) ever / Mary / spoken / has / Russian? 6) Sarah / has / ever / English / read / books? 30. Complete the verb chart. 31* Use have or has to complete the sentences. (Underline the form you need.) Example: The children (has / have) eaten their lunches. — The children (has / have) eaten their lunches. 1) (Have / Has) you finished your work, Alice? 2) I (have / has) never played this game and I don’t know how to do it. * 3) Jane (have / has) started making her photo album. 4) John and Sally (haven’t / hasn’t) been to Canada, they (have / has) been to the USA. 5) (Have / Has) you decided where to spend your winter holidays? 6) The children think they (haven’t / hasn’t) seen such beautiful place before. 7) Tim and I (have / has) visited nearly all the museums in our town. 8) Peter (haven’t / hasn’t) answered my question and I’d like to know the answer. 9) (Have / Has) you dressed, Don? Breakfast is readyl 10) Look, Nina (have / has) washed the plates. Thank you, Nina! 11) I don’t know anybody who (have / has) been to Hawaii. 12) Here are some pictures of the places my father (have / has) visited. 32. Complete the sentences. Example: They have written their test (just). They have just written their test. 1)1 don’t know what Australia is like. I have been there (never). 2) My daughter has read “Little Women” (already). 3) The boys have not finished their football match (yet). 29 4) We have been to that island (never) 5) Has he seen the Capitol (ever)? 6) The girls have returned from school (just). 7) Little John has eaten his breakfast (already). 8) Fred has fallen off his bike (just). 33. Complete the dialogues. Use *‘just + present perfect”. Example: 1) 2) Is this book interesting? Yes, it is. I (read). I have rust read it Is it cold this morning? Yes, it is. I (be) Is dad back? outside 3) Yes, he is. I (see) Isn4 Gerald’s car beautiful? his car 4) Yes, it is. He (begin) Is Tom at home? driving it 30 Yes, he is. He (come) back 5) Is granny all right? 6) Yes, she is. I to 7) Yes, he is. He (ring) Is the film good? up 8) Yes, it is. I (watch) Is Alice tired? Yes, she is. She (swim) it 350 metres- 34. Write how many times Nick has been to these places or done these things. Complete the sentences for him. Example: 1) Have you ever — Yes, I have three times. to America? I have been there Have you ever been to Australia? 2) Yes, I have / (twice)______________ Have you read “Matilda” by Roald Dahl? 3) Yes. I Have you ever swum in the ocean? 4) 5) Yes, I have / (three times) Have you ever cooked soup? Yes, I have / (many times) Have you ever eaten mango? 6) Yes, I have / Have you ever times) Yes, I have / (once) 31 3d. Complete and act out these dialogxies, A., E X a m p 1 e:— Would you like to speak to your father? No, thank you, I already (speak) to / have already spoken to him. 1) Would you like an apple, please? himfl 2) No, thank you. I just (eat) one. Would you like to watch “Mary Poppins” on TV? 3) No, thank you. I already (see) it. Remember to ring up your granny 4) I already (ring) her up. Isn’t it the time to go to bed? It is. I already (begin) cleaning my teeth. 5) — Remember to go shopping and buy some bread. — But I just (come) back from the shop. Here is the bread 6) Would you like some soup, dear? No, thank you. I already (eat) some. B. Example 1) It’s so difficult to play this game. I know. I (play) it before. I have played it be- fore. Look, the mountains are so high! 2) I know. I (be) here before The lake is so deep! 3) I know. I (swim) in it before The hotel is so comfortable! 32 I know. I (stay) here before 4) The film is so interesting! 5) 6) I know. I (see) it before. Do you know what avocados are like? I do. I (eat) them before. It is not easy to do this room! I know. I (do) it before. 36. Complete this text. *1^ The Nicest Pop Star Kylie ['kaili] Minouge [mi'nsug] (come°) comes from Australia. Now she (be^)________ nalists (say^)_______ Why is Kely nice? She never (say**) a famous singer and actress. Jour- she (be®) very nice unpleasant things about other pop stars to journalists. Some time ago when Britney Spears (have^) problems, Kylie (ask®) peo- ple to be kind to Britney because she (be^) young and (work®) very hard. Kylie is busy, but she always (find®) for her fans. This year she just (give^®) cert for them. Money (be^^) tant thing for Kylie. some time a free con- not the most impor- 2—Афакасьсва. 8 кл. I', т. З'А I 33 Project Work 1 Find information about some US cities and present it in colourful form. You may work in groups. 1) Washington D 2) New York 3) Chicago 4) San Francisco C 5) Los Angeles 6) New Orleans 7) Philadelphia 8) Miami 1. Test 1 Listen to the text, 4, and write which of these is true, false or not mentioned in the text. In size the USA is larger than Canada. The USA is the country that lies on the continent and islands The USA is in the middle of North America. 1) 2) 3) 4) There are 128 islands in the Pacific Ocean. 5) Lake Ontario is the largest. 6) Lake Superior is the most famous lake in the world. 7) The climate in Europe is warmer than in North America. True: False Not mentioned in the text: 2. Read the text and choose the right item in the sentences after it. Thanksgiving Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday in the USA. Its celebration goes back to the 17**^ century when the first Europeans left England to travel to the New World. They called themselves Pilgrims and most of them left their motherland because they didn’t agree* with the official religion in their country. After the long and difficult journey on the Mayflower across the ocean, the Pilgrims found a place with fields and a stream of to agree fa'gri:] соглашаться 34 fresh water to drink and a lot of tall trees to use for house building. They gave the place the name of Plymouth ['plimD0] and made their first colony there. The first winter and spring in the new country were very hard for the Pilgrims. There was little food and the Pilgrims had great problems. Help came from the Indians who lived nearby. They taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn^, how to gather food and dry some of it for winter use. With the Indians’ help the Pilgrims planted a lot of Indian corn. They worked hard and in autumn they had food for the winter ahead. The Pilgrims decided to celebrate it and to thank God for helping them. The women got the food ready: prepared ducks and geese and fish from the stream» made some salads. Twenty Indian friends came and stayed three days. That was how the tradition of celebrating Thanksgiving Day started. 1) The Pilgrims---------------. a) left America to go to the Old World b) left England to go to America c) left their country to celebrate Thanksgiving Day 2) The place they found in the liew land was a) very beautiful b) very green c) very good for living 3) The first winter was---------------. a) not so easy b) warm like spring c) was colder than at home 4) The Indians helped the Pilgrims when they-------------. a) gave them corn b) planted corn for them c) showed them how to get corn 5) The Pilgrims celebrated their new holiday together with 2* their______________ a) neighbours b) women friends c) the new colonists ^ corn [koinl кукуруза (ЛтЕ) 35 3. Use the prepositions where necessary to complete the text. Russia Russia is the largest country l the world but 2-------------the same time its population is smaller than in some other countries, China for example. Our country stretches 3 the Baltic Sea 4 the Pacific Ocean. There it borders 5 6 mountains 7 China and Japan. The chains the. Pacific coast are not very high. The largest river 8 Russia is the Vol- ga. It flows 9 the Caspian Sea. Adot of old Russian cities lie 10 and flows 11 it. The Volga rises in the Valday Hills the South. Russia is one of the great- est countries of the world and we are proud 12 it. 4. Open the brackets and use the verbs in present perfect to complete the sentences. We never (be) to the USA and we (not see) its capital. 2) I’m sure Boris (read) this story 3) You (write) the letter yet? 4) She says she (never, speak) traveller. to any famous 36 5) We (come) . Where is Andrew? He (take) the children to the zoo. 6) Kate (not, eat) _ doesn’t like them her vegetables. She says she 7) Max (fall) from his bike. 8) You (ring) up (already, begin) Betty? . I . She preparations for the party. 5. What do you feel about travelling? Think of what you like/dislike and write four sentences using social English. 1) flying by plane? 2) staying at hotels? 3) meeting new people? 4) standing in a line' ? 6. Here are some answers. Write the questions. Use present perfect 1) Yes, I have. I took Rex out an hour ago. 2) Yes, he has. Max spoke to the manager last Tuesday 3) Yes, he has. Alice ate her breakfast at 9 o’clock 4) Yes, they have. They were in London last August ' a line зд.1 очередь 37 5) Yes, we have. We saw all the Harry Potter films last year 7. Write these words l)[tjein] 2) ['ailandl 3) [stretn 4) [\x\i] 5) [эгГгесП] 6) [4kai,skreipo] 7) [n'membo] 8) [waild] 9) [praud] 10) [bro:t] 8. Use the right verb forms to complete the text. One day Miss Honey, Matilda’s teacher said to her class: “Tomorrow the Headteacher (come^) and inspect you. She (ask^) 38 you a lot of questions. (Be*^) ready (answer‘d) them. You (come'’) to school on time? You (do®) your homework?” You (go^) to the library?” You (write®) your test well? The children in the class (become®) frightenedh They (know^®) what Miss Trunchbull, their Headteacher (be^^) like. * frightened [Trailand] испуганный I > : С V со I Unit 2. English — a Global Language W ord Box , also, altogether, beginning, before, to belong, by and by, culture, to develop, dictionary, except, fast, figure, to follow, following, to forget (forgot, forgotten), fresh, to grow (grew, grown), kind, land, lately, maybe, to need, perfect, person, practice, to practise, to prefer (preferred), popular, probable, probably, pronunciation, regular, regularly, rich, science, scientific, scientist, slowly, to sound, sound, speech, such, technology, true, truly, vocabulary, voice, to wait, way 1. Listening + Listen to the texts, 5, and match them with the names of the countries and the pictures of their national flags. Text А 1) Great Britain * Text В 2) Norway Text С 3) Italy 1) 2) 3) 2. Listen to the tape, 6, and write down the names of the countries where they speak English as an official or second language in the order they appear’ in the text. ’ in the order they appear [э'р1э] ЛЯЮТСЯ в том порядке, в каком они появ- 40 а) New Zeland 1) b) the USA 2) c) Australia 3) d) the South African Republic e) Northern Ireland 5) f)Canada 6) g) Great Britain 7) h) India i) Pakistan 8) 9) j) Singapore 10) 3. Listen to the dialogue, 7, and choose the right item 1) Annie’s teacher says she must know a lot of and learn more and more. a) poems b) words c)texts 2) There are more than a) 100,000 b) 50,000 words in English c) 500,000 3) William Shakespeare used mg. a) 20,000 12,000 words in his writ- c) 2,000 41 4) Annie needs to learn new English words every day. a) 27 5) If Annie 100 days, a) is lazy b) 40 c) 50 .H , she can learn all the words just in b) grows up c) works hard Reading 4. Read the names of the countries» people who live there (nations) and the official languages they speak. Countries: Australia, China, England, Great Britain, Holland, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Russia, the United Kingdom, the USA, Vietnam. People: Americans, Australians, the Chinese, the Dutch, the English, Italians, the Japanese, Norwegians, the Portuguese, Russians, the Vietnamese, the Irish, the French. Official languages: Chinese, Dutch, English, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Vietnamese, Spanish. 5. Read the words in transcription. CkAitfs] [еэ] ["p3:fikl] ['saisns] [tru;] [fa'get] [tek'nDlacfei] [рпТз:] [grau] [ргэ,плп51'е1.Гэп] [di'veisp] [bflDoJ [saund] ['d:1s3o] [vais] [vo'kaebjubri] [SAtn [Tnlau] 6. Read the new words, word combinations and sentences. A. Also, culture, forgot, need, probably, speech, popular, grew, regularly, scientific, forget-me-not, way, fresh, such, except. B. A foreign land, a strange sound, a short way, a popular song, modern culture, a true story, a probable result, a poor vocabulary, a scientific fact, a pleasant voice, fresh fruit. a strange person; 42 to make a speech, to walk slowly, to grow up, to change by and by, to look fresh, to sound good, to love somebody truly, to be popular with teenagers, to come with practice; at the beginning of, kind of sad, in the field of science, in the open air, in fact. C. It is difficult to make a perfect speech without preparation. What beautiful forget-me-nots! He has a poor vocabulary and also makes a lot of grammar mistakes. Which is the way to the bookshop? We like his way of talking to people. Science and technology develop very fast in the 21®^ century. 7. Read the texts d) and match them with the numbers (1—5) There is one number you don’t need to use. 1) Basic English, the language pupils learn at primary and sometimes secondary schools. a) People made up this language to understand each other if they don’t 1 speak one and the same language. If a Frenchman meets a Russian, they i can’t speak to each other as their Ian- ' guages are not the same. English serves as this kind of language for people of most countries. 2) Pidgin English, the language of badly educated or not educated people. b) The system people of one nationality use to speak with each other with the help of words. 3) Manually coded Engl ish^. c) It is a very simple variant of English for easy international use. Some authors write textbooks in it with easy texts and exercises. Some English schools in foreign countries teach it at the early stage of learning English. 4) Language as human speech. d) People have developed this system to represent the English language with hand signals and use it often in deaf2 education. английский язык, закоди- ^ manually f'maenju^Ji] coded English — рованный при помощи сигналов, передаваемых руками ^ deaf (defl — глухой 43 5) Lingua franca [,lir)gw3'fr£eok3], the language to communicate for people whose languages are different. 1) 2) 4) 5) 8. What national cuisine^ would they like to try? 1) Jack and Mary are fond of Italian food. They find it simple and tasty. But they don’t like to go to Italian restaurants because they prefer to eat at home. a) The Scots are fond of haggis^ and , see it as their typical national food. Haggis is an important part of Scottish culture. Foreigners, however, sometimes refuse to eat hag-1 gis. It happens when they learn that people make it from the heart and other organs of a sheep. 2) During their stay in 1 Edinburgh the Richards ' would like to try something of the Mexican national cuisine. b) Try our tasty Pizza! You will get this dish that came from Italy with cheese and tomatoes on top in no time. Just telephone us! 3) As many other teenagers, sisters Jane and Ann prefer to eat fast food wherever they travel. They believe fast food is international. c) You can get hamburgers, cooked chicken pieces, French fries and other types of food in Me Donald’s. Now there are thousands of Me Donald’s restaurants all over the world. Children and young people especially like its famous Big Mac. 4) A group of Russian , ' students would like to try some traditional food that people eat on the British Isles. d) Guacamole is a wonderful dish. There is avocado in it. This dish is extremely popular in Latin American countries. ^ cuisine [kwi'zirn] — кухня {националъиая) ^ haggis r'haegis] — хаггис (национальная 44 VYXYVXVV? ^ W -.Y i 1) 2) 3) 4) 9. Put the parts of this text in the right order. English Spelling a) For example, the six different pronunciations of ough show a difference between spelling and pronunciation, as in bough [bau], cough [kof], thorough ["0лгэ], thought [0o:t], through [0ru:], and rough [глП. The spellings go back to a time when gh stood for a sound that people pronounced. b) Now, let’s look at it carefully. The spelling of many English words differs much from their pronunciation. First, spelling changes are much slower than changes in the sound system. For example, the k in knife and the gh in right are relics^ of the Middle English period (from about 1100 to about 1500), when people pronounced them as individual sounds. Second, some important spelling rules from other languages are still working in English. c) Both native English speakers and non-native speakers think that the spelling of English is one of its most difficult characteristics. The English spelling system doesn’t correspond^ to its phonetic system. In other words, there is no correspondence between sounds and letters in English, as there is in Spanish and some other languages. Instead, English spelling shows the historical development of the language. The same combination of letters can stand for different pronunciations. And different combinations of letters can stand for the same pronunciation. d) Another example is the numerous different spellings of the sh sound, as for example in anxious ['aei^k/ssj, fission [Tijn], fuchsia ['fju:j3], and ocean ['эцГэп]. e) Finally, we can say that American English developed its own spelling rules. Noah Webster tried to make words easier to spell and make American English spelling different from British English. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1 relic [’relik] — пережиток, остаток 2 to correspond [,knn'spnnd] — соответствовать 45 ул9\ С 10. Read the text and choose the right item in the sentences after it. English and the Age of Information We all live in the information age. People may have different interests and hobbies — science, music, computers, business or sports — and they can easily get the information they need. Firstly, the Internet, secondly, television and, thirdly, the press are the main sources^ of information. There is only one problem. Most of this knowledge is in English, Here are some examples of knowledge you can use if you know English. • Most pages on the Web. That’s over a billion (1,000,000,000) pages of information! Just think of it: learning one language gives you a chance to get almost all knowledge on the Internet. • Books — on any subjects, from all over the world. Read books by British or American authors, and books translated from other languages. Whatever you’re interested in, you can read about it in English! • The Press. You can buy English-language magazines and newspapers in every part of the world. You don’t have to look for the American magazines; Time, Newsweek, or the International Herald Tribunel You can buy them easily. • Science. English is the key to the world of science. In 1992, 95% of the scientific articles^ were in English. Only about 50% of them were from English-speaking countries like the USA or Britain. • News on television. Watch international television net-works^, such as CNN"*, International and NBC^. Usually they give news much faster, and more professionally, than smaller networks. And you can watch them everyw’here in the world. 1) Nowadays it is not a) fast b) difficult to get information you need c) simple 2) To read most pages on the Internet you must know a) English b) English and your native language c) your native language which is not English * source [sd:s] — источник ^ an article ['aitikl] — статья ^ network — сеть вещания CNN [si: en'en] — Cable News Network: a US organization that broadcasts news on television 24 hours a day to countries all over the world ^ NBC [en bir'st] — National Broadcasting Company: one of the main television broadcasting companies in the US 46 Herald magazines and newspapers. a) English b) American c) English-language 4) Most scientific articles are written in a) the native language of an author b) English c) British 5) scientific articles are from English-speaking countries, a) All b) Some c) Half of 6) International television networks send out news than smaller networks. a) much quicker b) less professionally c) no worse 7) You can watch international TV programmes, buy English-language magazines and books---------------------- a) mainly in Great Britain c) mainly in the USA b) all over the world 11. Read the text and answer the question after it. Nastya Likes Learning English Nowadays a lot of people want to know foreign languages. Some of them have become global languages, i. e.^ languages of the planet. They help people all over the world to exchange^ information and to develop understanding. English is one of such lingua franca languages. Sometimes people call English the global language, because nearly in all countries of the world people speak it. Nastya, a thirteen-year-old Russian pupil, explains why she wants to learn English. “It’s fun to communicate with people from different countries. When you travel abroad, you have to speak a foreign lan- 1 i. e. [daet'iz] = that is — from the Latin expression id est, you use abbreviation when you are explaining exactly what you mean 2 to exchange [iks'^einch] — обмениваться 47 guage because not many people there know Russian. If you speak English, you’ll have no problems — they understand it almost everywhere. When I came to Turkey, I made friends with two girls from England and now I practise my English sending them e-niails twice a week.” To learn English better Nastya reads a lot, listens to songs in English and watches different video-films and satellite ['8ге1э1аи] TV programmes in English. She also keeps personal vocabulary and often looks words up in her favourite MCMILLAN Dictionary. 1) Why is it important to study foreign languages? 2) What is a global language^ What is a lingua franca*? 3) What motivates Nastya to learn English? 4) Why do you often have to speak a foreign language when you travel abroad? 5) Do people speak English everywhere in the world? 6) How often does Nastya send e-mails to her friehds in England? 7) What does Nastya do to learn English better? Speaking + 12. Work in small groups. Discuss why it is important to learn English nowadays. Mention Hve reasons. 13. How much do you know about English? 1) Now more people speak English than any other language, don’t they? 2) What English-speaking countries do you know? 3) Where else do people speak English? 4) How many words are there in English? 5) Where did most English words come from? 6) What do you do if you want to know the meaning of an English word? 7) What types of dictionaries do you know? What information about words can you find in them? 8) Do you use electronic dictionaries? 48 CAMBRIDGE Essential' English Dictionary Tb* OiWt Russian DictioDar>' * . i]1 :i:. ■ -b.' i '4 JF 4 RiKvJsB £jii2|l»h ЕмквьЬ Ril%si»ji I English LONGMAN ■y Dictionary of Contemporary English ТИВ UViMO OlCTtOllARY' 43^ Ч Russian NEW ADVANCED I.EARNER’S Dictio>narv M, new EDITION * IS the егле уомчАп iru^l 9) Why are electronic dictionaries so gooc tion about a word pronunciation? 10) What kinds (variants) of English do yoi L4. Speak about the way you work at your English In Class to be good at English to come with practice to work in pairs to ask questions to give short / full answers to exchange opinions to develop one’s pronunciation skills 49 50 to make one’s vocabulary larger to work hard at one^s grammar to write quizzes and tests to have dictations to enjoy one’s lessons not to be boring At Home to study regularly to prepare for the lessons to spend a lot of time on... not to make mistakes to do exercises to learn irregular verbs to listen to the tapes to translate from English into Russian to read in the original to see films in English to learn about English customs and traditions to improve slowly / fast by and by In a School Library to use modern technologies electronic data to work in the reading room reference books, text books to look up words in English^English and Russian-English (English-Russian) dictionaries the Webster / Oxford / Longman Dictionaries to read fresh newspapers tp.look through magazines to make notes in pencil to find interesting facts to borrow books to read in the original / adapted versions^ of books wonderful stories and novels by English classic adapted versions [o'daeptid'varjbnz] адаптации 15. Complete this text and speak about the English language Africa, official schools. Kingdom, television. Great Britain, variants, Scotland Nowadays English is the language of the world, or in other words a global language. It is the national and state language of 1 , the USA, Canada, Australia, South 2 New Zealand, etc. Together with Wales, 3 and North ern Ireland, England forms the United 4 of Great of Wales Welsh Scottish. Still the 5 of all the four parts of the country is English. The English population speaks Standard English. However, in America, Canada and other countries people have developed __________of English. Today Standard English is a modern literary form of English which students learn and study their own 6 at 7 and universities. It is also the language of the newspapers, radio and 8 Work in pairs. Use these ideas to speak about how important Ian guage learning is. • to use the foreign language(s) in your future career • to travel all over the world and have no difficulty in cominu nication • to get any information you need • to learn the language(s) for pleasure • to develop your mind while learning languages • to enjoy songs in foreign languages 51 Match the titles <1—5) with the texts (a problems in the texts. e). In pairs discuss the 1) Grammar or Grandma? a) Truly, the language which people spoke back in the 1300 has developed much. Then only the low people spoke English. Now it has become a global language. As a language with many words from different languages English is a re- i al linguistic cocktail. When it comes to new words, English readily receives them. Every year we can find new dictionaries of neologisms, the words that have just come into the language. For example, the past years have given a lot of computer words. i 2) English: Past and Future 1 ■| b) If you want a good job in business, technology or science start learning English nowl Knowing English will let you get technical knowledge. English is the language of technology, especially high technology like computer science, genetics [cfea'netiks], and medicine. English will help you to become a world-class businessman (or business woman). International business also depends on English. 3) A Young English 1 Learner c) Teacher (paying a visit): “Are your father and mother in, Morton?” Morton: “They was in, but they is out.” i Teacher: “Why, Morton! They was in! They is out! Where’s your grammar?” Morton; “She’s sleeping upstairs.” i 4) Push 1 Your Career-Forward d) People speak mostly British English and American English all over the world. They are the most important kinds of the English language. There is some difference in their vocabu- i laries. For example, in Britain they say flat instead of apartment^ autumn instead of fall and film instead of movie. While their grammar does not differ much, American and British types of pronunciation are not the same, — 52 5) Variants of English e) I started to learn English when I was in primary school. Together with the other 10 boys and girls I had English classes two times a week. I learned some English words such as colours, numbers and days of the week. Our teacher gave us basic expressions like Good morning/ and How are you? The most exciting time at the lesson was playing games, singing songs and reciting poems. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 18. Read what some learners of English think about learning foreign languages. Agree or disagree. E X a m p 1 e: It takes all life long to learn a foreign language properly. — I am sure it does. Certainly you will be able to speak and understand English quite well after some years of hard work. But in the language so many new words and phrases appear each year and there are dialects, terms^ and idioms^. Why, even in your own language there are a lot of things you don’t know. • The more languages we speak, the more we know about the world around us. • The best way of learning foreign languages is going abroad. • Foreign pop songs help to learn English. • You learn foreign languages to improve your career. • The most difficult aspect in learning English is its spelling. • If you learn one language, it is easier to learn another. • British English and American English are very much alike. ■ Learning by heart is very productive to remember texts. • Poor pronunciation may make worse the general impression of a speech. • To understand a text one must look up all the unknown words in the dictionary. ^ a term [t3:m] — термин ^ an idiom ['idiam] — идиома, переосмысленное 53 The more new words you know, the better. Children learn languages faster than adults. The peak of learning English is having dreams in it. Learning languages is fun. Writing 19. Complete the new words and write them 1) m be 11) r gu r 21) f о w 2) V c lary 12) s ее 22)_ir 3) 11 w 13) ien_e 23) s„ow у 4) p feet 14) pr ti e 24) op r 5)pron on 15) te nol у 25) n act 6) c l—ure 16) w у 26) s nd 7) be _ g 17) V ce 27) r o_ 8) r_ch 18)p e er 28)dev pe 9) f sh 19)fo et 29) oba ly 10) al 20) by and 30) n d n 20. Spell the new words 1) prefer 2) [еэ] 3) [gru:] 4) ['regjula] 5) [bi^Do] 6) [То1э1Л1з] 7) [bi^gmiq] 8) ['клЦГэ] 9) [saund] 10) [tck'nolacfei] 11) [di'vebp] 12) ['probablij 13) ['paifakt] 14) [bai] 15) [we[J 54 16) [saian'tifik] 17) [kaind] 18) [fo'get] 19) [va'kecbjulori] 20) [spiitO 21) fpr>pjul3] 22) [^saions] 23) [iru:] 24) [ni;d] 21. In the names of the countries use the article the, where necessary and write the official languages of these countries. Countries the USA Languages English Australia China Russian Federation England Holland Japan United Kingdom Norway Spain Italy Canada Germany Portugal Vietnam 55 22. Complete the sentences using the words from the box if necessary. along, for, from, in, like, to, with, of (2) E X a m p 1 e: a) I’ll phone you week. b) Mary spoke _ loud voice. this week. I'll phone you this a loud voice. Mary spoke in a 1) What kind dog is that? — It is a police dog 2) In summer I like to have lunch _ the open air. 3) Dickens had a vocabulary of 10,000 words 4) This sea resort is popular the tourists. 5) He doesn’t believe all what I say. 6) It sounds true 7) The sailors couldn’t see land a long time. 8) Who does this mobile phone belong 9) She sounds an Englishman 10) The Browns drove the road. 11) Will Jennifer be able make a speech? 12) French and Spanish developed Latin. 13) Elsa has a strange way cause of her German accent ['leksant]. 23. Write these in English. ^.1) звучать красиво — to sound beautiful speaking English, maybe it is be- 2) медленно говорить 56 VVXYYXV I Л 3) забыть адрес 4) выступить с речью в парламенте 5) пользоваться популярностью у кого-либо 6) ждать автобус 7) выглядеть свежо 8) подарить незабудки I 9) прочитать следуюп^ие слрв|1 10) предпочитать кататься на мотоцикле- 11) это приходит с практикой 12) расти на деревьях В.1) верный друг 2) другими словами 3) современная культура 4) в области науки 5) возможный результат 6) реальная картина жизни 7) на самом деле 57 8)быстрая электричка 9) великий ученый 10) на свежем воздухе 11) богатый словарный запас 12) научные приборы 24. Choose the right word lete. too or also and make the sentences comib knows some English, She speaks Spanish. She ________________ She also knows some English. 1) Russian is a beautiful language. English sounds beautiful 2) Spanish and French developed from Latin. Portuguese developed from this ancient language. 3) Lilian works at her German all week days. She______________ does some tasks at the weekend. 4) Helen Brown is doing well at school. Her elder sister Linda is doing well 5) Did you were in London? visit the British Museum when you 6) They speak a little Chinese. They can _____________ speak Japanese. 7) English phonetics is rather difficult. Its spelling is difficult 58 8) Come over to our place tonight, Rita. We would like to meet your boyfriend. 9) Forget-me-nots are her favourite flowers. She likes tulips 10) Great Britain is an island. Ireland is an island 25, A. Write what they have recently / lately done. Example: Jane / grow beautiful flowers in her garden, Jane has recently grown beautiful flowers in her gar den. 1) Ann / see a lot of foreign films 2) Albert / read A, Christie in the original 3) The Goodmans / move in a new flat 4) The Bedes / visit London and Paris 5) Jack and Tom / send e-mails to each other 6) The sisters / finish school 7) The baby / learn to talk 8) Laura / make progress in English B, Write what they have done for the first time. Example: Sid / speak with a true British accent. It*s the first time Sid has spoken with a true British accent. 1) Molly / make a cake 2) Robert / write a test with no mistakes 3) Grandma / see my boyfriend 4) Patrick and Paul / fight 59 5) Ben/ go on a trip to Europe 6) The puppy / run away 7) Our neighbours / invite us to their party 8) John / buy a dictionary They have just come from these countries. Write what languages they have learned. Example: Diana / Russia. Diana has Just come from Russia She has Learnt Russian. 1) Sarah / Holland 2) William / France 3) Natasha / Canada 4) Andrew and Peter / Japan 5) Mark, Olga, Jane / China 6) Hans / the USA 7) Mr and Mrs Rogers / Spain 27. Write what they haven’t done yet. Example: He / come home. He hasn*t come home yet 1) David / go to bed 2) Sarah / make breakfast 3) The students / talk about the new project 4) Kitty / learn the poem by heart 60 v.vxY.vxYv> 5) The boys / clean the room 6) The sisters / wash up 7) Pauline / read the article 8) The children / listen to the song_ 28. Look at the pictures and Example: Chris / finish the letter. Chris has ah ished the n- 2) Alice and Liz / play tennis 3) Borisovs / visit 1. 3 2. 61 5 т 4. 4) Tanya and Sveta / 5) Brian / read a book by Phillip Pullman 29* Make up sentences with these words and write them. Example: My friend / new / learnt / words / ten / has пеш 1) lately / haven’t / from / I / him / heard 2) to/just / come / we / have / Moscow 3) English / already / done / Polly / has / her 4) made / they / yet / their / haven’t / beds 62 5) just / the / visited / this / group / has / museum 6) first / the / her / it / seen / we / is / have / time the verb chart № Значение I II III 1 расти 2 forget 3 made 4 swum 1 5 i предпочитать 6 need 7 saw 8 • met 9 находить 10 catch 11 left 12 brought 31. Use have or has to complete the sentences and write them down Example; She (have / has) grown a grown a beautiful rose. rose. 1) We (have / has) met regularly before 63 2) Your daughter (have / has) really grown up recently. She i so tall and slim! 3) Mr Jones (have / has) been to different countries and speak three foreign languages.------------------------------------ 4) (Have / Has) everybody read today’s newspapers? 51) I (have / has) never talked to such an interesting person be fore 6) The boys (haven’t / hasn’t) washed the dishes 7) It’s the first time Mary and Paul (have / has) gone to the se resort in Spain 8) Nancy (have / has) travelled in Canada this year 9) Have a look at the books I (have / has) bought for you! !()) What (have / has) they written today?----------------- 11) Why (haven’t / hasn’t) you changed your clothes? It is gel ting warmer. 12) Jackie (have / has) taken the dog out for a walk in the park 64 32. Complete the sentences and write them. Exam pie: Jane has finished school (recently). Jane has cently finished school. 1)1 have wanted to become a computer programmer (always) 2) We haven’t discussed our future plans (yet). 3) For today’s English class I have learned several irregular verbs (already). I have studied the new grammar rules (also). 4) We have come from a school trip (just) 5) Have you heard from Masha (lately)? I have sent her two e-mails (already) but she hasn’t answered them (yet). 6) English has become a global language (lately). 7) Who has got a good dictionary at home (already)? 8) Nick’s grandmother has been away from her native town (never). 9) I have looked this information up in the Internet but haven’t found anything interesting (yet). 10) They have passed their exams and feel very tired (just). 3—Афанасьева, 8 вл. P. т. № 1 65 33. Complete the dialogues in writing. Use present perfect or past sirn^ pie. Example: Have they gone to the 1) * Й » » When ...? When did they Leave? At 5 o’clock sharp^. Have you practised your English today? eSy ... • 2) When ...?------------------------ At my first lesson. Have you already done your homework? f we ... • When ...?___ Two hours ago. 3) ... this film? Yes, I have. It’s a very interesting film When ...? ■h) e ■ « 4) ... your room? It is so Naturally, I have. When ...?___________ Right after breakfast. 5) They ... just ... writing their Oh, have they? And where did they write it? 6) « • # Have they started Unit II? I believe, .. ^ sharp [Ja:p] — зд.'. ровно, точно 66 7) When ...?.................. Last Monday. Have you ever met John’s uncle? It’s a pity, but ... . And why ,.. . He ... from New Zealand not long ago and ... wonderful photos of this beautiful land--- 8) — Have you washed the clothes? Of course, ... . When ...? When you were taking the dog out. Anthony Johnson’s mother has come to school to see Ms Fletcher, her son’s English teacher. Complete the teacher’s questions and Mrs Johnson’s answers and write them. Example: — Anthony / work hard at his English recently? Has Anthony worked hard at his English recently? — Yes, he has. He always works hard at his English. 1) — Has Anthony / ever / ask you to help him with his home- work? No, he hasn’t. 3* 67 2) he / ever / show you his copy-books? у «i he has 3) he / tell / you about his progress at school? 4) Yes, he has he / ever / attend English courses^? No, he hasn’t. Ы I 5) he / ever / be to England? No, he hasn’t 6) he / ever / invite you to our school concerts? Yes, he has 35. Complete and act out these dialogues. Л. Example: You look so happy! Sure, I do. It’s the first time I (win) a prize in a competition. — Sure, I do. It"s the first time I have won a prize in a competition. 1) You look so fine! Thank you. In fact it’s the first time I (have) such good holidays. 2) You look wonderful in this coat! Thank you. It’s the first time I (put) it on. ’ to attend courses ['korsjz] — посещать курсы 68 3) You sound rather sadI It*s the first time Kate (not invite) me to her birthday par- ty. 4) You look so tired! That*s true. It’s the first time I (work) so long without^ a break. 5) You look rather angry! Do I? It’s the first time my pupils (be) late for my lesson. 6) — You look so excited! Well, yes. It’s the first time I (get) an autograph ['D.tsgraf] from a film star._________________ B. E X a m. pie. ~ T?he fxlm is so long! 1) It’s the (long) film I ever (see). It*s the Long- est film I have seen. The hill is so high! It’s the (high) hill I ever (climb) 2) The cake is so tasty! It’s the tastiest cake I ever (make). 3) She is such a talented actress! She’s (talented) actress I ever (meet). 4) This text is so difficult! It’s (difficult) text I ever (read). ^ without [wi'daml без 69 5) Jack’s pronunciation is so beautiful! Jack’s pronunciation is (beautiful) I ever (hear). 6) The dance contest^ is so interesting! It’s (interesting) dance contest I ever (take part) in 36. Write what you have always wanted to do. E X a m p 1 e: to buy. I have always wanted to buy a computer. 1) to read 2) to watch 3) to visit 4) to see 5) to try 6) to do 7) to grow 8) to learn 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 70 ^ a contest ['kontast] соревнование 37. Complete this text and answer the question at its end. Mrs Jones and Mrs Partridge are friends. They (be^) ________ friends since their childhood. Mrs Jones (live^) in a house in Putney and her friend (rent^) a fiat nearby. Every week they (have^) tea and a nice chat together. That Wednesday Mrs Jones (wake up'"^) early in the morning and (make®) a tasty cake from flour, cream and butter. At 12 o’clock she (put^) the cake and some cookies for her friend into the shopping bag and (go®) to the door. Her favou- rite cat Duncan (look®) at her very sadly. “All right, all right, dear, I (take^®) you with me if you (behave^^) yourself. (sayi2\ Mrs Jones, (put^®) (leave ^"*) the cat into the shopping bag too and Do you think Duncan followed her instruction? 71 38. Write your own sentences (situations) with the verbs bring, buy, build, send, find, leave, break, choose, ride, go, write and word combinations this week, this morning, this afternoon, this month, this year. Example: My brother has left for Paris this afternoon. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 39. Complete the chart. Write Russian, British and American words. Russian word American word British word конфета drugstore rubbish свитер i stove кинофильм 1 cinema fail - 72 Окончание табл Russian word American word British word cookies бензин French fries брюки truck garbage can car park тротуар tap 40. Read the sentences and write down your reaction to show your surprise. Social English Section of your textbook (Step 5, ex. 10, p. 89) may help you. Example: — He has drunk three litres of milk! — Really? 1) White truffles^ from France are the most expensive food. They cost about £ 780 per kg 2) A sausage-maker in Birmingham once made a sausage that was 9 km long.-____________________________________—-----— 3) Dolphins have a wide vocabulary of over 32 sounds 4) Like many other animals, birds have an accurate sense of time. 5) Some scientists believe that there are other civilizations in the Milky Way ‘ truffles ['tfArDlzl — трюфели (грибы) 73 6) Jupiter ['4, Use the, а/ать or zero article to complete these sentences. 1) It was such friends. 3) perfect day. 2) They are such goo Dutch live in Holland, the speak Dutch. 4) I like such weathei 5) Shakespeare had such large vocabulary. B. Use too or also to complete the sentences 1) Her voice is deep and words, eastern cultures are interesting a scientist, his brother is a scientist pleasant. 2) In othe . 3) David i . 4) Is Frenc a global language? 4. Complete the dialogues. Use present simple or past indefinite 1) — Granny, you (find) my trainers? — Yes, dear, I have. Where you (find) them? 76 They (be) under the sofa. ^ artificial [,a:ti'fifal] искусственный 2) Has she ever met this gentleman? Yes, she (have). When she (meet) him? 3) It (happen) last autumn. The Browns (leave) for Paris? Yes, they have. They (fly) there yesterday evening. 5. Write four sentences to show your surprise. 1) John knows twelve languages,—---------------------- 2) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart began writing music at the age of five. 3) We are going to spend a week on the Pacific Coast 4) Chinese writing is about 5,000 years old. 6. Form new words from the words in brackets and complete the sentences with them. 1) His speech was boring and really (end) 2) Look at the sky. It is blue and (cloud)---------------------- 3) The Browns didn’t have children. They were a (child) family. 4) The job was not difficult and Ron did it (easy) 5) You will live long and (happy) 6) John is (terrible) slow 77 7. Write these words 1) [tru:] 2) [еэ] 6) [tek'nobcfei] 7) ['regjulsli] 3) r'p3:fikt] 8) [ntn 4) ['popjuls] 9) [Yobu] 5) r'saisntist] 10) [ргз,плп51'е1/зп] 8. Use the right verb forms to complete the text. This is the sad story of my life»” said Jenny and (make^) a “You (not» begin**) pause*. “Please, (not, stop^)”, (cry^) the girl. your story yet.” Jenny (smile^) and (go®) on, “I (live^) with my aunt all my life and now I still (live®) with her. She (be®) a very strong personality. She always (be*®) like that. So my aunt usually (give**) me orders and I (follow*^) them. So, you see, I (have*®) a very difficult life, and I am sure I (have***) it in the future.” 1) 2) 8) 9) 3) 4) 10) 11) 5) 6) 13) 7) 14) * a pause [poizT пауза 78 Unit 3. Living Things around Us |>и41Ш#нг»Ц€ЧЧЛи; Word Box air, alligator, another, anteater, associate, beech, birch, blackbird, bluebell, breathe, butterfly, carnation, chrysanthemum, common, cornflower, coyote, crocodile, crow, daffodil, daisy, dandelion, deer, desert, to discover, discovery, dragonfly, earth, edelweiss, elephant, elm, evergreen, flamingo, giraffe, grizzly bear, hare, hedgehog, include, including, insect, kangaroo, koala, leek, lilac, lily, lion, magpie, monkey, move, nightingale, oak, opossum, ostrich, other, owl, palm, pansy, parrot, pigeon, pine, polar bear, poppy, primrose, rabbit, root, sea gull, shamrock, snake, snowdrop, soil, species, squirrel, sunflower, support, swallow, swan, tiger, thistle, water lily, wolf, woodpecker, zebra Listeningd- 1. Listen to the text. 9, and complete the sentences. How Bear Lost His Tail 1) In old times bears had tails. 2) The Fox decided to play a joke on 3) The Fox showed the Bear how to tail. 4) The Bear wanted to try to___ fish with his with his tail. 5) The place where the Bear started fishing was not 6) The Bear sat down next to the hole and put in the icy water. 7) The Bear looked like a in the middle of the ice. 79 8) As a result now bears have tails and slee] 2. Listen to the tape, [«j 10, and match the texts (A—D) with their ti ties (1—5). You don’t need to use one title. 1) The Zoo That Started as a Gift. Text A 2) The Biggest Zoo in the World. Text В 3) The Oldest Zoo in the Country. Text C 4) The Tragedy in the Zoo. Text D 5) The Zoo Famous for its Apes^. 1) 2) 3) 4) i£- 5) 3. Listen to the dialo^e, 11, and choose the right item. 1) The children brought their mother .... a) fruit b) flowers c) sweets 2) Who grew a lot of pansies in the garden? a) grandmother b) great grandmother an ape человекообразная обезьяна с) great aunt 80 3) Pansies and violets are .... a) the same family b) not the same family c) the same plant 4) Forget-me-nots grow wild .... a) in damp places b) in the garden c) on the window sill Forget-me-nots look like ... in the grass, a) small faces b) velvety violets c) blue eyes 1) 3) 5) 4. Reading + Read the names of the birds, animals, insects and plants. Which of them can you see in the pictures? Write their names. a pigeon, an owl, an ostrich, a swan, a swallow, a woodpecker, a nightingale, a crow, a tiger, an elephant, a squirrel, a hedgehog, a lion, a monkey, a wolf, a mouse, a kitten, a rabbit, a giraffe, an oak, a beech, a butterfly, a daffodil, a fir, a dragonfly, a palm, a water lily, an evergreen, a primrose, a chrysanthemum 1) 2) 3) 1. 2. 3. 4—Афамясь«ва. 8 кл. P. т. № 1 81 4) 5) 6> 7) 8) 6. I н , I» . iT > -,и ' л * 5. Read these words in transcription. [kar'neijn] ['deizi] [Ъ1и:Ье1] [.'каеодэ'ш:] [Ьеэ] ['р|фп] ['кэ:пЯаиэ] ['daendi'laisn] ['0isl] [кэи'а:1э] [2eli"gerta] [swon] [кУпеэп] ['lailak] ['popi] ['jgeiTirok] ['paerat] [koi'aut] ['swolau] 4l£L 6. Read the word combinations and sentences. Л., The songs of birds, to have their own language, to be different from, to make sounds and noises, a talented imitator, an only daughter, to be fond of gardening, animal drawings, 82 Ш ^ perfect illustrations, different species, a great discovery, to have much in common, a warm and wet climate, to be good for everybody, plant symbols, the emblem of the country. B, He was born on the 5^^^ of January. She illustrated her stories with lovely little drawings. For many years now children England and other countries have enjoyed her stories. The Sun is far from the Earth. We soon discovered the truth. I included bread on the list of things to buy. It’s healthy to breathe deeply. He always supported his brother in trouble. 7. Read the descriptions (a—e) and match them with the numbers (1—6). There is one number you don’t need to use. 1) Koalas 2) Giraffes a) They are the biggest carnivores^ on land! They’re twice as big as a tiger. They weigh one ton; have long legs and white fur. Hunting alone for anything from seals to large fish, they use a sense of smell 100 times better than ours. They can run at speeds close to 40 mph^. Even though they are very good swimmers, the animals prefer to use pieces of ice as rafts to travel around! The cold. and ice-covered land of the Arctic is the best place for them! 3) Polar Bears b) They use their long, powerful hind legs and feet for hopping and jumping, which, of course, is their main way of transport. They use their long, thick tails for balancing themselves and put most of their weight on their large fourth toe. In Australia, drivers must be careful not to hit these animals that can lead their way across the roads. ^ a carnivor I'kainiva:] -— хищник 2 mph = miles [mailz] per hour (one mile «= 1.609 kmV 4* 4) Zebras с) They are long‘lived animals that move quickly for their large size and have teeth built for eating grass. These species still live in Africa. They have black or white and black stripes, almost vertical on the head and neck, and horizontal on the legs. Stripes help to confuse those who want to attack the animal and they also help these animals to make friends with each other. 5) Tigers d) They are warm-blooded mammal. They have big ears and a big nose, sharp teeth and very sharp claws. The animals have very thick fur, white the underside and grey on the rest of its body. They look very nice, like teddy-bears. The animals can run as fast as a rabbit. They live and sleep in the eucalyptus [juks'liptss] trees. It’s hot, light, and dry here. They can sleep for up to 19 hours. The animals live on the East coast of Australia. 6) Kangaroos e) They are the tallest mammals. They live mostly in the desert areas of Western Africa where trees oc- cur. They can eat 63 kg of leaves and sleep least of all, from 10 minutes to two hours. Though normally they are silent, they communicate with each other by making strange sounds. These animals usually walk slowly but in case of danger can run very 1) 2) 3) 5) 6) 1 , a mammal ['maemol] млекопитающее 84 8. Read the text and put its parag^raphs in the right order. a) Women from nearby villages often brought sewing for the old woman to do. She was very good at making clothes. They paid her for her work with some food. At first they were not afraid of the little tiger; he was no bigger than a cat. However, when spring came, he was the size of a calf, with long teeth and claws. The women told their hunter husbands and the men came to kill the young tiger. b) The tiger was a good son. Every day he brought her a gift in his mouth a deer or a large piece of tree branch. When the old woman died the tiger came to their house for some years and then disappeared. The tiger’s love for the woman impressed the hunters so much that they made a small stone monument to him. c) That was how, the tiger became the woman’s son. In the evenings he walked to where the old woman was sitting and lay at her feet. She bent down to rub his ears and he licked her shoes with his soft tongue. She gave him the food she ate, and she slept lying against the tiger, whose soft fur was cozy and warm, when it was cold. d) Once there was an elderly woman, who lived with her only son inside a forest. Her son was a tiger hunter, and one cold winter a tigress killed him. The old woman’s grief was very great; she had no son and nobody to look after her. The other hunters were sorry for her. So they brought her the tigress’ newborn cub. He was a small ball of golden fur with weak legs and a toothless mouth. They told her to kill him. His skin, they said, would make warm boots for the woman’s feet. But the cub was so helpless and lovely that the kind woman kept him. e) “This tiger is the only friend I have now. I shall go to the magistrate and adopt him as my son,” the woman told them. The hunters thought that she was mad, but they did not kill her tiger. The kind magistrate did not have the heart to say no to the old lady who was so lonely an unhappy. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 85 Read the text and choose the right item in the sentences after it< The New Zealand Kiwi This strange bird is New Zealand’s national symbol- Everywhere in the world. Kiwi is New Zealand, or a New Zealander. New Zealanders also like to call themselves Kiwis. The kiwi (bird) got its name after its shrill call — “kee-wee kee- wee It can’t see well, and although it has wings, it cannot fly. Kiwis live in forests or wet places and feed on insects, worms, snails, and berries. It is unusual in at least two things. First, it is the only bird in the world that has its nostrils^ at the end of its long beak to find food and sense danger. Second, the female kiwi has the largest egg* in proportion to its body size. Kiwis are as big as chickens, but their eggs are almost as big as those of ostriches! There are several different species of kiwi spread over the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The kiwi looks very much like kiwifruit — the brown furry fruit with the green flesh. Kiwifruit comes originally from China, and in fact its original name was Chinese gooseberry^. Sometime in the 1960s, kiwifruit farmers in New Zealand decided to market the fruit overseas, but decided to give them another name. To help identify the fruit with New Zealand, they chose the name kiwifruit. Some people call kiwifruit kiwis, but this is incorrect. New Zealanders especially find this very wrong! A kiwi is a bird or a human New Zealander; but the fruit has different names — — kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry. While it’s not easy to see the real kiwibird, the kiwi as a symbol is everywhere: on stamps and coins, on all sorts of products, in the toy shops, on flags, everywhere, all over the world. 1) People think that the kiwi bird is strange because it ... . a) has a long tail b) has too long wings c) can’t fly ^ nostrils ['iiDstralz] — ноздри ® gooseberry ('guzbori] — крыжовник 86 2) The name of the bird comes from a) its size b)its cry c) New Zealand fruit 3) Kiwis are really unusual because they .... a) look like ostriches b) are as big as ostriches c) lay eggs as big as those of ostriches 4) New Zealanders call themselves .... a) kiwifruit b) gooseberries c) kiwis 5) The kiwifruit originates from ... . a) China b) Australia c) New Zealand 6) New Zealanders don’t like it when people call kiwifruit a) Chinese fruit b) kiwi c) Chinese gooseberries 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 10. Read the text and answer the questions after it. Our Friends Dogs make the best pets. They are faithful and friendly- They are intelligent. They love us. They live for us and can die for us. They understand us without words. They are happy to be with us and are always ready to forget our mistakes. Domestic dogs appeared about 15,000 years ago. They were popular in Ancient Rome, Greece and Egypt. Since .old times people have experimented with dogs to develop some specific characteristics, as a result we’ve got a lot of different kinds of dogs or a lot of breeds. Modern dog breeds show more differences in size, looks, and behaviour than any other domestic animal. Dogs play many roles in human society and people often use them as working dogs. People use dogs to hunt, to guard. Greyhounds,. setters, retrievers are excellent hunters and are very popular in countries where hunting is a sport. Such breeds as collies, Welsh corgis ['ko:gizJ^ are wonderful shepherds and help tosguard cows and sheep. People buy dobermans and rottweilers to protect themselves. A well-known breed of St Bernard is good at finding people in the mountains under snow. Newfoundland that is a wonderful swimmer is good at rescuing people at sea. ^ Welsh corgi — British people associate corgis with the British royal family, as the Queen keeps some as a pet. 87 .1 Greyhound Setter Welsh corgi Collie Doberman Rottweiler St Bernard Newfoundland 88 The police use dogs a lot. They train them to find drugs and bombs. Dogs patrol streets together with policemen. In England the police have been taking dogs to patrol streets since the 15^*^ century. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. Dogs help people in many ways but we love them for their loyalty. Their loyalty has brought them a unique |jLi:'ni:k] title man*s best friend. 1) What roles do dogs play in our society? 2) Why are there so many breeds? 3) What breeds do you know? 4) What breeds does the author mention in the text? 5) What is the dog’s best quality^? 6) Why do dogs make the best pets? Speaking -f- 11. Work in small groups. You are going to take part in Wildlife Photo Exhibition. Discuss which photos of animals, birds or plants you will choose for it and why. ANIMALS ^ ^ ' - 1-p • г quality ['kwoliti] качество 89 BIRDS 90 PLANTS t I c ‘ ••'V. ,’и . Л 12. How much do you know about the fauna and flora of Russia? 1) What tree is the symbol of Russia? 2) What animal do foreigners associate [э'5эиДеП] with Russia? 3) What flowers grow in the fields of our country? 4) What flowers do Russians grow in their gardens? 5) What are usual domestic animals? 6) What wild animals can we meet in the woods of Russia? 7) What are common Russian birds? 13. Work in pairs or small groups. Discuss which pet is better: a bird that can sing or a bird that can “talk”. What pet bird would you like to have? 14. Complete the text with your new vocabulary and speak about birds of Russia. Russia is home to over 700 lspecies of birds, some of which are rare. Many bird watching expeditions will take you to the 91 national parks» or to wildlife preserves. In the preserve on the south-eastern shore of Lake Ladoga you will 2________many kinds of birds in very great numbers. In spring many birds make stops there, 3 geese, swans, ducks, wood pi- to warmer places. Espe geons. Later some of them 4___________ cially there are many interesting geese who find the vast fields perfect for feeding. Ice-free water in along Lake Ladoga shore and melt water in the fields attract 5. varieties of ducks. A very 6______________bird in the district is the common crane. The species shows up as early as in mid April, some stay in the fields during the spring, summer and autumn, gathering into flocks of 50—60 individuals. 15. What do you think of pet hotels where our pet animals, birds, rep-tiles can spend a wonderful time enjoying their meals, swimming in the swimming pool, etc? Work in paii^ or small groups to discuss pet hotels. for 1) You are free to go away on holiday. 2) It’ll help you and your pet to make friends. 3) Your pet will get good care. against 1) You need to pay a lot of money. 2) The pet others. 3) They can spoiP your pet. can fight with 16. Read the legend and think of a title to it. Try to remember other sto ries about our Prince Llywelyn [lu'elm] had a brave hunting dog, his loyal friend and^companion, Gelert. Once Llywelyn left his baby son with a nurse^ and a servant while he went on a hunting trip with his wife. The nurse went for a walk in the mountains leaving the baby alone and helpless. ^ to spoil [spoil] — избаловать 2 a nurse [nors] ^— 92 After a while Llywelyn noticed the dog wasn’t with the hunters. Thinking that the only place Gelert could go was home, he stopped the hunt and went back. Gelert came running out of the house towards his master, covered in blood and wagging his tail. The prince didn’t see his son anywhere. Llewelyn got very angry and killed the dog. As Gelert died, the prince heard some cries of the baby. Llewelyn found his son safe and the bloody body of a big wolf, the dog’s enemy^ next to him. The Prince cried on his loyal dog’s grave^ and put a big stone on it.. Match the symbols (a—e) with the countries (1 say about the flora and fauna of these countries? 5). What can you a) Kangaroo statue ['staetju:] on Grassy Hill at Cooktown is a monument to the first time that Europeans (Captain James Cook and his men) saw the kangaroo when landing on the shores of the country in 1770. You can also see kangaroo on some coins. The Kangaroo crossing sign tells motorists to drive carefully and to watch out for kangaroos, because these are the places where they may cross the road. Kangaroos are shy by nature, and normally are no danger to humans. * an enemy ['enami] — враг ^ a grave [areiv] — могила 93 2) the USA 3) England b) The Sugar Maple ['meipl] is an immensely important species to the ecology of many forests in North America. Sugar Maples take water from lower soil layers and pump that water into upper, drier soil layers. This not only helps the tree itself but also many other plants growing around it. The Sugar Maple is a favourite street and garden tree because it has beautiful autiimn colour. c) Common characteristics of bears include a short tail, five claws on each paw, and long, thick fur. Bears have large bodies. They can see, smell and hear very well. Also they can stand up on their hind legs. Black bears can see in colour. Many cities around the world have taken the bear as a symbol. But as a common national symbol we associate the bear with the country that made it the souvenir of the 1980 Summer Olympics. 94 4) Canada d) Roses are ancient symbols of love and beauty. People say that there is “a language of flowers” and different coloured roses each have their own symbolic meaning. Historically the rose is the national flower of a well-known country where it symbolized the end of the long war between two powerful families. 5) Australia 6 e) The bald eagle was in great danger in this country late in the 19^^ century, but now has a big population. Bald eagles have the distinctive white head and feathers which grow down the . They are powerful fliers. In the wild, bald eagles can live about 20—30 years. Some even live to be 50 years old. They don4 live in any other country but in the country they symbolize. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 95 Writing 18. Complete the new words and write them. 1)ext 11) s 1 21) к oo 2)bl___ _ _rd 12)sp s 22)an_ _ _er 3)1 n 13) CO _n 23) th_. 4) s el 14)ea_h 24) fl о 5) w f 15)br _he 25)cr e 6) m_n _ ._y 16)en ered 26)eve n 7)p on 17) el t 27) b _h 8) h_ _e 18) sw w 28)bu_ _«y 9) о _ ch 19) m _ie 29)sn_ 10) he g 20) ha t 30) g f _e 19, Spell the new words. 1)[еэ] 13) [sa'pDrt] 2) [^naitiogeil] 3) Гтлпк!] 14) ['wud^peksl 4)[Ьеэ] 15) ['dsefodilj 16) ['simbal] 5) ['dezDtJ 6) ['spi:fi:z] ■ 7) ["insakt] 8) r'ehfsnt] 17) [di'skAvari] 18) ['raebit] 19) Гкгэо] 20) [kDi'^utT 96 v.vxyvayv 9)(з:0] 21) ['laibkj 10) ['hocfehog] 11) [aul] 22) [кэи'а;1э] 23) [swon] 12) ['«ligeita] 24) [ypossm] 20. Complete the text with the prepositions from the box if necessary The climate 1 the Atlantic Coast of the USA is good 2 different plants. You can find a great variety 3 ________them, including 4 Russia: snowdrops, forget- _______some that grow well in -nots, pansies. An American writer Lenore E. Mulcts was very fond 5------------nature and she wrote wonderful children’s books about animals, birds and flowers. Her books were quite different 6---------- ____________________________________________________other children’s books as they gave advice, for example, how to cultivate flowers, look 7 them. She illustrated her stories 8 beautiful pictures The main hero 9 her books Phyllis loved flowers. talked 10 them, took care 11 them, could be angry 12 flowers turned 13 them, learnt their secrets and as a result her real friends. Phyllis gathered flowers 14 the river and 15 the field, and 97 16 home cxiltivated wonderful flowers 17 her garden. Flowers grew well 18 the rich brown soil. All books 19 animals and plants have one thing 20---------common: the authors love nature and take care of the flora and fauna of their countries. 21. Complete the verb chart. N Значение 1 11 III 1 петь 1 2 wrote i. г ■ 3 catch 4 built 5 made 6 начинать 7 find 8 grown 9 знать tell 1 22. Complete the sentences using present perfect or present perfect progressive. E X a m p 1 e: a) The bird (sing)-------behind my window all the day long. The bird has been singing behind my window all the day long b)You (give) Ha you given the food to the cat yet? 1) What a wonderful bird! Is it your new pet? You (catch) it? No, it’s my friend’s. I (look) after it since my friend went to see her grandparents 98 2) Why are you sad, Charlie? I (lose) my text- book. 1 (look) for it for two hours and I can’t find it 3) Do you like Mary’s roses? She (grow) _ them for three years. She (make) 4) Tom is tired. He (build) a wonderful garden. a nestling box^ since it? morning. — He (finish)---------- 5) — Ann has a wonderful voice. — Oh, yes. Today she (sing) since eight in the morning. In fact, she (sing) for three hours. you ever (be) to her concert? 23. Write what they have been doing since afternoon. Example: Bob (take) pictures of the birds in the Zoo. Bob has been taking pictures of the birds in the Zoo. 1) Granny / to plant flowers in the garden 2) Lizzy and Mary / to do a project 3) Mr Green / to wash his car 4) The Browns / to collect rubbish 5) Clive / to watch a DVD 6) Dave / to play chess with his brother 7) The Hawkins / to choose a pet 8) Jane / to learn a poem ^ a nestling box f'nest!Ir),bnksl скворечник 99 24. Which word to choose: since or for*} 1) You have been writing the composition already. It*s time to finish it. 2) I have been teaching in this school three hours autumn. 3) Sally has been watching TV she came from school It’s time for her to do homework. 4) Oh, it smells nice. Mother has been cooking dinner eleven o’clock. 5) Mary and Ann have been planting flowers___________ time. a long 6) Sue, I’ve been waiting for you 7) Tom has been writing poems bet. 8) It has been snowing_______ half an hour. he learnt the alpha- some time 9) Bob has been collecting toy cars childhood. 10) The boys have been playing football a half. an hour and 25. Make up questions with these words. Example: You / really / doing / job / been / this / all your life. Have you really been doing this fob all your life? 1) Stephen / since / has / been / morning / playing tennis? 2) has / for / two / hours / been / Jane / swimming? 3) this book / you / been / have / autumn / reading / since? 100 4) been / all day / in / have / the garden / mum and dad / working? 5) Pete / for / been / three hours / has / the flowers / watering? 6) biology / have / all the morning / studying / Becky and Tom / been? 26. Complete the sentences with the correct reflexive pronoun where necessary Example: Have you translated the article ? Have you translated the article yourself/yourselves? 1) Shall I help Mary to cook dinner? No, she’ll cook it 2) Are the children going skiing with their dad? — No, they are going by 3) Look at the pie. We have made it 4) Are you ready? Have you dressed_____ 5) John fell off the bike yesterday. _________________? ОЫ Did he hurt ? How does he feel today? 6) I looked at in the mirror and liked what I saw. 7) It’s easy. You can do it _ 8) Beatrix Potter illustrated her books — 9) The child wants to bathe in the lake. He can’t do it by 101 10) We want to build a do it. . We know how to 27. Complete the sentences choosing present progressive or present perfect progressive. E X a m p I e: a) Kate (water) the flowers now. Kate is watering the flowers now. b) She (water) ______ them for half an hour al- ready. She has been watering them for half an hour already. 1) Sally is in the classroom. She (air) the room. 2) Chris is tired. He (clean) the school yard all day. 3) Jenny and Sarah are happy. They (sunbathe) morning”. 4) Dad is busy. He (build)_______________________ 5) Our friends can't come with us for a walk box an interesting film. 6) My cousin (paint)________________ I think she’ll finish it next month this portrait for half a year 7) My uncle (write)________________ school. Now he is a famous writer. stories since 8) Lucy looks pale. She (feel) bad today 28. Translate into English. >4.Example; редкие виды rare species 1) песни 2) язык птиц 3) шуметь 102 4) талантливый подражатель 5) научиться говорить 6) рисунки растений и животных 7) известная детская книга 8) иллюстрировать книги , 9) одуванчики и васильки________________ 10) выращивать анютины глазки и маргаритки 11) разные виды 12) рассказы о белках и ежах В. 1) Распространенные в России птицы ны, утки, воробьи и ласточки. это дятлы, воро- 2) Салли украшала письма подругам рисунками цветов. 3) Львы, тигры, волки — дикие животные. 4) Язык птиц отличается от языка людей. 5) У меня с другом много общего: прежде всего, мы любим природу. 6) Кенгуру и коала живут в Австралии и являются символа- ми этой страны. 103 7) Существует несколько видов медведей: гризли, бурый медведь, белый (полярный) медведь. 8) Крокодилы отличаются от аллигаторов. 9) В зоопарке можно увидеть много животных из других стран: жирафа, слона, зебру, обезьян. 10) Больше всего я люблю гвоздики и розы. С.1) Фауна нашей планеты включает разнообразные виды птиц, животных, насекомых. 2) Их огромное число. 3) каждый год открывают новые виды 4) Разные животные могут жить в определенном климате и на определенной почве. 5) Например, в пустыне, где сухая почва и горячий воздух, мало видов животных. 29. Ask questions on the statements. Example: There are different parrots in our city zoo. (What kinds of) W^hat kinds of parrots are there in our city zoo? 104 1)1 have been watching a swallow for an honr. (What kind of bird) 9 2) Tom has been collecting stamps since childhood. (What) 3) Nancy is planting flowers in the garden. (Where) 4) Bob and his class went to the zoo yesterday. (When) 5) Liz and Paul have been skating since morning. (How long) ________________? 6) Mum and dad are watering plants or the flowers can die. (Why) 7) The children have been singing for half an hour (How) 8) Jane has bought carnations for mother. (Who) 30. Write short e-mails on the following: birthday, New Year and Christmas, Teacher’s Day, Mother’s Day, St Valentine’s Day. Use Social English section. 105 31. Complete the text. Narcissus Once, in a far-away country, there young man whose name (be^) a [na:'si:sas]. His sister was dead and every day Narcissus beside a lake crying. Once a beautiful fairy^ (pass^)________________ cissus. ‘‘Look up, Narcissus! Your tears (can^) to Nar- not (bring®) your sister again to you. You (sit^) here for so long. Look up, and I, Echo But Narcissus down into the water. and then he eyes from _______________his sister looking up into his quiet depth of the water. Day after day he sat there gazing, until he (die^^) Then one day ^ a fairy [Теэп] 106 there (grow^^) a beautiful flower by the lake. as white as the cheeks of the girl, as yellow as the hair of the young man. Project Work 3 Find out in what emblems of Russian towns we can see birds, animals and plants. Present the information in colourful form. 1. Test 3 Listen to the tape, 12, and match the descriptions (a titles (1—6). There is one extra title. 1) The National Flower of an Island Country 2) The Daffodil 3) The First Flower of the Year 4) Water-lilies 5) The Rememberance Day Flower^ 6) The English Favourite Flower f) with the 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 2. Read the text and put its paragraphs in the logical order. The Coyote and the Snail a)Mr Coyote didn’t want the other animals to know he was blind^. He put two rose petals® in his eyes. Along came Mr Snail who saw Mr Coyote with the rose petals in his eyes. He asked Mr Coyote, “Why do you have those rose petals in your eyes?” Mr Coyote said, “Because they are very beautiful. They have lovely colours. You can try them if you want and I will hold your eyes.” Mr Coyote put Mr Snail’s eyes into his head and ran off. To this day Mr Snail is crawling with his head down looking for his eyes. ^ Rememberance Day Flower — People often wear poppies on their dresses in memory of dead soldiers and war heroes. ^ blind [blamd] — - слепой ® petal rpetl] — лепесток 107 b) Mr Coyote was getting very old. Once he walked for hours and hours through a beautiful valley and became very tired. He wanted to have a sleep. Suddenly he saw a large tree and asked it to let him in. The tree agreed. Then it opened up and Mr Coyote climbed inside, c) The birds heard his shouts. They came to help and Mr Woodpecker made a hole in the tree. But it was a very small hole. Mr Coyote tried to put his head through the hole, but couldn*t. His head was too big. So he took off his ears and put them through the hole, then his eyes. Mr Crow saw the eyes and flew down to take them. Mr Coyote finally put his head through the hole and began to put himself back together one piece at a time, so he became a whole coyote again. But he could not find his eyes. d) Then the tree closed and said, “Please, let me out, Mr Tree.” a When say: e) Mr Coyote slept for hours. When he woke up he could not remember the words to open the tree. He said, “Let me out, Mr Tree,” but nothing happened. It was so because the tree hadn’t heard^ the word “please”. The Coyote didn’t know what to do and began shouting. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 3. Write what you can see in the pictures. 2. ^ hadn’t heard 1) 2) не услышало 108 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)- Лшш\ i II II 109 9) 9, 4. Use present perfect or present perfect progressive to complete the sentences. 1)It(rain) all day. When will it stop? 2) We never (be) to Australia. And John (live) there all his live. 3)i(phone)___________ the line is still engaged. Jane for a quarter of an hour, but 4) We always (want) to visit Paris 5) It is noon. You (work) two hours already. on the computer for 6) Frank (paint) ish) since morning but he (not, fin- his picture yet 5. Use reflexive pronouns where necessary to complete the sentences. 1) Look at face. in the mirror. There is egg on your 2) The task is very difficult. I don’t think I can do it 3) John dressed and went downstairs 4) Where have the children hidden ? 110 5) We will go there________ pened. 6) Even the teacher________ has read so many books. 7) Children, you should do it and find out what has hap- hasn’t heard of it. And she 8) They grow vegetables in their garden. 6. Write what greetings we use on these special days. 1) Chrismas 2) Birthday 3) The Russian Army Day 4) Women’s Day 7. Choose the right word to complete the sentences 1) The first bird in the picture was an owl. was a magpie. 2) Give me pen, please. This pen won’t write 3) There were a lot of swans in the lake. Some of them were white. were black. hate it. 4) Some children like milk,______________ 5) I have two watches. I have given one to my sister. But where IS ? 6) Some pupils like to look new words up in dictionaries, ---------pupils don’t like to do it at all. Ill 8. Write these words 1) ['wud,pek3] 2) [%wDbu) 3) ['hedfehog] 4) [in'kliL'd] 5> ["msekt] 6) ['котэп] 7) ['DstntJ] 8) ['skwirall 9) [dis'kAva] 10) [hes] 9. Open the brackets to complete the text. What a lot of hair-faced men there (be^) around nowadays. When a man (grow^) hair all over his face it (be®) impossible to tell what he really (look^) like. Maybe that’s why he (do^) it. Then there (be®) the problem of washing. It must be a big job for hairy people. So what I (want^) to know is this. How often hair-faced men (wash®) their faces? And they (shampoo^) it? They (use^®) a hairdryer? 1)------------------------- 6) 2) 3) 4) 5) 7) - 8) _ 9) _ 10) 112