Английский язык 9 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева

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у:: j ш ^ л O.V. AFANASYEVA I. V. MIKHEEVA ^ о. в. АФАНАСЬЕВА И. В. МИХЕЕВА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК §te&i!)[k для IX класса школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий 2-е издание, исправленное и дополненное Допущено Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации МОСКВА «ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ» 2007 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А94 □□ L«rU Условные обозначения: — при выполнении задания предполагается использование аудиозаписи — задание в формате Единого государственного экзамена (National Examination Format) — упражнение рекомендуется сделать письменно в тетради — лексика, предназначенная для запоминания и использования (Learn and Use) Афанасьева О. В. А94 Английский язык : учеб, для IX кл. шк. с углубл. изучением англ, яз., лицеев и гимназий / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева. — 2-е изд., испр. и доп. — М. : Просвещение, 2007. — 239 с.: ил. — ISBN 978-5-09-017876-1. ISBN 978-5-09-017876-1 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 Издательство «Просвещение», 2006 Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2006 Все права защищены UNIT ONE PA0E5 OF HISTORY: LINKING PAST AND PRESENT INTRODUCTION We live in the 21st century in a fast changing world, the world of new ideas and new technologies, but we shouldn't forget that our present life has been prepared by everything that has happened on our planet so far. The long history of mankind is not a set of books on your bookshelf or a string of half-remembered events of the past. Our history is what we are now. It explains things to us and warns us about the future because — as the saying goes — history repeats itself. Every minute of our life is history in the making. Today's events can soon enter history books. You can say every person lives in the past, present and future. Щ 1. Answer the questions. 1. Do you like history? 2. What periods in the history of mankind do you find most interesting? At what time would you like to live? 3. What events in history changed the face of the world? 4. What people played a special role in history? 5. How do you see the future of our civilization? 6. What are the greatest problems the humanity faces at the moment? What can help to solve them? 2. ~\\ЗТ YOiAPd6Up in history. A. Do you know Russian history? Choose the right item. 1. Christianity was introduced into Rus’ by .... m Grand Prince Vladimir m Ivan the Terrible В Catherine 11 2. St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia in the years .... Ш 1703-1917 □ 1712-1918 В 1712-1917 3. The Tatar yoke was thrown off during the reign of ... in 1480. В Grand Prince Vladimir Ш Ivan III В Ivan IV 4. Ivan III reigned in the years 1462—1505 and claimed that Moscow was “The Third Rome” — after .... В Athens (2J Paris В Constantinople UNIT ONE 5. The tzar who proclaimed' himself Emperor and turned Russia into a great power by his victories over Sweden in the Great Northern War was .... Ivan rv (the Terrible) Peter I В Alexander I 6. The Romanov dynasty ruled until .... Ш 1905 Ш 1917 El 1725 7. In February 1945 the “Big Three” leaders — Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill — met at ... to decide the future of postwar Europe. B1 Yalta QJ] Sevastopol Q Simpheropol 8. The Great Patriotic War was over in .... В May 1945 В July 1945 El September 1945 9. The Soviet Union was dissolved^ in .... В 1981 В 1991 El 2001 10. The first president of the Russian Federation was .... В Yeltsin В Putin El Gorbachev B. Do you know history of Great Britain? Choose the right item. 1. James VI of Scotland became also James I of England in .... В 1503 В 1603 El 1703 2. In ... England and Scotland were joined by an Act of Union which abolished^ the Scottish parliament. В 1507 В 1607 El 1707 3. King Edward I of England defeated the native princes of Wales in ... and named his son “Prince of Wales” (since then the eldest son of the king or queen of England has traditionally been given this title). g] 1301 Q] 1401 Q 1501 4. Wales was brought into the English system of national and local government by an Act of Union in .... В 1336 В 1436 El 1536 5. In ... rebellions'* by Jacobites who wanted a Catholic king in Scotland and hoped to put Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) on the throne were finally defeated at Culloden, near Inverness. В 1716 В 1746 El 1816 ' to proclaim [pra'kleim] — провозгласить ^was dissolved [di'zDlvdl — распался Чо abolish [a'bolij] — отменить '’a rebellion [n'beljsn] — восстание UNIT ONE 6. Queen Victoria came to the throne in .... 01737 01837 0 1937 7. George V changed the name of the royal family to Windsor in ... EJ 1857 13 1900 Q 1917 8. Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector in .... 0 1653 0 1753 1853 9. Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of the UK in .... Б1 1900 [3 1920 В 1940 10. Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister of the UK in .... 0 1969 0 1979 В 1989 LISTENING СОЛ/IPREHENSION 3. Read the text "Civilizations", then listen to the tape (No 1) and say what three pieces of information are missing In the written text. CivilratiomJ The British archaeologist Gordon Childe worked out a theory explaining how a culture transforms into a civilization. He wrote that a civilization is characterized by the invention of writing, mathematics, monumental architecture, long-distance trade, wheeled carts, irrigation technology and some other features. Modern scholars say that a civilization has the following basic characteristics: political and religious structures and administration of the territories, a complex division of labour, with full-time artisans, soldiers, peasants and administrators. UNIT ONE Anthropologists in the 19th century formulated a theory of cultural evolution in which they divided human development into three stages: savagery, barbarism and civilization. Speaking of civilizations they mentioned only a few peoples of antiquity. Within the past 100 years archaeological research has more than doubled the list. Historians have differed greatly in deciding how many civilizations there were in the past. Nowadays scholars study not only civilizations of the Western World going back to Ancient Greece and Rome but also the civilizations of Islam, Byzantium, India, China, Japan and the African kingdoms. 4. Listen to the text "Crete: a Culture Built on an Island" (No 2) and say "true", "false" or "not mentioned in the text". 1. Crete is an island in the Mediterranean Sea. 2. All known civilizations began growing in places suitable for farming. 3. Crete’s climate has always been ideal for farming. 4. The culture the people of Crete built is called the Minoan [mi'nauon] civilization. 5. People came to Crete because it was situated in the middle of the Mediterranean world. 6. The first Cretans came to the island about the year five and a half thousand (5500) BC. 7. The first Cretans grew a lot of different vegetables and fruit on the island. 8. On Crete honey was used to sweeten food. 9. The first Cretans made long voyages to the north of Europe. UNIT ONE 5. 12^11 You'll hear stories about three English kings (No 3). Below are questions and answers to them. Choose the most suitable answers. и\шркл тне C0m6|IA€|20|2. 1. Why did William’s soldiers feel reluctant to cross the Channel and attack the English? a) They were afraid of the English attack. b) They were afraid of the sea storm coming to the shores of France. c) They were afraid that their good luck had left them. 2. What helped William to make his followers believe that good fortune was on their side? a) The appearance of several new ships in the sea. b) The appearance of the comet in the sky. c) The appearance of the sun in the east. Johki 1. Why did King Henry II die? a) Because King John’s fight against the French was not successful. b) Because King John joined the French to fight against his father. c) Because King John joined the French to fight against his brother Richard. 2. What was King John’s plan to become king? a) He asked the German Emperor to keep his brother in Germany. b) He paid the German Emperor 100000 pounds to keep his brother in Germany. c) He made the German Emperor keep his brother in Germany. ICiKiCi ChAWj6<5 II 1. Why were London streets crowded with people on a May day in 1660? a) They wanted to hear the bells ringing. b) They wanted to welcome Charles back. c) They wanted to see the royal procession. 2. What was Charles’ reign darkened by? a) A fatal illness breaking out. b) A new war breaking out. c) A terrible fire breaking out. 8 UNIT ONE READING 6.^ a) Read the texts (A-£) and match them with the titles (1-€), there is one extra title, b) Put the texts in a chronological order according to the events (periods) described in them. 1. Ancient Rome and Its Geography 2. Powerful Rulers of the Country 3. A Successful Ruler of His Country 4. The Beginning of the Renaissance 5. Ancient Greece: the Spirit of Democracy 6. Early People of Prehistoric Times A. What did the world look like 12 000 years ago? In many ways it looked as it does today. There were oceans, lakes and rivers, mountains, hills and deserts. The main difference? Much more land was covered with forests and all the animals were wild. Human beings were hunters and gatherers. They usually lived in small bands*. Often one large family made up a band. It included not only parents with children but also grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. Sometimes, several smaller families formed a band. B. No one knows exactly when that city was founded. According to legends, it is about 2700 years old. It is possible the stories are true. According to one of them, the city took its name from Romulus, a shepherd king who founded a settlement on the banks of the river Tiber ['taiba] after killing his twin brother Remus. Little is known about the first citizens of that time but the city was built on seven hills and its location gave the city a strong position. It was in a good place for building and controlling roads to the north and south. Those roads helped make the city a trading centre. C. Russia was ruled by kings and queens called tzars [zcrz]. They had much control over their people. They ruled with the help of a few rich families. But a tzar could take away their land if he or she wished to do so. Any coal, iron or minerals found on their land belonged to the tzar. So did any trees that could be used in building ships. By the late 1700s nobles increased their power over the peasants. The peasants had always been tied to the land they worked. By the 1700s they were tied to the landowners. They could be bought and sold. When Catherine II was the tzar of Russia, she wrote, “Landowners do whatever seems good to them on their estates except sentence people to death.” a band — зд. сообщество, группа людей UNIT ONE D. The Roman Empire fell apart about 1,500 years ago. For several centuries afterwards, life in Europe changed very little. People used the same tools their parents and grandparents had used. Then about 600 years ago, Europeans began again experimenting with new ideas and tools. A great time of learning had begun. In ancient times, Athens and Rome were centres of learning. Now such centres were growing again. Such rebirth of learning began in Italy in about 1300. From there it spread throughout Europe during the 1400s and 1500s. E. Alexander was bom in the summer of 356 BC. He was the eldest son of Philip II, king of Macedonia [.maesi'dsunia] (359—336 BC). Alexander was well educated. One of his teachers was the famous philosopher Aristotle. The young prince got all the skills needed by a future king and commander. When Philip won complete control over the Greek city-states in 338 BC, Alexander commanded the Macedonia army’s victorious left wing. In 336 BC after his father was killed Alexander immediately was made king of Macedonia. As a king Alexander ruled over much of Asia, took part in many famous battles, founded the city of Alexandria [,aehg'zaendri3) and got the title of Alexander the Great. 7. Read the text about three ancient civilizations and match their names with their greatest achievementsV CiviLWnoM^ 1) Ancient Egypt 2) Ancient Greece 3) Ancient Rome /\cHl6v€na6MT3 a) artistic and intellectual b) social and administrative c) material Тир^е AhicieKiT Сми^лтюклл Civilization is an advanced stage of human development marked by a high level of art, religion, science and social and political organization. ("Dictionary of English Language and Culture") The ancient Near East has been called the craddle of Western civilization. To its people we owe the invention of agriculture, the wheel, writing and the alphabet and also the first cities. The region known as the Near East includes the countries to the east of the Mediterranean with modem Turkey, Iran (ancient Persia), Egypt and Iraq (ancient Mesopotamia). Ancient Egypt deserves a special mention. “There is no other country that has so many wonders,” wrote the Greek writer Herodotus in the 5th century BC. an achievement (s'tfirvmant] — достижение 10 UNIT ONE i: 5 Egypt’s ancient civilization has continued to interest and fascinate. Geographically isolated by deserts and sea, it developed a unique and self-contained culture that lasted three thousand years. Because of the country’s dry climate a lot of its ancient monuments have been preserved: ancient cities, pyramids, temples and various artefacts that are a source of wonder today as they were in antiquity. Ancient Egypt consisted of the Nile valley — a long and narrow stripe of land. The Nile united the country and was its main source of life. In Egypt rainfall is very small but every year between July and October the Nile’s water covered most of the land in the valley and in the delta making the soil very rich with silt. The Egyptians made a complicated system of basins and channels. The main crops were cereals, vegetables and fruit. They used the cotton plant to make clothing, sails and ropes and the papyrus plant to produce a type of paper. The Egyptians also kept cows, pigs, goats and sheep. Hunting and fishing allowed them to make their diet more varied. In Ancient Greece the typical unit of political and social organization was the “polis” or independent city-state. City-states appeared in many parts of the Greek-speaking world during the 8th century BC at the beginning of the so-called Archaic period (c. 800—500 BC). The Archaic period was followed by the Classical period, during which the Greeks made radical experiments with political, artistic and philosophical ideas, all of which have had a lasting influence on Western civilization. One of the most fascinating things that the Greeks have left us is their legends. We remember them as they have become part of our culture too. For example, if a person has some way in which he can be hurt, he is said to have an Achilles [o'kilrz] heel. This expression goes back to the story of Achilles, one of the greatest heroes of Greek legends. The legend says that when he was born, the Fates, the goddesses that controlled man’s life and future, told his mother that he would die young. So Achilles’ mother, Thetis, wanted to protect her baby and dipped him in the water of the River Styx. This was supposed to protect him from deadly wounds. Every part of Achilles’ body was thus made safe against injury, except one part — the heel by which his mother held him. Later, during the Trojan [Traucfen] War Achilles, a handsome young man, became famous as the UNIT ONE 11 greatest of the Greek warriors but was killed by a poisonous arrow that entered his heel, the one part of his body that had not been dipped in the Styx. Ancient Romans were great lawmakers and keen politicians. Initially the power was in the hands of two annually elected “consuls”, who ruled the city and commanded the army. They were advised by a council of elders (the Senate). Only when there was a danger threatening, a single “dictator” was appointed, for a maximum of six months. Gradually Romans expanded their power and conquered a number of neighbouring peoples and took part in overseas wars. The wars were successful and increased the power and wealth of the upper classes. The gulf between the rich and the poor gave rise to social conflicts and political crisis. The Roman Empire shaken by civil wars got into the hands of Julius Caesar. He took the title of “Dictator for Life” and allowed himself to behave like a monarch or a kind of god. That went against the political tradition and led to his murder by a group of senators. The Empire was divided between Antony, one of the senators, and Octavian, the future Augustus. Augustus became a powerful ruler, he made the Senate an effective branch of administration and took the Army out of politics. Victories abroad and peace at home characterized Augustus’ long reign which is often called Rome’s “Golden Age”. 8. Read the text again and say which of the three civilizations: — was cut off from other countries — saw the time of instability in the society — gave the world interesting schools of thought — depended on a river for its well-being — created a complicated mythology — could boast of advanced agricultural techniques — saw a case of assassination' for political reasons — worked out an extended set of rules that people had to obey — produced a lot of objects which still give us a great surprise 9. Find in the text English equivalents for the following: 1) колыбель цивилизации 2) заслуживает особого упоминания ‘ assassination |3,saesrneijnj — убийство по политическим мотивам 12 UNIT ONE 3) уникальная и самодостаточная культура 4) древние памятники сохранились (до наших дней) 5) предметы, сделанные руками человека (часто имеющие историческую ценность) 6) повод для удивления 7) плодородная почва 8) ил 9) паруса и канаты 10) позволяло им разнообразить свое питание 11) имели долговременное влияние 12) пятка, пята 13) окунула его в воду 14) защитить от смертельных ран 15) воины 16) увлеченные, азартные политики 17) старейшины 18) расширили сферу своего влияния 19) пропасть между богатыми и бедными 20) послужить началом 21) гражданские войны 10. Answer the questions in connection with the text 'Three Ancient Civilizations*. 1. What society can be called a “civilization”? 2. What ancient civilizations apart from those mentioned in the text do you know? 3. What great inventions were made in the ancient Near East? 4. Why can Ancient Egypt be called the “land of wonders”? 5. How did it happen that nowadays we can see a lot of these wonders with our own eyes? 6. What were people in Ancient Egypt especially skilled at? 7. Wliy was the Nile so important for the country? 8. What was a city-state in Ancient Greece like? 9. Were there any Greek city-states on the Black Sea coast? 10. In what way did the ancient political, artistic and philosophical ideas influence Western civilization? Can you give examples? 11. The text mentions the myth of Achilles’ heel. Wliat other myths can you remember? Do the names of Prometheus or Hercules say anything to you? 12. Wliat do you know about the Trojan War? What do you know about the Wooden Horse of Troy? 13. Who described the Trojan War? In what book? 14. Into what parts of the world did ancient Romans expand their power? UNIT ONE 13 15. What do you know about the Roman presence in the British Isles? 16. How did it happen that Julius Caesar became “dictator for life”? 17. Who said “You too, Brutus!” and on what occasion? 18. What brought the Roman Empire to ruin? 11. Read the texts “Native Britons" and “The Cunning Celts* the texts choosing the best items to complete the sentences. then do the task after You will probably agree that history may be either a dull or an exciting subject depending on how it is presented. In his book "The Very Bloody History of Britain"’ John Farman makes an attempt to write about British history in a humorous way. "I'd like this account of history to be enjoyed," he says. See for yourself how successful he is. Motive Our ancestors were a pretty scruffy, lazy lot, spending most of their time hanging around waiting for history to begin. They only ate what stumbled right in front of them and, unlike their posh relatives in the south of France and Spain, didn’t even try to cheer up their caves by painting those daft-looking animals on their walls. Mind you, there are some amongst us, mentioning no names, who believe they did the caves a favour! However, when really at a loose end, they did do strange things with huge stones; stacking them in circles or lines like those at Stonehenge^ or Avebury^, probably for no better reason than to drive everyone crazy centuries later trying to work out why they did it. Eventually, the first tourists started turning up. These swarthy continentals didn’t have to go through Customs. No ships, no ports — therefore no Customs. They didn’t even have to state how long they intended staying. This began in 4000 years BC, give or take a century. In those days they always said BC after the date. “B” stood for “before” and “C” stood for “Christ”. God knows how they knew he was coming. Simply the fact that they turned up in boats of some kind proves that the new visitors had more brains than the poor old native Britons, which wasn’t difficult. They proceeded to invent clothes, wheels, refrigerators (only joking) and very sharp iron spears which made stabbing our poor forefathers (and foremothers) much quicker and easier. Meanwhile (and these dates always seem to cause fights among historians): ' published by Random House Children’s Books, London, ^ See commentary after the text. 1992 ^ See commentary after the text. 1 14 UNIT ONE 1,400,000 ВС — An unknown apeman lit the first fire. 500,000 BC — First “upright” man made a sort of tool out of a bit of flint. 25.000 BC — Someone dropped a bit of meat in the fire and discovered it tasted better. 20.000 BC — Wheel invented but proved pretty useless until someone invent- ed another one. Weapons used for killing animals and each other. Someone planted a seed and discovered he could eat what it grew into. 8400 BC — First domesticated dog in North America. Sorry, but I don’t know his name. Sea filled up between Britain and Europe (Hooray!). Skis invented in Norway. No package holidays till much later however'. Bronze Age hit Britain. Welshman invented the first proper boat — a coracle^. It was made from skin stretched over a wooden frame. Amazingly, they’ve only just stopped using them! 10,000 BC 8600 BC 5000 BC 2500 BC 1500 BC 600 BC Тнв CwKiKiiKit^ Ceufs Once the new visitors began to settle in, life went quite smoothly until England was invaded properly for the first time by the Celts. They came here in 650 BC from Central Europe apparently looking for tin^ — please don’t ask me why! The Celts were tall, blond and blue-eyed and so got all the best girls right away. This, of course, annoyed the poor Britons even more, but there was not much they could do about it as they only had sticks and fists to fight with. The Celts set up home in the south of England building flash wooden forts which the poor boneheaded locals could only mill around in awe and envy. Now England wasn’t too bad a place to live for the next few hundred years (if you were tall, blue-eyed and blond). Then in 55 BC the late great Julius Caesar — star of stage and screen — arrived with a couple of legions from Rome, Italy. The refined Romans were repelled, in more ways than one, by the cmde Celts. They did, however, come back a year later with a much bigger, better-equipped army — and guess what — were repelled again. Stonehenge — a group of very large, tall stones put in circles which stand on Salisbury Plain, South England. They were put there in prehistoric times, perhaps as a religious sign or perhaps as a way to study the sun, the moon and ' See commentary after the text. ^ See commentary after the text. ^ tin — олово UNIT ONE 15 stars. Some people think that they were used for religious ceremonies by Druids, although this is not generally accepted by scientists. Stonehenge is a popular tourist attraction. Avebury — another prehistoric site in South England, where there is a large ring of standing stones. package holiday — a completely planned holiday, which includes travel, hotel, meals, etc. Such holidays are arranged by travel agencies, coracle ("korskl] — a small light round boat, built like a basket, sometimes used by fishermen on Irish and Welsh lakes. 1. Prehistoric Britons ... painted animals on the walls of their caves. □ often ЕЛ sometimes Q never 2. Native Britons learned to use boats ... people from the continent. Ш before Ш together with Q after 3. Historians ... about the dates given by the author. Ш agree HQ disagree В are unanimous 4. Celts’ culture was ... that of Native Britons. El more advanced than El advanced than Q as advanced as 5. The Roman invasion had ... stage(s). Ш one El two В more than two 12. Look at the texts in exercise 11 again and say in what way the following ideas are expressed in them. 1. Our forefathers were rather untidy, lazy people spending most of their time doing nothing waiting for history to begin. 2. They only ate what they found by accident and, unlike their relatives who consider that they are people of a high social class... 3. ...those silly-looking animals on their walls. 4. Mind you, there are some amongst us... who believe that they did good to the caves. 5. However, when they really had nothing to do, they did do strange things with huge stones putting them so that they stand one on top of another in circles or lines... 6. ...probably for no better reason than to drive everyone crazy centuries later trying to understand why they did it. 7. With time the first tourists started turning up. These dark-skinned continentals didn’t have to go through Customs... They didn’t even have to state how long they meant to stay. 8. This began in 4000 years BC, a century more, a century less. m 16 UNIT ONE 9. ...the new visitors had more brains than the poor old native Britons. 10. Later they invented clothes, wheels, refrigerators... and very sharp iron weapon like a stick with a pointed end which made killing our poor forefathers (and foremothers) with this sharp weapon much quicker and easier. 11. First “upright” man made a sort of tool out of a bit of a hard grey stone. 12. The Celts set up home in the south of England building new and impressive-looking wooden forts which the poor stupid locals could only walk about in a confused way in great respect and admiration mixed with fear and envy. 13. Then in 55 BC great Julius Caesar, who is dead now... arrived with a couple of legions from Rome, Italy. 14. The cultured and polite Romans were forced to stop attacking and move back... by impolite Celts behaving in an offensive way. 13. The texts "Native Britons" and "The Cunning Celts" contain some serious historic facts presented in a humorous form. What are they? How could you say the same in a serious "scientific" way? 14. The texts use a lot of informal words. Can you find some of them? What effect do they produce in a history book? USE OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR SECTION I. English Tenses 15. □□ voiA(2^euF. Use the verbs in brackets in proper tenses. A. Present simple or present progressive? 1. —Where Mr Ross (live)l — I (not know). I (think) he (live) in the next street. 2. — John (smoke)? — He used to. But now he never (touch) a cigarette. He gradually (become) quite fit. 3. Ice (melt) in a warm climate. 4. I usually (not eat) sweet things. But today it’s Tom’s birthday, so 1 (eat) some birthday cake as you (see). 5. This watch generally (keep) perfect time, but these days it (not work) properly. 6. — Could you speak louder, please? I can’t hear anything you (say). — I (speak) loudly enough and (not understand) why you (not follow). 7. — You (get) on all right? — Oh, yes. I (get) on fine. UNIT ONE 17 8. At present we (live) in a very small apartment. My mother has sold our old flat, 9. — When you (meet) Bob? — I (meet) him at 12 o’clock tomorrow. 10. She (think) we are wrong. 11. Be quiet. I (think). 12. — Hello. We are at Andrew’s. He (have) a party. — Oh, really? I hope you (have) a good time. 13. — What your son usually (have) for breakfast? — Occasionally he (have) bacon and eggs, a sandwich or a carton of yogurt. He (not have) any porridge as a rule. 14. It’s a national holiday today. The shops (work)l B. Future simple or present simple? 1.1 don’t know if I (see) you next Sunday. I think I (be) out of town. 2. I (stop) and (ask) the way. I am not sure if we are walking in the right direction. 3. If the situation (not change), we (be) in trouble. 4. If Doris (arrive) on time, she (come) here at about three o’clock. 5. Tom says he (take) his umbrella if it (rain). 6. We don’t know when he (return). 1. I’m not sure if he (return) at all. 8. When he (return), he definitely (help) you. 9. Mr Robinson doubts if he (agree) with his opponents. 10. I don’t think James (go) to the forest if it (snow). 11. It’s difficult to say when they (finish). 12. Frank asks Jackson if the latter' (help) him to repair the bicycle. 13. Frank asks-Jackson to help him as soon as the latter (repair) his bicycle. C. Future simple or present progressive? 1. We (have) a party next Saturday. You (come)? 2. I (give) you my dictionary if you like. 3. Do you know that Margo (leave) on Friday? 4. Are you sure “Dynamo” (play) tonight? 5. Nobody knows if she (keep) her word. 6. If Ruth keeps her word, nobody (learn) our secret. 7. Tell us when your sister (arrive). 1 think we (meet) her at the airport. 8. John says he (take) us to the circus tonight. 9. Mrs Rochester (come) if you invite her to the party. You (send) her an invitation? the latter ['laeta] — последний из двух упомянутых 18 UNIT ONE 10. Larry, you (do) anything special tomorrow night? If not, (join) us for dinner? 11. —There are two names missing from the list. — Sorry. I (rewrite) it. More Facts About ?р€<5вмТ and Р(2€|5вк^Т 1. Present progressive is used when we talk about what has already been arranged: Sarah is getting married on Saturday. But when we talk about timetables for public transport, programmes for cinemas, theatres etc., we use present simple: When does the train arrive in Moscow? What time does the show begin? Professor Smith gives his lectures on Fridays. 2. Present progressive is used when we talk about something that is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking: Margaret is a keen reader. One book is not enough for her. She is reading two now. (At the restaurant): — What would you like to drink, sir? — Nothing, thanks. I am driving. 3. Present progressive is used in emotionally coloured sentences, expressing negative emotions: You are always talking at the lessons, Boris! Jack is constantly coming late! 4. Present simple of the verbs to forget, to hear and the passive construction to be told is used to denote completed actions: I forget where he lives. Я забыла, где он живет. We hear you are leaving for St. Petersburg. Мы слышали, ты уезжаешь в Санкт-Петербург. We are told she has a strong American accent. Нам сказали, что у нее сильный американский акцент. UNIT ONE 19 16. Express the same in Russian. 1. Fred is constantly coming to school unprepared for his classes. 2. Bob is always driving carelessly. 3. We are told we’re going to spend the summer on the coast. 4.1 hear Fiona is moving into a new flat. 5. I forget that cousin Mary is arriving tomorrow morning. 6. Loma is always showing off. 7. David’s wife is constantly buying expensive clothes! 8. We hear Lucy is getting married. 17. Choose the right tense form to complete the sentences. 1. “Attention, please! The boat (sails/is sailing) in a few minutes.” 2. Look at the timetable, our boat (sails/is sailing) at 6.15. 3. Who (comes/is coming) to dinner tonight? 4. (Is Joanna Rowling writing/Does Joanna Rowling write) a new Harry Potter book? 5. The timetable shows the next train, the 10.45 to Dover (leaves/is leaving) from platform 15. 6. When (does the concert begin/is the concert beginning)! 7. We (play/are playing) a tennis match on Sunday. 8.1 (get/am getting) a new computer for my birthday. 9. Harry (always forgets/is always forgetting) his things at home! 10. Little Lillie (always fights/is always fighting) for independence! Just think of it! 11. We can’t go to the sea. We (have/are having) our exams in the first week of June. II. English Articles 18. CD Тел" Use the articles where necessary to complete the sentences. 1. I think that ... Russia is ... best country in ... world. 2. There is ... big shopping centre in ... north of ... city. ... shopping centre has become very popular with ... customers. 3. Wliere are ... letters you are talking about? That’s ... only question I’ve got. 4. ... thermometer is used for measuring temperature. 5. ... book in ... yellow and brown cover is our English textbook. 6. I’ll never forget my seaside holiday: ... sea, ... blue sky, ... hot sun and ... happy faces of my friends. 7. We seldom have ... meals in ... kitchen. We prefer to eat in ... dining room. 20 UNIT ONE 8. I’ve recently watched ... very unusual film, it was ... psychological drama. ... main characters were ... doctor and his patient. 9. May I have ... sandwich? I’m very hungry and ... dinner is not ready yet. 10. When you come into ... room, you’ll see ... big bookcase on ... right. This is where you can find ... dictionary you need. 11. I’d like to have ... new bike and ride it in ... park. 12. ... angry football fans refused to leave ... stadium. 19. PP Use the artides where necessary to complete the text. Oliver Cromwell is one of (1) ... most important figures in English history. In (2) ... time in which he lived, (3) ... great man was needed to lead (4) ... people of England in their fight for (5) ... freedom. Cromwell turned out to be such (6) ... man. He was bom at Huntington in (7) ... year 1599, and it was on (8) ... large farm that he grew up. We don’t know whether (9) ... future ruler of England was (10) ... good pupil, but there are many stories to show that he was much like other boys. Oliver’s uncle. Sir Oliver Cromwell, was (11) ... important man. He was in fact so important in (12) ... country that on several occasions he was visited by (13) ... King, James I. On one of these visits (14) ... King was accompanied by his son Charles, and while Sir Oliver was talking to (15) ... King, (16) ... two boys, Oliver Cromwell and Prince Charles, were sent into (17) ... garden to play. (18) ... story says that (19) ... boys quarrelled and fought, and Oliver was (20) ... winner. (21) ... years later they were to fight again, each with (22) ... army at his back, and Cromwell was (23) ... winner again. More Facts About English Articles Articles with Nouns in the Function of Л990<5ГПОм 1. If a noun is used as apposition’, it usually takes the indefinite article: My good friend Denis, a taxi driver, sometimes gives me a lift. “To surf the net”, a new expression, means to look at different places one after another on the Internet. apposition [,aep3'zi/n] — приложение UNIT ONE 21 9 2. In certain cases such nouns take the definite article. It happens: a) when the noun in apposition refers’ to a famous or well-known person: Gorbachev, the political leader of the USSR, started the process of political and economic change in the country in the 1980s. Leo Tolstoy, the famous Russian writer, is very well-known in the West. b) when the noun in apposition stands before the modified^ noun but not after it: the painter Turner, the composer Bach [berk], the student Frolov. The film director Nikita Mikhalkov is working at his new film. The new schoolmaster Mr Smith wants to speak to the school at tomorrow’s meeting. c) when the situation shows that the noun in apposition is a definite one: The car, the stolen one, was found in the wood. Charles Bronson, the man who lives next door, has just rung up. Note: Usually the word or the phrase in apposition are joined by a comma^ or commas: Norman, a lawyer, works in the city centre. Zhores Alferov, the well-known physicist, won the Nobel Prize in 2000. 20. PP Use the right article with nouns in apposition. 1. James Cook, ... Englishman, is coming on Friday to give you a talk on the new tendencies in English grammar. 2. Mary, ... girl of five, has just learned her first letter. 3. Elton John, ... popular singer, writes lovely songs. 4. “Coronation Street”, ... popular television programme, was first shown in 1960. 5.... poet, critic and short-story writer, Edgar Allan Poe, worked for much of his life as a magazine editor. ' refers |n'f3:z) — относится ^ modified ['modifaid] — определяемый ^ a comma ['koma] — запятая 22 UNIT ONE 6. “Pygmalion”, ... play we watched yesterday, was really enjoyable. 7. Leonardo da Vinci, ... famous expert in many different fields of learning, was born in central Italy in 1452. 8. Bombay, ... world’s eighth ... largest city, is a centre of trade, learning, and industry. 9. Charles, ... successful Swedish producer, is working on a new project. 10. Mrs Spencer, ... mysterious lady whom nobody ever spoke to, was living in a small cottage at the end of the village. Still More Facts About Articles with Nouns in the Function of If nouns in apposition denote a position (rank, post) which is, as a rule, unique and can be occupied by one person at a time, they are used without any article. Here belong such nouns as: king — queen director — principal colonel’ — captain doctor — professor leader — head chief — boss speaker — chairman president — prime minister rector — dean manager — secretary Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of Britain, was the first woman to take this post. The same is true when these nouns are used as predicatives^: Life was different when he was principal of the school. Anyhow: When these nouns denote not ranks but people, both articles can be used depending on the situation: The Queen has arrived. This fantastic car is fit for a king. When such nouns are followed by a proper name, they are used without any article: Queen Elizabeth, Colonel Pickering, King John, President Clinton ' a colonel |'кз:п1| — полковник predicative (pn'dikativ) — предикатив, именная часть составного именного сказуемого UNIT ONE 23 21. PQ Express the same in English. 1. Поговорите c господином Бейкером, руководителем нашей делегации. 2. Познакомьтесь с капитаном Ньюманом, нашим новым коллегой. 3. Премьер-министр будет выступать с речью завтра в 10 часов утра. 4. Профессор Пиотровский, директор Эрмитажа, живет в Санкт-Петербурге. 5. Кто будет председателем на конференции в понедельник? 6. Владимир Путин дважды избирался президентом Российской Федерации. 7. Эндрю стал лидером своей партии в 2004 году. 8. Джеймс Монро (Monroe) был пятым президентом США. 9. Михаил Горбачев был первым и последним президентом СССР. 10. Благодаря переменам в нашей стране люди на Западе узнали русские слова «гласность» и «перестройка». 11. Елизавета I была последней английской королевой из династии Тюдоров. 12. Елизавета II является королевой Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. 13. Шарль де Голль (Charles de Gaulle) был французским генералом. Он стал президентом Франции в 1958 году. 14. Карл II (Charles П), король Великобритании, был мудрым правителем. 15. Юлий Цезарь (Julius Caesar), римский император, был военным гением (military genius). III. English Function Words Function Words Expressing Time 22. PPTeJT У01Л12<5вир. Do you know what function words are needed in these cases? In some sentences you may not need any. 1. My younger brother was born ... 2003, ... a cold winter day. 2. Will you be able to finish reading the book ... two or three days? 3. Driving ... night is not easy. Ask any driver. 4. I met Andrew ... last Wednesday. He was walking to school. 5. People usually get very busy ... Christmas time. 6. Wfe try to get out of town ... weekends. 7. Where were you ... 10.30 ... yesterday night? 8. Big cities get rather empty ... August. 9. I always stay with my family ... New Year’s Day. 10. He got married ... 23. He and his wife had been at school together. 11. If I ever go to Paris, I’d like to go there ... spring. 12. ... what time do you usually get up? 13. I wonder what the world will be like ... the year 2050. 14. I see my friend Victor ... every day. 15. Please call me ... lunchtime. We can have lunch together. 16. I’m still busy doing my homework but I hope I’ll have finished ... eight o’clock. 17. James is coming back home ... a few days, ... the 3rd or the 4th of March. 18. They met ... a lovely spring day when the sun was shining and the sky was bright blue. 19. The bus service is free ... the evenings and ... weekends. 20. The kids got up rather late ... Easter days. 21. We usually go skiing ... winter. 24 UNIT ONE More Facts About Function Words Expressing A. FOR versus DURING 1. For is used with nouns or noun phrases to say how long something goes on: She’s going away for the weekend. I haven’t seen you for ages. 2. During is used with nouns or noun phrases to say when something happens: I will see Helen during the weekend. The children laughed a lot during the film. B. ON time versus IN time I.On time means not late, being punctual: The plane took off on time (according to the timetable). Let’s meet at 6 pm. Be on time. (Don’t be late.) 2. In time means not too late for something; soon enough for something/to do something: The fire brigade arrived in time (to put out the fire). John promised to come back in time for dinner. C. AT the end versus IN the end 1. At the end means at the time when something ends: He will come back at the end of May. There was a storm of applause at the end of the play. 2. In the end means finally: It was difficult for John to leam the poem by heart but in the end he managed to do it. Tom didn’t like our project at first but in the end he agreed to it. We also say: At the beginning of something. UNIT ONE 25 f D. IN the morning versus ON Friday (morning etc.) 1. In the morning 2. On Sunday (Tuesday) morning In the evening On a rainy (cold) evening In the afternoon On Thursday noon (afternoon) I sent you an e-mail in the afternoon. John sent you an e-mail on Friday noon. No preposition is used: this morning, afternoon, yesterday evening etc. last noon, tomorrow E. AFTER versus AFTERWARDS^ 1. After is used with nouns or pronouns: After the match the boys were tired. We decided to lie in the sun after a swim in the sea. 2. Afterwards is used on its own and means after something you have already mentioned: had a swim in the sea and afterwards we decided to lie in the sun. 23. □□ Choose the right words to complete the sentences. A. Use for or during to complete the sentences. 1. I’m rather hungry, I’d like to go to the buffet ... the interval. 2. The family visited a number of nice places ... the summer. 3. Norman didn’t write to me ... a long time. I thought he had forgotten me. 4. They met ... the war and have been together ever since. 5. My friend speaks fluent English; he lived in the US ... six months last year. 6. It snowed heavily ... the night and by the morning the world had changed. 7. I’m sorry, I’m very busy this morning and can see you only ... a few minutes. 8. Wfe have been living here ... six years. 9. ... the war the country was occupied by the enemy troops ... a few months. 10. Mike stayed in London ... a week. ... that time he did most of the sights of the great city. B. Use in or on to complete the sentences. 1. I hope the letter will be typed ... time to be sent with the messenger. 2. I nearly lost my way but asked a passerby for directions and arrived ... ■^1 afterwards (BrE) — затем, потом 26 UNIT ONE time. 3. The ambulance arrived ... time and the injured driver was immediately mshed to the hospital. 4. Jane is very punctual and always comes ... time. 1 think she has never been late in her whole life. 5. Oh good! You’re Just ... time for tea! 6. All the guests have already registered. I think that the conference will begin ... time. 7. We came home ... time for the beginning of the nine o’clock news. 8. Look at the time! We are going to be late and 1 promised to come ... time. 9. The train arrived ... time and we came to the hotel ten minutes before the beginning of the reception. 10. Wfe hoped to return ... time for mother’s birthday to take her by surprise. C. Use at or in to complete the sentences. 1. Do you see that tall tower ... the end of the street? 2. You are going on holiday ... the end of this month, aren’t you? 3. Jack was not so sure if he should buy such an expensive car. ... the end, he decided not to. 4.... the end of the war the government made many promises for a better future. 5. They argued a lot about the project and ... the end he won. 6. I know it took you long to make up your mind. What did you decide ... the end? 7. The meeting will be held ... the end of the week. 8. We looked everywhere and, ... the end, we found the key. 9. The most exciting events began ... the end of the novel. 10. The main characters lost sight of each other for a long time but ... the end they met and never parted again. D. Use in or on (where necessary) to complete the sentences. I. I’ve got a job interview ... Thursday afternoon. 2. What are you doing ... tomorrow evening? 3. I might go shopping ... this evening. 4. Perhaps we can meet ... the afternoon. 5. I’ll see you ... Wednesday morning. 6. I’m so tired ... the evenings, all I want to do is to sit and watch television. 7. Police say the incident took place at around 9 o’clock ... yesterday evening. 8. ... a warm summer morning we began our journey and were soon out of the city. 9. ... the morning of her birthday Jane woke up early and started planning the day ahead. 10. I prefer to do my shopping ... the afternoon when the shops are not so crowded. E. Use after or afterwards to complete the sentences. 1. It’s not surprising that the players feel dead tired ... the play. 2. I didn’t see her again until a few days .... 3. 1 found the key only ... you had left the house. 4. ... the party we felt too excited to go to bed. 5. I soon forgot the accident and never remembered it .... 6. ... we watched the film, we decided to read the book it was based on. 7. You don’t have to complete the work now. You can do it .... 8. Let’s go and see the film, and ... we could go for a meal. 9. Don’t worry, you can book the tickets now and pay for them .... 10. There was plenty of food left ... meal, we packed it and took to the country house to eat .... UNIT ONE 27 VOCABULARY SECTION 24. Тб<П' YOUiZ^eUf^ in the vocabulary. In English there is a number of words that are easily confused. Choose the right ones to complete the sentences below. 1. What terrible weather we are having! ... been raining for hours. The baby was calling for ... mother. a) its b) it's 2. It took them some time to find ... seats in the hall. I love St. Petersburg and want to go ... again. a) there b) their 3. Please be .... 1 can’t hear a thing. I’m still not ... clear about what I’m supposed to do. a) quite b) quiet 4. The ... of Man is to the west of Great Britain. The bride and groom were slowly walking down the ... hand-in-hand. a) isle b) aisle 5. The great ... of Siberia is covered in thick forests. Going by ... saves a lot of time. . a) plain b) plane 6. The ... of Queen Victoria was the longest in British history. Autumn ... tends to be cold and unpleasant. a) reign b) rain 7. — Waiter, what’s this? — It’s ... soup, sir. — Never mind what it has .... I want to know what it is now. a) been b) bean 8. I love stories about the ... of the Round Table and King Arthur. A person can’t work days and ..., we need a break. a) nights b) knights 9. The ... tree under my window is covered in blossom. I could do with a new ... of shoes to match my new outfit. a) pair b) pear 10. This sock is old. It has a ... in it. And when can we hear the ... story? a) whole b) hole 11. He was at the ... of the queue to enter the coach. Yours is the most charming ... I’ve ever heard. a) tale b) tail 12. I wish grown-ups could occasionally look at the world ... the eyes of a child. The demonstrators who ... stones at the police were arrested. a) through b) threw 28 UNIT ONE w 25. DP Read the text below and change the words in brackets in order to get a complete and logical text William the Conqueror was England’s (\,one) Norman king. Before that he was the Duke of Normandy in (2. north) France, the most O. power) lord in the land. When William (4. visit) England in 1050 he {5. promise) the throne of England by his (6. relate) Edward the Confessor', king of England. But when Edward died (7. child) in 1066, Harold, Edward’s brother-in-law, didn’t help William to become king but crowned (8. he) King of England. William (9. quick) set about invade) England to seize the crown for {W.he). William defeated Harold’s Anglo-Saxon army at the Battle of Hastings. By 1069 the Normans {\2. conquer) a third of England and William (13. become) the {\A. great) ruler in (15. Europe. William’s (\6. descend) ruled England for many years. 26. Read the text and make it complete choosing the best items to fill in the gaps. Th6 How<56 0^= TiAX)0|2, The Tudor kings and queens ruled (1) ... 1485 and their dynasty (2) ... 118 years. Queen Elizabeth I was the (3) ... Tudor, her father. King Henry VIII, was probably the most famous English monarch. Just 18, Henry VIII came to the (4) ... in 1509. He was (5) ... by his councillors to marry Catherine of Aragon which he duly did. He became heir to the throne because his (6) ... brother Arthur had died in 1502. During his first years of rule he (7) ... himself largely with foreign policy, defeating both the French and the Scottish in battle in 1512 and 1513. The Tudor period was also a time of great cultural significance, giving (8) ... to figures such as the playwright William Shakespeare and political figures like Sir Thomas More and Cardinal Wolsey. 1. a) for b) through c) of d) since 2. a) stood b) longed c) lasted d) prolonged 3. a) former b) last c) previous d) latest 4. a) power b) throne c) rule d) cabinet 5. a) instructed b) ordered c) forced d) reminded 6. a) old b) older c) elder d) oldest 7. a) engaged b) thought c) made d) established 8. a) rise b) raise c) way d) development Edward the Confessor [,edw3d бэ kan'fessl — Эдуард Исповедник {английский король) UNIT ONE 29 Phrasal Verb TO 9ICJC, 1. to pick at — to eat only small amounts of a meal because you do not feel hungry Most of the time he just picks at his food. 2. to pi(ik on tO| keep treating someone badly or unfairly, especially by criticizing them Why do you always pick on me? 3. to joick out — to choose one person or a thing from a group Have yoi^ picked out a dress for the party? 4. toT pick up — a) to lift sb/sth She rushes to pick up the baby as soon as it starts to cry. b) to learn a new skill without intend- c) to take sb in a car ing to Vv - He picked up a few German phrases while staying in Berlin. I stopped to pick her up. d) to get sth I need to pick up my bags before we leave. 30 UNIT ONE 27. РР Complete the sentences, use at, on, out, up. 1.1 ordered some meat from the butcher. I’ll pick it ... on my way home tonight. 2. She picked ... her bag and left the room. 3. Jane picked ... the blouse she particularly liked. 4. Why do they always pick ... me? I’ve done all the washing up. 5.1 picked him ... at the station and drove home. 6. John wasn’t hungry, and just picked ... the food on his plate. 7. I never studied French. 1 just picked it ... when 1 was in France. 8. 1 sat picking ... my dinner wishing I was somewhere else. 9. There are sheets of paper all over the floor. Could you pick ... and put them away? 10. Stop picking ... me! 28. PP Express the same in English. 1. Старшие дети часто придираются к младшим. 2. Родители выбрали имя своему новорожденному. 3. Мой двоюродный брат начал немного говорить по-итальянски после трехмесячного пребывания в Италии. 4. Автобус остановился, чтобы забрать двух пассажиров. 5. Дети ковыряли вилками еду в своих тарелках. 6. Мы шли по берегу моря и поднимали гальку и ракушки (pebbles and shells). 7. Он пошел туда раздобыть информацию. 8. Я забираю свою дочь из школы. 9. Дженни всегда придирается ко мне. 10. Самое лучшее он отобрал для себя. New Words to Learn 29. LfirU Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. 1. Their years of work culminated ['kAlmmeitid] in a new invention. 2. My sister is a mathematical genius ['cfeimias]. At the age of six she could easily do sums and solve some uncomplicated problems. 3. Mankind ['msenkaind] means all humans considered as a group. Nowadays some people don’t use this word because they think that it may hurt women’s feelings, so they use the word “humankind” instead. 4. The Smiths are our good friends. They live nearby ['niobai], in the house round the corner. 30. L&rU Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. achieve lo'tfrvl (v): to achieve fame, to achieve popularity, to achieve fortune. We have achieved what we set out to do. achievement [o'tjiivmont] (л): a great achievement, a remarkable achievement. Climbing Mount Everest is a great achievement, available [s'veibbl] (adj): to be available to somebody/for something. The hotel is full, so there are no rooms available. These facts will never be available to you. There is no money available for the prmect. -( ~ '.'.r UNIT ONE 31 г. .0 | /О ,й ^ г > • ■ ' U aware [a'wes] (adj): to be aware of something, to become aware of something. I was well aware of the fact. They have become aware of the danger. | beneficial [,beniTiJl] (adJ): to be beneficial to something, to be mutually beneficial. The discovery of this medicine was beneficial to many AIDS patients. Some insects are beneficial to plants, benefit ['benifit] (benefit(t)ed, benefit(t)ing) (v): to benefit something/ . r I jVoAVTsomebody, to benefit from something. This sunshine will benefit the ^ ^farmers. The factory benefited from the new machines. ' capture ['kaeptja] (v): to capture criminals, to capture animals, to capture somebody’s imagination/attention. His story captured the interest of the world’s media. contemporary^^ [кэпЧетргэп] (adj): contemporary art, contemporary music, ‘ ‘ cbntempbfary literature. Contemporary sources offer a very different interpretation. Beethoven was contemporary with Napoleon, contemporary [кэпЧетргэп] (n): Most of his contemporaries found his music unusual. contribute [kan'tribjuit] (v): I) to contribute something to somebody/some-5 thing. Various factors contributed to his downfall. The people of the town . contributed food and clothing to the family whose house had burnt down, г , 2) to contribute articles to a newspaper (magazine). T T f efficient [iTifsnt] (adj): Alice is a very efficient secretary, she is skilful and у . ^ 1 - capable of doing many things. ^ esitablish [I'staebliJ] (v): to establish a firm, to establish a university etc. How I ' long has the firm been established? The head of the firm wanted to estab- lish good relations with his business partner, establishment [I'staeblijmgnt] (n): a research establishment, an educational establishment, a training establishment. I want to speak to the manager of this establishment. generation [,cfeen3'reifn] (n): future generations, the previous generation, the older/younger generation, a generation gap. The novel is about several generations of a French family. gradually ['graectsali] (adv): to develop gradually, to ruin gradually. Gradually the situation changed. opportunity [,Dp9'tju;niti] («): a wonderful (great) opportunity; to take the opportunity of doing something, to have an opportunity to do something. It’s a wonderful opportunity for you to find the truth. I took the opportunity of seeing Ann while I was in London, rapid ['raepid] (adj): rapid progress, a rapid movement, a rapid growth. Nowadays we see a rapid growth in the use of the Internet, record [n'ko:d] (v): l)to record historical events. His diary records the lives of ordinary country people. 2) to record a song, a concert, a speech. Can you record the film for me at ten o’clock? 32 UNIT ONE J. subsequent f'sAbsikwant] {adj)\ a subsequent interview (event). These skills were then passed on to subsequent generations, tame [teim] (v): to tame animals, to tame the might of the river. It is impossible or very difficult to tame some wild animals. 31. Give it a name. 1) Skilful or capable; 2) modern or relating to the present time; 3) an institution; 4) a chance to do something; 5) a group of people who are bom and live around the same time; 6) possible to get free or ready when you need it; 7) to write articles for a newspaper or magazine; 8) to know what is happening; 9) to begin or create, to start to happen; 10) quick, fast; 11) to write a description of something that can be read in future; 12) to succeed in doing what you planned to do; 13) to get help or an advantage from something; 14) having a good effect or influence on somebody; 15) happening or coming after something else; 16) to catch someone so that they became their prisoner. 32. Complete the sentences using the words from Ex. 29 and Ex. 30. 1. The hall is ... on Saturday night, you can hold your meeting there. 2. Jenny made a ... recovery after her operation. 3. John ... from his father’s advice and won a lot of money at the horse race. 4. This company was ... in 1880. 5. Irene is an ... secretary. She can do wonders. 6. Is Ron ... that I am coming? 7. They are holding a party to celebrate the ... of their scientific research. 8.1 can’t say 1 am fond of ... music, I prefer classic. 9. All three ... — children, parents and grandparents — lived together quite happily. 10. Have you ... any money to them? 11.1 have ... the whole concert. You can listen to it. 12. My grandfather has ... a lot in this life. 13. I’m going to Great Britain in October. That will be a wonderful ... to practise my English. 14. This educational ... is well-known in Europe. 15. Tlieir relationship was mutually .... 16. Pour the water into the bowl and ... add the flour. 33. a) Name a few things that can be; 1) rapid; 2) contemporary; 3) efficient; 4) available; 5) subsequent, b) Name a few things that one can: 1) record; 2) be aware of; 3) benefit (from); 4) establish; 5) contribute; 6) achieve. 34. QQ Insert prepositions where necessary. 1. Details of the project are not available ... anybody. 2.1 don’t think Jane is aware ... all the facts. 3. Mr Morgan’s contribution ... the company’s success was really remarkable. 4. My flight was delayed so it was a good opportunity ... doing some shopping. 5. We took the opportunity ... visiting the UNIT ONE 2 — O. B. Афанасьева, 9 кл. 33 Houses of Parliament during our trip to London. 6. Nowadays we see a rapid change ... the world ... computer technology. 7. The new project is beneficial ... many children. 8,1. Levitan was contemporary ... A. Chekhov. 9. The students benefited ... the new library. 10. If he doesn’t work harder, he will never achieve ... anything. 35. Look at the portraits and say which of these people were contemporaries or near contemporaries. Say what you know about them. Ludwig van Beethoven was contemporary with Napoleon I. Beethoven was born in 1770 and died in 1827. He was a famous German composer, one of the best known and most admired composers of his time. He continued writing music after he became unable to hear at the age of 30. Among the most famous of his many works are the Fifth Symphony and the Emperor Concerto*. Napoleon... 1 — Napoleon; 2 — Queen Elizabeth I; 3 — Margaret Thatcher; 4 — Marina Tsvetaeva; 5 — Tzar Nicholas II; 6 — Dante; 7 — Ludwig van Beethoven; 8 — Charles Darwin; 9 — Prince Alexander Nevsky; 10 — Tzar Ivan IV; 11 — Mikhail Gorbachev; 12 — Vladimir Dal. a concerto (кэп'^з:Гэо] — концерт, музыкальное произведение 34 UNIT ONE I 36. Speak about Thomas Alva Edison, a famous American inventor. 1847, February 11 1854 (age of 7) 1859 (age of 12) 1862 (age of 15) 1878 1879 1882 Si) during his life born in the USA, State Ohio goes to school his formal schooling is limited to three months, he is not thought of as a clever boy at school, thereafter’ is tutored by his mother develops into an avid^ reader becomes a trainboy on the Great Trunk Railroad, selling magazines and candy becomes a manager of a telegraph office produces his first inventions — the transmitter’ and the receiver of the automatic telegraph begins work on electric light, founds The Edison Electric Light Company demonstrates a lamp that glows'* for 40 hours establishes the world’s first central electric light power station in New York City 1931 makes over 100 inventions which contributed a lot to the development of science and technology his inventions are rapidly spread all over the world his inventions are beneficial for the human society his greatest achievements are the invention of: a) electric light b) the phonograph for recording sound (the invention he was most proud of) c) equipment for the cinema d) electric light power station dies 5 worio Ш ' thereafter — после этого ^avid — страстный ’a transmitter — передатчик ^to glow — светить (о лампе) UNIT ONE 35 37. Ш Express the same in English. 1. Tom не отдавал себе отчета, что его старшая сестра наблюдает за ним. 2. Клубника становится доступной в начале лета. 3. Мария и Пьер Кюри достигли славы как ученые. 4. Жители деревни собрали (пожертвовали) еду и одежду для семьи беженцев (refugee family). 5. Вклад Чехова в русскую литературу поистине велик. 6. Магазин, школа, больница, деловой центр — это учреждения. 7. Мои родители называют меня и моих друзей молодым поколением. 8. Тебе стоит пойти и посмотреть этот фильм, если представится возможность. 9. Школа обешает быстрые результаты при обучении иностранным языкам. 10. Песня исполнялась в записи, а не в «живую». 11. Джон записал счет матча в записную книжку. 12. Все еще есть несколько непроданных мест на игру. 13. Я знаю, что способствовало ее успеху как балерины. 14. Колледж ввел (установил) новый курс для студентов, интересующихся компьютерами. 15. Майкл воспользовался возможностью посетить Национальную галерею, когда был в Лондоне. Focus on Synonymy fast {adj) quick rapid 1. able to move quickly (about means of transport) a fast car a fast train 2. able to move quickly and do things quickly (about people and animals) a fast learner a fast worker a fast reader a quick learner a quick worker a quick reader 3. done or happening In a short time а fast tour a fast journey a fast game of tennis a quick look a quick journey a quick visit a quick movement a quick answer 36 UNIT ONE 4. doing things in a short time, being in a hurry (about people) Be quick, we don’t have much time. 5. happening much more quickly than usual {usually before nouns) rapid learning rapid progress rapid increase rapid growth rapid change rapid recovery pAJT {AW) = QuICHLY You have come here quickly; did you travel by car? The report was quickly prepared for publication. She drives very fast. Their population is growing fast. Fast and quickly both mean "going at high speed", but you use quickly especially to talk about someone who is going only a short distance, especially because they are in a hurry. 38. Express the same in Russian. Pay attention to the underlined words. 1. She was precise and quick in her movements. 2. Let’s have a quick look at those papers. 3. Give your guests a fast tour of the house. 4. Don’t drive so fast, there’s ice on the road. 5. In China, it was a period of rapid change. 6. I had to make a quick decision. 7. She made a rapid recovery after her operation. 8. The new aircraft flies almost twice as fast as the old one. 9. We witness a rapid change in the world of computer technology. 10. That was quick! Have you finished already? 11. I’ll just take a quick shower. 12. He is a very quick walker. 13. In the morning we had a quick trip to town. 14. She speaks so fast. I can’t understand her. 15. People are worried about the rapid increase in military spending. 16. In a quick movement he pulled the gun out of his pocket. 17. When does the fast train to Liverpool start? 18. Rapid learning: learn to speak a new language in 12 weeks! UNIT ONE 37 READING FOR DISCUSSION 39. a) Read the text "The Creations of Mankind" and choose a suitable title for each paragraph. There is one extra title. Tm-£5 a) Man b) Man c) Man d) Man e) Man f) Man g) Man h) Man Lays Foundations for Future Development Begins Cattle Breeding and Cultivating Land Explores Prehistoric Civilizations Creates Dangerously Powerful Inventions Makes First Steps on the Road of Progress Gets the Basics of Learning Makes Progress in Industry and Transport Finds a New Interest in Exploration Th6 C|2€/\TlOM<5 The lifestyle which we enjoy today is a result of countless ideas and inventions, which have taken many centuries of man’s history to develop. 1. The first great idea which started man on the road to his great achievements was when a caveman picked up a heavy stone to help him. The use of fire was another step without which no subsequent development would have been possible. But once man had learned to make and use fire, it was only a short step to discovering the use of metals. Another great move towards modern technology was the invention of the wheel by some unknown prehistoric genius. 2. Man had efficient metal weapons and was able to hunt large animals for food. Gradually, he learned to capture and tame some of the creatures, so that he could keep his food nearby until it was needed. Man also discovered how to plant crops, gathering seed from wild plants, which he knew to be useful. Once farming was established, it did not take man long to make special tools for breaking up the 38 UNIT ONE ground, and later he began to use the help of domestic animals in pulling his primitive plough. 3. Another important invention which has contributed greatly to our modern knowledge was writing. At first, writing was a special form of drawing, and was usually very simple. But gradually these primitive drawings turned into letters. From the counting of days and months, man went on to count cattle and sheep and the earliest forms of arithmetic appeared. The Greeks were the first people to use writing to record language as spoken by contemporary men; and their works are still widely read today, for information and for pleasure. 4. After the time of the Romans, the speed of discovery slowed down, and indeed many earlier discoveries were lost for hundreds of years. It was not until the fifteenth century, with the coming of the Renaissance, that discoveries were again made on a large scale. Europe was suddenly filled with a wish to explore the world. No less important was the invention of printing, giving many men an opportunity to read and to own books which before had been available to only the wealthy few. The spread of ideas was rapid, and led in its turn to the writing of more books. The voyagers of the Renaissance discovered the existence of many new and strange lands, and in these lands were all sorts of unknown animals and plants. 5. The seventeenth century saw a development of science. The eighteenth century is associated with many inventions and culminated in the Industrial Revolution. The invention of the steam engine, the condenser and piston made possible modern manufacturing processes. The nineteenth century was the age of the machine when man realized that many previously hard tasks could be done more easily and cheaply by machinery. Farm machinery was invented, and production of larger food-crops became possible. The nineteenth century also saw the invention of electricity, which revolutionized life and made many other things possible. The manufacture of cars began a new era in transport, and led to the appearance of lorries and buses, without which our cities would not have grown to their present size. UNIT ONE 39 6. The previous century was the one to see immense changes and various inventions. The airplane was constructed. During the Second Wbrld War man became aware of atomic energy and nuclear weapons. The second half of the twentieth century was characterized by the inventions of television, computers, spacecraft, genetic engineering and many others. 7. All our discoveries today are based on the ideas of men who lived before us; and without their groundwork, modern inventions would have been impossible. With so many wonderful achievements behind him, modern man can go into an era of even greater discoveries, and all nations can benefit from the knowledge left to us by earlier generations. Ч ^ С:э1 b) Listen to the tape (No 4) and prepare an artistic reading of the text following the pattern given on the tape. 40. Look through the text again and say what discoveries and important innovations you would put under these categories. 1. The first prehistoric strokes of genius. 2. Primitive farming. 3. Laying foundation for sciences. 4. The Renaissance breakthrough. 5. From science to new technologies. 6. The age of electricity. 7. The age of high technologies. 41. a) Find in the text English equivalents to these words and word combinations and read out the sentences with them. 1) завершаться чем-либо 2) распространение идей 3) фундамент, основы 4) замедлить(ся) 5) ассоциировать(ся) с чем-либо 6) в большом масштабе 7) иметь книги 8) быть наполненным чем-либо 9) зажиточные, состоятельные люди 10) в свою очередь 40 UNIT ONE b) Express the same idea using the words and word combinations above. 1. In my thoughts I connect summer with holidays. 2. You’re moving too fast. Could you lessen the speed, please? 3. The book is full of references to the era of the Renaissance. 4. The Wbrld ^^^r II reached the highest point in its development in 1945 when Germany surrendered’. 5. For many centuries education used to be a privilege of the rich. 6. In the Middle Ages a lot of lands belonged to the Church. 7. These preliminary talks formed the base for the meeting between the two leaders. 8. At the turn of a century numerous discoveries are usually made. Plurals of Some Latin and Greek Borrowings There is a natural tendency to make all foreign nouns follow the regular rules of forming plurals. The more commonly the noun is used, the more likely this is to happen. Some native English speakers avoid foreign plurals in everyday speech and use them only in scientific and technical contexts. 1. Nouns with foreign plurals only -is analysis [s'naelisis] — analyses [a'naelisiiz] — анализ(ы) criterion — criteria — критерий(и) -on [krai'tianan] phenomenon [fi^nommanl [кгахЧюпэ] — phenomena [й'потшэ] явление(я) -um datum [Meitam] — data ['delta] — данное(ые) stratum f'stratam] — strata ['straits] — слой(и) to surrender jsa'renda] — сдаваться UNIT ONE 41 2. Nouns with both foreign and regular plurals /cacti ['ksektai] cactus < , — кактус(ы) ^cactuses [ kaektasiz] -us . у genii [ cfemiai] genius<. . — гений(и) geniuses [ cfemiasiz] antenna<^ -a formula antennae [aen'teni:] antennas [aen'tenaz] formulae ['formjuli:] formulas ['faimjulazl — антенна(ы) — формула(ы) index<^. indices ('mdisi:zj -ex/ix indexes ['indeksizj индекс(ы) /appendices [э pendisi:z] appendix\ .. ^ — приложение(я) appendixes [э pendiksiz] — средство(а) -um .media ( mi:di3] medium< mediums ('miidiamzj memorandum — memoranda [,mem3'raend9] / memorandums (,mema"raend3mzl — меморандум(ы) 42. Change the plural form of the underlined nouns where it is possible. 1. Cacti are plants which can live in hot, dry places. 2. Such phenomena are rather rare in life. 3. I have never been good at maths formulas. 4. There are three appendices at the end of the book. 5. What criteria do you use in your work? 6. Our last set of analyses shows quite different results. 7. The era of the Renaissance was the time when a lot of genii worked in different spheres. 8. New television antennae are being put on the roof of our block of flats. 9. Such inequalities are found in all strata of society. 10. These data are very interesting. 42 UNIT ONE HlJTt>f24C versus HI^^WCAL. historic historical important because it is old and connected with history or the past interesting or impressive; impor- a historical figure tant in history a historical interest a historic place a historical importance a historic city (town) a historical context a historic decision a historical novel a historic object a historical film a historic speech a historical play a historic change a historic time a historic visit a historic year a historic document a historical information historic or historical a historic/historical event a historic/historical building a historic/historical monument But: a history lesson, a history teacher, a history museum, a history department 43. Historic, history or historical! 1. Trafalgar Square is a ... spot. 2. A lot of ... events took place in Red Square. 3. “Ivanhoe” is a famous ... novel by Walter Scott. 4. ... books, films or pictures describe or represent people, situations or things that existed in the past. 5. World War II brought about a lot of ... changes in Western Europe. 6. It was this kind of ... context that Morris brought to his work. 7. There are a lot of ... monuments in St. Petersburg. 8. The ... Museum is situated in Red Square. There are a lot of ... objects and ... documents in UNIT ONE 43 it. 9. Who is your ... teacher? 10. Have you seen any ... films? Have you ever been to any ... places? 11. Kennedy’s decision not to start a war during Caribbean [,каегэЪкэп] crisis is a really ... decision. 12. Mikhail Gorbachev is a ... figure famous all over the world. In the text "The Creations of Mankind" the noun man is used to refer to humans in general, including both men and women. When the noun man is used in this sense it takes jio article: Inactivity is a disease of modem man. However, many people think that this use suggests that women are not included, or that men are more important than women. To avoid causing offence, you can use words and expressions such as humans, human beings, people, humanity or the human race. 44. Find in the text "The Creations of Mankind' the word men is used without artide. (Ex. 39) and read out the sentences where SPEAKING DISCUSSING THE TEXT 45. See how well you remember the text and expand on these ideas. You may also comment on them. 1. The use of fire was a step without which no subsequent development (of man) would have been possible. 2. Gradually man learned to capture and tame some of the creatures and discovered how to plant crops. 3. At first writing was a special form of drawing. 4. The Greeks were the people to use writing to record language as spoken by contemporary men. 5. After the time of the Romans, the speed of discovery slowed down. 6. (In the 15th century) Europe was suddenly filled with a wish to explore the world. 7. No less important was the invention of printing. 8. The 18th century culminated in the Industrial Revolution. 9. The 19th century was the age of the machine and electricity. 10. All discoveries today are based on the ideas of men who lived before. 44 UNIT ONE 46. Answer the questions. 1. What motivates people to make new discoveries and inventions? 2. How does progress in science and technology influence people’s lifestyle? 3. Can you give an example of how one invention leads to another? 4. Do people change alongside with the changes in the material world? In what way? 5. Is the world changing for the better or for the worse? 6. At what time in history would you like to live? Why? 7. Can you give examples of the 20th-century inventions that in your opinion influenced the development of our civilization in a most dramatic way? 8. Can you give examples of inventions that did more harm than good? 9. How do you see the future of our planet? What are the possible ways of keeping it safe? What can threaten the future? ________________________________________________________DISCUSSING THE TOPIC Topical Vocabulary; Pages of History ^ It is sometimes said, “Those who fail to learn the lessons of history are destined to repeat them.” Unfortunately the history of mankind is not only a history of inventions and discoveries but also a history of wars and military conflicts. The state of war means that a country: • declares war on another country • invades the enemy’s territory • attacks the enemy’s troops • tries to destroy its towns and cities and its military forces • lays siege to its cities • captures soldiers and officers or takes them prisoner • fights battles on battlefields • tries to control the enemy’s territory • bombs or shells the enemy’s territory • conducts hostilities The other side: • defends its territory and people • repels the enemy’s attacks • tries to set the prisoners free • retreats or counterattacks • stands alone against the enemy forces or fights together with its allies • wins important victories • faces a (complete) defeat • suffers heavy casualties UNIT ONE 45 A well-organized army has: • headquarters • a commander-in-chief • generals, colonels, captains, lieutenants, soldiers (privates) • military equipment • ammunition (bombs, missiles, mines, tanks, aircraft carriers, guns, rifles and other weapons) • means of carrying out modem warfare у/ W^rs and military conflicts: • break out • are launched or unleashed or started • cost the lives of many people • prove to be ruinous or disastrous • end in a victory or a defeat after heavy fighting • are often horrible and bloody 'Z People involved in wars: • go to war • enrol in the army or join it • fight on somebody’s side • show great courage and determination to win • fall on the battlefield • get wounded, injured or killed • become prisoners of war or hostages • are listed as missing in action become refugees • are awarded with medals and orders 47. Match the words with their definitions. A. 1) to invade 2) to enrol 3) to repel 4) to declare 5) to award 6) to retreat a) to force someone who is attacking to move back b) to put your name on the official list c) to announce something officially d) to give someone a reward because they have achieved something e) to move away from a position f) to send an army into another country to get control of it 46 UNIT ONE 1) troops 2) hostilities 3) casualties 4) headquarters 5) allies a) countries that make an agreement with another country that they will help each other, especially in a war b) the place from which military action is controlled c) big groups of soldiers d) people who are injured or killed e) fighting between enemies in a war C. 1) commander-in-chief 2) ammunition 3) prisoner 4) refugee 5) hostage 6) siege a) bullets, bombs etc. that can be fired from a weapon b) someone who is kept in a jail, especially during a war c) someone who leaves their country, especially during a war d) someone responsible for the whole of the armed forces of a country e) a prisoner of someone who threatens to kill the prisoner if he doesn’t get what he wants f) an attack in which an army surrounds a city to prevent the people inside from receiving food and water 48. Look through the topical vocabulary and answer the questions. 1. Everyone knows the Battle of Waterloo or the Battle of Kulikov Field. What other famous battles do you remember? Where and when did they take place? 2. How has military equipment changed through the years? How do new technologies help to equip armies? 3. Every new war leads to more casualties than the previous one. What is the reason for that? 4. Why are some wars called patriotic? Can you give examples of such wars? 5. What is a civil war? What makes them some of the most tragic wars? What examples can you give? 6. Can you remember a dramatic episode of any war? 7. What are the usual consequences of wars and conflicts? UNIT ONE 47 8. Some countries, like the USA, have big armies, others have smaller armies, still others like Switzerland or Luxemburg have no army at all. What are their advantages and disadvantages? 9. Do you think people will ever be able to live without wars? What should be done for it? 49. Put the names of milrtary equipment into groups of four according to the period when they were used. 1. 14th century 2. 17th century | 3. 20th century 4. 20th century (early) (late) 48 UNIT ONE i S' i 50. Work in small groups and prepare an appeal to the nations of the world to stop and ban all wars. 51. There are two opinions about building up weapons. Some politicians think that there are too many weapons on our planet. They say the nuclear weapons that different countries have are enough to destroy all life on Earth ten times over. The progress in science and technology makes people invent even more destructive types of weapons and this vicious circle has to be broken. Others contradict them and say that powerful modem weapons guarantee peace and stability in the world as they cool off aggressive countries and groups of people and make them think twice before starting a military conflict. Which of these points of view would you support? Give your arguments. 52. Here are some events in a war history of Europe. Remember certain facts about each of them and share the information with your friends. BC 1260 331 City of Troy destroyed by Greeks Alexander the Great leads Greeks to victory over the Persian Empire AD 732 Charles Martel leads Franks to victory over Moors 1066 William of Normandy conquers England 1096 First of six crusades by Christian armies against the Islamic rulers of the Holy Land (Palestine) 1453 Constantinople is captured by the Turks 1588 English defeat the Spanish Armada 1853—56 Crimean War 1914—18 World War 1: Germany and its allies are defeated by Britain, France, Russia and others. More than 10 million soldiers are killed 1936—39 Civil Whr in Spain 1939—45 World War II: Allies defeat Germany and Italy in Europe and Japan in the East. About 55 million lives are lost. UNIT ONE 49 53. Speak about Napoleon Bonaparte. Use the facts below. 1769 bom on the island of Corsica 1789 supports the French Revolution 1792 becomes a captain of artillery after finishing the leading military school in Paris 1795 crushes a royalist rebellion in Paris and soon becomes head of the French army, wins great victories in Italy, Belgium, and Austria 1804 crowns himself Emperor of France 1805 cannot defeat Britain at sea, loses an important sea battle near Cape Trafalgar (the most southwesterly point of Spain) 1812 leads a great army into Russia 1815 meets his final defeat at the battle of Waterloo beaten by the British and the Prussians 1821 dies a prisoner on the lonely Atlantic island of St. Helena 54. a) Some peoples' have a reputation of being good and in some cases bloodthirsty warriors. Can you say what peoples are described in these passages? 1. They came from Scandinavia. Their age lasted from about AD 800 to AD 1100. Originally they were farmers but fearlessly crossed the seas in swift sailing ships. They raided the coasts of England, braved the Atlantic Ocean to explore Greenland and North America. They traded as far as the east of Russia and Constantinople. They had their own laws and a parliament. They were skilled artists and poets. 2. These people come from a city-state in Ancient Greece. At some point in history this state became highly militarized and authoritarian. All citizens had to go through a training programme from the age of seven onwards. , ■i Gradually their state became the most powerful in Greece, a centre for soldiers and the military arts. They warred with Athens and won a victory over it. These people are supposed to have been simple, severe, without any attention to comfort. They say that these people practised killing weak boys who were not fit to be soldiers, by throwing them off the rock. ГТ-----^------ 3. These people were grouped into tribes that shared the same language and culture. They were governed by meetings of elders. Tribes were always ready to fight each other. War called for individual leadership. In some areas the tribes gathered into more permanent confederations under the rule of chiefs. Some time ago these people were often seen as cruel and ruthless but nowadays this point of view is not very popular. These people suffered greatly from European settlers. On some territories they were forced to leave their lands and to live on reservations. b) What makes peoples fight in modem times? Give your opinions. Say if these reasons are strong enough to spill blood for them. 55. a) History doesn't all consist of dark times. Some pages of history are bright and give people hope for the future. Look at the pictures on p. 52 and comment on them. b) What other historic events could you put under the categories of dark and bright pages in history? 56. Read these proverbs and sayings. Say what they mean and in what situations one might use them. Prepare a little story to illustrate one of them and tell it to your friends without mentioning the actual proverb or saying. Let them guess which of them you had in mind. 1. Happy is the country that has no history. 2. If you want peace, prepare for war. 3. Take not a musket to kill a butterfly. 4. Love your neighbour, yet pull not down your fence. 5. The pen is mightier than the sword. 6. History repeats itself. 7. All is fair in love and war. 57. Give a two-minute talk on why it is important to know history. Remember to say: ■ if you like history; ■ where one can get information about historic events; ■ what history can teach us; ■ if people always learn lessons of history. UNIT ONE 51 Voltaire: “I may disagree with what you say but 1 will defend to death your right to say it.” Adam Smith wrote about efficient economic systems. Raphael. Sistine Madonna Abraham Lincoln (1809—1865) abolished slavery. Catherine the Great introduced reform in Russia. 1987. Signing the INF Treaty Neil Armstrong 52 UNIT ONE 58. You and your friend want to go to a museum. Discuss with him/her which of the foliowing options is the most attractive. a) The History Museum b) The Russian Army Museum c) The City Picture Gallery d) The Museum of Science and Technology Remember to: ■ discuss all the options; ■ take an active part in the conversation and be polite; ■ come up with ideas; ■ give good reasons; ■ find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account; ■ invite your friend to come up with suggestions; ■ come to an agreement. USEFUL TIPS FOR ENGLISH LEARNERS Numbers It’s good to remember how to say and write certain numbers in English. 1. In texts numbers from one to ten are usually written in words: one, two, three etc. (Not 1, 2, 3 etc.) 2. Numbers from 21 to 99 are hyphenated: twenty-one, thirty-four. 3. The numbers 100, 1000, 1000000 can be said in two ways: a hundred — one hundred a thousand — one thousand a million — one million But you can use only one in all other cases: 2150 — two thousand one hundred and fifty 2001175 — two million one thousand one hundred and seventy-five People often use a instead of one in conversation, but it is better to use one in technical contexts. 4. There is a difference between the way they say numbers in British and American English. 932 BrE — nine hundred and thirty-two AmE — nine hundred thirty-two 3841 BrE — three thousand eight hundred and forty-one AmE — three thousand eight hundred forty-one UNIT ONE 53 5. The number 1000000000 (миллиард) is a billion (or a thousand million) in English. 6. Mind the way numbers are used to indicate years: 1066 ten sixty-six 1605 sixteen oh five 1776 seventeen seventy-six 1900 nineteen hundred 1999 nineteen ninety-nine 2000 (the year) two thousand 2001 two thousand and one; AmE also two thousand one 7. Phone numbers are presented as series of numbers with pauses between the groups of numbers. E.g. 08081 570983 = oh eight oh eight one, five seven oh nine eight three BrE\ For phone numbers like 5155, people often say five one double five. For phone numbers like 1555, people often say one treble five or one five double five. AmE'. People often say “area code” before the first part of the number, which represents the area where they live. (555) 632-9821 = area code five five five, six three two, nine eight two one 8. There are different ways to say number 0. You can pronounce 0 like the letter o, when you are giving a series of numbers such as a credit card number or a flight number. In dates'. Say oh when giving the name of a year, such as 1904, nineteen oh four (see above). In mathematics, science and technical contexts'. BrE'. Say nought [no:tl or zero ['ziaraol. AmE'. Say zero. In temperatures'. Say zero to refer to freezing point (0° Celsius or —32° Fahrenheit). In sports, for scores of O'. BrE'. Say nil. AmE'. Say zero or nothing. In tennis'. Say love. 59. (НИ a) Read and write these numbers. 432, 1583, 1184, 184103, 1832765, 3001192, 4931187, 541164, 192, 1111, 3971507. PQ b) Write the numbers in words and read the sentences. 1. You can find this information on page 1121. 2. My Uncle Roger was born in 1909. 3. Is 2000 or 2001 the beginning of the new millennium*? 4. Mike a millennium Imi'leniam] — тысячелетие 54 UNIT ONE Fox, a Londoner, says the score of the football match was 3:0. 5. When it is 0° degrees in Brighton, people in New York may describe this temperature as —32® Fahrenheit. 6. My flight number is SU206. 7. Would you like to write down my telephone number? It is 301 55 55. 8. The sum of these figures is 0. 9. — Wliat’s the number of your credit card? — It’s 7008391526. 10. — Will you repeat the number of your identification card? — It’s 78409365. 11. If we add 500,000,000 and 500,000,000, we get 1,000,000,000. WRITING Form Filling 60. □□ This type of migration card has to be filled in at Heathrow Airport, London. Can you do it correctly? Migration card Family name _ Forenames_____ Sex___________ Date of birth: Day Place of birth _____ Nationality_________ Occupation _________ Month Year Address in the United Kingdom Signature 61. CP This type of migration card has to be filled In at Sheremetyevo Airport, a) Can you do it correctly? UNIT ONE 55 <А> (Въезд/Arnval) Российская Федерация Russian Federation о 0403336903 Фшит/Зигтте \Aum/Grm name Oeiecna/Pilronymc 1 _L 1 Дна ротд»ш/0аг» Ы brth День Месяц Год Oiy Month Year PonfSo Муж/Mate nnitelfemale □ □ 1 Nt necnnprveis^inir No rpaxAaHCTMVMa/ionatey ГТТТТТТТГП fTmri II i11 m ЦЖк «МЧ Акра** «/яМ Слум4м«У5кгас( Q Ту|ми/ Гоипи roi«npiir.u»cQ»HH>t»D Учб^'вхсыая Q >Mow6eppr HenwAw» Q Трм|мт/Гг*1)а1 □ □ Mpk laprtiMiiua)« tacMi 44агщ<лмигеж11шицяашг Срок пребыемм/Гегл! о1 stay Ciffom DpUM: Псапись/$вп*«». Д ва служебных 011МТО(/СМа1|Г (Of оп(у Вьезо/Airival Х;*’<**** РОЗРВХ* «в» (Выеэд/Departure) Российская Федерация Russian Federation aaSS'*"5 о 0403336903 Фгшам! Surname 1 1 \Лил/Ош name Отнвстн/ГМгопутк; j 1 Дата рождвния/'Oete Ы bel(i День Месяц Год Day Month Year DaalSex Муж/Mate Kea/Femate □ □ 1 m le nacnopn/rtesparrMa Граядаистао/миюпаМу □:n ТГП rij ITTTiTl 11111ТП Шпь iHiMivAxpiMr of я»г Сыийч/ДяпстД ТнмаыГсмоя biuucMuai/Ccramircv Q 'Г<йЫ/еЛмМоп Q PitoTWrav№t< HkiwhAmm Q |р|ИЛН/Г|ДпЫ □ ixn(anaaaii> a Amm Срок поебыааша/ Term at stay ncMPMCt/^piteune; Ofrxn DmUnM. Для служебных отметок/0№з/ use only Въезл/Amval Выезд/Oepartixe 56 UNIT ONE b) Read the information given at the back of the form and put the statements after it under the categories "do's" or "don'ts". Attention 1. Foreign nationals are requested to fill in both parts of the Migration Card (A and B) and hand it over to the Border Control Officer along with their passport and other certificates and travel documents. 2. Please fill in the Card clearly in Russian or English language in block letters. 3. Please use mark “X” to indicate your sex and purpose of the visit in the correspondent frames. 4. Keep in mind that according to the new law in force you should register yourself in the local office of the Ministry of the Interior within 3 days after your arrival to the point of destination or within 1 day in case of stay at the hotel or other similar organization rendering hotel services (this rule is applied to all foreign nationals except those who are the subject of registration by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). 5. Please keep your В card along with your passport until going through the departure passport control procedure. Do's or don'ts? a) Cut the Migration Card in two parts. b) Show the Migration Card to the officials when you cross the border. c) Print the words when filling in the card. d) Write “male” or “female” when indicating your sex. e) State the aim of your visit. f) Remember to put your name and other information about yourself on an official list after your arrival. g) Throw the card away as soon as you are finished with the formalities. /MISCELUIMEOUS 62. a) Read the text and say what lines made you smile. Which of them do you find most humorous? [2€v6LAT10mJ T^|20|,|net yesterday, 1 a Really interesting web- site. 7jN^ ©lie (canj&t the puppy because it стёк) in the rose bushi^. 8. 1 (пЫпЫк^Ье thunder during the stonj bst night because 1 (^ee^. ). Jack (walky^'^n the street wh,en it (begin) ю rain. 10. At eight o’,clock 13. My coi^i^s (guarreIJf '^oui something I (c^e) into the room. 14. It morning. The sea (sparkle)the rays of the sun. The birds (sing)^'u)&\v beautiful songs. B. Past simple or present perfect? A \PfV~f 1. AJex looks sad. He must (hear) soiree bad news. 2. Richard and Paul \<^^fyht^ittend) any parties since they (c(mie) back home. 3. Jane (c^tch) a bad cold last weekend. She^fbe^ ill several times this term. 4. Pat {pta^ a of tennis in the last two months. 5. This, is ^he first time Miss Ross (arrive) in Germany. 6. Alex is an artist, He (ard'w) three beaujUfttl l^d- scapes recently, jLg^t 5t ^eek he (dn£y}^'im2A\ seascape./?/—You V^w)^/the .dictionary I f/e//?''you about? -r^es^— When yod-(My) it?^8. So far Jill three nice blouse^^ 1 (kno^/ Axchy all my life. VCs^t^ acquainted with him when we four. 10. Paul Newnmibsays he (s^/ snow for the .first ^^p^ast February. He says he never (see) sno>y, before. ll,ipmce new fashionable tie only once since ,h^ (ЬиУ) it. He fwear) it phone her back. 13. The 2004 ONmoics (b^4(( Athens, Greece. 14. The information technology revolution ^ansform) our lives in many ways, making it easier to communicate with each other. \ to our party last Saturday night. 12. Kathy just (Шопе). She wants you to ^ ^ipics тЩ Athens, C. Present ji^erfect or present perfect progressive? 1. I .^ppy^) this bike for ages, it’s li^rally falling apart. 2. — I wonder what youT^/ in my room. — Sorry, I поок) for some old photographs. 3. Sit dowr^apd catch your breath. You 4. Anna is an old friend of mine. I (khdw) her nearly all my life. 5. Why are you angry? What 1 (do)? 6. The Barkers (rent) this house since they moved to Liverpool. 7. The Greens (own) this plot of land for centuries. You might say it always (be) theirs. 8. I (call) you all the evening. Where you (be)? 9. Mark (stay) with us for a couple of weeks, but he is planning to leave tomorrow morning. 10. Look, this player (break) the rules again. He (play) very badly in this match. 11. The taxi (arrive) yet? We (wait) too long. 12. We (work) without a break since 9 o’clock in the morning. I’m sure everyone (get) tired. 13. Your eyes look red and swollen. You (cry)? 14. I’m afraid I (hear) this story five times since yesterday and I don’t want to hear it again. 72 UNIT TWO More Facts About English Tenses 1. Present progressive is sometimes used with the verbs which are not usually used in the progressive form (to be, to hear, to see, to understand, to love) to characterize a person's unusual behaviour; N Nick is such a quiet child, but today he is being naughty. I am not fond of action films, but I am loving this one. 2. Past progressive can also be used with such verbs to characterize a person's unusual behaviour at the given past moment: Bob (who is not a very pleasant man) was being so nice to us when we were on the tour to Edinburgh together. I met Roy the other day. He was happy because Ann, his sick sister, was feeling much better. 3. Past simple is used to denote an action which occupied a whole period of time which is now over, especially with the prepositions for or during: The old lady sat on a bench for a while, then got up and went to the gate. The boy stayed on the playground during the interval. But: with the phrases all day long, from 2 (3) to 5 (6 etc.), the whole day past progressive is generally used. It was raining all day yesterday. 13. Ш Choose the right items to complete the sentences. 1. Your brother ... very annoying this evening. He isn’t usually so annoying, a) is b) is being 2. John ТГ. a silly fool yesterday. He isn’t usually such a fool, a) was \^was being 3. I think this milk ... sour. I wouldn’t use it to make porridge, a) gets b) is getting 4. Mr Potter ... on the bench. It was so quiet around, a) sat b) was sitting 5. Mr Potter ... on a bench for half an hour and then began reading a paper, a) sat b) was sitting UNIT TWO 73 6. I ... for Ann for an hour and a half and then left. It was useless to wait longer. ^ waited b) was waiting 7. We ... all day long. a) walked b) were walking 8. We ... for ten minutes and then saw the palace. ^^walked b) were walking constantly about his grandson. so quiet! so rude, to them. 9. Whenever I met Tom he . a) talked b) was talking 10. Something is wrong. Billy a) is ^ is being 11. The Thompsons couldn’t understand why George He was generally nice to his clients. a) was bX'v^as being 12. The children didn’t go skiing as it ... from noon till evening, a) snowed b^was snowing 13. Nobody could recognize Polly. She ... so nice trying to charm the guests, a) was b) was being 14. Don’t argue, please. I feel that you don’t really mean it. You ... difficult. a) are just b) are Just being II. English Articles 14. PP Yowweup. Use a, the or zero article with the names of meals, sea- sons and parts of the day to complete the sentences. 1. The travellers had to get up at .Trdawn to catch the ferry to Roterdam. 2. ’4>."^utumn was cold and wet that year and they decided to move back to town. 3. What’s for ..Tdinner, mum? I’m starving. 4. Few people like .77 early spring, but I have always liked iL 5. Thank you very much for lovely dinner, Mrs Thomp^n. 6. In :^'.^vening there is always some time to sit down and talk. 7. „.'^Slight was warm and starry. S.'/ii^/summer of 1897 was exceptionally hot and dry. 9. Ji^^was one of those people who prefer to work at .TTTiight and sleep in л',1^^1те. 10. I’ll be waiting for you at the bus stop at Trr'noon. 11. In'"!.', ‘vmter people usually require more food than in hot seasons. 1^^. jThey seldom prep^e hot breakfast as they are pressed for time in r..'"morning. 13^ On ki cold evening like this, one doesn’t feel like going out. 14. What4.'. hot summer we had last year! 15. It was just before .TTdusk and the shadows were beginning to get deeper. 74 UNIT TWO More Facts About English Articles Articles with ?ef2^0Ki<5 You know that usually no article is used with names of individual people and the definite article is used with the names of families. Also remember the following. 1. We don't use any articles with names of persons when they are preceded by words like mother, father, sister, aunt, uncle, cousin, nurse etc.: Grandma Smith, Uncle William, Cousin Rachel (notice that both nouns are capitalized). 2. No article is used if names have such attributes as old, littfe, poor, sweet, dear, honest: sweet Julia, little Meggie, poor Sam. (If these word combinations make a nickname, both words are capitalized: Honest Abe (Abraham Lincoln), Lucky Jim (a character in a book by Kingsley Amis.) 3. The indefinite article is used with the names of people taken as representatives of their families (usually with adjectives like true or real): He is a real Morrison. She is a true Gordon. 4. The indefinite article is also used to speak of someone you don't really know, a certain person bearing the mentioned name: A Mr Brown has just called. 5. We use the indefinite or the definite article when a name stops being a person's name and becomes the name of his or her creation or a thing named after him or her: Jim’s bought a Harley-Davidson and is very proud of it. The house looks dirty, isn’t it time to take out the Hoover? There is a real Rembrandt in this museum. This car isn’t a Mercedes [m3:'seidiz] at all. ( UNIT TWO 75 15. Ш Use а, the or zero article to complete the sentences. 1. — What’s the make of this car? — It’s ... Ford. 2.... Davises are a very close-knit family. 3. After I heard Jane’s speech I understood that she was ... real Parker, she spoke just like her father did in his own time. 4. Has ... dear Margaret arrived yet? I can’t see her among the guests. 5. ... Uncle Podger is one of Jerome’s characters from “Three Men in a Boat”. 6.... Little Dorrit comes from ... Dickens’ novel of the same title. 7. ... Benz is another name for ... Mercedes. 8. There is ... certain Mrs Green wishing to see you, sir. 9. ... sweet Ann never raises her voice at people. 10. I can’t recognize this music, is it ... Mozart? 11. In his wish to reach his aim John was ... real Forsyte. 12. ... Nurse Jackson is the kindest of all people in the hospital. 13.... Levitan the gallery bought last month has just been exhibited. 14. Is ... Brother William going to stay for Christmas? 15. ... Max Cage rang you up this afternoon. Does the name say anything to you? III. English Function Words 16. РПТе-п" YOiAWeUp. Do you know what function words are needed in these cases? 1. The car stopped ... the traffic lights and we saw the driver’s face. 2. Wlio are these people ... the photograph? 3. There are so many languages ... the world. 4. The picture is ... page three ... the top of it. 5. The birds were flying in circles ... the cloudless sky. 6. Pauline’s house is ... the end of the road, near the bookshop. 7. You are requested to be ... the airport at least two hours before the flight. 8. I’d like to spend the weekend ... my cousin’s. 9. People’s lifestyle ... the north is not exactly like that ... the south. 10. I was surprised to see Lora ... the symphony music concert yesterday. 11. There’s someone ringing ... the door. Who can it be? 12. Victor is ... the dentist’s and won’t be back until five. 13. The city ... the picture was unmistakably St. Petersburg. 14. We meet ... the bus stop every morning to go to school together. 15. I’m still ... school, but my elder brother is ... university now. More Facts About English Function Words of 9LAC€ Notice that we usually say in a/the car but on a/the bus, on a/the train, on a/the plane (with the words bus and plane the preposition in is also possible, although the tendency is to say on): They arrived in a taxi five minutes before the beginning of the conference. Father always reads newspapers on a plane. Food and drinks will be served on the bus. 76 UNIT TWO 17. РР Express the same in English. 1. Я не могу спать в поезде или автобусе, даже если нахожусь в далекой поездке. 2. Все места в самолете были заняты. 3. Сэм обычно ездит на рынок на своей машине, а не ходит туда пешком. 4. В поезде мы решали кроссворды и играли в разные игры со словами. 5. Обычно в самолетах не разрешают курить. 6. Чаще всего люди ездят в такси тогда, когда они куда-то опаздывают. 7. В тот день в поезде было много пассажиров. 8. Мне нравится ездить в машине, когда движение на дороге не слишком большое. 9. Я просмотрю эти записи в поезде по дороге на собеседование. 10. В автобусе был врач, он-то и помог пожилой женшине. 1 Still More Facts About English Function Words Л<5 versus Like as a preposition means similar to. It is usually used when we compare things: Jane is so beautiful in her new dress! She looks like a fairy. (But she isn’t a fairy.) Moving on this floor is like moving on ice. (But we are not moving on ice.) As as a preposition is used to indicate that somebody is really in a certain position or something is used for certain purposes: Jill graduated from a university but never worked as an engineer. She has always worked as a librarian since then. (She really was a librarian.) When Sally comes I use the comer room as a guest room. (The comer room becomes a guest room.) Notice: Like is followed by a noun or a pronoun: 1. Do It like this. 2. Move like me. 3. Write like him. 4. Do it like John. As Is followed by a clause: 1. Do it as you should do. 2. Move as I move. 3. Write as he does. 4. Do as you are told. Notice also: as usual, such as, as you know, as I (he) said, as we expected. Bob is arriving on Sunday as we expected. Alec only likes small animals, such as cats and dogs. David, as you know, is a photographer. ^ UNIT TWO I 77 18. CP As or like! 1. I admire her ... a person, but I don’t think much of her ... a writer. 2.... I said in my last letter, I’m taking the exam in July. 3. He cried ... a baby when they told him the news. 4. Ted was ... a son to me. 5. His talents ... a film actor were soon recognized. 6. There is nothing ... a nice hot bath. 7. From what you say Richard sounds ... the right person for the job. 8. William works ... a sailor. 9. Judith was late, ... usual. 10. Bob swims ... a real sportsman. ______________________________________________________VOCABULARY SECTION 19. “T^ Yowweup in the vocabulary, in English there is a number of words that are easily confused. Choose the right ones to complete the sentences below. 1. First I wanted to become an engineer but ... I changed my mind. There is nothing ijetter ... a hot strong cup of tea when you get cold. a) than b) then 2. Sea ... is supposed to be good for our health. Who is the ... to the English throne? a) air b) heir 3. It was sad to look at the ... branches of the trees which had only recently been covered in leaves and blossom. I can’t ... the thought of strangers living in my house. a) bear b) bare 4. The adult male ... is called a stag. Meet Anna, my ... old friend, a) dear b) deer 5. The ... of exotic flowers was heavy and oppressive. The book is five dollars and ninety-five ...s. We’ve ... Peter to the baker’s to get some biscuits for tea. a) cent b)scent c) sent 6. I recently visited a book ... and bought some very good collections of poetry there. Every country needs free and ... elections. Don’t forget to give the kids their bus .... г) fair b)fare 7. Jane is much better though she still feels .... We are going to the country for a couple of months, ... in, ... out. a) weak b) week 8. I still don’t know ... or not they are planning to come. If the ... is fine, we’ll go out tonight. a) weather b) whether 9. It’s hard to believe that this powerful ... of music was composed by a very young man. Please leave me alone and let me read my newspaper in .... a) peace b) piece 78 UNIT TWO 10. What I need is a ... of scissors and some colour paper. The ...s we bought in the market are lovely, ripe and juicy. a) pair b) pear 11. To ... a letter is a kind of art that requires imagination and discipline of thought. You are ... as usual. a) right b) write 12. are organizing a second-hand book ... in our school. The ship set ... from Dover on Tuesday morning. a) sale b) sail 13. Cutlery is usually made of stainless .. and drive to Mexico, a) steal b) steel 14. The company must have an Internet made me feel happy and content. a) sight b) site 15. The dancers wore bright scarves around their ...s. Millions of plastic bottles are thrown away. What a ...! a) waist b) waste His crazy plan was to ... a car of its own. The ... of the sea 20. CD Read the text below and change the words in brackets in order to get a complete and logical text. President Kenne^ worked long hours, (1. get) up at seven and not (2. W bed until eleven or twelve aUrught, or (3. late). He read six newspapers while he (A. eat) breakfast, had {S. meet)^'\Xh important (^through)tP th^day and read reports from his П. adyisp. He want-’ make) sure he made (9.'^aecisions for his country. He (10. ^e US as a country rq^vjng forward into the future with new (11.. discovery in'* science and (12. improve*f\n\vb. educatё^,iy^. emplo^'^^n^ other fields. He wanted (15. democraq^nd {Vb.free) for the whole world. 21. Read the text and make It complete choosing the best items to fill the gaps. The Second World War (1) ^ a new generation (2) to build a better world. The 1948 Olympic Games (3) b. London, the Festival of Britain in 1951 and the coronation in 1953 all gave a sense of the beginning of a new age. Cities were (4) with new modernist buildings spriijiging up, like Basil Spencer’s replacement for the Coventry Cathedral. It (5) Q. 10 ]^rs to build and was (6) .(^opened in 1961. By 1960, British culture (7) *0; television, Angry Young Men and rock’n’roll and looked very different (8) ^ the way it had before the war. UNIT TWO 79 1. a^reated 2. a) opposed 3. a) of 4. a) dying 5. a) had 6. a) generally 7. a) alluded 8. a) to b) opened b) refused b) in b) ruining y^took b) thoroughly b) concluded b) off c) gave 0^) determined c) at c) changing cjgot c) finally c^excluded c) with d) composed d) supported d) off d) levelling d) could d) desirably d) included d)of Ь Phrasal Verb TO cuT 1. to cut down sth/on sth — a) to reduce ' , ' > ^ You need to cut your essay down a little. I’m trying to cut down on sweets. b) to make a tree fall down Huge areas of the rain forest^are being cut down. 2. to cut in — to interrupt someone who is speaking by saying sth During the conversation Mike cut in with an occasional remark. Л" r Ну : 3. to cut off — to remove sth by cutting Why did you cut all your hair?_ ^ 4. to cut out — to rerpovefsth from a larger piece by cutting I’ll cut this article out of the rpagazine for you. 5. to cut up — to С1Я sth rntO sevdVal pieces Cut up the food for the baby. E. E. '■ч ’ ' 'i ■V , v'-'^ "-f. тШ/ЫГшшё Ш ■||Ш|ПЙ11|‘ 80 UNIT TWO 22. CP Complete the sentences, use down (on), in, off, out, up. I. The wood was cut ^..^ancl taken away. 2.^\Vbv don’t you cut the photo t tire article by (f' and paste it in your album? 3. Try to cut about 100 words. 4. “I’d like to know the truth,” Alex cut 1.У[ 5. Cut th^ top^^the carrots before cooking them. 6. The doctor advised him to си1<>..^‘Иш working hours. 7. When he talks he doesn’t allow anyone to cut tt^with a wo^d. 8. The lit- tle girl loves cutting flowers of postcards. 9. I always cut grandfather’s meat for him. 10. He cut^fv..-^а thick sl>ce. of bread and spread it with butler. 11. My doctor says 1 should cut After the rains several vil- lages were cut Vr, by the flood. 13. They cut the electricity last week and the villagers could neither cook nor watch television. 14. Look. I’ve cut this article ...^of ^magazine for you. 15. The patient was so weak that the nurse had to cut ^j^his food for him and put the pie^s Into his mouth. 16. The big tree in ffont of the window had to be cutTor the sake of safety. 23. PP Express the same in English. 1. Давайте разрежем курицу на кусочки, прежде чем подавать ее к столу. 2. Статья была пожелтевшей от времени. Кто-то вырезал ее из газеты много лет тому назад. 3. Хорошо было бы сократить рабочий день до шести часов. 4. Ты можешь отрезать от куртки рукава и снова носить ее. 5. Наконец-то ему удалось сократить количество ежедневно выкуриваемых сигарет до трех (в день). 6. Стив по большей части хранил молчание и только два или три раза вмешался. 7. Людям пора подумать, каким образом они могут сократить потребление электроэнергии. 8. Записка была составлена из букв, вырезанных из журнала. 9. Нарежь овоши, смешай их и добавь растительное масло. 10. Когда ей испол- ^нилось 16, она отрезала косы. 11. Мне кажется, он чувствует себя отрезанным от друзей. New Words to Learn Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. 24. L«rU 1. The situation in the country was described as being on the point of collapse [ka'laeps]. 2. The society was struck by the arrest of a number of officials on corruption charges. 3. What is the government’s policy I'pnlisi] on immigration? 4. To foresee means to see or know something that will happen in the future. 5. The initial stage of any process is the stage happening at its beginning. 6. The change in his behaviour was sudden, surprising and easy to notice. It was really a dramatic change. UNIT TWO 81 и 25. |L 6rU[ Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and | senterKes to know how to use them. aim [eimj (n): a good aim, a long-lerm/short-term aim, one’s aim in life; to take aim at some animal. The hunter took aim at the lion. The project was set up with the aim of helping young unemployed people, aim leim] (v): to aim at somebody/something; to be aimed at somebody/ something. John aimed his gun at the deer. This programme is aimed at L vl ^-VW4^.Aeen^prs.-rfi SJZ- I ^ com^se [kaiti^iiraiz] (v): The UK comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, \^kles, Scotland and Northern Ireland comprise ^(7Ше^ United Kingdom. dfeal [cii:l] (dealt, dealt) (v): to deal with somebody/something. The next , Л f,^^/.4^haptejT ^eals дкЬ verbs. I was looking for a book that deals with dogs, j ^ disioirt^irtfed^f,diskdn4entid] {adjy. to be discontented with somebody/some- discontented with their boring and monotonous job. ] (v): to emerge from something; it emerged that... The moon emerged from behind the clouds. No new facts emerged from the newspap^s. It^soon emerged that neither Julia, nor Richard had helped them. /J.ja о t C 'b emergency [i'm3:cfe3nsi] In): in an emergenc^^ in cas ^ number. case of emergency. In an (v): These plants will flourish in a sunny garden if they are given plenty of water. A highly developed civilization flourished in Mexico long before Europeans discovered the area, identify [ai'dentifai] (v): to identify ajperspnj to identify a thing. Can you identify this strange object? ^ ^ \л [mlierft] (v): to inherit somemiilg from somebody, ^^fe inherited this ^ t: grandparents. The little boy inherited his mother’s black hair. I proposal [pro'psuzal] (n): to write a proposal, to make a proposal, to formu-. late^proposal. Nobody will support his proposal. Maggie accepted his pro- (of marriage) at once. f restrict [ri'stnkt] (v): to restrict something to something/somebody, to restrict oneself to something, to restrict the number of people. I try to < /i9t dessert a day. Use of the gym is restricted to students. rKtrict your speech to three minutes. reveal [ri'vi:l] (v): to reveal a secret, to reveal one’s real name. Joan refused iveal the whereabouts of her daughter. Do you promise not to reveal shortcoming [’/D:t,kAmii3] {usually in the plural) {n): The habit of breaking promises is a serious shortcoming. I know my own shortcomings very well. 82 UNIT TWO significance [sig'nifiksns] (п): to be of great (little) significance. I don’t think the case is of some significance. signify ['signifai] (v): to signify something. The stars on the American flag signify the fifty states. I Ы. unite Iju/nait] (v): to unite behind somebody. All the people in the country united in the battle against the enemy. The country united behind the President. A united family. 26. Complete the sentences. Use your new vocabulary. 1. My a.ihls to become the best doqtor initown. 2. The two colours mix^ mud u.^ \ It 3. In spite of all heW... I stft'tj&k she is the best friend of mine. 4. The state of Hawaii Mghf mam ^islands and many smaller ones. 5. The committee wrote a р/г^ДГс malrtge some of the school rules. 6. What does this ^p-ange mark s...? 7. It later e'.'.'.^tiff^j*he had deceived us. ^ 'w 8. — How are the chhdren? — They are ^ i i 9. His answer r... some serious faults in the system,к 10. Can you i... the keys that you lost? 11. If Uncle Robert dies without making a will, who will i... his house? 12.1 r... myself to two chocolates a day. < -fj 13. The s... of his words became dear during the two following days. 14. She is an easy person to d.f.^ith. ^ 27. Paraphrase the sentences using the new words. 1. The results of their experiment were sudden and very noticeable. 2. All the computers stopped working. That was a very serious situation and it required immediate action. Ellen called Mr Richardson. 3. She was fully aware of the various faults in her own character. 4. The swimmer came out of the lake. 5. The two parties began working together to form a coalition. 6. After thinking about it, we decided to accept your offer. 7. Lady Redgrave said she had known what could happen in the future. 8. I know that in our office there are clerks who are open to dishonest behaviour and may accept an offer of money. 9. John had only one purpose in life — to become rich. 10. Mr Loveday said he was unhappy and dissatisfied with his son’s behaviour. 11. The school committee consisted of ten members. 12. If you have small children, you have to put a limit on your social life and spend more time at home. 13. The first letter of the word “significance” is “s”. 14. Now I can make this fact known to everybody: the Princess is to marry in August. 15. Chapter Five is about the economy of the country. UNIT TWO 83 28. Match the words with their definitions. 1) dramatic (v 2) to inherit T, 3) to flourish \j 4) to restrict /«j 5) collapse dl 6) a proposal 7) significance i 8) to reveal o( 9) to comprise 10) to emerge 11) to deal with К 12) to identify 13) initial P 14) to unite 0 . 15) a shortcoming ( 16) discontented a) a situation in which something fails or stops existing b) to come out of something or out from behind of something c) sudden and surprising or easy to notice d) to let something become known e) an offer of marriage f) to receive the property or money of a person who has died g) to consist of something or to include h) to keep within certain limits i) special value or meaning, importance j) to grow or develop well and be healthy k) to have to do with somebody, to be about something l) a fault, defect or weakness, as in character or behaviour that makes someone or something less effective m) to find out or tell exactly who a person is n) a plan or suggestion that is presented to others for consideration o) to bring or join together p) coming at the beginning, first q) unhappy and restless, not satisfied with something 29. Look at the pairs of words. In each pair there is a word you know. Read the sentences and, phrs^i belQW and guess what the other, word in each pair means. ^ corruption — corrupt ^ inherit — inhentance 3 corruption — to corrupt Л ceveal — revelation С/ ^ ^ ^ initial — initial^f^^"'^^ restrict — restriction^ Д v aim — aimless unite — united ^ ^ flourish — flourishing vv bp 1. a corrupt judge; corrupt officials in the passport office. The corrupt mayor was not reelected. 2. Judge Hanson cannot be corrupted. Do you think young people are cor- rupted by big city life? 84 VINIT TWO 3. B.R. are the initials of Betsy Ross. His initials are RF.W; they stand for Peter Francis Wliite. 4. his aimless life; aimless discussions. They took an aimless walk through the fields. 5. His was a flourishing business. He began working in the flourishing computer business. 6. Wlien she became eighteen she received her inheritance. 7. The title passes by inheritance to the eldest son. 8. I didn’t find the revelations about her private life in the press very accurate. 9. The revelation of his scandalous past led to his resignation. 10. There are restrictions on who can use the pool. 11. Club membership is open to senior schoolchildren without restriction. 12. The United Nations is an organization of many countries formed to encourage peace in the world. 13. A united effort is always more effective than an isolated complaint. 30. Match the synonyms in the two columns. 1) goal 0^: 2) limit 3) offer 4) come out h 5) consist (of) ^ 6) Join k 7) mean Ц 8) faults Й a) shortcomings b) unite c) restrict d) signify e) comprise f) proposal g) aim h) emerge 31. What is the Russian for the following? A. 1) an emergency landing B. 2) emergency powers 3) emergency ration 4) an emergency exit 5) an emergency session of Congress C. 1) to accept a proposal 2) to outline a proposal 3) to bring forward a proposal 4) to support (back) a proposal 5) to reject a proposal 6) to discuss a proposal 1) a clear aim 2) a political aim 3) an ambitious aim 4) a common aim 5) a worthy aim 6) a long-term aim UNIT TWO 85 Focus on Synonymy unite 1. to become a member of an organization or a group of similar people to join the firm to join the army to join the unemployed 2. to come together with other people to join somebody for dinner 3. to connect two things {also join up) to join the pipes together to join together to achieve a particular goal or to work together a policy that unites people to unite behind the queen 32. a) Complete the sentences. Use join or unite in the right form. 1. We agrp^d that Jane would jiP bs'at King’s Cross. 2. We need an idea that can ! 4г You have a lovely voice. Why don’t youjil fdfUr choir? 5. What do, you think will happen if I jCItlAese two wires? 6. The victory in the wan^fHme nation and made it more hopeful. 7. Mike dreams to tftffhe navy after he leaves school. 8. James was a born leader and soon the partyK^^ehind him. 9. Who would like to an~ Baku®. Astana Sj. Л Дг Ч .. Л . "^Tashkent Ashgabat \ o- IRAN ^ o' "Dushanbe 10 -AFGHANISTAN - ® Bishkek CHINA s I .’lake ' Baykal i ' . ' ■ '' s. ■ , ' ■ • CH INA ■ MONGOLIA-. 1 Estonia 6 Georgia 1 д, 2 Latvia 7 Azerbaijan ■ ' . 3 Lithuania 8 Armenia i n.korea t 4 Belarus 9 Kyrgyzstan ^ 5 Moldova 10 Tajikistan s.korea UNIT TWO 93 / ^WEDENjli To/ )3REAT Duplin^ кпА[Я ' ОрротЬадеп ,\ NOli J H A,^ J=- ,, ___ C,1 ’ A Ч ■■’ , BerlirfWarsaw > о POLAND ' Amsterd^ ^London -J?.6nis^ls Bonn • ) о о ^ ( 'g d r USSR Bay 0/ Biscay / ■' ^ . C?' I Lisbon О '' ■ 1 ^ !;г- Madrid о SPAIN Paris 0 ■ ANDORRA ' oPrague- ______ \, ^ CZECHOSLOVAKIA О Budapest Bern о 4 Vaduz^/Vienna o»««epcai ^ ^ O^A^RiAjHV>iOARy; ROMANIA^/ ^ ; У Belgrade Bucharesto _ j blac- JytONACO ^ S: O" ■1 У f Belgrade Bucharesto BULGARIA ,' r\ > F. A о Sofia I вл^"^ ■ i TiranaP Rome.^ > \ ^^nia/ w E i) t T ! К R Л N J: ' N _________•- tL -/dl^^^karao f\ TURKEY 1 Netherlands 2 Belgium 3 Luxemburg 4 Switzerland 5 Liechtenstein C V" >.J о Dublin GREAT VOR ГЦ iRITAlI^ DENMARK Copenhagen -London, O,: ; 1 . . 'Brusafeis ITHUANIA, VilSus ° BELARUS RUSSIA •' *W ■' c?' Lisbon 0, о ' ; A. ' af ' Ri-y oj Hiscay Madrid о SPAIN POLAND GERMANY Paris /> 0 ANDORRA oPrague A P?~3 CZECH REP. SLOVAK^' „ oBratislava Kiev о UKRAINE I I r'-' MOLDOVA Vaduz— 'Vienna ' oBudapest о 4 Л Ц S T R I A HUNGARY ROMANIA Bern-^5 , q6 Zagreb Bucharest °Chisinw^ LjubB Sarajevo Belgrade в ! A r ■; f- Л MONACO О « nO Rome, BULGARIA ' 9 :/Sofia voSkopje 'Ankara о 11 Netherlands :, j 2 Belgium i |3 Luxemburg ' '4 Switzerland ; ; 5 Liechtenstein^^ 10. Ч t" 4 ^ 6 Slovenia 7 Croatia j^EEcj^ 8 Bosnia and Herzegovina АТП£Я111^ 9 Serbia and %ii8 Montenegro 10 Macedonia 94 UNIT TWO 42. Answer the questions. 1. What kind of reform did Mikhail Gorbachev begin in the 1980s and why? 2. What positive and negative effects did the reform have? 3. What’s the connection between Gorbachev’s reform and the peaceful process in the world? 4. What do you know about the cold war? 5. How did Gorbachev’s reform influence the political changes in Europe? 6. What do you know about two Germanics and their reunion? 7. How do you see the future of Europe? Are all European countries likely to unite? What are the pros and cons of such uniting? 8. What do you know about the European Union? Why was it formed? Which European countries have joined it and which haven’t? Would you like Russia to join? Why? ^___________________________________ ______________DISCUSSING THE TOPIC Topical Vocabulary: People and Society / Peoples and governments of goodwill have always aspired to a lasting peace in the world. To this end they: • cooperate or unite efforts with other countries • hold international meetings, conferences, summits, negotiations, talks on problems of war and peace • sign international treaties • try to keep international peace and security • seek to ban and gradually eliminate weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction • do their best to settle local conflicts and restore peace in troubled areas • take steps to ease world tensions • pledge not to use force in international relations • stop terrorist attacks • fight against terrorism • save generations to come from (the) horrors of war / People also aspire to justice and encourage their governments to recognize the rights of countries and individuals. Countries are entitled to independence, sovereignty ['sovrinti] and territorial integrity. Individuals are entitled to civil and political rights and liberties (freedoms). Some of the civil rights are: • the right to work • the right to health care • the right to education • the right to travel • the right to housing UNIT TWO 95 • the right to life • the right to fair trial У People’s rights can be: • declared or not declared • provided or not provided to them • respected or not respected • protected or not protected • observed or not observed • implemented or not implemented • violated or not violated • abused or not abused International law also provides for: • human treatment of civilians in wartime • protection of sick and wounded soldiers • fair treatment of prisoners of war, refugees and hostages Thanks to such laws every person can complain about human rights violations. 43. Look through the topical vocabulary and find synonymic words and word combinations to the following: 1) for this aim, 2) to want to have something, 3) to work together, 4) to try to do something, 5) to promise, 6) future generations, 7) to forbid using | something, 8) to abuse the right. 44. Find the right word for it. Use the topical vocabulary. 1. Everyone who is not in the army is a .... 2. Someone who has been forced to leave his or her country either because there is a war there or because of his or her political or religious beliefs is a .... 3. Someone who has been captured by a person or organization and who may be killed or injured if people do not do what that person or organization demands is a .... 4. A soldier who has been captured by the enemy during a war is a .... 5. A written agreement between countries in which they agree to do a particular thing or to help each other is a .... 6. Formal discussions, especially in business and politics, in which people try to reach an agreement are .... 7. A meeting, often lasting a few days, which is organized on a particular subject or to bring together people who have common interests is a .... 8. A meeting at which the leaders of two or more countries discuss important matters is a .... 9. The power that a country has to govern itself is .... 10. The state of being united or whole is .... 11. Something that you morally or legally entitled to do or to have is your .... 96 UNIT TWO 45. Find in the topical vocabulary English equivalents for the following: 1) прочный мир 2) стремиться к миру 3) подписать договор 4) международная безопасность 5) постепенно уничтожить 6) оружие массового поражения 7) погасить локальные конфликты 8) очаги напряженности 9) снять напряженность 10) призывать правительства 11) признать право 12) провозгласить право 13) обеспечить право 14) осуществлять право 15) нарушать право 16) справедливое обращение 17) пожаловаться на что-либо бсомопаю versus €сомОп^1СЛС' economic economical relating to the economy of a particular country or region (экономический) The president spoke on television about the need for a new economic program. not spending or costing much money (экономный, экономичный) A person who is economical is careful about spending money. A car that is economical doesn’t use much petrol and doesn’t cost a lot to run. 46. Economic or economical! Which word would you choose to complete the sentences? 1. Something which has to do with economics is .... 2. Our use of the central heating is fairly .... 3. Europe is more than an ... community. 4. Are electric cars ... to run? 5. If you’ve got a large family, it’s more ... to travel by car than by train. 6. The country is in a bad ... state. 7. We cannot UNIT TWO 4 — 0. B. Афанасьева, 91 97 afford to employ more stuff in the current .. the population is against the government’s .. method of heating buildings. 10. Of course form of transport. . climate. 8. The major part of policies. 9. It is not a very ... the plane is not the most ... 47. a) Explain how you understand these basic human rights and freedoms. How well are they observed in your country? The rights to: Freedoms of: work life conscience health care fair trial speech education equality travel vote housing b) Think of some examples of how human rights were abused in the course of history. О Remember some human rights activists or organizations that defend human rights. What is (was) their activity like? 48. can a) Prepare and make a talk about the United Nations Organization. Some ideas below help you. History: — an international organization — was established by 50 nations in 1945 in San Francisco — officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 ------------------- — had an aim: to work together for world peace — worked out the main instrument of the organization — the United Nations Charter, an international treaty The UN Charter: — explains the rights and obligations of member states — establishes the UN organs and procedures — codifies the major principles of international relations The first fifty member countries pledged: — to live together in peace with each other as good neighbours — to practise tolerance and open-mindedness — to fight hunger together — to provide education — to improve life of people all over the world Today the UNO: — comprises 185 member states 98 UNIT TWO — has its headquarters' in New York — encourages countries to work together to deal with international problems (wars, diseases, poverty, terrorism) — unites efforts to keep international peace and security — settles local conflicts — restores peace in troubled areas — tries to ease world tension and establish a lasting peace Decisions in the United Nations are made by the General Assembly [a'sembli] and the Security Council. b) Try to answer these questions to see if you know more about this internationai organization. 1. Who is the Secretary General of the UNO at the moment? 2. UNESCO is a part of the United Nations. What do these letters stand for? What is it concerned with? Where is it based? 3. UNICEF is a part of the United Nations. What do these letters stand for? What is the aim of this organization? 4. What is the function of the UN peace-keeping force? 5. What are the permanent members of the UNO? 6. Which of the two comprises more countries: the General Assembly or the Security Council? 49 a) Work in pairs. There are two texts about A. S. Griboedov, the famous Russian dipiomat (Text Two is in Ex. 57 on p. 104-105). 1) Read a text each^ 2) then ask questions to get more information. Text One. Дм OwTyT^Ki'PlKiG 'DiPGOnhAT Alexander Sergeevich Griboedov, the famous Russian diplomat and writer, was a many-sided personality. He got profound knowledge in various spheres, learned several foreign languages, became a talented writer and able musician and an outstanding diplomat with instincts of a real politician. He was bom on the 4th of January, but the year of his birth is not exactly known. Some historians say he was bom in 1790, others believe that happened in 1795. Little is also known about his years of education. Information about the diplomat is very uncertain. Some biographers think that Griboedov graduated from three departments of Moscow University but there are no official papers to prove that point of view. headquarters ['hed,kwD.t3z| — штаб-квартира ^ Read a text each. — Прочитайте каждый по тексту. UNIT TWO 4* 99 After the war of 1812 Griboedov lived in Belorussia where he got interested in the theatre and began writing literary pieces. In 1815 he translated the comedy “A Young Couple” from French into Russian. The play was staged and had a certain success. In 1823—24 he wrote his immortal comedy “Wbe from Wit” (Gorye ot Uma). In 1825 Griboedov had his second trip to the Caucasus. At that time he felt like writing a tragedy based on the facts of Georgian history and even began doing it living in Tiflis (now Tbilisi). In 1828 he got married. His wife — Georgian Princess Nina Chavchavadze was the daughter of Griboedov’s old friend, the poet Alexander Chavchavadze. Your partner has more facts about A. S. Griboedov. Find out about: ■ the reasons why he didn’t get PhD; ■ his activities during the war of 1812; ■ his occupation in 1816; ■ the reasons for his leaving St. Petersburg; ■ the beginning of his career as a diplomat; ■ his arrest in 1826; ■ his work as a diplomat in Persia; ■ his death; ■ the place where he is buried. b) Say what new facts you have learned about A. S. Griboedov from the text and the discussion with your partner. Do you find anything striking in Griboedov's life and career? 50. Many countries criticize America for using its military power to get what it wants. But not ail Americans believe in war. Some young Americans take part in protests against wars, in anti-war movements. Below are the answers Mary Homby, a correspondent, got during her interview with Rachel Stevens, an American anti-war protester, a) Read the answers and say what the correspondent's questions were. M.H.________________________________________________? R.S. Г m 23. I spent my childhood in Houston, Texas. M.H.________________________________________________? R.S. 1 think I began to organize peace events when I was a teenager in the town where I grew up. M.H.________________________________________________? R.S. I had many different reasons for protesting against war. First of all I’m a Quaker' and my religion doesn’t allow war. ' a Quaker ['kweika] — a member of a Christian religious group that is against all violence and has no priests or ceremonies 100 UNIT TWO м.н._________________________________________________________________________? R.S. Well, among other reasons I think is the fact that war harms everyone, especially children. Do you know the numbers of child victims of armed conflicts during the past decades? I’ll tell you. Two million killed, five million disabled, twelve million homeless, more than one million orphaned or separated from their families, and you just imagine — about ten million psychologically damaged. M.H._________________________________________________________________________? R.S. participate in anti-war marches, we speak at different conferences, we work with young people explaining that there are diplomatic solutions to all war conflicts. M.H._________________________________________________________________________? R.S. Yes, I’m against all wars. I’m sure we are a powerful and clever nation and we can work out other ways to send our ideas across the ocean to all other nations. b) Do you agree wfth Rachel's views on war? Say what you think about the philosophy of pacIfismV Is It always effective? 51. Choose the correct option to give your opinion. 1. I ... give my life to prove that violence is wrong and that people should refuse to fight in wars. a) would b) might c) wouldn’t 2. I ... go on a march for peace, a) would b) might c) wouldn’t 3. 1 ... fight for my country. a) would b) might c) wouldn’t 52. a) Read the article from "Sources* (November 2001) and say if you consider the method of working for peace Jamel Bahli chose effective and why. Окл TH6 |2o/rp TO Ve/Kce Jamel Bahli, a man with a mission The 38-year-old Frenchman has been running for the past 16 years — across every continent, through war zones, deserts and desolate forgotten lands. All in the name of freedom, humanity and peace. He met Pope John Paul II in the Vatican, took tea with King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, and sat on a sofa with soldiers during the Bosnian war. He has written four books and published ' pacifism in wars ['paesifizm] — the belief that violence is wrong and that people should refuse to fight UNIT TWO 101 hundreds of photos. Jamel shares his experiences by talking to schools, giving slide shows and publishing a diary. “I talk to the children about peace. And by that I don’t just mean stopping fighting. Peace is not just an ideal, it’s a way of thinking.” Bahli runs with nothing but his sleeping bag, his camera and some clothes in a tiny black pack. He never sleeps in hotels preferring to bed down in the open air. “All this started out as a personal mission. I wanted to break out of my routine life in Paris,” Bahli explains. “When a Chinese friend jokingly invited me for tea in Shanghai, I decided to take him seriously and set off, on foot. I’ve been running pretty much constantly ever since.” b) Below you can see some ideas of how common people can help to keep peace. Which of them in your opinion are the most effective and why? — organize and participate in peace rallies' — take part in anti-war actions — support some peace fund financially — propagate peace by all possible means — refuse to participate in aggressive military actions or conflicts — meet and make friends with people of different countries and cultures to share and develop ideas of peace — teach young children tolerance and respect for human life, explain to them how to solve their problems peacefully — take part in international projects as working together is the best way to understanding — not to give way to xenophobia^ 53. Read what some British teens feel about the current terrorist situation and say what your opinion of it is. "‘TewfyTrf кШ “hoLnds of orLarJ'^^ople. London, Madrid, New York, deadly targets of terrorism. Terronst attacks can t be g ' a rally — a large public meeting that is held to show support for something ^ xenophobia |,гепэ'ГэиЬ1э] — a strong fear and dislike of people from other countries and cultures assassination |3,saesi'nei/nl — убийство no политическим мотивам 102 UNIT TWO Dee. I’m very afraid of a terrorist attack. I worry about mv mum iravellmg on the underground in central London. The government wants to hide the fact that we might have a problem with terJ^risr^ ut It IS inevitable. Wfeapons of mass destruction weren’t found iri Iraq, so many Islamic extremists feel angry with us for the war. Jake. What Tony bytlU^'^more'^'o- They are making the situai -Parted the war that we enough is being done to protect us. avold^cmwdeVpIaceTTnTond living our daily hvef!nH ^ T ’f we stop rorists have won. I hate all ter- will leave the world blind We are^used^^^t UK, but we hope the situation will soon 1 a) What should be done to prevent terrorism? Governments In many countries have been discussing this for a long time. These are the things that are being done now. What do you think of these measures? What other steps should or could be taken to prevent terrorism? 1. In order to enter the USA, people will be fingerprinted. However, antiterrorism forces in Bali, Britain, the US and Istanbul have found most terrorists live in the country they attack. 2. Some airlines have employed sky marshals' to fly in planes and attack terrorists if they attempt a hijacking^ 3. The British government is considering providing information about terrorism to every house in the UK. b) Imagine that you are involved in the situations given below and it is your decision that counts. What would you do? 1. Terrorists have taken control of a plane full of passengers. It is possible they intend to crash it into the heart of your capital city. Should you order the plane to be shot down? * a sky marshal — полицейский, сопровождаюший самолет hijacking I'haicfeaskio) — угон (самолета) i UNIT TWO r 103 2. You have received information that a potential terrorist attack is going to happen. Would you share this information with the public knowing it could cause the entire country to panic? 3. Your country (city) has become a victim of a terrorist attack. What would you do? 4. In order to reassure the population you are guarding against terrorism, would you tell them exactly what you are doing? (This means the terrorists also get the information.) 55. Recently the world has witnessed several horrifying terrorist attacks. They happened on different continents and in different countries. Can you say when and where some of them took place? What was the people's reaction? Why do you think such attacks occur? Who or what is to blame? How can terrorism be stopped? 56. Expand on the following. 1. The end of the cold war opened new prospects for peace and cooperation. 2. The era of globalization is transforming the world bringing knowledge, information and economic opportunity into all comers of the world. 3. Today the international community faces a large number of dramatic and profound changes that bring threats to social unity, to cultural diversity, to the environment. 4. The peoples of the world can resist' such long-standing problems as drug trafficking, organized crime, nationalism and ethnic tensions only through international cooperation. 57. Here is Text Two of Ex. 49. Text Two. Akj OiATyfAKi'DlKiG 'Dl'PLOAaAT Alexander Sergeevich Griboedov, the famous Russian diplomat, had a brilliant career. He graduated from university and there is an opinion that he didn’t get his PhD^ because of the war with Napoleon in 1812. Like majority of young Russian aristocrats, Griboedov joined the army to defend his motherland from the enemy. After the war in 1816 Griboedov moved to the capital of Russia, St. Petersburg. There he worked in the Ministry of Foreign Aiffairs. He was making an outstanding career in the Ministry when once he fought in a duel and was ordered to leave St. Petersburg. ' to resist [n'zist) — противостоять ^ PhD [,pi;eitf'di;l = Doctor of Philosophy; a high-level university degree which you get by doing original research, usually for three or more years and writing a thesis (long report on what you have studied and discovered) 104 UNIT TWO Griboedov was offered a job as a diplomat in Persia (now Iran) or the USA. He chose Persia and spent there three years. After that he worked under General Yermolov in Georgia. In January 1826 Griboedov was arrested on suspicion of his belonging to Decembrists but after a few months he was set free and went again to the Caucasus. In 1828 Griboedov was sent to St. Petersburg with the text of the Russian-Persian peace treaty. That year he got married and went to the capital of Persia — Tehran. He was a truly successful diplomat and stood for peace between the two countries. His contemporaries wrote that he was more important than the whole army. But on 30 January 1829 nationalistic groups of radical Muslims ['muzlimz] attacked the Russian Embassy in Tehran. The building was ruined and all the people were killed. Griboedov was buried in his favourite Tiflis in St. David’s Monastery. Your partner has more facts about A. S. Griboedov. Find out about: ■ spheres of his various interests; ■ date of birth; ■ education he got; ■ place of living after the war of 1812; ■ his literary career; ■ his translations from other languages; ■ his family life/marriage; ■ his wife. 58. Give a two-minute talk on the most urgent problems of today. Remember to say: ■ how much local conflicts threaten peace and make living in these places dangerous; ■ that terrorist attacks are becoming more and more bold and destructive and cause great worry; ■ that other forms of crime also make our lives unsafe; ■ in what way people can unite to fight these negative phenomena of nowadays. 59. You and your friend have been asked to make a talk on a statesman or a political leader. Discuss which of these people to choose for your talk. Napoleon Mikhail Gorbachev Mother Teresa Andrei Sakharov Margaret Thatcher John F. Kennedy UNIT TWO 105 Remember to: ■ discuss all the options; ■ take an active part in the conversation and be polite; ■ come up with ideas; ■ give good reasons; 1 find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account; ■ invite your friend to come up with suggestions; R come to an agreement. USEFUL TIPS FOR ENGLISH LEARNERS^ Avoiding Offence There are a number of words in English that you need to be careful about using because if you use such words you may, intentionally or not, insult or offend some people. Discussing sensitive topics, such as gender, racial and ethnic groups, age, illness and disability titles you should avoid using words that might offend or upset people. Topic I. Gender Words that may cause offence: MAN, HE, HIM, HIS, HIMSELF. I. Man 1. The word man originally meant a person of either sex. But nowadays it usually means an adult male. So many people think that using the noun man to refer to humans is offensive as women are not included. (See Focus on p. 44, before Ex. 44.) You can avoid offending anyone by using words like people or human beings. Cf.: Man has always dreamt of being able to fly. (—) People have always dreamt of being able to fly. (+) 2. Many older words for occupation seem to exclude women because they include the word man. Avoid using man in words for jobs that can be held by either a man or a woman. Cf.: a businesswoman, a businessperson, a fire fighter (not a fireman referring to women). II. He, him, his, himself Because English has no singular pronoun to denote men and women, speakers of English have traditionally used the pronoun he, his and him in expressions * This part in Units 2, 3, 4 is based on the information given in “MacMillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners”, 2002. 106 UNIT TWO liJve “Each student brought his own dictionary”. However, many people think that this use suggests that women are not included, or that men are more important than women. In writing to avoid causing offence, you can use he or she, he/she, s/he, him/her, him/herself. In conversation, many people say they, them, their and themselves. Cf.: Each student brought his or her own dictionary, (in writing) Each student brought their own dictionary, (when speaking) III. Avoid using words like actress, manageress, authoress which were used about women in old-fashioned English. Words ending in -ess are not often used now, and they may cause offence. Instead actor, author, manager etc. are used about both men and women. 60. What would you change in the sentences to avoid causing offence? 1. Each student has his place in the library. 2. Nobody knows the answer, does he? 3. The gallery contains works by five artists, each with his own individual style. 4. Everyone has to look after himself. 5. Everyone should bring his own lunch. 6. Every member of the committee has his own key to the building. 7. Everybody should come here on time, shouldn’t he? WRITING Writing a Personal Letter Letters are written for many different purposes. We write letters to keep in touch with friends and relatives. Writing a letter to a friend is like a conversation on paper. You want your letter to sound natural and friendly. Here are some guides that will help you. Guides for Writing a Friendly (Personal) Letter 1. Write about people and events that your friend will be interested in. 2. Express interest in what your friend is doing. 3. Arrange your information in paragraphs. Start a new paragraph each time you change your subject. UNIT TWO 107 61. Read the following sample’ letter. Remember the names for each part of a personal letter and some letter writing rules. 23 Gaston Road Heading | Liverpool 20 fane 200—3 Dear Kathie, ] Salutation or Greeting Body I / am writing to thank уои for уоиг lovelif birthday card. It arrived in the mominy of the biy day. Since it was /Plonday / didn't invite anyone to come to my place. Instead Jane, Eindrew, /Hark and myself went to a small cafe no(t door and had a wonderfa! time there. lane asked me to say hello to yon when I write. Гт doiny it with yreat pleasure. We all look forward to seeiny you next month. Closing I Lots of love, Signature | Samantha 1. Heading The heading gives a sender’s address (which is often omitted) and the date the letter was written. It is written in the upper right-hand corner. The heading has four lines in the following order: 1) house and name of street; 2) city; 3) date: day, month and year; 4) post code (nowadays the British are asked to put the Post Code last). 2. Greeting The greeting is the way you say “hello” to your friend. Write the greeting on the line below the heading and begin at the left margin. Do not indent the greeting. Capitalize the first word and all proper nouns. Place a comma after the greeting. ' a sample ('sampl) — образец ^ In American English the order is different; month, day, and year: June 20, 200_. In this case there is a comma between the day and the year. 108 UNIT TWO 3. Body The body of the letter is where you talk to your friend. Begin the body on the Une below the greeting. Indent the first line. Always arrange your information in paragraphs. 4. Closing The closing is where you say “goodbye” to your friend. Capitalize only the first word. Place a comma at the end. Here are some suggestions for closing: Lx)ve, Lot of love, Your friend. Sincerely, Always, Missing you, Yours truly. The closing used to line up with the heading. 5. Signature Your signature should be written clearly. If you don’t know the person very well, include your first and last name. Write your signature below the closing. Writing a letter avoid abbreviations. 62. PP Copy the following words and phrases. Capitalize and punctuate them as if they were in a letter. 75 south state street = 75 South State Street your daughter = Your daughter, 1) 108 Clayton street 5) sincerely Lou martin 2) love sandy 6) 516 river road 3) mike larsen 7) march 12 2005 4) dear uncle dave 8) love nancy 63. OP Write an answer to this letter. Follow the rules of personal letter writing. J Lawson Place Cambridge 3 Jane 2005 Ш 02139 Dear /Michelle, / hai/e just got gour letter. When are you moving back to /Midvale? Do you know your new address yet? / hope it’s near we, /My brother and / are learning to ride on a skateboard. When you come, / can teach you, too. Write back soon. Jell we all about your move. Dan UNIT TWO 109 64. ^РР Read the extract from your pen friend's letter. Her name is Rene. Write a letter to Rene, who Is coming to stay with you in a month's time. In your letter: ■ tell her about your plans for her visit; ■ ask her what she would like to see and do when she comes over. Write 100-140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing. I can t wa,t to see yon and meet uonr famly. From what yon wrote abont them I understand that they are aery nice people / remember how mnch time yon spent in London mnsenms last snmmer. fm not snch a cnLtnre nnitnre as yon are bnt to please non w rea у to uisit one or two nmsenms. In fact yoiny to a pictnre yaUery sonnds more fun to me. 65.@>PQ Read the extract from your pen friend's letter. His name is Tom. Write a letter to Tom, \л4ю has just come back from his school trip to France and Belgium. In your letter ■ ask him about his impressions; ■ tell him what place or places you'd like to visit. Write 100-140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing. We’ve been to some historic places in incindiny Waterloo. That was с,пПе f^TtZe spent in Belainm just a couple of day / ^ Z Paris / had been to Paris before with but шиешпу ..h fnends.. Jot more fun. 110 UNIT TWO /MISCELLANEOUS 66. a) Read the text and say what lines made you smile. Which of them do you find humorous? |2€veLATioKi«j т=|2олл Geop^e Hog Mot to *Se Cl£v6|2. “You foreigners are so clever,” said a lady to me some years ago. First I considered this remark exaggerated but complimentary. Since then I have learnt that it was far from it. These few words expressed the lady’s contempt and slight disgust for foreigners. If you look up the word “clever” in any English dictionary, you will find that dictionaries are out of date and mislead you on this point. According to the “Pocket Oxford Dictionary”, for instance, the word means quick and neat in movement ... skilful, talented, ingenious. All nice adjectives, expressing valuable and estimable characteristics. A modern Englishman, however, uses the word “clever” in the sense: shrewd, sly, furtive, surreptitious, treacherous, sneaking, crafty, un-English, un-Scottish, un-Welsh. In England it is bad manners to be clever. It may be your own personal view that two and two make four, but you must not state it in a self-assured way, because this is a democratic country and others may be of a different opinion. A continental gentleman seeing a nice panorama may remark: “This view rather reminds me of Utrecht, where the peace treaty concluding the War of Spanish Succession was signed on the 11th April, 1713. The river there, however, recalls the Guadalquivir, which rises in the Sierra de Cazorla and flows southwest to the Atlantic Ocean and is 650 kilometres long.” This pompous, showing-off way of speaking is not permissible in England. The Englishman is modest and simple. He uses but few words and expresses so much — but so much — with them. An Englishman looking at the same view would remain silent for two or three hours and think about how to put his profound feeling into words. Then he would remark: “It’s pretty, isn’t it?” An English professor of mathematics would say to his maid checking up the shopping list: “I’m no good at arithmetic. I’m afraid. Please correct me, Jane, if I am wrong, but I believe that the square root of 97344 is 312.” And about knowledge. An English girl, of course, would be able to leam just a little more about, let us say, geography. But it is just not “chic” to know whether Budapest is the capital of Romania, Hungary or Bulgaria. And if she happens to know that Budapest Is. the capital of Romania, she should at least be perplexed if Bucharest is mentioned suddenly. It is so much nicer to ask, when someone speaks of Barbados or Fiji: “Oh those little islands... Are they British?” (They usually are.) UNIT TW6 111 b) Translate the text into Russian. Try to preserve the original style of the author. 67.1§Й Listen to the poem (No 10), read it and learn It by heart. What historic event does the poem refer’ to? The poem "O Captain! My Captain!" belongs to the pen of Walt Whitman, the famous American poet (1819-1892). When he pub-M •/ I'shed his ipirst collection, "Leaves of Grass", in 1855, a distinctive American poetry was born. Whitman was very patriotic. His poetry combined broad ideas and personal experience. It broke with tradition (Whitman used free verse) and was attacked for its freedom. "O Captain! My Captain!" is dedicated to Abraham Lincoln, whom Whitman admired. О CaTTAIm! CATTAlKif by Walt Whitman О Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting^ While follow eyes the steady keel^, the vessel grim and daring; But О heart! heart! heart! О the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies. Fallen cold and dead. О Captain! my Captain! Rise up and hear the bells; Rise up — for you the flag is flung'^ — for you the bugle trills^; For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths — for you the shores a-crowding; For you they call, the swaying^ mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head! It is some dream that on the deck. You’ve fallen cold and dead. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; ' to refer [п'Гз:] — зд. упоминать ^ exulting — взволнованы ^ keel — киль ^ is flung — поднят * bugle trills — труба играет * swaying — шевелящаяся 112 UNIT TWO The ship is anchor’d* safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; Exult О shores, and ring О bells! But I, with mournful tread^ Walk the deck my Captain lies. Fallen cold and dead. PROJECT WORK Find some information about a person who went down in history. Think of how to present it to the class in the most interesting way. Give your presentation. Remember that it shouldn't exceed 5-7 minutes. ' is anchor’d — поставлен на якорь ^ tread — шаг UNIT TWO 113 % ■\V I INTRODUCTION How does it feel to be young in the world which faces so many complicated and perplexing questions even grown-ups can't answer? If the grown-up world has some stability, the world of teenagers is, in most cases, full of doubts in themselves and their future. Establishing relations with other people — parents, teachers, friends — doesn't always come easy either. What may comfort you is that these problems are not unique as most people pass through this difficult stage too. Young people are usually quite impressionable and sensitive and tend to jump to conclusions as they don't often have enough experience and wisdom to estimate the situation and foresee all possible results of their behaviour. Naturally that may lead to certain problems and misunderstanding. "What does the future hold for me? Am I going to be happy? Shall I find a good job?" All these questions and many others are of primary importance for you and your peers. Your future begins today and largely depends on what you are doing now. 1. Answer the questions. 1. Can you imagine yourself in ten years’ time? What will your professional career and your family life be like? What would you like them to be? 2. On a scale of one to ten how many points would you give yourself as a friend? A daughter or a son? A pupil? A brother or a sister? Why? 3. What are your strong and weak points? 4. What are your priorities now? Do you think they will change with time? 5. What features do you appreciate in people in general? Do you think you have these features? What would you like to change in yourself? 6. What is the greatest dream you have? 7. How much are you doing for your future now? Are you doing anything to make your dream come true? 8. How much does your future depend on the future of your country? UNIT THREE 115 2. What is it iike to be a teen at the beginning of the new millennium? This is how a boy from London and a girl from Paris answered the interviewer's questions. How would you answer them? Alex Henry, East London HOBBIES AND FREE TIME Pocket money: £7 a week What do you spend your money on? Computer games and football kit'. I am a West Ham fan. What time do you have to be at home in the evening? 9 pm in the week, at the weekend it’s 10 pm. What do you do in your free time? I go to the cinema, play football, see my friends, listen to music (The Red Hot Chili Peppers) and watch TV {The Simpsons, Friends). SCHOOL LIFE Do you have to wear a uniform? Yes. It’s grey. I don’t really mind because we all wear it. How much homework do you have? One hour a night. Five hours a week. Do you enjoy school? Rather. I like meeting my friends there and I’d like to get a good education. HOPES AND FEARS What do you like/hate about being a teen? I don’t like the way I look. Do you feel safe in your city? Yes, but some of my friends had their mobile phones stolen. Is there anything you can't live without? My friends and football. Who is your role model/hero? My brother and Alan Shearer (football player). Fleur Simenon, Central Paris HOBBIES AND FREE TIME Pocket money: €6 a week. I do some babysitting too. What do you spend your money on? Clothes. football kit — футбольное снаряжение 116 UNIT THREE i::i What time do you have to be at home in the evening? 5.30 pm. At weekends I can do what I want. What do you do in your free time? Go to the theatre, watch TV and listen to music (1 like Tyro and No Doubt). SCHOOL LIFE Do you have to wear a uniform? No, we wear what we want. How much homework do you have? Two hours a night. If I have a test, it can be three hours. Do you enjoy school? Not really. I look forward to leaving school and beginning to train for a hair stylist. HOPES AND FEARS What do you like/hate about being a teen? 1 can enjoy myself and I have many friends. But life can be boring, too. What do you worry about? 1 worry about my future. I am not sure that Г11 be able to find a good job. Do you feel safe in your city? Yes. But in the subway and in tourist places 1 am paranoid. Is there anything you can't live without? My friends and my family. Who is your role model/hero? My mum. 3. Teraty includes three hun- B. 1. Pupils show their ... for the teacher by not talking at the lessons. 2. Do you remember the speech in which Romeo expresses his ... for Juliet? 3. Could you explain the ... for the success of the trip? 4. That was the so-called “lost generation”, the young people who didn’t have any ... for the future. 5. Robert obviously has a great ... for Italy and its people. 6. She 136 UNIT THREE repeated her ... for absolute obedience. 7. I’m not so sure that our ... for peace and stability in Europe can be easily realized. 8. She looked at him with eyes full of ... for him. 9. The government understands our ... for more money to go on with our research. C. 1. Mr Newman is a very strict person in the office but when on ... he is quite a different person. 2. Patricia is rapidly losing weight. Is she on a ...? 3. On Sunday we went on an ... to town and did a lot of sights. 4. The secretary has so many calls to do about the changes in the timetable. She has been on the ... for the past two hours. 5. Mary, you’re wanted on the .... 1 haven’t recognized the voice. 6. Alice is in London on .... She is the head of our school delegation. 7. The whole family went on a ... to Florida. 8. A group of students from our school is on a ... of the UK. They are going to visit a number of interesting places. 9. They came nearer and saw that the terrace was in flames. Soon the whole building was on .... VOCABULARY SECTION 23. Телт YOUIZ^eC^ in the vocabulary. In English there is a number of words that are easily confused. Choose the right ones to complete the sentences below. 1. A lot of children ... their hands. They all knew the answer. The plane ... slowly into the air. a) raised b) rose 2. We found a picnic area down ... the river. I don’t want to go shopping. ... I don’t have any money. a) beside b) besides 3. Charlotte sat ... her two sons at the reception. Robert was the only one ... them who had ever ridden a horse. a) among b) between 4. Jerry and John, does ... of you speak French? ... of the books was published in Russia. a) either b) neither 5. Unfortunately there is ... hope of finding these people. There were ... boys who refused to go on the excursion. 2i) few b) little 6. She ... be there tomorrow, but I’m not sure. We ... go to Moscow next summer. My granny has invited us to stay with her. a) may b) might 7. At the age of 19 Alice went to Austria to ... music there. My elder brother has a good ear for music. Last month he went to Austria to ... to play the violin. a) learn b) study UNIT THREE 137 8. Each child ... a ball to their partner. I ... the keys down the back of the sofa. a) dropped b) throws 9. Victor would like to play for the school basketball .... All the passengers and ... survived the crash. a) crew b) team 10. NED is the abbreviation for a famous English ... . Her grammar isn’t bad, but she has a limited .... a) dictionary b) vocabulary 11. Speaking through ..., she explained the idea of her discovery. The teacher liked the text under the name of “Seagull” and wanted to know who the ... was. a) translator b) interpreter 12. He was ... for murder in 1942. The portrait has ... in the gallery since 1942. a) hanged b) hung 24. ^PQ Read the text below and change the words in brackets in order to get a complete and logical text. More young people are going to {\. board) schools nowadays. People offer (2. differ) (3. explain) to the fact. Some people think that the (4. create) of the Harry Potter books made these schools look cool. The book produced a great (5. impress) on lots of (6. child) in (7. vary) countries (8. include) the UK. Others say it is because parents (9. worry) about {\0. keep) their children safe. The advantages of such schools are that your friends, clubs and sport are always there and that you leam to be {W. depend). The (\2. advantage) are that you spend less time with your family. In {\3.fame) schools four out of ten kids don’t see their parents every week! 25. Read the text and make it complete choosing the right items to fill In the gaps. The Internet is (1) ... computers that are linked by telephone lines. It (2) ... together people, homes, schools and businesses around the world. Surfing the net can be dangerous. Some (3) ... use chat rooms on the Internet to make friends with young people because they want to (4) ... them. You can stay safe on the net if you follow these basic rules. ■ Tell a parent or teacher when you are surfing the net. ■ Tell a parent or teacher about any rude or nasty e-mails you get. Don’t reply (5) ... them. ■ Don’t use your (6) ... name in a chat room. 138 UNIT THREE ■ Tell a parent or teacher if you feel (7) ... about what someone is saying in a chat room. ■ Never meet anyone you’ve talked to over the Internet without your parents’ (8) .... ■ Don’t give your name, home, school, e-mail (9) ... or phone number over the Internet. 1. a) a million 2. a) takes 3. a) growns 4. a) hurt 5. a) - 6. a) natural 7. a) incom- fortable 8. a) permit 9. a) adress b) a million of b) brings b) growners b) damage b) to b) original b) incomfort-ably b) permission b) addres c) millions of c) unites c) growns-up c) destroy c) at c) real c) uncomfortable c) allow c) adres d) millions d) closes d) grown-ups d ruin d) on d) initial d) uncomfortably d) allowance d) address mm 1.a)to speak for — to represent the feelings or opinions of another person or group of people I know I speak for us all when I say how sorry I am for this mistake. b) speak for yourself spoken — used to tell someone that you do not have the same opinion as they do — We all hate it here! — Speak for yourself. I am having a great time. c) to speak for itself/themselves — to show something so clearly that no explanation is necessary Phrasal Verb TO The test speaks for itself. 2. to speak out (up) — to give your opinion publicly, especially in order to protest against or defend something Don’t be afraid to speak out (up) if you feel that your rights are being violated. 139 ■ т ш ш ш 3. to speak up — to talk louder jAjSr Please speak up, I can’t hear you. 4. to speak up for somebody or something — to say something in support of people or ideas Don’t worry, we shall all speak up for you. 5. to speak to someone — to tell someone that you do not like their behaviour I’m going to speak to her if this goes on any longer. 26. QQ Complete the sentences with the missing words. I. I can’t speak ... the others but I personally would like to learn one more language. 2. He was the only one to speak ... against the closure of the hospital. 3. This is the third time I have to speak ... you about being late, 4. If you want the people at the back to hear you, you’ll have to speak .... 5. This politician always speaks ... for the less privileged of the society 6. I’m here today to speak ... those who are defending their country at the fronts. 7. She continued to speak ... on matters of public concern. 8. This party speaks ... the poor and unemployed. 9. If you have a better idea, please speak .... 10. Someone has to speak ... for better working conditions, II. — We’d rather stay at home and watch TV. — Please speak ... yourself, I’d prefer to go out. 12. Will you speak ..., please, it’s rather noisy in the room. 13. The number of people who came to the show spoke ... itself: it was a success. 14. James, will you come into my office? I’d like to speak ... you about your bad test results. 15. If there’s anything you don’t like about this programme, do speak .... 27. Ш Express the same in English. 1. Я надеюсь, что ты поддержишь меня на собрании. 2. Ты снова не сделал домашнее задание. Мне придется поговорить с тобой после урока. 3. Я изложил свою идею, а теперь мне хотелось бы, чтобы вы- 140 UNIT THREE сказались вы. 4. Пожалуйста, говори громче, твои одноклассники тебя не слышат. 5. Правозащитники (human rights activists) выступают за равенство всех перед законом. 6. Я говорю здесь от лица тех, кому вы помогли. 7. Его прекрасная работа говорит сама за себя. 8. Ты единственный, кто поддержал меня, когда все критиковали мою работу. 9. Не стесняйтесь, высказывайтесь. Я буду благодарен вам за любую критику. 10. Пожалуйста, говори только за себя. Я совсем не в восторге от этой идеи. New Words to Learn 28. [L drU| Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. 1. In the photo Victor looked very manly in his military uniform and his manliness was very attractive. 2. All members of our club get membership cards that allow them to use the club’s sports equipment. 3. Many people think that our schools need a programme of radical reforms. 4. We tend (have a tendency) to think of this as a modern problem but it has existed for centuries. 5. Woodcraft is knowledge of forests and how to live and survive in them. 29. L drU Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them, accommodation [9,kDm3'deiJn] (n): suitable accommodation, cheap accommodation, lack of accommodation; to give accommodation, to have accommodation for 1000 people. We couldn’t find any comfortable accommodation in the area. adult ['aedvlt, a'dvlt] (adj): an adult person, an adult life, the adult population. “Hobbit” by J.R.Tolkien is a book enjoyed by young and adult readers. I’ve lived most of my adult life in Paris, f cast [ka:stl (cast, cast) (v): l)to cast a stone, to cast an anchor, to cast a fishing line. The tree cast a long shadow on the ground. 2) to cast a look, to cast a glance. Julia cast an impatient glance at Rick and rushed out of ,th|e Topp^ 31 tp, be /^ast ^as somebody in the play. He was cast as Othello yv'^ fin The W 6th6ilcr)C^ ^ cast-off clothes — as a boy 1 alww^ yi/ord my^ eld^r brpther’s cast-off clothes and shoes (cast-offs). t' -f dedicate ['dedikeit] (v): l)to dedicate time to something/doing something. Andy wants to dedicate more time to his hobbies. Mother Teresa dedicated her whole life to helping people. 2) to dedicate a novel to somebody. Lynne dedicated the book to her parents. UNIT THREE 141 jh С'.' ' ■ " ■' ' ' *' ' ' • - vv' vfv notorious [пэиЧэ:п981 (adj): a notorious liar, a notorious criminal, a notori-^ ^ ^ tous outlaw. Billy Sikes was the most notorious criminal in London. The city . Ч;' is notorious for its traffic jams. 4 ft' iL^ obedience [a'biidians] (n): to demand absolute obedience; obedience to rules, obedience to one’s parents, in obedience to the law. If you become a mem-ber of our secret society, they will demand absolute obedience, participant [pa/tisipsnt] (n): a voluntary participant, a willing participant. Who were the participants of the televised debate? provide [pra'vaid] (v): to provide information for somebody, to provide some-b9dy .with something, to provide accommodation for thirty people. A taxi - islivice from the airport will be provided. A hotel provides a playroom for ' children. We have provided all the participants with programmes of the con- \ ference. y- • rebel ['rebal] (/?): a rebel against (the) government. The rebels attacked the palace. rebel (ri'beI] (v): to rebel against somebody, to threaten to rebel. It’s natural for teenagers to rebel. The sick child rebelled against the medicine because it tasted bitter. refer [ri'fs:] (v): to refer to the document, to refer to written notes, to refer somebody to a specialist. The speaker referred to a movie I haven’t seen. Even as a child she referred to her father as Steve. I would like to refer to something I mentioned at the beginning of my speech, spread [spred] (spread, spread) (v): to spread information (disease), to spread something on something, to spread rapidly, to spread something with - r something. Who spread the rumour that our school would be closed tomor-^ ^ ■. ;T'row? Cholera ['кпЬгэ] spread quickly through the refugee camp. I spread V ^ Jam on my toast. First spread the bread with mayonnaise. ‘ ' tramp (v): to tramp on the grass, to tramp through the woods. Oliver tramped ’ "iipstdirs to his room. Women and children tramped the roads looking for V "" ‘ work. She spent all day yesterday tramping the streets, gathering evidence. . ( voluntary ('vnbntan] (adj): voluntary workers, a voluntary confession, on a ^ L ' voluntary basis. Voluntary work is done for no pay. 30. Complete the sentences. Use your new vocabulary, j r V »fVp 1. Although the course is free, you should ../your own books. 2. There have been reports that the disease is.to pigs and fowl as well as cattle. : * / 3. Since I left school my parents have started to/spoak to me like to an ... person. ^ ' r 4. In many families parents expect aj^olute ”... ffom their children. ^ f 5. The travel agent arranged oui^ i: in London? -fi-p ( ^ * 6. Janet ... to get very angry if you disagree with her. 142 UNIT THREE 1. What article r- '''^en she was making her speech? 8. Who’s been ^ir,^ver*^X^, carpet in muddy shoes? 9. He made aX.^staldbi^ht t^ the police. 10. Caroline gave hef her younger sister. 11. The fisherman net iino the sea. 12. Sometimes teenagers gainst their parents. , ^ ^ 13.1 must renew my ... of the sailing club. _ 14. James ... his first book to his mother. 44^-4 -r 1) grown-up ' a) refer 1 2) supply >'; b) dedicate 3) take part, *' c) rebel 4) oppose d) voluntary 5) mention e) adult 6) throw f) participate 7) devote . g) cast 8) willing h) provide 144 UNIT THREE /' Idioms with the Word СЛ^ 1 f 7ft 1. to cast light on sth — to provide information that can help people to understand something clearer 2. to cast one's mind back — to think about the past and remember the things that happened 3. to cast sth from one's mind — to stop thinking about sth / ^ 4. to cast a spefl oh/over sb — to use magic to make sth^ happen to someone ^ rtf f 4. i i--’; > г -fr 'i |,' f !'■ i- ' 5. to ;cart a (pne s) vote — to vote 6. to can aoubt oh sth — to make people doubt sth^,,./ t /e r t 'b г k ' 7. to cast one^s eyes down — to lower one's eyes , cl./' hi fPi ^ Z 8. to cast so or sth aside — to consider sb or sth as useless and not wanted vt. f j t P. Лf ^ p 9. to be cast away — to be left on a desert island as a result of a shipwreck Л- ' 10. the die is cast — used for saying that an event or decision cannot be changed and will have an Important effect on the future (Жребий брошен) UNIT THREE 145 35. Express the same in Russian. 1. In class Rose used to sit quietly with her eyes cast down trying not to attract attention. 2. If I were you, I would cast this crazy idea from my mind. 3. Jim only managed to cast an eye over the letter but realized that the letter was addressed to him. 4. Try to cast your mind back to the talk we had a month ago. 5. The newspaper article cast new light on the long-forgotten events. 6. This lovely view never fails to cast a spell over the traveller. 7. Fewer than 20 percent of the population cast their vote for Conservative candidates. 8. Robinson Crusoe was cast away on the desert island where he lived for over 28 years. 9. No one was paying any attention to me. I realized that I had been cast aside. 10. The new information casts doubt on Mr Parker’s honesty. 36. a) Name a few things or people that can be: 1) notorious 4) adult 2) rebellious 5) voluntary 3) obedient 6) cast-off b) Name a few things that one can: 1) provide 4) associate 2) refer (to) 5) dedicate 3) obey 6) participate (in) c) Name a few things that are associated with: 1) youth 4) history 2) old age 5) school life 3) political activities 37. cn Express the same in English. 1. Врад ли можно назвать его поведение типичным поведением взрослого человека. 2. Я не уверена, что мы сможем остановиться на ночь в этом мотеле (мотель может предоставить нам номер). 3. Огонь очень быстро распространялся, и вскоре большая часть рощицы пылала огнем. • 4. Некоторые племена индейцев восстали против правительства. 5. Господин Эббот (Abbott) имел обыкновение отдавать свои обноски племянникам. 146 UNIT THREE 6. Клерк отослал меня к управляющему. 7. В моем классе несколько нарушителей порядка (а trouble-maker). Они никого не слушаются, и их непокорное поведение хорошо известно в школе. 8. Доктор Вэйберг очень предан своей работе. 9. Странного вида бродяга подошел к моей матери и попросил немного денег. 10. Сотни добровольцев предложили свою помощь в посадке деревьев. 38. Use the outlines below and make up two stories with the new words. Add details where you can. 1. The Sad Story of Prince Hamlet — Hamlet learns that his father king was murdered by his own brother Claudius ['kloidias] — A radical change in Hamlet’s life — The notorious murderer becomes king — Hamlet rebels — Hamlet knows that to protect his own country from the evil king is a manly thing to do — He dedicates his life to revenge' — Claudius spreads the rumour^ that Hamlet is mad — Killing Polonius [pa'lsumas] Hamlet involuntarily becomes a murderer himself — Now he knows that the die is cast — Hamlet makes sure that Claudius is guilty — Hamlet kills Claudius but dies poisoned 2. The Touching Story of a Tramp and a Boy — “The Kid” is one of Charlie Chaplin’s best films — Chaplin is cast in the role of the Little Tramp — The Tramp is a social outcast — He finds a boy and raises him from a baby — The Tramp does his best to provide the child with food, accommodation and cast-off clothes — The child and the adult tramp the streets together — They tend to break the law — When the boy is five the authorities try to take him to an orphanage^ ' revenge [n'vencfe] — месть rumour ['гштэ] — слух Чп orphanage ['orfnicfe] — приют, сиротский дом UNIT THREE 147 Orphanages are notorious for their bad conditions The Tramp rebels and fights the authorities He disobeys the rules and rescues the Kid The viewers’ sympathies are on the side of the Tramp and his friend The film is associated with Chaplin’s best achievements Focus on Synonymy well-known fairly famous, especially in a particular place or among a particular group of people Miss Marple was well-known in her own village. famous known, heard of, talked about by many people Alexander Fleming is famous for discovering penicillin. celebrated very well-known by many people, admired because of good qualities \hn Gogh, perhaps Holland’s most celebrated artist, died in poverty. notorious famous for something bad One of Britain’s most notorious criminals escaped from prison. 39. Think about these people and put their names under the four categories. Explain and prove your choice. 1. A well-known person 2. A famous person 3. A celebrated person 4. A notorious person 148 UNIT THREE 1. Leonardo da Vinci 2. Madonna 3. Adolf Hitler 4. Sergei Rachmaninov 5. Benito Mussolini 6. Agniya Barto 7. Vladimir Durov 8. David Beckham 9. Anna Kumikova 10. Jack the Ripper READING FOR DISCUSSION 40. a) Read the text "Youth Movements" and choose a suitable title for each of its paragraphs. There is one extra title. Trrtej a) Youth Sections in Mass Political Movements b) Different Types of Youth Movements c) Young People’s Religious Organizations d) Postwar Youth Cultures e) Adult-led Youth Movements YoiaTH 1. Young people are active participants in their own history. Past generations of radical students have played a part in protests and revolutions against the existing order of society. A youth movement in this sense has an ideological or political character. At the same time ordinary young people usually belong to a youth movement through membership of an adult-led, voluntary youth organization, such as the Scouts or Guides. There are also fashion-led “youth cultures”, identified by types of dress, music and language. The term “youth movement” is so wide that it can refer to Punk Rockers as well as the Young Conservatives. 2. The world’s first voluntary youth organization was the Church-based Boys’ Brigade, founded in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1883 by William Alexander Smith (1854—1914) and dedicated to religious education and developing the habits of Obedience, Reverence, Discipline, Self-Respect, and all that tends towards a true Christian manliness. UNIT THREE 149 In the 1900s, in Germany appeared a movement of middle-class students who took up open-air tramping. Richard Schirmann, a German schoolteacher, opened the first youth hostel in 1909. Youth hostels providing cheap accommodation for young people are now found in most areas of the world. In England, Major-General Robert Baden-Powell (1857—1941) founded a uniformed woodcraft movement — the Boy Scouts — in 1908. Like the Boys’ Brigade, the Scout movement has spread around the world. A sister organization to the Scouts, the Girl Guide Association, founded in 1910, also has a large membership worldwide. These organizations train boys and girls in various useful skills, such as lighting a fire, cooking, fishing, and for developing their character. Scouts traditionally carry a penknife and their motto is “Be prepared”. 3. Young people have contributed to mass political movements of both left and right. In the 1930s there functioned youth Fascist organizations in Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany. After 1933 membership of the Nazi Hitler Youth became compulsory. In Britain some young people joined the Blackshirts. The Austrian Red Falcons were an active 1930s socialist movement. Soviet Russia had Young Communist groups: Octobrist, Pioneer and Komsomol whose aim was political education of young people. 4. Since World War II the media have spoken a lot about the activities of various notorious youth cults, thus spreading information about them. The Teddy Boys of the 1950s, with their long jackets, velvet collars, drainpipe trousers and crepe-soled shoes were the first of the rebellious working-class youth cults. In the early 1960s came new groups such as the Mods, dressed in Italian-style clothes, and their leather-clad rivals, the Rockers, associated with motorcycles and rock-and-roll music. The Hippies of the late 1960s were more middle-class. They experimented with drugs, lived in communities, grew their hair long, and were attracted to radical politics. Skinheads, combining elements of both Mods and Rockers and associated with the racism of the far right, arrived on the scene in the late 1960s. Punk Rockers achieved notoriety through the attention of 150 UNIT THREE the media in the late 1970s, with their unique “Mohican” hairstyles, vivid make-up, cast-off clothes and aggressive music. Several of these youth cultures were recycled in the 1980s. 1^9) b) Listen to the tape (No 14) and prepare an artistic reading of the text following the pattern given on the tape. 41. Look through the text "Youth Movements” again and say how the following ideas are expressed in it. — young people take an active part in making their history — an organization headed by grown-up people — devoted to religious upbringing — began taking long walks in the open air — not expensive lodging for young people — the organization has a lot of members all over the world — for building their personality — their slogan is “Be prepared” — the participation in this organization became a must for everyone — dressed in clothes made of leather — achieved ill fame — some of these youth cults were revived 42. Find in the text "Youth Movements” English equivalents for the following; 1) радикально настроенные студенты 2) суидествующий общественный порядок 3) в этом смысле 4) почтение (к старшим, религии) 5) родственная организация 6) прививают различные полезные навыки 7) разжигание костра 8) воспитание характера 9) перочинный нож 10) брюки-дудочки и туфли на подошве из микропора 11) противники, соперники 12) яркий, привлекающий внимание макияж 13) были возрождены 14) одетые в форму 15) движение с целью научиться жить в лесу (вне городской цивилизации) 16) печально известные юношеские культовые движения 17) ассоциируемые с расистами крайне правого толка UNIT THREE 151 Focus on Synonymy There are several words in English that correspond to the Russian word «лес». forest countable/uncountable a large area of land covered by trees and other plants growing close together They got lost in the forest. Much of Europe was once covered in forest. Thick forest stretched as far as the eye could see. wood ____________ 1. countable {often woods) a small forest 1 often walk my dog in the woods behind my house. 2. uncountable the substance that forms the main part of a tree and is used for making things such as furniture (дерево как материал) The old box was made of wood. timber uncountable wood used for building houses or making furniture (строевой лес, древесина) Does Britain import a lot of timber? 43. Think of the English equivalents. 1) знание леса, умение выжить в лесу 2) лесок 3) лес на экспорт 4) сделанный из дерева 5) в лесу 6) быть покрытым лесом 7) импортировать древесину 8) работа по дереву 152 UNIT THREE Mind the spelling of the verbs with more than one syllable in the forms Ved, Ving: 1. If the final syllable is stressed, the final consonant is doubled: refer — referred — referring prefer — preferred — preferring confer — conferred — conferring occur — occurred — occurring permit — permitted — permitting regret — regretted — regretting 2. If the final syllable is not stressed, the final consonant is not doubled: visit — visited — visiting develop — developed — developing remember — remembered — remembering 3. In British English verbs ending in I have -II before -ing and -ed (whether the final syllable is stressed or not): travel — travelled — travelling cancel — cancelled — cancelling In American English in this case there is one I. 44. □□ Express the same in English in writing. Use the verbs from the table above. 1. Обращаясь к своему отцу, Карл называл его «Доктор Ньютон». 2. Город очень быстро развивался. 3. Джозефу не нравились навещавшие его люди. 4. В своей юности он предпочитал молоко всем другим напиткам. 5. Если я позволю тебе сделать это, я потребую абсолютного повиновения. 6. Сравнивая эти две цифры, я могу сказать, что мистер Моррисон был прав. 7. Том сожалел, что сделал это. 8. Путешествуя по Британии, я влюбился в эту страну. 9. Несчастный случай произошел в начале октября. 10. Нашу последнюю лекцию отменили. UNIT THREE 153 SPEAKING DISCUSSING THE TEXT 45. What information does the text give you about the foiiowing youth organizations and movements? Do you know anything eise about them? 1. The Boys’ Brigade 2. The Boy Scouts 3. The Girl Guides 4. The Teddy Boys 5. The Mods 6. The Rockers 7. The Hippies 8. The Skinheads 9. The Punk Rockers B. Octobrist, Pioneer and Komsomol organizations in the Soviet Union 46. Give your opinion about the foliowing ideas or comment on them. 1. Young people tend to unite in groups or organizations because they enjoy being together. 2. Wearing the same clothes or uniforms, listening to the same music and sharing the same ideas make membership of such youth organizations or cultures more attractive, give young people a sense of belonging'. 3. Young people are very impressionable and it is not so difficult for adults to use their enthusiasm to their own ends. History knows a lot of such examples. 4. Young people should be very careful about their choice of organizations as it is a great responsibility. 5. Political organizations for young people should not exist at all because children are not experienced enough to foresee the results of their activities. 6. There are very few youth organizations in Russia at the moment and they are mostly adult-led political organizations. 7. Youth cultures or cults usually annoy adults and they have a good reason for that. 8. Some youth cultures can be dangerous for their participants. 47. Give your point of view on youth organizations, movements or cults. Are you a member of one? To what kind of organization or movement would you like to belong (if any)? DISCUSSING THE TOPIC Topical Vocabulary: You Are Only a Teenager Once 'Z Adults often see the age between 13 and 19 as “difficult”. Though it doesn’t concern every child and most children pass through this stage quickly and painlessly, it is generally believed that teenagers tend to become: a sense of belonging — чувство причастности, принадлежности к чему-либо 154 UNIT THREE • rebellious • ill-mannered, impertinent or cheeky • aggressive and violent • skeptical or cynical • intolerant and inflexible • impatient and flighty • clumsy or awkward ['o:kw9dl • untidy or scruffy • too self-assured or cocky • over-ambitious • shy of talking about their problems • afraid to be seen as losers • scared of being lonely, bullied or rejected As a result teenagers often: • can’t get along with adults or their peers • feel self-conscious about their looks • experiment with their appearances • loudly protest against being treated like children • seek independence in everything • have low or high self-esteem • lose self-confidence • develop complexes (like inferiority or superiority complexes) • try to look cool in front of (in the eyes of) their friends • embarrass their parents by outrageous or unsocial behaviour 'Z Modem life exposes young people to certain dangers and hardships. Some teens may: • believe that only fit, healthy and glamorous people can be a success and copy fashion models and pop stars • become fans of a sports team or a pop singer and dedicate their lives to this passion • become net addicts and spend too much time with the computer • get bored or depressed and think that nothing interesting can happen to them • fail to think of what to do with themselves in their spare time and waste the best years of their lives • try to earn their own money and begin to neglect their school and homework • forget that parents remain the most important people in teenagers’ lives and become unsupportive • give up too easily when they feel that too much pressure is put on them UNIT THREE 155 • ruin their health at a young age • fall victims to crime Young people may face problems that need to be solved. To this end they have to leant: • to compromise or to meet people halfway • to try and see other people’s points of view • to establish and upkeep good relations with people of all ages, to socialize • to find lifelong friends • to get over their complexes • to keep fit by doing more exercise and having a healthy diet • to be sensible, not to shock people with their appearance and behaviour • not to put their future at risk • not to think too much about their looks but to concentrate on really important things like goodness of character • to treat modern fashionable tendencies (like music, clothes and lifestyles) more critically and not to allow them to become their whole lives • not to make an idol of anyone • to remember that heavy use of computers is dangerous • to say “no” to such social evils as drugs, drinking alcohol, smoking, eating junk food or gambling • to develop a positive attitude to life and people 48. Say what their antonyms are. 1) tolerant / 2) flexible /и 3) patient • 4) tidy 5) ashamed i4/Y\ 6) dependent I 1) civilized ку) 8) controlled 9) fair VXAA 10) polite \ vvj 11) supportive 12) reasonable 13) willing 14) moral | »V} 15) balanced . 49. a) Vise the topical vocabulary and say what we call people who: , are not willing to accept or respect different opinions or people 2) behave in a shocking way and can even insult people in front of their f friends ^^^) are confident aura relaxed because they are sure of their abilities ( 1) lack grace in movement or behaviour 5) show strong emotions and feelings and use physical force that can cause damage, injury or death damage, injury or death ( nr 6) are very rude and bold, impudent | a ^ 1 7) often change their opinion and behaviour and are not serious or reliable )^4 8)are untidy or dirty 156 UNIT THREE иЛ 9) are not able to put up with delay or opposition calmly and without ang^ i. . 10) feel that they can do things well and that people respect them 11) have a strong desire to succeed in something 0^ *- 12) are not accepted by a certain group or community ^ 13) believe that people care only about themselves and ar^ not sincere or honest V b) Which of these qualities would you like (wouldn't you like) to see in your friends? <5бир.СОмрО:>емТ versus <5еир-Л<5<У1Д*2€Х) The words self-confident and self-assured are very close in meaning. They both are used to show that a person can deal with a situation successfully and is not worried that he/she could do something wrong or fail. The adjective self-assured usually stresses that people are very confident in the way they deal with other people especially in public situations when other people's attention is fixed on them. Self-confident people are sure that they have abilities and are attractive, that other people like them. Self-confident people are not afraid or nervous in social situations. As a child he was always self-confident, happily joining in adult conversations. Dr Lauren was a very self-assured woman. She answered the difficult questions of the audience in a very assured way. 50. Find in the topical vocabulary English equivalents for the following: r ^ 1) пройти этот этап ^ ^ / 2) дерзкий ' м yi 3) неуклюжий, неловкий 4) неудачник | {? ^ 5) бояться, что теб^ будут дразнить и запугивать или отвернутся от тебя / fC^j/7/ .Г€ 6) ровесники I 1) стесняться, смущаться Э ^ ^ j 8) обращаться с кем-то, как с детьми 9) высокая и низкая самооценка п UNIT THREE 157 10) выглядеть «круто» 11) роскошные, обольстительные люди 12) пристраститься к Интернету 13) потратить напрасно 14) пренебрегать школьными занятиями 15) идти навстречу кому-либо 16) общаться 17) наружность, внешний вид 18) социальное зло 19) увлечение азартными играми 20) отношение The Prefix In your topical vocabulary there are several words with the prefix self-. This prefix is often used in English to form nouns and adjectives. Cf.: self-respect = respect for yourself a self-cleaning oven = an oven that cleans itself When I hurt myself, it took a lot of self-control to keep from crying. 51. Find Russian equivalents to these words and word combinations. 1) a self-addressed envelope 2) self-admiration 3) self-centred 4) self-coloured 5) self-discipline 6) self-educated 7) self-importance 8) self-love 9) self-made 10) self-mockery 11) self-neglect 12) self-pity 13) self-reproach 14) self-sacrifice 52. In the topical vocabulary the Information Is given from an adult point of view. Do you agree with the description of teens and their problems? Do you find the advice about how to overcome the problems useful? Support what you say. 53. Answer the questions. 1. What things are most highly valued by modem teenagers? 2. People can disagree with each other on many points. What are the best ways out of conflicts? 158 UNIT THREi 3. Is there such a thing as unconditioned freedom? Can you say that you are free in the society? In your school? 4. What is your attitude to restricted reading and restricted net surfing? Who has the right to decide what books a child should or shouldn’t read, what sites they should or shouldn’t get into? 5. Should school newspapers be censored*? 6. Do you think teens should be allowed to be on the streets after 11 o’clock? 7. Who or what restricts your personal freedom? Do you feel annoyed about it? Focus on Synonymy Compare the four pairs of words given in your topical vocabulary: A В untidy scruffy self-assured cocky awkward clumsy Impertinent cheeky Is there any difference in meaning between the synonyms in each pair? There is practically none. They differ stylistically. The words of column В are informal. They can be used between friends or in relaxed or unofficial situations. More examples of informal words: a tummy (for stomach) a hubby (for husband) a nightie (for nightdress) a buddy (for friend {AmE) 54. Try to analyse yourself, your behaviour and attitudes. Say if you: — might be called a typical teenager — have or had any of the problems mentioned in the topical vocabulary and how you cope or coped with them — ever get annoyed with adults’ behaviour and what annoys you most of all — have a fbted idea about your looks and what helps you to come over it — have ever done anything stupid to look cool in front of your friends — think that your self-esteem is adequate to censor I'sensa] — подвергать цензуре UNIT THREE 159 believe that too much pressure is put on you by your teachers and/or parents belong to a particular youth culture or movement and why would like to change your lifestyle and how feel that the teenager years are a happy or an unhappy stage in your life and why 55. Do this personality quiz to find out If you're happy with your body. 1. When you look in the mirror, do you feel happy with what you see? a) Yes, I usually feel pleased with what I look like. b) Sometimes. It depends if I’m having “a bad hair day*”. c) No, never. I always think I look awful. 2. How many different clothes do you try on before you decide what to wear? a) I wear the first thing I put on. b) 2-3. c) Try on so many that I can’t remember. 3. What’s your worst experience? a) An exam. b) A bad haircut. c) Going shopping for clothes. 4. How do you feel about having your photo taken? a) I love it! b) I like it most of the time. c) I avoid it whenever I can. 5. A friend tells you that you’re looking good. How do you reply? a) Thanks very much. I feel good today. b) Thanks but I need to lose a bit of weight. c) Are you blind? ! If your results are Mostly As: You have a very good body image. You are comfortable with your body and you are confident. Well done! Mostly Bs: Most days you have a good body image but on the days when you don’t, try to remember the things that are really good in life: good health, good friends and having fun! Mostly Cs: You have a very bad body image. You are always thinking about improving your body. You should relax and find friends who are more interested in personality than looks. a bad hair day — a day when a person feels bad about themselves and their appearance 160 UNIT THREE 56. The famous children's book writer Philip Pullman^ thinks that all teachers must be over thirty-five. He says that people must travel a lot before they become teachers. What do you think? In groups work out at least four arguments for and four arguments against this statement. Compare your arguments with those given in Ex. 59 on p. 163. How can you compromise on this question? 57. Read these opinions about teenagers who have jobs and say with which opinions you agree. 1. A job teaches young people to realize a value of work. It helps them to understand how hard their parents work to buy them things. 2. A job distracts young people from their studies and homework. 3. No child should be allowed to work. Children and teenagers should rest after school. 4. All young people should have some work experience. It can help them in the adult world and it can help them to decide what to do in the future. 5. Saturday jobs help parents financially. It’s not always possible for modem parents to buy expensive trainers and clothes. Teenagers with jobs can save money to buy expensive things and help their parents. 6. Teenagers with jobs can’t concentrate on their academic work and have fewer chances to go to universities and make a good career. 7. Doing part-time jobs teaches teenagers to budget their time, teaches them self-discipline they will need for making a success in life. 58. a) Read the text "Rap Style" and answer the questions at the end. |2y\l’ Srx^Uo According to statistics, a large number of teens watch music videos more than two hours a day. There on screen are cool and rebellious rappers, looking and sounding unique. Teens want a piece of that image. Wfearing the same clothes as rappers who often sing violent and offensive lyrics can make the teens in such clothes feel very cool and rebellious too. And rap fashion is big business. Rap and hip-hop were born in the ghettoes ['getouz] of New York City over 30 years ago. Not too many years later, hip-hop enthusiasts began to wear expensive design- ' Philip Pullman, a modern British children’s writer used to work as a teacher. His most famous book is supF>oscd to be the trilogy “The Northern Lights” written in the genre of fantasy. Unit three 6 - 0. B. Афанасьева. 9 кл. 161 ег labels such as Polo, Ralph Lauren, Prada and Gucci. The clothes were often worn with a lack of respect to tradition or authority, e.g. wearing a baseball cap backwards or leaving shoelaces untied. Rappers wore enormous gold necklaces and drove costly cars. Sometimes the sparkle of the cars and jewellery was so extravagant it became known as bling bling. Rap style so fashionable nowadays is not only wearing oversized hoodies’ and oversized pants that are pulled down low. It is also rap language or rather rap slang used by many teens. Here are some rap words and expressions. Some of them you can often hear in songs: bling bling — shiny, obviously very expensive jack — to steal banging — excellent, cool diss (short for “disrespect”) — to insult someone eye candy — someone who is good-looking, whose only aim is to look good and whose personality is not important boo — girlfriend (like “baby” or “honey”) crib — home da bomb — very good Middle-class white teens growing in wealthy neighbourhoods also spend long hours watching rap videos. They want to get away from boring American mainstream culture. Since white artists like Justin Timberlake and Eminem have been accepted by black rap culture, many white kids have become less self-conscious about adopting rap style. And what is a better way to express the generation gap than listening to music many parents find “offensive” and using words they have never heard of? Rap wouldn’t be rap without its bad-boy image. It’s well-known that some rap singers used to sell drugs and have faced murder charges. So, does rap glamorize crime? Some people say “yes”. Some say “no”. And what do you think? b) Work in pairs and discuss rap culture. Here are some arguments. Think of more arguments and decide if rap is to blame for teen violence. pop, 1. Rap is music of violence and crime as rappers sing of these things. 2. Teens want to look like rap idols and behave like them. And some rappers have spent some time in prison. 3. Rap music degrades women calling them bad names. Rap songs affect teen attitudes towards women. 4. Rap songs affect teen attitudes towards money making them believe that money is the most important thing in the world. 5.................................................... a hoody = a hooded top 162 UNIT THREE AfiAlKiJr 1. Rap music can provoke people, it can alter people’s moods but it can’t load a gun or push the trigger. 2. Rap music doesn’t call for violence. 3. If there are words “guns” and “money” in the songs, it doesn’t mean that they call for killing and bribery. 4...................................... 59. Compare the arguments about teachers' age with your own worked out in Ex. 56. 1. At the age of 35 and older people usually have lots of different experiences. 2. Pupils have more respect for older teachers. 3. Pupils more easily obey older adults. 4. Older teachers often use time-tested methods of teaching. 1. Young teachers understand their pupils better. 2. Young teachers are more democratic and may become real friends to their pupils. 3. Young teachers may know the latest progressive methods of teaching. 60. Below there is a list of problems that may worry teenagers. Put them in the order of importance. Explain your choice. You can add some ideas of your own. — physical health — eating disorders — suicide — sexually transmitted disease — abuse (emotional, physical, sexual) — bullying — pregnancy and sex — appearances and clothes — relationships with friends, family and others — drugs — school marks — participating in youth movements — their future — the possibility of earning money — being overworked at school [ UNIT THREi 163 61. Give а two-minute talk on your teenager friends. Remember to say. ■ how many friends you have and if they are mostly boys or girls or both; ■ what you like about them; ■ if there is anything in their behaviour that annoys you; ■ what brings you together and makes you good friends. 62. You and your friend feel that you would like to join a youth movement. Make a dialogue and discuss which of these organizations you would like to join. The Green Movement Young People for Peace Help-Your-Neighbour Group Young People in Politics The Stay Healthy Movement Remember to: ■ discuss all the options; ■ take an active part in the conversation and be polite; ■ come up with ideas; ■ give good reasons; ■ find out your friend’s attitudes and take them into account; ■ invite your friend to come up with suggestions; ■ come to an agreement. USEFUL TIPS FOR ENGLISH LEARNERS Avoiding Offence Topic II. Racial and Ethnic Groups Another sensitive topic is discussing racial (Yeijl] and ethnic groups. Being aware of the fact can help you to avoid using words that might offend or upset people. Nowadays more and more groups of people prefer to be called by the name they have chosen, rather than by the term selected for them by others. For example: 1. Many Americans whose families originally came from Africa prefer to be called African-American. 2. But there are others who prefer to be called black because they see themselves as American, not African. 3. At any given time, members of a particular racial or ethnic group prefer different terms, and certain words become outdated (e.g. expressions like 164 UNIT THREE Oriental or Chinaman). Avoid using old-fashioned and offensive terms. Do your best to use more acceptable words, such as Chinese people. 4. Since “appropriate” words change all the time it is not always possible to know what words are the most acceptable for a particular situation. So try following these suggestions: ■ When talking to members of the mentioned groups or other cultural groups, ask them which term they prefer. It is better to ask people than to risk insulting them unintentionally. ■ Avoid using slang terms to refer to people. Slang terms for people are very insulting. WRITING Writing a Personal Letter (continued) Letters are written for a variety of reasons. They may include: ■ giving information; ■ asking for information; ■ making complaints; ■ offering suggestions; ■ asking for permission; ■ giving advice; ■ asking for advice; ■ expressing gratitude etc. Two or more of these reasons for writing could appear in the same letter. The style of writing in your letter can be formal or informal. The style you choose mostly depends on the person for whom the letter is meant and your relationship with this person. Personal letters are usually informal. As you remember, letters are divided into paragraphs. A paragraph is a group of sentences about one main idea. The first sentence of the paragraph is traditionally indented. This signals the beginning of the paragraph. The main idea of a paragraph is very often told in one sentence called the topic sentence. The rest of the sentences in the paragraph tell more about the main idea. The topic sentence often opens or closes the paragraph though it may appear in any other place as well. It’s a good idea to plan a paragraph before you begin to write, as it gives you a direction for your writing. A letter usually comprises several paragraphs logically connected with each other. Letters should look neat, it is considered to be impolite to send someone a letter with words corrected or crossed out. That’s why it is advisable to begin with a draft, correct everything that you want corrected and only then make a real final copy of your personal letter. UNIT THREE 165 63. Read the extracts below and state the reasons for their witting. A. ...SO I decided to plant a garden. I dug a bare comer of the backyard where the shed used to stand. I prepared the soil really well just as you taught me but then I realized that my little garden would be in shade most of the day. That’s why I’m at a loss what flowers to plant. I have already bought poppy and pansy seeds, but I’m not sure if they grow in shady places. 1 thought you would be the person to know such things... B. ...even though he is about seventy, Grandad is one of the most active people I know. He rides his bike everywhere. He goes swimming every morning. In the afternoon he mows the grass or repairs things around the house. In fact he seems younger every year!.. C. ...it would be a good idea to start reading more in English. If you don’t have time to read long novels, you can begin with magazines and newspapers. A lot of students find it useful to watch video films in English. They say it’s good for their listening comprehension... B. Dear Mr Owen, Thank you for letting me have that old tricycle. 1 plan to fix it up and paint it for my younger brother. He will really be surprised. He has wanted it for such a long time. All his friends seem to have tricycles already. 166 ! У 64. Read the paragraphs and try to decide which sentences in them can be called topical. || A. What I like most in Portugal are the beaches. The best beaches are in Algarve. The temperatures there are very high and the water is warm especially in summer. C. My new dog Twink is a shaggy brown mutt about knee-high. She looks like a Scottie. Twink greets me by licking my whole face with her wet, tickly tongue. | Then she hops into my lap and snuggles into a warm, furry ball. Twink will never win a prize, but she’s my best friend. D. Dear Aunt Alice and Uncle Frank, I would like to invite you both to our school play, “The Case for Two Detectives”. I play the part of a rich old lady. The play will be performed on Friday, April 18, at 7 pm. The address is Roosevelt School, 164 Cherry Hill Road. 65. PP Write a letter to a friend. Carefully divide it into paragraphs and think of a topical sentence for each paragraph. Then read the letter out in class and let your classmates guess: 1) the reason for writing this letter; 2) how many paragraphs it has; 3) what is the topical sentence in each paragraph. UNIT THREE 66. @ CD You received a card from your friend. It looks like this. Write a reply, telling him/her in two paragraphs that: 1) your grandmother is getting better; 2) you don’t find the idea of karate very attractive. Dear.. / jnsf ^ot ijour letter. When are you cowiny back home? / hope that your yrandmother is much better now and can do without your heip. We are all missiny you. Гт takiny karate classes and enjoyiny them. When you come, you can do karate with me. We haue a wonderful instructor! Say hello to your yrandmother, MISCELLANEOUS 67. a) Read the text and say what lines made you smile. Where does the author use exaggeration (a comment or description that makes something seem better, worse, larger, more important etc. than it really is). P€v€LA"noKi (about sth) to rely on to speak to sb I to live on to talk to sb’ J T=oiz. pjzona to pay for to apply for to suffer from 26. Express the same in Russian. 1. Sheep live on grass. 2. John paid for his laziness by not passing his exam. 3. Fred is suffering from toothache. 4. You can rely on Mr Anderson. He always keeps his promises. 5. Henry applied for a place at the university. 6. Please concentrate on your typing and stop looking out of the window. 7. Alex didn’t like the meal so he complained to the chef. 8. Sarah understood her mistake and apologized to her teacher. 9. Mrs Armstrong’s granddaughter writes to her every week. 10. Children depend on their parents for food and clothing. 11. Did you speak to the doctor about your back? 12. — Wliere is Kate? — She is talking to her boyfriend on the telephone. to speak with sb, to talk with sb is also possible but less usual. 194 UNIT FOUR still More Facts About Prepositions Used with Verbs 1. shout to shout at The captain shouted something to the sailors. The captain shouted at the sailor. 2. hear of/about — to find out about something by someone telling you or from radio or television Did you hear of (about) the results of the football match? Wfe heard of (about) those tragic events only much later. hear of — to know about somebody or something, but not in great detail — Do you know Jack? — I heard of him. hear from — to receive a letter or a telephone call from a person Last time we heard from Peter was in June. 3. think of/about — to consider facts in order to understand them, make a decision or solve a problem I need to think seriously of (about) what you said. Hey! What are you thinking of (about)? think of — to remember something or someone or develop an idea I knew the girl’s name, but now 1 can’t think of it. This scientist thought of a new way of storing information. UNtT foOr 195 4. dream of/about — to experience things in your mind while you are sleeping or to think of something that you hope to have or achieve Last night I was dreaming of (about) a black cat. Jennifer dreams of (about) becoming an actress. dream of — to stress that you would definitely not do something I wouldn’t dream of telling you lies! 27. CP Express the same in English. 1. Я давно раздумываю над этой проблемой, но так и не нашел решения. 2. Диана уехала из города и до сих пор не дает о себе знать. 3. Недавно мне приснился наш старый деревенский дом. 4. Интересно, кто придумал роликовые коньки? 5. Мне бы в голову не пришло карабкаться на эту гору. 6. Странно, что вы ничего не слышали о последних событиях в Южной Америке. 7. Мне сказали, что киностудии нужен художник, и я вспомнил о вас. 8. Я не знаю, что такое лакрица (licorice), никогда о ней не слышал. 9. Ты кричишь на свою собаку, поэтому она тебя боится. 10. Многие из моих друзей мечтают о далеких (длительных) путешествиях. 11. Я очень волнуюсь, ведь у меня давно не было известий от моих английских друзей. 12. Человек на другом берегу реки что-то кричал нам, но мы не слышали его слов. ____________________________________________________VOCABULARY SECTION 28. YOURjeUp in the vocabulary. In English there is a number of words that are easily confused. Choose the right ones to complete the sentences below. 1. Amanda ... to Brussels yesterday. Many years ago this river ... a little further to the north. г) flowed b)flew 2. The other day Ann ... the ring she had lost. Henry VIII ... the Church of England. a) found b) founded 3. I’m heading for the shops. Are you ...? Where is Nick ...? Is it Italy or Greece? a) going b) coming 4. I will ... back the book you lent me tomorrow. Shall I ... that heavy basket home for you? a) bring b) take 196 UNIT FOUR 5. Richard is a ... boy. Mount Everest is very .... a) high b) tall 6. They always ... me attentively, but I don’t think they really ... me. a) hear b) listen to 7. English is a modem language and Spanish is a modem language .... Harry doesn’t have a motor boat of his own .... Andrew ... burst out laughing, a) too b) also c) either 8. Lora ... the papers on my desk. Kathy ... on the bed reading, a) lay b) laid 9. Bad driving could cause a bad _____ There was a funny ... when the fat youth couldn’t get out of the car. a) accident b) incident 10. George ... he was a good rider. Harris ... his friends he wasn’t going to Paris. a) said b) told 11. They were ... two foreign languages at school, but Robert ... neither French nor German. a) learned b) taught 12. Wlien I entered the hall, I was ... a glass of wine. They ... a very interesting plan. a) suggested b) offered 13. You can’t have an apple because there is ... in the house. ... met me , when I arrived so I was alone. a) no one b) none 29. PP Read the text below and change the words in brackets in order to get a complete and logical text. Dear Lil, 1 wanted to let you know that (1. we) life is quite OK and that you should stay at your (2. mother) as long as possible. You need a nice (3. peace) vacation there on the (4. sun) beach of Miami. The (5. child) are fine. Roger is showing a (6. mature) that would (7. real) gratify you. The very day after his birthday, he got (8. he) an afterschool job. (You have to be sixteen to work where they have liquor.) As for Billy and Janie, they are no trouble at all. I (9. hard) see them from morning till night but 1 don’t think they are (10. grateful) or (11. utter) devoid of filial {\2. feel). Don’t worry, they are eating plenty. We have pizza (13. near) every night for dinner. Stay as long as you like, have a good rest, and be sure to think of (14. we) once in a while. Your (15. love) husband. Will UNIT FOUR 197 30. Read the text and make it complete choosing the right items to fill in the gaps. Pet names, like (1) ... ones, go in and out of fashion. According to Bairbe O’Malley, a London vet, they (2) ... larger trends in society. The computer (3) ..., for example, has produced dogs called Mac, Apple, and for (4) ... breeds, Microchip or Laptop. Hollywood’s influence has (5) ... names like Conan and Terminator for bull terriers and other strong breeds. Naomi, Linda, Cindy and (6) ... (7) ... names are popular for cats (although one (8) ... cat (9) ... Pavarotti). Mrs O’Malley (10) ... remarked that many animals she treats after road (11) ... have the name of Lucky. What name did you give to your pet? 1. a) 2. a) 3. a) 4. a) 5. a) 6^ a) 7. a) 8. a) 9. a) 10. a) 11. a) human- istic reject escala- tion less inspired another super- model over- weigh calls too incidents b) humanitarian b) reflect b) multiplication b) fewer b) caused b)the other b) supermodels b) overweight b) called b) also b) accidents c) humanity c) retreat c) boom c) smaller c) came to c) other c) supermod-el’s c) overweighed c) was calling c) as well c) precidents d) human d) restrict d) increase d) minor d)'led to d) others d) supermodels’ d) overweighty d) was called d) either d) antecedents Phrasal Verb XO PwT 1. to put off — to delay doing something, especially because you do not want to do it I’ve got a Job to do. I’ve been putting it off long enough. 198 UNIT FOUR i ! a) to dress yourself with a piece of clothing 2. to put on or jewellery Kim had forgotten to put his watch on. b) to pretend to have a particular feeling or a particular way of speaking or behaving Stop putting on that kindly face! 3. to put out — to make something stop burning It took the fire fighters three hours to put out the blaze. 4. to put up — a) to build something Putting up the pyramids was an extremely slow business. b) to raise something Put up your hood or you’ll catch cold. 5. to put up with — to accept unpleasant behaviour or an annoying situation without complaining I don’t see why you should put up with such behaviour. Ш 31. CP Complete the sentences with the missing words. 1. How has Don put ... him for so long? 2. John was in the garden putting the fence .... 3. Has the fire been put ... yet? 4. She is not really upset — she’s just putting it .... 5. I was trying to put ... the moment when I would have to leave. 6. If you have a rain Jacket, put it .... 7. If you have a question, put ... your hand. 8. Please put that cigarette .... 9. I think he was just putting ... an act to get sympathy. 10. He was glad to have an excuse to put ... telling her the news. UNIT FOUR 199 32. CP Express the same in English. 1. Я решила отложить свою поездку до следующего месяца. 2. Когда они собираются построить стену вокруг сада? 3. Она очень терпелива. Она так долго мирится с этой ситуацией. 4. Никогда не откладывай на завтра то, что ты можешь сделать сегодня. 5. Мелани (Melanie) надевала очки перед зеркалом. 6. Сколько времени потребовалось пожарным, чтобы потушить пожар? 7. Мы не можем изменить плохую погоду, поэтому нам нужно смириться с ней. 8. Они строят славный домик у реки. 9. Дальше невозможно откладывать решение. 10. Они подняли цену на бензин. New Words to Learn 33. |L3r и| Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. 1. They’ve offered me a room until I can find a permanent place to live. 2. There are four people in our household — mother, father, my sister and I. What percentage of the city’s households live in poverty? 3. My both parents work, but dad is the main breadwinner. 34. |LarU| Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. amuse [d'mju:z] (v): to amuse somebody, to amuse oneself with something. His stories have always amused us. We need something that will amuse a 10-year-old girl for an afternoon. Don’t rush — we can find something to amuse ourselves with until you get here, contented [kan'tentid] {adj)\ a contented smile, contented people; to be contented. Whenever he returns to this place he is happy and contented, draw [dro:! (drew, drawn) (v): 1) to draw something from somewhere. John drew a nickel out of/from his pocket. 2) to draw a conclusion. The detective says he can’t yet draw any conclusions about the murder. 3) to draw a curtain (blinds). After drawing the curtains she lit a candle. 4) to draw crowds (a lot of people, audiences). The game drew a lot of fans. 5) to draw attention. Jill was waving her arm to draw their attention, dull [dAlJ {adj)\ a dull lecture, a dull day, a dull pupil, a dull knife. I felt she found me boring and dull. The stamp was a dull blue colour, forbid [fa'bidj (forbade, forbidden) (v): to forbid somebody to do something. The guard forbade us to look out of the window when the train was moving. gadget ['gaecfeitl {n): kitchen gadgets, the latest gadget, a clever gadget, an electrical gadget; to invent a new gadget. She has invented a little gadget for undoing stubborn nuts*. a nut — гайка 200 UNIT FOUR kneel [ni:l] (knelt, knelt) (v): To kneel is to go down on your knees. She knelt and looked under the bed. rare [reaj {adj)\ to become rare, to remain rare; a rare collection, a rare visitor, a rare bird. The stamps were not rare enough to be interesting for Mr Collins. recite [n'sait] (v): to recite a poem, to recite poetry, to recite a piece of writing. They recited poetry to one another, satisfy I'saetisfail (v): to satisfy somebody, to satisfy demand. I hope this drawing will satisfy my art teacher. We just can’t find enough good secondhand cars to satisfy demands. Are you satisfied with the answer? solemn ['solam] {adj)\ a solemn face, a solemn mood, in a solemn tone; to look (sound) solemn. Nick’s face grew solemn. The old ballad sounded very solemn. treat ftri:t] (v): 1) to treat somebody coldly, to treat somebody with indifference. It has always been a mystery for me why he treats his younger son with such indifference. She adored Paddy but he didn’t treat her well. 2) to treat a patient with some medicine for some disease. Doctors treated Ann with aspirin. 3) to treat somebody to something. Whenever they went to the city she was always treating her little cousin to ice cream, to take to doing something: She took to gardening after her husband’s death. When did Emma take to smoking? 35. Complete the sentences. Use your new vocabulary. 1. Ft is ... to see snow in summer. 2. I don’t think your answer will ... your parents. They expect you to say “Yes”. 3. The book wasn’t interesting at all. In fact it was so ... that I didn’t finish it. 4. My little sister can ... herself for hours without getting bored. 5. I was asked to ... my favourite poem in front of the class. 6. What does your doctor ... you with? 7. Let me ... you to some fruit salad. I think it’s delicious. 8. My granny has a lot of kitchen ... including a toaster, an electric kettle and a percolator. 9. His ... little face suddenly broke into smile and at once he looked cheerful, not so serious as a minute before. 10. The old lady had to ... to be able to pick up the purse that was under the chair. 11. Bob woke up early and ran to the window to ... the curtains. The sun was just rising. 12. Mrs Loveday was looking at her grandson with a soft, ... smile on her face. UNIT FOUR 201 36. Match the words with their definitions. 1) contented a) to use medicine to cure an illness 2) amuse b) to pull sth gently from somewhere 3)treat c) very serious 4) kneel d) happy and pleased 5) draw e) to go down on your knees 6) rare f) to please someone by giving them some- 7) dull thing they want or need 8) gadget g) boring or not interesting 9) solemn h) make someone smile or laugh, to do or 10) recite say sth that other people think is funny 11) satisfy i) to say a poem or story that you have learned to an audience J) a small tool or piece of equipment that does sth useful or impressive k) not happening very often 37. PQ insert prepositions where necessary. 1. It is impossible to satisfy ... everyone. 2. We all treat our grandfather ... respect. 3. Bob treated us ... dinner at an expensive restaurant. 4. Patients are treated ... a combination of medicine and exercise. 5. Elizabeth was treated ... ТВ (tuberculosis). 6. Let me treat you ... a piece of cake. 7. Angela recently has taken ... wearing a cap. 8. It was getting dark, Mr Kent decided to draw ... the curtains. 9. Paul drew a handkerchief ... his pocket. 10. Silvia drew the children’s attention ... the painting hanging in the middle. 11. Dr Nixon’s lectures always draw ... crowds. 12. We amused ourselves ... the cat while we waited. 13. I forbid ... you to go there. 38. Look at the pairs of words. In each pair there is a word you know. Read the sentences and guess what the other word in each pair means. forbid — forbidden recite — recitation satisfy — satisfaction satisfy — satisfied satisfy — satisfying satisfy — satisfactory solemn — solemnly solemn — solemnity treat — treatment amuse — amusement amuse — amusing amuse — amused 1. The use of mobile phones in the library is strictly forbidden. 2. Steve gives recitations from Shakespeare. 3. Wfe can look back with satisfaction on a job well done. 4. OK. I’ve done everything you asked; now are you satisfied? 202 UNIT FOUR 5. It’s a very satisfying feeling when you’ve done everything without any mistakes. 6. She finds writing poetry very useful and has achieved quite satisfying results. 7. Bob could not provide a satisfactory excuse for his absence. 8. Of all the pens he tried, only one was satisfactory. 9. Jane looked at her elder sister solemnly and tried to explain everything. 10. The solemnity of the moment was really incredible. 11. These drugs are for the treatment of tropical diseases. 12. The prisoners complained of ill treatment by their guards. 13. Big cities have theatres, films, football matches and many other amusements. 14. I don’t find his jokes very amusing. 15. There was an amused expression on her face. 39. Which word would you use to complete the sentences? l.a)The new toys kept the little girl ... for hours, b) I think John is a very ... person, (amusing, amused) 2. a) The lecture was deadly .... b) Mr Rogers was ... to death by their trivial conversation, (boring, bored) 3. a) There are a lot of people ... colour and music, b) His name is often ... with show business, (associating, associated) 4. a) Miss Dove was a truly ... doctor, b) Do you know any writers ... their works to their rivals? (dedicating, dedicated) 5. a) I don’t find the Harry Potter books particularly .... b) Computer games kept the boys ... for some time, (entertaining, entertained) 6. a) The name of the Journalist ... Gloria’s adventures is Gwen Cooper, b) The facts ... in the article have never been proved, (mentioning, mentioned) 1. a) The system ... control over the building was very expensive. b) All the members of the committee were ... with all the necessary information, (providing, provided) 8. a) The names ... to in the article were quite unexpected, b) The speaker too often ... to his notes is rather difTi-cult to listen to. (referring, referred) 9. a) Such customers are never .... b) They treated us to the best dinner I have ever had. It was really a ... meal, (satisfying, satisfied) Idioms with the Word H6AX> ■ 1. at the head of the table — to occupy the most important position at the table 2. to keep your head — to remain calm in a difficult situation 3. to take something Into your head — to decide something all of a sudden, especially foolishly 4. to have a good head on your shoulders — to be intelligent and able to make good decisions UNIT FOUR 203 t 5. to lose your head — to lose one's calmness and self-control 6. to knock your head against a brick wall — to waste your effort or hurt yourself by trying to do something impossible 7. to talk your head off — to talk non-stop for a long time 8. to have your head in the clouds — to be very impractical and ignore the realities of life 9. to bury your head in the sand — to refuse to think about an unpleasant situation 10. to be head over heels in love — to love very much 11. to turn someone's head — to make someone too proud or conceited 40. Say with which of the idioms above you wouid describe the foliowing situations. 1. I saw Jane and Mary in the саГё the other night. They were so preoccupied with chatting that didn’t notice me. I stayed in the саГё for an hour but they never stopped for a second. 2. Anthony is not the person to ask for advice. I have never seen him cope with a single problem. He seems to be not from this world. 3. If I were you, I wouldn’t keep telling the girl that she is the best and the most intellectual, which can give her wrong ideas. 4. Jessica told me yesterday that she loved Tom more than anybody else in the world. She looks very happy indeed. 5. When the alarm signal went off in the office yesterday, everyone panicked except Peter who kept self-control and told us what to do. 6. Mark doesn’t want to admit that he has some psychological problems. 1 think he is afraid to face the sad reality. 7. Andrew imagines that he is a composer and singer. He began writing songs and singing them to everyone. Personally I find his songs terrible. 8. Linda belongs to the group of people who protest against building a cement factory in our neighbourhood. But it is very unlikely that the company will give up their plans. It is sad, but they seem to be wasting their time. 9. We all trust Philip to give us good advice. He is one of the most sensible people I’ve ever met. 204 UNIT FOUR 11. СП Express the same in English. 1. Эта симфония звучит торжественно и немного грустно. 2. К сожалению, я не знаю постоянного адреса господина Линча, иначе я написал бы ему письмо. 3. Картины Казимира Малевича всегда привлекают внимание любителей искусства. 4. Сьюзен, наш редкий и желанный гость, сегодня расскажет вам о своих новых работах. 5. Терпеть не могу людей, которые плохо обращаются с животными. 6. Уходя со сцены, он не мог скрыть довольную улыбку. 7. Когда светит яркое солнце, мы закрываем жалюзи и в комнате становится темно и прохладно. 8. Существует не так много фильмов, которые способны развлечь взыскательного (demanding) зрителя. 9. Надеюсь, все присутствующие удовлетворены результатами конференции. 10. В каждом доме должны быть свои традиции. 11. Майк — единственный кормилец в семье, и ему приходится нелегко. 12. Кран заржавел (to get rusty), и мне вряд ли удастся открыть его без какого-нибудь приспособления. 13. Ученицам было строжайше запрещено носить украшения в школе. 14. Не слишком ли рано делать выводы? 15. Рыцарь опустился перед дамой на колени и признался ей в любви. 16. Мы провели несколько скучных дней в деревне и вернулись в город. 17. Занавеска тусклосерого цвета разделяла комнату на две половины. 42. Speak about the members of the Rostov family as they are presented at the beginning of the novel "War and Peace" by Leo Tolstoy. Members of the family: ■ Count Rostov: kind-hearted, friendly, hospitable, jovial, likes a good Joke... ■ Countess Rostova: thin, good-looking, stately, with a solemn expression of her face... ■ Vera (the eldest daughter): beautiful, well-educated, has a good singing voice, unnatural in her manners and behaviour... ■ Natasha (the youngest daughter): dark, black-eyed, agile, vigorous, very natural, contented and happy, easy to amuse, took to singing, drew attention of all those present... ■ Nickolay (the eldest son): rather short, curly-headed, friendly, energetic, optimistic... ■ Petya (the youngest son): plump. Jolly, spoiled... ■ Sonya (their niece): slender, dark-haired, graceful, reserved, shy... Relations in the family: ■ respect for the parents ■ tenderness towards each other ■ treating each other with love and care ■ spoil the children UNIT FOUR 205 ■ satisfy their wishes ■ forbid quarrels and fighting Household: ■ a rich family ■ a lot of servants and relatives ■ a mansion in the centre of Moscow Free time, amusements and entertainments: ■ receive guests ■ give parties which were neither boring nor dull ■ treat guests to delicious meals ■ go hunting ■ listen to concerts and recitations ■ sing to the piano Focus on Synonymy boring uninteresting (about a person, a book, a film, a job etc.) His sister is the most boring person I’ve ever met. She always makes me feel impatient and dissatisfied. It gets boring Just being at home all day. Mine is a boring badly paid job. 1. uninteresting usually because nothing exciting happens (about a period of time, a lecture, a film etc.) The conference was deadly dull. 2. not bright or shining (about colours) The dress was a dull blue colour. 3. not clear (about sounds) The coffin closed with a dull thud. 4. cloudy, not sunny (about weather) It’s always dull and rainy here in autumn. 5. not sharp (about things with edges or points) dull knife, dull blade 6. slow in thinking, learning and understanding (about a person) John felt that the teacher found him dull, (бестолковый, туго соображающий) 206 UNIT FOUR 43. Which of the two synonyms boring or dull will you use to complete the sentences? In which cases are both possible? 1. The day was ... so the photographs didn’t turn out particularly bright. 2. Try not to make your diet .... 3. Jack can’t be at the head of his class, he is too ... for that. 4. I find James exceptionally ..., he can drone on for hours about his work. 5. The game was ... for the spectators. 6. At that moment we heard some ... sound at the door. 7. If you find the film ..., turn off the telly. 8. I like the cut of the coat but the colour is so ... that I refuse to wear it. 9. Who said that my job is ...? Personally, I like it. 10. Have you got another knife in the house? This one is .... It won’t cut. READING FOR DISCUSSION 44. a) Read the text and say which of the three titles below is more suitable for it and why. ТгГСв«5 1. Victorian Morals 2. Victorian Family Life 3. Entertainment in Victorian England Queen Victoria ruled the UK from 1837 to 1901. This period in the history of the country is called Victorian. It is marked by great change. During this period the country became one of the richest and most powerful in the world as a result of the growth in industry and trade and the development of the British Empire. At the same time in Victorian England the gulf between the rich and the poor became wider and Victorian factories were notorious for using children’s labour. When people think now of the Victorian period, it is often seen as a time of strict moral standards when people were very serious and often pretended to have better moral principles than they actually had, marriages were always permanent and sex was never mentioned. This way of life and many of the Victorian ideas may seem strange to us and often rather hard, but the Victorians were contented, and they were satisfied with few pleasures. In a Victorian middle-class' family father, known as Papa, with his beard or side-whiskers, was the Head of the House and the breadwinner, and every- ' middle class — the social class to which people belong, who are neither noble, very wealthy, nor work mainly with their hands. Usually business or professional people. UMiT FbUR 207 one, especially the children, treated him with the greatest respect. His word was law for all the household: his wife, children and servants. He sat at the head of the table and carved the joint of meat at dinner. The youngest members of the family were not supposed to talk unless spoken to by a grown-up. Mama kept her large family in order, and used a cane, if necessary. With eight, ten, twelve or more children, she was a very busy mother, for there were no vacuum cleaners, washing machines or electrical gadgets in the house. Tinned goods and foods prepared in packets were unknown. Clothes were mostly made at home or at a dressmaker’s in the town. After she was thirty. Mama was considered quite middle-aged and often took to wearing a little lace cap in the house. At the end of the day Papa took family prayers, when ever>'one, including the servants, knelt down in the dining room or study. He also led the family to church on Sunday. Sunday was a very solemn day and as little work as possible was done. No shops were open and there were certainly no amusements. Everyone put on their best clothes, which were usually stiff and uncomfortable. On Sunday afternoons the family often went for a walk, but no games were allowed. Even picture books were forbidden on Sundays; Sunday reading included the Bible and certain books about the saints. Although there were no radio sets, television, cinemas or motor cars, the Victorians did not find life dull. People worked longer hours, often twelve or fourteen hours a day. Amusements were simple and the family often gathered round the piano to sing the latest popular songs, or entertained each other by reciting or playing the piano. Public readings from Dickens and recitations were popular, 208 UNIT FOUR and drew large audiences. In London and the large towns the music halls were not considered quite respectable, but the theatre was sometimes visited. Children very rarely went to any entertainment, except perhaps to the circus or to a pantomime'. They had their parties, with many of the games which are still played, like blind man’s buff. Children had plenty of books. Many of the best children’s stories were written in Victorian days: Alice in Wonderland, The Water Babies, Tom Brown *s Schooldays, Black Beauty, Little Women T and Treasure Island. b) Listen to the tape (No 19) and prepare an artistic reading of the text following the pattern given on the tape. Look through the text in Ex. 44 and say: 1) who or what; — was marked by great change — made the UK the most powerful country in the world ' a paniomime — a sort of play with singing, dancing, music and jokes . : - ^ -’ 209 8 — O, B. Афанасьева, 9 кл. 1' — was notorious — was always permanent — was the breadwinner in the family — was treated with the greatest respect — was not supposed to talk in the presence of adults — carved meat at Sunday dinner — was considered middle-aged at thirty — was forbidden on Sunday — was typical Sunday reading — was not considered quite respectable — was written in Victorian days 2) how these are characterized in the text; — the UK and Victorian time — people who lived in Victorian England — Victorian ideas — Victorian Papa — Victorian Mama — a typical Sunday — Victorian entertainments for children and grown-ups 46. Find in the text English equivalents for the following: 1) отмечен большими переменами 2) рост промышленности и торговли 3) расширение и усиление Британской империи 4) пропасть между богатыми и бедными 5) строгая мораль 6) браки отличались постоянством 7) образ жизни 8) довольствоваться немногими удовольствиями 9) борода или бакенбарды 10) разрезал на отдельные порции кусок мяса 11) пока с ними не заговорит взрослый 12) держала в порядке 13) приспособления 14) кружевной чепчик 15) читал молитву для всей семьи 16) книжки-раскраски 17) публичные чтения и декламация 18) торжественный день 19) жмурки 20) сокровише 210 UNIT FOUR Focus on Synonymy to look to turn the eyes so as to see something Look at the clock, it’s time to go to bed. to glance to look at something quickly John glanced at his watch and left. to gaze to look steadily for a long time, often with admiration or pleasure We stood gazing at the beautiful scenery. to Stare to look steadily for a long time In great surprise, shock or deep thought Alice stared at the letter in disbelief. Roger sat staring into space, thinking deeply. to glare to look In an angry way The boys didn’t fight, but stood there glaring at one another. 47. Which of the look synonyms will you choose to complete the sentences? 1. The old lady was ... at her naughty grandson with love and tenderness. 2. Frank was irritated by Sam’s numerous questions and ... at his nephew. 3. The boys were ... at each other as if they were ready to fight. 4. It’s rude to ... at people. 5. Clare was sitting on her unmade bed ... into space. 6. Jenny ... over her shoulder nervously. She knew she was being followed. 7. The lovers ... into each other’s eyes. 8. Mrs Hunter lay on the bed ... at UNIT FOUR 8* 211 her newly born baby. 9. Andrew ... at the cover of the book. “Oh, I’ve read it,” he said. 10. Linda entered the classroom. All the pupils ... at her. She looked sensational in her new outfit. 48. Look at the pictures and describe the situations using the look synonyms British and American Spelling There are many spelling differences between the two varieties. Some of these affect individual words. Cf.: '^iz£ jewellery programme jewelry program They simply have to be learned. Some spelling differences are more regular; Аплб -our humour, colour, behaviour, labour, favourite -tre centre, litre, theatre, spectre -nee pretence, defence, offence -I skilful, fulfil, instalment -or humor, color, behavior, labor, favorite -ter center, liter, theater, specter -nse pretense, defense, offense -II skillful, fulfill, installment 212 UNIT FOUR 49. Read the postcard written by an English girl and say which words in the text would look different If they were written by an American. Л M i Dear Barbara, / have been trauellin^ on board the “l/ictoria” for a week alreadt^. The weather is fantastic and so are the members of the crew. Thei^ are so skilfnl and fnlfH their dnties with snch dignity and self-respect that / can't help admiring them. My cabin is very cosy. / iove the colour of the walls -it is your favourite yellowish. Last Friday in Paris we had a visit to the theatre. The buildiny was (juite modem, situated in the centre of some beautiful scjuare. Some funny comedy was on. It was very witty, full of humour whose spectre varied from mild jokes to bitter irony. / was so ylad my French was yood enouyh and / could appreciate the pi ay completely. On Monday we're arriviny in Florence. Pm iookiny forward to seeiny the famous /Irt Galleries of the city. Our yuide promises a smashiny proyramme for the eveniny. Love, Mary DISCUSSING THE TEXT 5'j, Answer the questions. 1. What made Victorian England a powerful country? 2. Why was Victorian time the time of great contrasts? UNIT Юи 213 3. Why do people often speak of Victorian hypocrisy*? What makes a person hypocritical (a hypocrite)? 4. Which Victorian ideas may seem shocking, strange or hard to us? Which ideas do you find sensible if any? 5. What were some of the traditions in a middle-class Victorian family? How can you characterize them? 6. Would you be satisfied with typical Victorian amusements? If you say no, explain why not. 7. Do you think Victorians were different from modern people? In what way? Does human nature change with time or is it just the circumstances that make us different? 8. The text describes the lifestyle of a middle-class family. Have you got any idea how poor families lived in those days? 9. Would you like to live in Victorian England? Why (not)? 51. Here is a list of things that usually bring families together. Add some items to it and put the items in the order of importance. Explain your choice of the most important things. ■ common ideals ■ spending free time together ■ common property ■ the necessity to look after their home together ■ financial dependence on each other ■ the necessity to take care of the children and younger sibs^ ■ blood ties ■ common past 52. Victorian marriages "were permanent". What in your view were the reasons for it? Why don't about half of modem marriages last? DISCUSSING THE TOPIC Topical Vocabulary: Family Matters У As the popular saying goes, “blood is thicker than water”, which means that your relatives are closer to you than those who are not your family. Though this statement can be argued, your relations always play an important role in your life. Who are your kinsfolk ['kinzfauk]? ‘ hypocrisy [hr'pDknsi] — лицемерие ^ sib (informal) = sibling (formal) 214 UNIT FOUR ► relations by birth i relations by marriage • parents and sibs (siblings) • grandparents and great-grandparents • children and grandchildren • aunts, uncles and cousins (first and second cousins) • nieces and nephews • a husband or wife (spouse) \ • in-laws: mother-in-law father-in-law son-in-law daughter-in-law brother-in-law • stepmother, stepfather, stepchildren, stepbrother, stepsister There are very few people without kith or kin. Most of us have: • ancestors (forefathers) and descendants (offsprings) • close and distant relatives • somebody who is next of kin • children by their first, second etc. wives and husbands 'Z Marriages are made in heaven but occur on earth. People: • meet • fall in love with each other (sometimes at first sight) • date and court (somebody) • propose and accept or reject the proposal • get engaged and become Лапсё [fi'onsei] and fiancde [fi'nnsei] • have a (church) wedding and become bride and bridegroom (groom) • become newly married or newlyweds Not all marriages are marriages of love (people don’t always marry for love), can also speak about: • marriages of convenience • arranged marriages • marrying for money Z Some couples: • sign a marriage contract • divorce and become an ex-husband and an ex-wife • become a single parent (mother or father) • get custody of a child or children Unit four 215 • pay alimony ['aelimani] • remarry • don’t marry at all but just live together у/ When couples have their first-bom child, they become parents and face an utterly new stage in their lives. Successful parents: • raise their kids • give their children plenty of love and patience • avoid quarrels and keep their feelings under control • do their best to develop their children’s minds and give them a good edu- ' cation • teach their children to be virtuous and decent to other people • teach them good manners • always find time to spend wifh their children, hear them out and discuss their problems • develop a sense of responsibility in their children • never forget to praise their children when they deserve it у/ On the other hand it is not advisable for adults: • to make children feel low or ignored • to give promises and not to keep them (break them) • to lose their temper and shout at their kids • to criticize their children too much and deprive them of self-respect and self-confidence • to punish their children severely • not to treat all the children in the family equally, have favourites • not to give their children any freedom of choice or to give them too much freedom • to spoil their children in every possible way у/ In their turn teenagers are old enough to realize that adults are not saints and may make mistakes and that the so-called generation gap should not necessarily spoil their relations. Good children: • are prepared to compromise and meet their parents halfway • render any possible help to their parents • take part in all sorts of activities that can unite their families • try and make the atmosphere in the house cheerful and friendly • are genuinely interested in their parents’ problems • treat their parents and grandparents in the way they would like to be treated themselves • are good friends to their brothers and sisters 216 UNIT FOUR 53. Study the topical vocabulary and express the following in one word. 1) husband’s or wife’s sister 2) closest relative or relatives 3) a child or children from particular parents 4) a husband or wife 5) a person from whom one is descended 6) to go out with someone 7) having agreed to marry 8) the person one is going to marry 9) a woman about to be married or just married 10) a man about to be married or just married 11) a couple just married 12) a marriage where the parents choose a husband or a wife for their child 13) the official ending of a marriage 14) the ability to accept pain, trouble or anything that causes annoyance without complaining or losing one’s self-control 15) to always allow a child to have or do everything they want, so that they leam to think only of themselves 16) the difference in ideas, feelings and interests between older and younger people, causing lack of understanding 17) the right to look after someone and make decisions about their education, medical treatment etc. 54. Use the topical vocabulary and give English equivalents for the following: 1) родня 2) прабабушка и прадедушка 3) троюродный брат или сестра 4) родственники со стороны жены или мужа 5) без роду, без племени 6) сводный брат 7) ухаживать за кем-то 8) ответить отказом на предложение о браке 9) брак по расчету 10) бывший муж 11) иметь опеку над ребенком 12) жить в так называемом гражданском браке 13) первенец 14) растить детей 15) избегать ссор 16) добродетельный и порядочный 17) заслуживать похвалы 18) с другой стороны UNIT FOUR 217 19) терять терпение 20) жестоко наказывать 21) идти навстречу кому-то 22) оказывать помощь marry sb — to become one's husband or wife The day I married Sarah was the happiest day of my life. marry sb to sb — to persuade or force sb to become the husband or wife of someone else They were hoping to marry Barbara to a doctor. marry into a family — to become a member of a family by becoming the husband or wife of someone who already belongs to it Their daughters all married into prominent local families, to be married to sb He is married to my elder sister, to get married We’re getting married next year. Note that get married is much more common than marry when there is no direct object. Cf.: She got married in June. Sue married (or got married to) a boy she met on holiday. 55. □□ Express the same in English. 1. Грег собирается жениться на моей сестре. 2. Сэм и Сью поженились в прошлом месяце. 3. Господин Браун решил выдать свою младшую дочь замуж за священника. 4. Джеймс уже три года женат на моей двоюродной сестре. 5. Роберт женился и стал членом уважаемой семьи. 6. Анна говорит, что она не хочет выходить замуж за Ричарда. 7. Эндрю женился на Алисе по любви, а не по расчету. 8. Долг не позволил им сочетаться браком. 9. Принцесса Диана не знала, что будет несчастна, когда входила в королевскую семью. 10. В наши дни люди сочетаются браком в более старшем (позднем) возрасте. 11. Марк попросил Эмму выйти за него замуж, она ответила отказом. 12. Семья Смитов вьшала свою дочь замуж за профессора. 13. Роза вышла замуж в 2004 году. 14. Я женат. Я женат на сестре Тома. 15. Я замужем. Я замужем за своим бывшим одноклассником. 218 li 56. Look at the pictures of Alice's and Tom's families and say what these people have become to each other after Alice and Tom's marriage and give Russian equivalents. Margaret (sister) gm Steve (Margaret’s husband) Andy (younger brother) Sid (elder brother) Jane (Sid’s wife) Fred (brother) UNIT FOUR 219 Mary (mother) Ann (sister) 1. Pete is Tom’s .. 2. Tom is Dora’s . 3. Ann is Alice’s . 4. Mary is Alice’s 5. Andy is Tom’s 6. Jane is Tom’s 7. John is Alice’s .... 8. Fred is Alice’s .... 9. Margaret is Tom’s 10. Tom is Pete’s ... . 11. Dora is Tom’s ... . 12. Steve is Tom’s ... . 57. Give English equivalents for these Russian terms and explain them. свояченица — sister-in-law (wife’s sister) 1) тесть 2)золовка 3) деверь 4)свекровь 5) свояк 6) теща 7)сноха 8) свекор 9) невестка 10) шурин 58. Ш Express the same in English. 1. Мой шурин очень удачлив (ему везет). 2. Мой супруг весьма предан своей семье, я, безусловно, ценю это, но нахожу (считаю) своих свойственников (родственников со стороны мужа) довольно скучными людьми. 3. На свете мало людей, у кого нет родных и близких. 4. Эндрю несколько раз делал Энн предложение выйти за него замуж, но она всегда отказывала ему. 5. Люди не всегда женятся или выходят замуж по любви. В наше время браки по расчету и фиктивные браки широко распространены. 6. Не считаешь ли ты разумным для жениха и невесты подписывать брачный контракт? 7. Когда родители Боба умерли, его бабушка взяла опеку над своим внуком. 8. В моей семье было пять детей, и мои родители всегда относились к нам одинаково, у них не было любимчиков. 9. Если родители кричат на своих детей и сурово их наказывают, они заставляют их чувствовать себя подавленно и, возможно, лишают их ч>ъства самоуважения и уверенности в себе. 10. Я люблю своих бабушку и дедушку. Они искренне интересуются моими проблемами и создают радостную и дружескую атмосферу в нашем доме. 11. Тетушка Дора балует своих детей всеми возможными способами. 12. Ты будешь дружить с человеком, который легко раздает обещания и не держит их? 59. Answer the questions in connection with the topic. 1. If you had a family of your own, how big would you like this family to be? Members of how many generations should a family include? How many children should there be in a modern family? 2. How much do you know about your ancestors? Would you like to know more? Why? 3. Can you give an example of a really happy family? What makes this family happy? 220 oi; r< 4. Do you believe in love at first sight? Do you know anybody who fell in love at first sight? For how long were they happy? 5. Many sociologists believe that romantic love leads to unrealistic expectations and a divorce. Do you think a marriage of convenience has more stability than a marriage of love? 6. The number of divorces all over the world tends to increase. Do you think the reasons are mainly economic or social? Is a divorce a blessing or an evil? 7. Divorces and marriages often make children suffer. How can adults make this situation easier for their children? Do you know any family where this problem has been successfully solved? How was it solved? 8. Do you think the ability to be a good parent comes naturally or should people be taught certain rules? What rules? 9. What does it mean to be a good son or a good daughter? What are the reasons for most of the conflicts between parents and their teenager children? How can they be avoided? 10. Do marriages have any future or are they becoming a social institution of the past? Why do a lot of young people prefer not to marry but just live together? What arguments can you give for and against it? bO. There are a lot of proverbs and sayings about families and family life. Read some of them and a) interpret them, b) remember or make up a situation that can illustrate one of them. Don't tell your friends which proverb or saying you mean and let them guess it. 1. Marriage is a lottery. 2. Marriages are made in heaven. 3. Marry in haste, and repent at leisure. 4. A good husband makes a good wife. 5. Every family has a skeleton in the cupboard. 6. Spare the rod and spoil the child. о I. a) The chart below comes from a humorous magazine. Study It and say in which cases the chart reflects the truth. Age Sex People who affect our lives (in order of importance) from 0 to 2 females mother, pediatrician, father males mother, pediatrician, father from 3 to 5 females mother, sister, father males mother, sister, puppy, father UNIT Age Sex People who affect our lives (in order of importance) from 6 to 10 females friend, teacher, sister, cat, mother, father, grandparents and relatives males friend, dog, sister, mother, father, grandparents and relatives, teachers from 11 to 14 females best friend, boys, teacher, 2nd best friend, father, mother, sister, grandparents and relatives males best friend, school bully, other friends, girls, dog, mother, father, grandparents and relatives, teachers from 15 to 19 females steady boyfriend, other boys, best friend, favourite pop singer, father, teachers, mother males steady girlfriend, best friend, girls, mother, favourite football star, mother, teachers, father from 20 to 23 females friend, professors, college boys, friends, father, mother males college girls, professors, friends, father, mother from 24 to 30 females husband, baby, pediatrician, mother, mother-in-law, friends, father males boss, office friend, mother-in-law, wife, baby, loan company, official, friends, father, mother from 31 to 45 females children, best friend, husband, family doctor, friends, relations males boss, most important customer, other customers, secretary, wife, accountant, children, relations UNIT FOUR Age Sex People who affect our lives (in order of importance) from 46 to 64 females grandchildren, beautician, travel agent, best friend, children, other friends, husband males tax accountant, business partners, doctors, customers, employers, grandchildren, children, wife 65 plus females & males spouse, children and grandchildren, doctors b) Speak about the people who affect your life. 62. Divide into four groups, according to your position In the family: eldest, youngest, middle or only child. Within the groups discuss what it is like having that particular role in the family. Remember some events which can support your point of view. Sum up your discussion for the other groups. 63. a) Look at the pictures and the words accompanying them and make up a story. to fall out of love (with sb) to meet another woman to plan a divorce ■ a happy united family ■ a single child • to treat with love and care ■ to remarry ■ to spend occasional weekends together ■ to meet his new stepsister • to get custody • to be a single parent ■ to do her best UNIT FOUR 223 b) Work in pairs and tell each other how the events developed further in the story. Try two different versions — an optimistic and a pessimistic one. 6^. Read the text from * Longman Dictionary of English Language and Cutture* and choose the right items in the sentences after it. WeTTDiKia:? In the UK people get married either in a church or a registry office (a local government building). In the US people often get married in a house, a park, a hotel, or wedding chapel, as well as in a church. The traditional wedding, called a white wedding as the bride wears a white dress, takes place in a church. Th€ (ЛШ VeoVUE ЛТ A wexxOlMG The bride is the woman who is getting married. Traditionally she wears a long white dress and a veil, and carries a bouquet [bau'kei] of flowers. She also wears something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue to bring her luck. The bridegroom (also called the groom) is the man who is getting married. He wears a suit, or sometimes a tuxedo in the US, or a morning suit in the UK. The bridesmaids are usually female friends of the bride or her sisters or cousins, and they usually wear long dresses and carry flowers. The best man is a male friend of the groom. TVte ceiaerktoMY It is considered bad luck if the bridegroom sees the bride on the morning of the wedding. The bridegroom arrives first at the church and waits at the altar with the best man. The best man is responsible for bringing the wedding ring, and there are many jokes about him losing or forgetting it. The bride arrives at the church in a car with her father. There are often jokes about the bride being late, and the groom being very nervous as he waits and worries that she may not be coming. Тне C€l2€rk\OKlY It is traditional for the bride’s father to give her away (to walk to the front of the church with her and formally give permission 224 Г— ] и n for her to marry). The bride and her father walk slowly up the aisle [ail] and the bridesmaids follow. When the bride and bridegroom are together at the altar, the priest begins the wedding service. He or she asks if there is anyone present who knows of any legal reason why the couple should not get married. Then the bride and groom exchange the traditional vows [vauz]. It is sometimes possible to change the vows or even write your own. I, Jane Smith, take thee‘, David Jones, to be my lawful wedded husband, to have and to hold from this day forth, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish forsaking all others, until death do us part. The couple then give each other a gold ring and say, “With this ring I thee wed” (I marry you). At the end of the ceremony, the priest says, “I pronounce you man and wife,” which means that they are officially married. The husband and wife then sign the register (the official record of their marriage). /\f^rej2,TH6 C6I2€iv\OmY Outside the church the friends of the bride and groom throw confetti (small pieces of coloured paper) or rice over them. A photographer takes the wedding photographs. The bride and groom and the guests then go to the reception, which is a special meal and a party to celebrate the wedding. During the meal the bride and groom cut the wedding cake together. In the US they feed each other a small piece, and it is traditional for them to try and make a mess on each other’s faces. At the end of the meal there are speeches made by the bride’s father, the groom, and the best man. Before the reception ends, the bride and groom drive away to a hotel to spend their wedding night, before beginning their honeymoon (a holiday taken by people who have just got married). The car that the couple drive away in has usually been decorated by their friends. Before she leaves, the bride throws her bouquet to her friends. According to custom, the one who catches it will be the next one to get married. 1. Americans have ... choice for their wedding place ... the British. a) practically the same ... as b) a wider ... than c) a narrower ... than 2. It is necessary for the bride to wear ... to bring her luck. a) a bouquet of red roses b) a pair of stockings she has never put on c) a ring given to her by her father 3. The groom shouldn’t ... his wife-to-be on the morning of their wedding day. a) look at b) kiss c) give flowers to thee = you UNIT FOUR 225 4. If there are no wedding rings at the ceremony, the person to blame will be .... a) the father of the bride b) the groom c) the best man 5. The wedding ceremony can be stopped by one of those present ... the bride and groom give their vows. a) before b) at the time when c) after 6. To make speeches at the wedding is a privilege of .... a) females b) males c) the best orators 65. a) Comment on the wedding traditions in Britain and the USA. Which of them do you find beautiful? stupid? interesting? unusual? b) What's your idea of a perfect wedding? 66. Give a two-minute talk on the problem of generation gap. Remember to say. ■ how often you come across this problem; ■ what are the main reasons for misunderstanding between parents and children; ■ what helps to solve the problem and what aggravates it. 67. You are getting married soon. Call a travel agency to decide where to go for your honeymoon. Find out: ■ at what place the weather is hot and sunny; ■ what hotel the agent would advise and why; ■ if you can see a number of places of interest as both of you like to go on excursions; ■ how much the whole thing will cost you. USEFUL TIPS FOR ENGLISH LEARNERS Avoiding Offence Topic III. Illnesses ond Disability Another sensitive topic is discussing illnesses and disability. Some people object to phrases like AIDS sufferer, mental patients or the handicapped because they seem to emphasize the illness or disability, rather than the person. When referring to people who are ill or disabled, try to use expressions that emphasize the person: ■ a person living with AIDS ■ a hospital for people who are mentally ill ■ flats for people who are disabled 226 UNIT FOUR ■ programmes for people with disabilities ■ people who are learning disabled or have learning difficulties or have special needs ■ people who are visually impaired ■ people who are hearing-impaired When someone has died, people usually avoid mentioning death directly when they speak to a family or friends of that person. They often say pass away or pass on instead of die, or they use indirect expressions such as I am sorry for your loss or / was sorry to hear about your father/mother. The compounds mental home or mental hospital nowadays are old-fashioned and are no longer considered polite. The word that is recommended to use is a psychiatric [.saiki'aetnk] hospital. 68. Paraphrase the sentences, trying to use the expressions which can help to avoid offending people. 1. Unfortunately her son is mentally handicapped. 2. 1 know that your mother-in-law is dying of cancer. 3. A motorcycling accident has left Jane handicapped. 4. The handicapped often live in special homes. 5. Someone who is handicapped has a permanent injury, illness or other problem that makes them unable to use their body or mind normally. 6. James Brown is a young man of 26 who has been an AIDS sufferer for several years now. 7. I can’t understand why they keep Uncle Philip in a mental hospital. 8. Mental homes are establishments for the mentally handicapped people. WRITING Writing a Personal Letter (continued) Ways of Developing Paragraphs You have learned that a personal letter consists of paragraphs which contain topic sentences. You have also learned how important the topic sentence is. You will now leam about ways to develop paragraphs. There are many ways to develop a paragraph. The most usual way is by using details. Details are the little things that help us to make the paragraph more interesting for the reader. They are: ■ adjectives that help to tell more about persons or things which are expressed by nouns; ■ synonyms that help to find exact words; ■ adverbs and other phrases that help to describe how things happen. “OnIT FOUR 227 69. Read paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 and say which of them is more interesting to read and why. Paragraph 1 Two people were in the lift. One was a woman in a jacket. She wore a hat. She held a dog. The other was a man. He wore a coat and a hat. Paragraph 2 Two passengers stood in the lift. One was a tall, pale woman in a purple jack- et. She wore a felt hat. She held tightly her dog, a tiny, dark grey poodle. The other passenger was a young man. He was wearing a yellow raincoat and a soft hat. 70. пи Write the serrtence The train came into the station into your exercise book. Then: 1. Add an adjective to describe the train. 2. Change the verb came to its synonym. 3. Add an adverb to your new verb in the sentence to explain how and/or when the train came. 4. Add a phrase to describe the station. Now compare your initial sentence and sentence number 4. Notice how much more descriptive your last sentence about the train has become. 71. on Here are ten topic sentences of some paragraphs from ten letters. Write the actual paragraphs. Make them colourful by using details. 1. My birthday present was an exciting surprise. 2. I opened the door and there stood Jack, my distant relative. 3. Fred was the happiest husband I have ever seen. 4. Recently 1 got invited to a wedding. 5. I have a real friend in my family. 6. 1 think Diana deprives her son of self-respect. 7. Dear Jane, you should develop a sense of responsibility in your elder daughter. 8. The Harrisons spoil their children in every possible way. 9. Florence is genuinely interested in her parents’ problems. 10. I’m sure, Don, you should teach your children good manners. 72. PP You received a letter from your distant relative Aunt Kate who lives In the Far East. Here is a paragraph from her letter. Write your reply to her and: ■ tell her what has happened to the members of your family recently; ■ ask her when exactly she is going to come to see you, if she would like you to meet her and how long she is going to stay. 228 UNIT FOUR I've made ир ту mind to visit my native place this year. / would like to come to you in spriny if that suits you. I’m lookiny forward to meetiny you all. / haven’t seen you for so lony that / may not recoynize you. Уз. LQ You received a letter from your elder cousin. Here is a paragraph from his letter. In your reply: ■ thank him for the invitation and tell him when you are planning to come, how long you would like to stay and what you would like to do during your holidays; ■ ask him what his wife looks like, what her occupation and her background are, what her interests and hobbies are. now the ^reat news! Гт sure уоиЧ! be very mnch snr-prised to know that i yot married fast month and Гт really happy now. /ЙПП is the best wife a man can dream of. We live toy ether with my parents in their house which is rather biy as i hope you remember. Уоиг summer holidays are cominy and we all would like you to come and stay with us. MISCELLANEOUS 74. a) Read the text and define the basic difference between being rude in England and on the Continent. How TO |2мре It is easy to be rude on the Continent. You just shout and call people names of a zoological character. In England rudeness has quite a different technique. If somebody tells you an obvi- UNIT FOUR 229 ously untrue story, on the Continent you would remark, “You are a liar. Sir, and rather dirty one at that.” In England you just say, “Oh, is that so?” or “That’s rather an unusual story, isn’t it?” When some years ago, knowing ten words in English and using them all wrong, I applied for a translator’s job, my would-be employer (or would-be-not-employer) softly remarked, “I am afraid your English is somewhat unorthodox.” This translated into any continental language would mean, “Kick this gentleman down the steps!” In the 19th century, when a wicked and unworthy subject annoyed the Sultan of Turkey or the Tzar of Russia, he had his head cut off without much ceremony; but when the same happened in England, the monarch declared, “We are not amused,” and the whole British nation even now, a century later, is immensely proud of how rude their Queen was. Terribly rude expressions (if pronounced seriously) are: “I am afraid that...”, “unless...”, “nevertheless...”, “How queer...” and “I am sorry, but...” It is true that quite often you can hear remarks like: “You’d better see that you get out of here!” or “Shut your big mouth!” or “Dirty pig!” etc. These remarks are very un-English and are the results of foreign influence. (Dating back, however, to the era of the Danish invasion.) b) Translate the text into Russian. Try to preserve the original style of the author. 75.1^Э1 Listen to the poem (No 20), read it and learn it by heart Love'j Phujojophy by Percy Bysshe Shelley The fountains mingle with the river And the rivers with the ocean. The winds of heaven mix for ever With a sweet emotion; Nothing in the world is single. All things by a law divine In one another’s being mingle — Why not I with thine? See the mountain’s kiss high heaven And the waves clasp one another; No sister-flower would be forgiven смешиваются божественный = yours заключать в объятия 230 UNIT FOUR If it disdained its brother: отвергать And the sunlight clasps the earth. And the moonbeams kiss the sea — What are all these kissings worth, If thou kiss not me? = you PROJECT WORK Find some information about what families were like in different periods in history or about the specific features of family and marriage in different cultures. Think of how to present it to the class in the most interesting way. Give your presentation. Remember that it shouldn't exceed 5-7 minutes. UNIT FOUn 231 ENCLISH-RUSSIAN VOCABULARY adj — adjective — прилагательное n — noun — существительное sb — somebody — кто-то sth — something — что-то V — verb — глагол разг. — разговорное слово, выражение Аа accommodate [s'komsdeit] размешать, помещать accommodation [sADms'deiJn] жилье lack of accommodation нехватка жилья to have accommodation for ... people возможность разместить ... человек achieve [s'tfi.’v] достичь to achieve fortune разбогатеть achievement (a'y'iivmantl достижение adult ['sedAlt, a'dvlt] 1. n взрослый человек 2. adj взрослый aim [eim] 1. n цель 2. v целиться aimless I'eimbs] бесцельный amuse |3'mju:zl развлекать amusement [a'mjuizmant] развлечение amusing |3'mju:zir)] забавный associate (a'sau/ieit) ассоциировать associated la'saiijieitidl связанный, имеющий отношение association |3,s3usi'eiJ'nJ ассоциация, связь available la'veibblj доступный to be available to sb быть доступным кому-либо aware [a'wea] сознающий to be (well) aware of sth (вполне) осознавать, понимать что-либо awkward I'Dikwadj неуклюжий, неловкий Bb beneficial [,Ьет'Г|]'11 полезный, выгодный, благотворный to be beneficial to sb быть выгодным кому-то to be mutually beneficial быть взаимовыгодным benefit ['benifit] получить пользу, идти на пользу to benefit from sth получить пользу от чего-то breadwinner ['bred,win3] кормилец brother-in-law ['Ьглдэпп,1э:] зять, деверь, свояк, шурин buddy ['bAdij разг. приятель, дружок Сс capture ['каер^'э] схватить, взять в толк cast lko:stl (cast) бросать the die is cast жребий брошен to cast sb/sth aside отвергнуть ко-ro-то/что-то to cast doubt on sth заронить зерно сомнения в чем-то to cast one’s eyes down потупить глазки to cast a spell околдовывать to be cast away оказаться на необитаемом острове to cast an anchor бросить якорь to cast a fishing line забросить удочку to cast a look/glance бросить взгляд to be cast as ... быть взятым на роль ... to cast light on sth пролить свет на что-то 232 i to cast one's mind back вспоминать, бросить взгляд в прошлое to cast sth from one's mind выбросить из головы to cast a vote for sb отдать голос за кого-то, проголосовать cast-off ['koistof] поношенный, бывший в употреблении celebrated ('selibreitid] знаменитый cheeky I'tfuki] разг. дерзкий, нахальный clumsy ('kUmzi) разг. неуклюжий, неловкий соску I'koki] разг. самоуверенный collapse [ks'laeps] распад, разрушение comprise [ksm'praiz] включать, состоять из contemporary [кэпЧешргэп] 1. п современник 2. adj современный to be contemporary with sb быть современником с кем-либо content [ksn'tent] adj удовлетворенный contented [kan'tentid] удовлетворенный contribute [ksn'tribjuit] вносить вклад to contribute sth to sb жертвовать что-либо кому-то to contribute to a newspaper писать для газеты corrupt (кэ'глр1] adj коррумпированный corruption [кэ'глр/п] коррупция cut [kAtJ (cut) резать to cut down (on) sth урезать, сократить что-либо to cut in вмешаться (в разговор) to cut off отрезать to cut out вырезать to cut up разрезать (на кусочки) Dd daughter-in-law ('dDitarinJo:) невестка (жена сына) deal (di:l] v (dealt) иметь дело с кем-то/чем-то dedicate ['dedikeit] посвящать to dedicate a novel to sb посвятить кому-то роман to dedicate time to sth посвящать чему-то свое время devotion [di'vaufn] преданность discontent [,disk3n4ent] n неудовлетворение discontented [,disk3n'tentid] неудовлетворенный dramatic [dra'maetik] 1) драматический 2) резкий, разительный dramatic changes разительные перемены dream [drkrn] v (dreamed or dreamt) мечтать, помышлять о чем-то, иметь в мыслях Ее economic [.eka'nomikl экономический economical [,екэ'пот1к1] экономный, экономичный, бережливый efficient [r'fijant] деловитый, исполнительный, эффективный emerge [I'msrcfe) появляться to emerge from some place появиться откуда-то it emerged that ... как оказалось ... emergency [I'maicfeansi) крайняя необходимость in case of emergency в случае чрезвычайной ситуации in an emergency в случае опасности emergency exit запасной выход emergency landing вынужденная посадка emergency ration неприкосновенный запас пиши emergency session чрезвычайное заседание the emergency services служба чрезвычайной ситуации, аварийная служба emergency talks экстренные переговоры 233 Ff father-in-law [Та5эпп,Ь:1 свекор, тесть flourish 1'ПлпЛ процветать, пышно расти flourishing |Т1лпЛо] процветающий forbid [fs'bidj (forbade, forbidden) запрещать forbidden [fd'bidn] запрещенный, запретный foresee jfa'si;) (foresaw, foreseen) предвидеть Gg gadget f'gaccfeit] приспособление gaze [geiz) смотреть пристально с нежностью, любовью и т. п. generation 1,фепэ'ге1|п) поколение future generations грядущие поколения the previous generation прошлое поколение а generation gap проблема отцов и детей glance [gla'ns) v взглянуть glare [д1еэ| v смотреть с гневом gradually ['graecfealil постепенно, не сразу Hh head |hed| голова at the head of the table во главе стола to bury one's head in the sand прятать голову в песок to have a good head on one's shoulders быть c «головой» to have one's head in the clouds быть не от мира сего to keep one's head сохранять хладнокровие в трудной ситуации to knock one's head against a brick wall биться головой о стену to lose one's head потерять голову to take sth into one's head вбить что-то себе в голову to talk one's head off болтать без умолку to turn someone's head вскружить кому-то голову hear [hia] (heard) слышать to hear about/of слышать о {ком-то, чем-то) to hear from получить известие от {кого-либо) historic [hi'stnnk] исторический, исторически значимый historical |hi'slDrikl] исторический, связанный с историей или прошлым household ['liaushsuld] дом, семья, домашние hubby ['ЬлЬг] разг. муженек li identify [ai'dentifai] определить, узнавать, идентифицировать identity [ai'dentiti] личность identity (identification) card удостоверение личности immoral [I'mDrslJ аморальный impatient [im'pei/nt] нетерпеливый impertinent [im'paitinant] дерзкий impolite [дтрэЧаЦ] невежливый independence |,indi'pendans] независимость independent [jndi'pendant] независимый inflexible (in'fleksibl] негибкий inherit [in'hent] унаследовать to inherit sth from sb унаследовать что-то от кого-то inheritance (in'hentans] наследие, наследство initial li'niJI] 1. n инициал 2. adj начальный intolerant [in'tolarant] нетерпимый Jj join |фэ1п| присоединиться к кому-то, стать членом организации, соединить 234 Кк kneel [ni;i] (knelt) преклонить колено, встать на колени L1 light [lait] V (lit or lighted) зажигать to light a fire разжигать костер Mm manliness ['maenlmisj мужественность manly I'maenli] мужской, мужественный marry ['maeri) жениться, выйти замуж to marry sb to sb выдать кого-то за кого-то (замуж) to marry into a family войти в семью to be married to sb быть в браке с кем-либо to get married вступить в брак membership ['membajip] членство mother-in-law ['тлдэпп,Ь:] теща, свекровь Nn nightie ['naiti] разе, ночная рубашка notoriety |,n3ut3'rai3til дурная слава notorious (nau'tDTissl известный, печально известный Оо obedience [a'biidians] послушание, подчинение obedient [э'ЬЫшШ] послушный obey [au'beij слушаться, подчиняться opportunity |,Dp9'tju:niti| возможность to have an opportunity to do sth иметь возможность сделать что-то to take the opportunity of doing sth воспользоваться возможностью что-то сделать Рр participant [par'tisipant] участник voluntary participant добровольный участник willing participant с радостью принимающий участие в чем-либо participate fpo:'tisipeit] участвовать participation [po;,tisi'peiJn] участие permanent ['рз:тэпэп1] постоянный pick [pik] выбирать, собирать to pick at ковырять в тарелке {есть мало и без аппетита) to pick on придираться to pick out выбирать to pick up поднимать, подобрать (подсадить) в машину, усвоить (о языке) policy ['pnlisi] политика, стратегия, основное направление home/domestic policy внутренняя политика foreign policy внешняя политика policy on sth политика в определенной области to pursue а policy проводить политику politics ['politiks] политика, политические взгляды to go into politics стать профессиональным политиком to talk about politics говорить о политике proposal [ргэ'рэигэ!] предложение, предложение вступить в брак to make/accept а proposal сде-лать/принять предложение provide [pra'vaid] обеспечивать to provide sth for sb предоставить кому-то что-либо to provide sb with sth обеспечивать кого-либо чем-либо provision [ргэ'У1зп] обеспечение, снабжение put [put] (put) класть, ставить to put off откладывать to put on 1) надевать 2) притворяться to put out потушить to put up возводить, поднять to put up with мириться 235 Rr radical ['raediksl] adj радикальный, радикально настроенный rapid ['raepid] быстрый, стремительный rare [геэ] редкий rebel ['геЬэ1] повстанец rebel [ri'bel] протестовать, поднимать восстание, мятеж to rebel against sb восстать против кого-то rebellious [n'beljss] восставший, мятежный, непокорный recitation [,resi'teijn] декламация recite [n'sait] читать наизусть, отвечать заученное record [ri'koid] записывать, делать запись, записывать на магнитофон (видео и т.д.) refer [п'Гз:] отсылать, ссылаться to refer to sb/sth отсылать к кому-то, ссылаться на что-то reference ['refrans] ссылка restrict [n'stnkt] ограничивать to restrict sth to sb ограничить чей-то допуск к чему-то to restrict oneself to sth ограничиваться чем-либо restriction [n'stnk/n] ограничение reveal [n'vi:i] обнаружить, показать revelation [,rev9'lei/n] откровение, открытие Ss satisfaction [,saetis'faekjn] удовлетворение satisfactory [,sastis'faektn| удовлетворительный satisfied ['saetisfaid] удовлетворенный satisfy I'saetisfai] удовлетворять satisfying ['saetisfanr)] доставляющий удовольствие satisfying meal хорошая, сытная еда satisfying play хороший спектакль self-assured [,selfa'Ju9d) самоуверенный self-confident [,self'knnfid3nt| уверенный в себе self-control [,selfkan4raul] самоконтроль self-respect [,selfn'spekt] самоуважение shortcoming(s) ['j3:t,kAmir)(z)] недостатки shout [Jaut] кричать to shout at sb кричать на кого-либо to shout to sb кричать кому-либо significance [sig'nifikans] значение, значимость signify ['signifai] означать, значить sister-in-law ['sistann,b;] золовка, невестка solemn ['sDbm) торжественный, серьезный solemnity [sa'lemniti] торжественность, серьезность solemnly ['sobmli] торжественно, серьезно son-in-law ('sAnin,b:] зять speak [spiik] (spoke, spoken) говорить to speak for sb/sth говорить от лица кого-то, говорить за кого-то/ что-то to speak out/up выступать публично (обычно в защиту или против чего-то), высказываться to speak to sb разговаривать с кем-то, отчитать кого-то to speak up говорить громче to speak up for sb говорить в поддержку, защиту кого-либо spread (spred] 1. п распространение 2. V (spread) 1) распространять(ся) 2) намазывать а spread (for the bed) покрывало spread паста для бутерброда cheese spread сырная паста to spread sth on sth намазывать что-либо на что-то to spread sth with sth намазывать что-то чем-то stare [steal пристально смотреть на кого-либо 236 Tt take |teik] (took, taken) брать to take to sth/doing sth пристраститься к чему-то tame [teimj приручать tend [tend] иметь тенденцию tendency ['tendansij тенденция think [6ii}k] (thought) (about/of) думать (о) timber ['timbs] древесина, стрюевой лес tramp [traemp] 1. n бродяга 2. v бродить to tramp on the grass ступать no траве to tramp the roads бродить no дорогам to tramp the woods бродить no лесам to tramp upstairs брести наверх treat [tri:t] 1) обращаться c кем-то 2) угощать 3) лечить treatment ['triitmantj 1) обращение 2) угощение 3) лечение tummy [Члпн] разе, животик, пузико Uu unashamed [^Ana'Jeirnd] бесстьшный unbalanced [,An'bsel9nst] неуравнове-щенный uncivilized [An'smlaizd] нецивилизованный uncontrolled |,АпкэпЧгэиШ] неконтролируемый unfair [,Ап'Геэ] несправедливый unite [jui'nait] объединять to unite behind sb объединиться, сплотиться вокруг кого-то united [jui'naitid] сплоченный, объединенный, совместный united family дружная семья unreasonable [ап'п:2ЭпэЬ1] неразумный unsupportive [,Ans3'poTiv] не оказывающий помощи untidy [An'taidi] неопрятный unwilling [An'wiIiQ] нежелающий Vv voluntary ['vobntnj добровольный on a voluntary basis на добровольной основе volunteer [,уп1эпЧ1э] доброволец Ww wood [wud] 1) небольщой лесок 2) дерево (как материал) woodcraft ['wudkraiftj искусство выживать и умение находить дорогу в лесу 237 CONTENTS UNIT ONE. Pages of History: Linking Past and Present...................... 3 Introduction.................................................................. 4 Listening Comprehension....................................................... 6 Reading....................................................................... 9 Use of English ............................................................... 17 Grammar Section........................................................... - I. English Tenses: Present Simple and Present Progressive.............. - //. English Articles: Articles with Nouns in the Function of Apposition 20 ///. English Function Words: Function Wards Expressing Time........ 24 Vocabulary Section........................................................ 28 Reading for Discussion: “The Creations of Mankind” ........................... 38 Speaking...................................................................... 44 Discussing the Text....................................................... - Discussing the Topic...................................................... 45 Useful Tips for English Learners: Numbers..................................... 53 Writing: Form Filling ........................................................ 55 Miscellaneous ................................................................ 57 Project Work.................................................................. 59 UNIT 1Л\'(). People and Society............................................... 60 Introduction.................................................................. 61 Listening Comprehension........................ .......................... 63 Reading...................................................................... 65 Use of English ............................................................... 71 Grammar Section........................................................... — /. English Tenses: Present Progressive, Past Progressive, Past Simple - - II. English Articles: Articles with Names of Persons................... 74 III. English Function Words: Function Words of Place. As versus Like 76 Vocabulary Section........................................................ 78 Reading for Discussion: “The Cold War and Beyond” ........................... 88 Speaking..................................................................... 92 Discussing the Text...................................................... - Discussing the Topic....................... .......................... 95 Useful Tips for English Learners: Avoiding Offence: Topic 1, Gender ......... 106 Writing: Writing a Personal Letter .......................................... 107 Miscellaneous ............................................................... Ill Project Work................................................................. 113 I N11 rilREE. \uu Are Onl> a 1‘4‘iiagtT Once............................ 114 Introduction................................................................. 115 Listening Comprehension...................................................... 118 Reading...................................................................... 120 Use of English .............................................................. 125 238 Grammar Section............................................................ — /. English Tenses'. Past Perfect ....................................... — II. English Articles'. Articles with Countable and Uncountable Nouns ... 131 III. English Function Words'. Prepositions Used with Nouns ......... 135 Vocabulary Section....................................................... 137 Reading for Discussion: “Youth Movements” ................................... 149 Speaking..................................................................... 154 Discussing the Text........................................................ — Discussing the Topic....................................................... — Useful Tips for English Learners: Avoiding Offence: Topic II. Racial and Ethnic Groups................................................................ 164 Writing: Writing a Personal Letter (continued) .............................. 165 Miscellaneous ............................................................... 167 Project Work................................................................. 170 UMI FOUR. Family Matters .................................................. 171 Introduction................................................................. 172 Listening Comprehension...................................................... 175 Reading...................................................................... 177 Use of English .............................................................. 183 Grammar Section............................................................ — I. English Tenses'. The Passive Voice. Perfect and Progressive Infinitives in Passive Structures...................................................... - II. English Articles'. Articles with Geographical and Place Names. Articles in Some Prepositional Phrases ........................... 188 III. English Function Words: Prepositions Used with \ferbs............ 193 Vocabulary Section....................................................... 196 Reading for Discussion: About Victorian Family Life ......................... 207 Speaking..................................................................... 213 Discussing the Text........................................................ — Discussing the Topic..................................................... 214 Useful Tips for English Learners: Avoiding Offence: Topic HI. Illnesses and Disability .................................................................. 226 Writing: Writing a Personal Letter (continued) .............................. 227 Miscellaneous ............................................................... 229 Project Work................................................................. 231 English-Russian Vocabulary................................................... 232 239 Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Учебник для IX класса школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Центр германских языков Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова Зам. руководителя Н. И. Максименко Редактор Е. И. Бухарова Художественный редактор В. Н. Алексеев Дизайн макета: О. К. Нихамовская Художник А. 3. Юзбашев Техническое редактирование и компьютерная верстка Н. В. Кондратьевой Корректор 3. Ф. Юрескул Оператор Н. А. 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