Английский язык 8 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева

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о. в. АФАНАСЬЕВА И. В. МИХЕЕВА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК для VIII класса школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Допущено Министерством образования Российской Федерации 3-е издание МОСКВА «ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ» 2006 JL; 3d 3 X 0 D D r{*" fa i: hi- Ш'п УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 A94- Рецензенты: Саватеева А. В. — доцент кафедры фонетики английского языка, канд. филол. наук, МПГУ (г. Москва); Тарасова Т.Н. — доцент кафедры иностранных языков, МГЛУ (г. Москва); Беликова Л. Г. — учитель английского языка гимназии № 9 (г. Королев) Условные обозначения: ЕЕ сШ — при выполнении задания предполагается использование аудиозаписи. — выполнение задания предполагает использование англорусского или англо-английского словаря. — упражнение рекомендуется сделать устно и/или письменно. А94 Афанасьева О. В. Английский язык : учеб, для VIII кл. шк. с углубл. изучением англ, яз., лицеев и гимназий / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева.— 3-е изд.— М.: Просвещение, 2006. — 303 с. : ил.— ISBN 5-09-015220-9. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 ISBN 5-09-015220-9 © Издательство «Просвещение», 2004 © Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2004 Все права защищены Г'- ^ ip nJ j:]ij . 3?ia I / ^ .1' Щ 1 Choosing m Career: The World of Jobs fR EVI/ION I See if you have much in common. Do you know each other weii? Ask questions and find in your group someone who... 1. prefers reading a book to going to a party or a disco. 2. enjoys playing a musical instrument. 3. likes modern music. 4. loves pets and keeps them or would like to keep them. 5. regularly goes to the theatre and loves it. 6. is good at team games. 7. hates sciences. 8. loves visiting museums. 9. never misses a party or a disco. 10. knows the names of lots of actors, actresses and film directors and understands about good and bad films. I Eli] Listen to the recording (No 1) and answer the questions. Describe the activity you wouid iike to do as your future career. Match the word iists describing peopie’s interests with the pictures. a) photography, word games and puzzles, playing music, hi-fi, motorcycles, rollerskating and skateboarding, camping, video games, computers, table football 0-5 yedrs old UNIT 1 b) scooters and bicycles, train sets, keeping pets, party games, collecting stamps and coins, comics, adventure stories, hide-and-seek, skipping-ropes, hopscotch on the pavement 6-10 years old c) gambling, politics, fashions, dress-making, gardening, carpentry, cars, fishing, bingo, jogging, fitness classes, TV 11-15 years old d) flying kites, chemistry sets, knitting and sewing, board games, card games, dancing lessons, football in the school yard ж 16-20 years old e) rattles, nursery rhymes, buckets and spades in the sandpit, bricks, crayons and plastisine, swings and roundabouts, soft toys, tricycles, fairy tales У 24-25 years old S Try and form compound words to name some jobs ^E/^AMPLE: police + man = policeman polled assistant ' 'man green ^ . ^—officer — boy maken-— master^ x\ law ПАмшик. customs ^ ^ congress \^ead woman_- ' " grocer y^shop school mistress \dress cow UNIT 1 i Use -erl-or to complete the word lists. Check your spelling. 1. announc.^’.^ 2. bank.?^ 3. butchf./ 4. conduct/?/' 5. decorate.'* 6. design/Г.''" 7. direct 8. doctor 9. explor.S^ 10. groc^.' 11. lawy.C<^ 12. offic.^^»^ 13. sail.?’.* 14. senate' 15. ush.^ 7 1) a 2) a 3) a 4) a 5) a 6) a 7) a 8) a 9) a 10) a 8 Say what occupations are described here: of keeping the money records of a business, bconicj^ of selling goods. 5ci loy-of cutting men’s hair. t>Ci.r of stopping fire. of writing novels. of helping to control a boat or a ship. of reading the news on the radio and television, of making bread or cakes to sell, bakct' of mending or pulling out bad teeth. » of making and selling medicines. Remember ten compound words which are names of jobs and have -man as the final element. f A.O*f Cc, •example: congressman A barber — a person (usually a man) who cuts men’s hair, sometimes shaves them, and who usually works (at the barber’s BrE/ in a barbershop AmE). ' ■ r —h — A hairdresser — a person who cuts, washes and styles people’s (especially women’s) hair. A tailor — a person who makes people’s (especially men’s) outer clothes (coats, suits, overcoats, jackets). A dressmaker — a person (usually a woman) who makes clothes (especially women’s) to order. A shop assistant — a person who works in a shop selling things to customers and helping them to find what they want. A salesman/saleswoman — 1) a shop assistant; 2) a person selling things (especially his company’s products) directly to shops {агент no оптовым продажам). UNIT 1 9 Choose the right word to complete these sentences. 1. An ... is a person who drives a railway engine, a) engine officer b) engineman c) engine driver 2. Someone who makes walls with bricks is a ... . a) wallmaker b) bricklayer 3. A ... is a person who cuts men’s hair, a) hairman b) hairdresser c) barber 4. Rubbish is collected by ... a) rubbish b) refuse collectors collectors 5. A ... is a person who makes outer (usually men’s) clothes. ^ tailor b) dressmaker c) coatsman 6. To deal with people who come to stay in a hotel or come to visit a doctor or a businessman is the job of a ... . a) receptionist b) receiver c) reception manager 7. A ... is a woman who sells things directly to shops. c) brickmaker dustmen i^) shop assistant b) salesman 8. A person who prepares food is a ... ^a) cook db). cooker 9. A chemist is a person who ... . a) teaches b) loves chemistry chemistry Cl) saleswoman c) cook specialist (c) makes and sells medicines 10 cm A- Say whom you would contact if: 1) your house is on fire 2) your car has broken down <2/ 3) you want to go to a nice place for a holiday g 4) your hair is getting too longc. 5) a filling has come out of your tooth b 6) you want a portrait photograph cu of yourself 7) you want to redecorate your flat . 8) your grand piano isn’t sounding rightly 9) you need new glasses 1 a) a photographer b) a dentist (a dental surgeon) c) a hairdresser d) an auto mechanic e) a travel agent f) a fire brigade (firemen) g) an interior decorator h) a piano tuner i) an optician B. Find Russian equivalents for the words in the right-hand column. UNIT 1 II A. Read the examples to remember how to form the subjunctive mood. If only it were winter nowl If only we could visit Great Britain! If only they had a pet! II If it were summer, there would be a lot of flowers in the country. If I could find John’s address, I should/would fax it to you. If he began taking photos, he would make a wonderful photographer. If I were asked about it, I shouldn’t/wouldn’t answer. Ill I wish it were warm today. I wish we could go there at once. We wish we had a cottage in the country. I wish she knew the truth. B. Make up phrases in the subjunctive mood. Use the tables. ---------------------------- I --------------------------------- If only I, we, he, she, it, they were my parents had our planet thought more people all over the world could buy . . .! II If I, we, he. were I, we, he. should she, it, they had she, it, they would everybody could people our teacher(s) knew the world our team found all the pupils my school won our class the weather spoke my friends III I, we, they wish(es) he, she were everyone the story had • • • (the) life could our school knew the weather played my mother began UNIT 1 ____ ______________________________________________ Ц Say what you would do (sell, visit etc.) if you did these jobs. ШеХаМР1Е: an explorer (visit and explore lands) If I were an explorer, I would visit and explore a lot of unknown lands. 1. a plumber (put in and mend water-pipes) 2. a barber (cut hair) 3. a receptionist (welcome visitors) 4. a chemist (make and sell medicines) 5. an interior decorator (decorate houses, flats and offices) 6. a piano tuner (tune pianos) 7. an estate agent (buy and sell houses, flats and offices) 8. a travel agent (plan holidays and journeys) 9. an optician (make glasses and contact lenses) 10. a hairdresser (cut and arrange hair) CjQkaA 1} Open the brackets to make the sentences meaningful. Use the subjunctive mood. L t Л _ 4.1 wish^^o ЪёУ summer im^and we (jcTdn^go to the Crimea. 5. If me a letter, I Xtoansu^) him by all means. 6. If only we at home. 7.1 {to nave) porridge or bacon for breakfast. 8. If only he (i^u;an^oftoifearn English. 9. If it {not to rain) so heavily in autuiim^ we (con^ begin building the house in October. 10.1 wish Bob (con)^in the competition. 14 Express the same in English. 1. Если бы Анна стала парикмахером, я была бы рада. 2. Жаль, что сейчас осень. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы сейчас было лето или зима и у нас были бы каникулы. 3. Если бы сегодня не было так холодно, Джон мог бы погулять в парке подольше. 4. Если бы Маша знала французский лучше, она приняла бы участие в олимпиаде по французскому языку. 5. «Вилли,—сказала Алиса, — на твоем месте я бы встала, убрала постель и накрыла стол к завтраку». 6. Если бы у доктора Джонсона была хорошая репутация, он бы мог иметь гораздо больше пациентов. 7. Как жаль, что Эмма больна. Она могла бы помочь нам. 8. Если бы маленький паж был волшебником! 9. «Если бы я захотела, я бы превратила тебя в лягушку или паука», — сказала злая волшебница. 10. Жаль, что он не сможет приехать. «к. UNIT 1 IS Say what you would do in these situations. 1. If you were president of this country. 2. If you were your own parent. 3. If you had a magic wand.^ 4. If you knew the language of birds and animals. 5. If you found a treasure of gold. 6. If you could live your life over. ^Reading for Country/tudie/ \k ^ Listen to the text ‘^Unusual Jobs: a Bodyguard” (No 2) and say which of the following things are not mentioned in it. a) The place where secret agents are trained. b) How much money is spent on their training. c) Some difficulties of the profession. d) The four American presidents who were killed. e) Who killed them. f) How secret agents are selected. g) Some of the things that they do as part of their work. h) How much money secret agents get. i) Some of the people usually protected by bodyguards. Unusual Jobs: A Bodyguard Q The profession has been recently romanticized through American films. For a long time it has been primarily associated with American lifestyle, and it’s not surprising. Я Altogether, four American presidents have been assassinated and attempts have been made on the lives of others. The first president to have been killed was Abraham Lincoln. He was shot while attending the theatre in Washington. James Garfield was shot a few months after his inauguration and died at the age of forty-nine. William McKinley was killed in Buffalo, New York in 1901. John Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas in 1963. a magic wand [wond] — волшебная палочка 1 UNIT 1 _____________________________________________________ After the third assassination in 1901, the protection of presidents was put in the hands of the United States Secret Service and^ nowadays wherever a president goes he is surrounded by Secret Service guards who all have a tendency to look very similar — the unsmiling men with short haircuts and sunglasses are easy to recognize in the crowd. There are women too, but many more men. If the president wants to go fishing or horse-riding, the Secret Service agents will have to learn enough about the activity to accompany him. Q Their training as agents takes place at a training centre in a little town called Beltsville, Maryland. All the prospective agents are carefully selected. The actual training includes learning to shoot pistols, rifles and how to drive at high speeds and in minimum space. Agents always examine the area of a proposed presidential visit. In fact^they can veto a visit if they consider it unsafe. Then they decide what equipment and manpower will be needed. The team also produces details of escape routes and plans for emergency evacuation. In June 1992, for example, when a problem arose on President Bush’s trip to Panama City, he and Mrs Bush escaped in an armoured limousine which had been parked in a side street. Nowadays, there is a large number of people protected by the Secret ^ Service. The president and vice-president and their families, former presidents, their wives and children up to the age 16, visiting heads of state and spouses, other important foreign visitors and US representatives on special missions abroad. The Secret Service budget is about $500 million. Qj The Secret Service does of course keep very quiet about its operations ^ but it is of great interest to the general public. That is why there are so many books and films about secret agents. Film companies often employ real agents as advisers so that the film should be true-to-life. (from “Speak Out”, 4-5/1999. Adapted) P Read the text “Unusual Jobs: A Bodyguard” and ask questions to which these can be answers. 1. It was Abraham Lincoln, the 16th American president. 2. It happened soon after he was inaugurated. 3. They have their hair cut short, wear sunglasses and seldom smile. 4. Yes, there are, but the number of men is bigger. 5. Among other things they learn to shoot and drive. 6. If they think that the place is not safe. 7. Because it gave them a chance to be quickly evacuated. 8. In Panama City. 9. Yes, when the people they protect go abroad on special missions. 10. Because the operations of the Secret Service are of great interest. 10 _____ _____ UNIT 1 II The text about bodyguards consists of six paragraphs. The first and the last are the introduction and the conclusion. Give titles to paragraphs 2, 3, 4, and 5. II Imagine that you are recruiting young people to become secret agents. Speak to them about the history of the service in the USA and about the job generally. Make your speech as emotional and as convincing as you can. You can also act out the situation. ^Reading for Information IQ The name of the magazine article you are going to read is ‘'Little House on the Table”. Have you heard about dollhouses before? How would you describe one? Could you make one yourself? Would you like to? Why (not)? ii Read the article once and answer these questions. 1. Whose hobby is making miniature ["mmatja] houses? 2. What country do they live in? What part of the country? 3. Are there any other miniature enthusiasts in the place where they live? 4. Who was the first person in the family to get interested in this hobby? 5. What does Kathy Koons do as a job? Little House on the Table Click) Picture this: a miniature kitchen ^^y^,t^;^^appliaji5^^ iTiade of card-board,^6hi6lete with magnets on the refrig^ator.' A trigli-c^, lUade^rpm a cre^pj^^|»j[|jtoiner,_fjned_wi^ discarded paper by meifibef^oy^an im^^g* inarv^tinv family. Pictures hang on the walls and dishes sit on the table top. The Koons’ family project, argrowing collection of miniature dollhous-es»-is .{Liipbby Kathy Koons has had for more than seven years and her daughters took up two years .ago. Together mother and daughters have created more than 15 houses. “We never throw anything away,” Kathy Koons says. “Almost everything can be used in our miniature houses.” ^ , Jennifer, 13, and Allison, И, have designed two award-winning scenes. The tiny lived-in-looking kitchen^ and a twin bedroom they call “Don’t ‘ the tiny lived-in-looking kitchen — крошечная обжитая кухонька 11 UNIT 1 __________________________________:______________ step Over the Line”. The room has two twin beds, lamps made from beads, posters on the walls ra^de from pictures cut from magazines and framed with straws, _window shades’’and books neatly placed in a bookshelf with covers made from magazine cutouts. Jenifer created one side of the room, Allison created the other. ^ The houses start as~a cardboard box.. The girls!say that choosing the theme, planning and deciding what items will go into the scene take the most time. They first make a_sketch and often make paper model of their j)lanA. „Then the work begins. They use a special type of adhesive plaster to glue the items. It allows them to move the objects if they change ideas or redecorate with another theme. One house can take three to four months Jto complete. Mother and daughters work together, creating on _the_kitc^n table, or somfitimes_on^lh£,flo^’_in_the family room. Lots of space is needed. As a child, Kathy was captivated by miniatures and frequently visited miniature exhibitions at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. She never lost her interest, ^he and her daughters joined the Miniature Worlds a club for miniature enthusiasts, which offers advice for making houses and holds boxroom contests. One club project was an outdoor tent. Some materials were provided in a kit, including the tent itself, but then it was up to the originality of the creator. The Koonses used paper towels to wrap stones surrounding a campfire with a chicken cooking on it. Inside the tent you could see camp beds, pillows, sleeping bags, paper plates and flashlights. They make miniature food out of clay and bake it for effect, use Styrofoam for bath bubbles, and sea shells for lavatory basins. In the Koons’ living room there is a special house they decorate for seasons. They have displayed Easter, Christmas, summer activities and the ikairth of July scenes^. Jennifer attends Jackson Heights Middle School, Allison goes to Par-tin Elementary School. Kathy teaches German and geometry at Winter Springs High School. Dad Keith is a music professor at the University of Central Florida. (from “Family Magazine”, April 2000) It CQ>\ Read the article again for more details and say which of the two ^ is right. 1. The article is written by a man/a woman.V^ V/' 2. The journalist has interviewed the Koonses/never met them but saw their works. 3. Mother and daughters work together/separately. 12 __________________ _______________________ UNIT 1 V 4. It takes longer to plan/to make a miniature house. 5. The objects in the houses can’t/can be 'moved. 6. The Miniature World club sells rnaterials to its members/offers advice and organizes competitions. ^ 7. The Koonses buy the materials for their boxrooms in the shop/use all the materials they can find. 8. Both Kathy and Keith Koons teach/make miniature houses. 13 0® Discuss which of the qualities enlisted below are the three most important ones for someone whose hobby is miniature house making? (Explain your choice.) — patience — love of handwork — ability to coordinate colours — knowing the basics of design — ability to work together as a team — good imagination — creativity — sense of humour — ability to see the beautiful — ability to see the world through a child’s eyes ^New Language e&RAMMAR /eCTION :k' X . I I d-i- The Subjunctive Mood: Past Subjunctive 1. If I had been more careful. 1. Если бы я был внимательнее when I was driving yesterday! вчера, когда вел машину! 2. If he hadn’t been late for his 2. Если бы он не опоздал на English lesson on Tuesday! урок английского языка во вторник! 3. If the car hadn’t broken down 3. Если бы машина не слома- I in the middle of the way! лась посреди дороги! 4. If I had known the truth then! 4. Если бы тогда я знал правду! 5. If the children had seen the 5. Если бы дети видели пьесу в play in the Maly Theatre! Малом театре! 13 UNIT 1 24 Make the sentences more emphatic using the word only. ШеХаМР1Е: If I had done it the right way then! If only I had done it the right way then! OnMj 1. If^the students hadn’t missed the arrived on time at the weekendl 3. Friday. 4. If ^'t/8hn had been at home when I phoned been that cold in Novosibirsk last winter! 6. If %e children hadn’t quar-relied yesterday. 7. If son hadn’t lostp^he keys two days ago! 8. If Betsy had cooked dinner yesterday. 9. If‘'tW poli^qal situation in the I country hadn’t been so dangerous last August. 10. iPthey hadn’t stolen my new bicycle! i iS OS Say what old Mrs Simpson regrets. You can use the ideas below. ШеХаМРЕЕ: If (only) I had been a good pupil when I was at school! If (only) I hadn’t left school when I was 16! She didn’t do it take a typing course marry Captain Morris have children later travel more save up money buy a better house learn to play the piano She did it quarrel with her friend Allison marry John Simpson leave London sell the green Ford stop doing French smoke when she was young be impolite to her mum Present and Past Subjunctive. Compared (I) If it were spring now! If I were in London tomorrow! If I had a lot of money now! If she became an architect in future. If it had been spring then. If I had been in London yesterday. If I had had a lot of money last Sunday! If she had become an architect, but she is a secretary. 16 Say the same things about the events of the past. ШеХаМРЕЕ: If I had more friends! — If I had had more friends, (when I was younger). 14 UNIT 1 Jr J’ f 1. If I knew Ann’s telephone number! 2. If only the teacher didn’t give us so much homework! 3. If Natasha were not so tired! 4. If the weather were better on Sunday! 5. If only we read more books! 6. If the shops were open! 7. If my parents were at home! 8. If only the school had a basketball team! 9. If the actors played better! 10. If we had ice cream for dessert! pre Facts about the Subjunctive Mood fir 1. If I had been at home at 7 o* clock у I would have phoned you. Если бы я был дома в 7 часов, я бы (тогда) позвонил тебе. 2. If you hadn’t been busy after schooly we would have gone home together. Если бы ты не был занят после уроков, мы бы пошли домой вместе. 3. If my friend had told me the truth theriy I would have forgotten the whole story. Если бы тогда мой приятель сказал правду, я бы забыл всю эту историю. 4. If it hadn’t rained yesterday у we would have en loved the trip more. Если бы вчера не было дождя, мы бы получили больше удовольствия- от поездки. * 5. If the game had started earlier у it would have been over by 5. Если бы игра началась раньше, она бы закончилась к пяти. II Say what things you would have done if you had been in Britain last summer. ШеХаМРЬЕ: If we had been in Britain last summer, we would have seen Buckingham Palace. to visit the British Museum to have a trip to Scotland to make a tour around the British Isles to go to Trafalgar Square to travel to Wales to go shopping in Oxford Street to see a play in the National Theatre to have a meal in an English pub to play darts with our friends to watch British television 15 U.I UNIT 1 J 28 Look at the pictures and say what Paul would or wouldn’t have done if last summer had been warmer. IeXaMPLE: If the summer had been warmer, I would have played more football. (I wouldn’t have stayed indoors so often.) O' 0 [J UNIT 1 Present and Past Subjunctive. Compared (II) Present/Future Past , 1. If I were in London now (but I 1. If I had been in London then am not), I would visit the Na- (but I was in Moscow), I would tional Gallery. have visited the National Gal- lery. 2. If John knew the end of the 2. If John had known the end of story (but he doesn’t know it). the story (but he didn’t know he would tell us about it. it), he would have told us about it. 3. If he tried (but he doesn’t try). 3. If he had tried (but he didn’t, ! I’m sure, he would win. he refused to take part in the race), he would have won. 4. If my uncle had a lot of mon- 4. If my uncle had had a lot of ey now (but he doesn’t have money last spring (but he much), he would buy a com- didn’t have enough money), he puter. would have bought a computer in May. dV .-i' n j*' T- 'M Say the same things about the events of the past. ieXaMPLE: If I were a game. better tennis player, I would win every If I had been a better tennis player, I would have won the game yesterday. 1. If Peter knew English better, he would''work as an interpreter. 2. If the book were shorter, I would finish it sooner. 3. If I had a new pair of skis, I would take part in the competition. 4. If my parents gave me a camera for my birthday, I would take pictures now. 5. If there were more good programmes on the radio, I would listen to it. 6. If my teacher didn’t give me advice, I wouldn’t know what to do. 7. If Mary were not a student, she would have more free time. 8. If Sam were not ill, he would come to my party. 9. If I knew more about Australia, I would make a report about it. 10. If Liz had more money, she wouldn’t wear cheap clothes. _ - --- 17 JL t . UNIT 1_______________________________________ Decide which caption belongs to which cartoon. 1. jp4 Express the same in English. 1. Рост моей двоюродной сестры 1 м 75 см. Если бы она была ниже ростом, она бы стала балериной. 2. Если бы мой дядюшка Эндрю был ниже ростом в юности, он бы стал летчиком. 3. Если бы в детстве Люси жила на побережье, она бы научилась плавать. 4. Если бы ты остановился, ты бы не попал в дорожное происшествие. 5. Если бы сейчас была весна, листья (на деревьях) были бы зелеными. 6. Если бы была весна, когда мы приехали в Лондон, листья на деревьях были бы зелеными. 7. Если бы отец зарабатывал больше денег, он бы купил мне компьютер. 8. Если бы моя тетя купила билеты в театр, мы бы посмотрели мюзикл «Кошки». 9. Если бы ты выучила правило, ты бы не сделала такую грубую (плохую) ошибку. 10. Вчера ты не просил меня опустить письма. Если бы ты попросил меня сходить на почту вчера, я бы сделал это. 18 UNIT 1 ^Vocabulary /ection Ш/ociAL Enoli/h \ ^ Learn the proper way of offering a suggestion (No 3). 1 r Offering a suggestion Л Reaction ! 1 — If I were you, I’d (do it). ■f — Why don’t you (do it)? Positive Reaction — Have you (ever) thought of (doing it)? — Yes, I don’t mind. — Try (to do it). — Most willingly. — Perhaps you could (do it). '" J"'* — That’s a good idea. 1 — Why not (do it)? — I’d love to. ; '■ It might be a good idea (to do it). — I’ll think about it. — Would you care (to do it)? — That’s all right with me. — What do you say to (doing it)? — That suits me very well. — I suggest th^t. you (do it). f //• 'i :o . - — I strohgly advise you (to do it). — You really must (do it). Neerative Reaction — Be sure (to do it). — I’m afraid I can’t. -ft — You’d better (do it). — It’s a good idea, but ... — Sorry. It’s not in my line. 1 Ч I.U ouu6 uu/^/y- ll 1 1) to 2) to 3) to 4) to 5) to 6) to 7) to 8) to 9) to 10) to 11) to 12) to Use social English and offer these suggestions to your friends: do the sights of Moscow; revise the new grammar before the test; go to the cinema and watch the new film; spend a quiet evening at home; become a fashion designer; take up sport; grow exotic flowers in the garden; try his/her hand at painting; learn to drive a car; join the English Speaking Club; go to the theatre; go travelling together. 19 UNIT 1 \ 34 Use social English and make up dialogues beginning with: — I’m feeling rather low tonight. 2. — Have you ever thought of beccming a journalist? 3. — How about having a party on Saturday? 4. — I know that you are very interested in music. 5. — You seem to like computers. #Phra/al Verb to hand JJ to hand down — передать (опыт, знания, что-то по наследству) The skill of making violins was handed down from father to son. This bracelet has been handed down in our family for two hundred years. 3^ to hand in — сдать (работу, документ для чтения или проверки) “It’s time to hand in your works,” said the teacher. When can you hand in your article to the editor? 3 to hand out — раздать The teacher handed out coloured pencils to the class. Peter, would you like to hand out the paper plates to all the picnickers? 3^ to hand over — передать “Hand over that knife!” shouted the policeman. A lot of people hand over sums of money to hospitals and health centres. Complete the sentences using the missing words. 1. At exactly 11.30 I shall ask you to hand ... your test. 2. Could you hand ... that book, Steve, I can’t reach it. 3. The fortress was handed ... to the enemy. 4. This is a very rare book it has been handed ... in my family for many years. 5. Now, I shall hand ... the tickets to everyone present. 6. If you’re ready with your questionnaires, hand them .... 7. Be sure to hand ... your key at the desk when you leave the hotel. 8. If you don’t hand the money ..., I’ll shoot. 20 36 ^ Express the same in English. UNIT 1 1. Эта легенда передается в нашей семье от поколения к поколению (generation). 2. Не играй с моими часами, передай их мне. 3. Давайте раздадим карты всем участникам экспедиции. 4. Откуда у тебя это кольцо? — В нашей семье оно передается от матери к дочери. 5. Вора передали полиции. 6. Пожалуйста, сдайте работы в конце экзамена. 7. Завтра королева будет раздавать подарки в детской больнице. 8. Не сдавайте сочинения, я соберу их завтра (collect). 9. В конце концов ей пришлось передать ферму новым владельцам. ^New Word/ то Learn A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. ;\i IX, I" * The word kid used to mean “a young goat”, now it also means “a young child”. Where can I park the car? — Not here. You can’t park the car where it says “No Parking”. Margaret was so soft-hearted that she fed all the stray’ dogs and cats in her street. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 38 Read the words, look them up and then study the word combina- tions and sentences to know how to use them. Sc/liUCC/Ui top (л): 1 the top of sth, on the top of the hill, on the top of the mountain, on the top of the column. You can see the figure of Admiral Nelson on thg^ tc^ of the column. 2 a(^lt¥ie top of sili^ at^^tfie^op of the page, at the top of the list, at the top of your voice, at the top of the class. The new rule is at the top of page 17.; to be (come) top of the class. Nick is such a good stu-. den^, h^,^always cpmes top of the class at the end of the school year, to mind [m’alfifia*] (vf: l^to mind (doing sth). Do you mind helping me? I don’t mind telling you a bedtime story. It wasn’t very clever if you don^’^^^nd дце (p^). saying so. 2 never mind. I know you’ve lost the game, but never mind, you can’t win them all. — Sorry, I’ve broken your pen. — Never mind. I’ve got another opej ,^ • r 3 Mill’d yonf d*v^n business. I don’t need your advice. Will you please mind your own business? stray — бездомный (о животных) 21 UNIT 1 to fix (y): 1 f*ilrA - ^XJbd/(f^ rff' • _^/SC}fi to fix sth to/on sth: to fix a lamp to the wall, to fix a badge on the T-shirt. I don’t think you can fix the shelf to the wall. 2 to fix sth: to fix a day, to fix a price, to fix a meeting. As far as 1 know they haven’t fixed the date for the meeting yet. Ч цкиГЬ nc>^ lo fix sth broken: to fix a broken sandal, to fix a car, to fix a watch. There is a broken window at the back of the house. Can you fix it for me?g 4 t^ fix sb up {informal)'. Do what I tell you, or I’ll fix you up. [dAm] {adj): 1 a dun^ man, to be dumb from birth. There is a special school for dfe^T mad dumb children here. 2 a dumb thing to say, a dumb thing to do, a dumb person. He is not a very clever boy, I would call him rather dumb. LiACT^ '■-'1 smart {adj)'. 1 esp. BrE to be (look) smart: smart clothes, smart shoes, a smart new car. I’m going to wear my smart new dress for the party. 2 esp. AmE a smart person, a smart answer. I don’t know who called him clever but he isn’t as smart as they say. The criminal was smart and the police couldn^t,,catch him for a long time. 3 to be 4g^t^ smart with someone, a smart' al^ck. Don’t get smart with me, young man! He liked arguing with his teachers and they all thought him to be a smart aleck. advanced {adj)? 1 advanced studies, an advanced course of English, advanced students, an advanced child. The task is too easy for such ad-vanced^^tpd^nts as you.^ 2 advanced' iri years^i Mrs Reed is advanced in years but not really very old. r jf f-''ЧГ U' terrific {adj)'. a terrific person, a terrific time, a terrific thing. The comedy we saw yesterday was terrific. What a terrific view you can see from the top of the hill! — Do you like Alice? — Of course I do. She is terriiic., to show off (u): Don’t show off! Why do you always want people to think you are important? Jane is always showing off. to show sth off: Sue wanted to show off her new dress, a show-off {informal)'. Is Nick really a show-off? Ill') to care [кеэ] (u): 1 to care a lot, not to care at all, to care about sth: to care about birds, to care about the environment, to care about one’s marks. She doesn’t care about money. She cares a lot what she looks like. I don’t care what we do or where we go. — Do you mind my using your dictionary? — I couldn’t care less. She cares (about) what people think. ^ deaf — глухой ( ал, -ue) 22 t -да-5’----- ' 2 to care for sb/sth: Does she still care for him? — No, she doesn’t. I’m not sure, she has ever been in love with him. Do you care for modern music? 3 to care to do sth: Would you care to join us? Would you care to go for a^A^^lk? 4 care (ri): medicine care, care and attention, with love and care to таке care or sb/sth: to take care of one’s pets. Will you take care of opr guests? ' jealous ['фе1э5] {adj): a jealous husband, a jealous look, a jealous girl to feel jealous of sb/sth: They are jealous of your success. Joan has always been jealous of Charles. When Ann kissed the baby, the older child felt jealous. to cheat [tji:t] (u): to cheat in a game, to cheat at cards, to be caught cheating. We don’t like playing games with Jack because he cheats. Sam was caught cheating at the exam and disqualified, cheat (n, slang): Let me tell you this, mister: you’re a cheat! cheat-sheet (n): Anna is an excellent student and doesn’t need any cheat-s^o^ ,at the exam. flavour f^flefva] (n): a strong flavour, a nice flavour, an apple flavour, a flavour of onions. The soup has a strong flavour of chicken. Which flavour ^ould you like? flavoured (ady): strawberry-flavoured, cheese-flavoured, onion-flavoured. Strawberry-flavoured ice cream is my favourite. Have you ever tasted -, cheese-flavoured crisps? rotteh ['rotn] (adj): 1 rotten fruit, rotten vegetables, rotten eggs, rotten wood. If you use rotten wood for your house, the house won’t come out strong. Throw these apples out: they are rotten. 2 {informal) a rotten book, a rotten actor. I hate this programme on television, I think it’s rotten. sltiy {adjy. a silly boy, a silly answer, a silly question. This may sound a silly question, but how do you learn your English? Don’t be silly, there’s nothing to worry about. “You, silly little bear,” said ^^^ristopher Robin to Winnie-the-Pooh. harm [ha:m] (n): a lot of harm, no harm. What harm is there in staying up a little later? He means n^^harm. to do^frAfih/to do mo^d^iiarm tlian^ good: It wouldn’t do her any harm to work a bit harder. I don’t think you should punish them for this — it would probably do more^harm than good, to crefepc (crept, crept) (v): to creep upstairs, to creep silently. The dog crept under the car to hide. Look! The cat is creeping towards the bird! creeps — to give sb the creeps: I hated that horror film — it really gave me the creeps. 23 3t UNIT 1 Give it a name: 1. the taste of food 2. clever, with a quick mind 3. pleasing you very much, wonderful 4. damage 5. the highest part 6. not fresh enough to use 7. foolish 8. angry and sad because you want what another person has 9. better than others in what you know or can do 10. to behave in a way that attracts attention to you 11. someone who is not honest 12. to move slowly or secretly 13. to mend something 14. to look after something 15. to have a feeling against something 40 Complete the sentences using the words from Ex. 37, Ex. 38. 1. Everyone knows that smoking can do a lot of ... to your health. 2. In the autumn forest there was a smell of ... leaves. 3. The drink was sweet and had the ... of oranges. 4.1 don’t believe you. I think you are ... . 5. Sam came ... of his class in the math test. 6. Lisa proudly ... her new dress to her friends. 7.1 don’t really ... where to go on holiday. 8. My favourite rock group gave a ... performance yesterday, it was the best I had ever seen. 9. In the film the main character killed his brother because he was ... of him and his success. 10.1 don’t ... you staying with me at all. I like your company. '41 Name a few things that can be: A terrific smart fix rotten advanced care for silly dumb jealous take care of В mind show off ^2 Speak about the two brothers — Abel ['eibal] and Cain [кеш]. Use these words and word combinations. 1 Abel ' advanced smart terrific to come top of the class not to show off to care for to do good Cain dumb rotten to cheat to do more harm than good to fix sb up not to mind one’s own business jealous 24 UNIT 1 1*оси/ stupid/dumb {АтЕ) silly foolish not sensible showing bad judgement lack of good sense {глупый, тупой, бестолковый, дурацкий) childish not worth taking seriously {глупенький, несмышленый, неразумный, неумный) not thinking about the possible results, probably leading to serious problems in the future {глупый, безрассудный, взбалмошный) It is a stupid plan and it will never work. You're behaving like a silly little girl. Driving at such a speed is really foolish. You stupid idiot — why have you said that? Children do some silly things sometimes. It was foolish of me to accept a lift from a stranger. It is stupid/dumb to giggle all the time and to take nothing seriously. Kate did something silly and childish — she got up and ran out of the room. We were foolish to buy such an expensive house. 43 Express the same in English. 1. В те дни я был всего лишь взбалмошным и наивным (naive) юношей. 2. Вы не возражаете, если я закрою дверь? В коридоре слишком шумно. 3. Ребятишки пробрались наверх, стараясь не разбудить своих родителей. 4. Тебе не повредит, если ты будешь больше времени проводить на воздухе. 5. Учитель посмотрел на Ника, и тот спрятал шпаргалку в парту. 6. Когда бы он не делал покупки, он вечно покупает подгнившие фрукты и овощи. 7. Когда мы были в походе, мы приготовили одно блюдо с очень необычным вкусом. 8. У нее никогда не бывает хороших оценок по математике, но ее это совсем не волнует. 9. Алиса вечно рисуется! Ну не глупо ли с ее стороны? 10. Я думаю, у нас было потрясающее путешествие по Австралии. 11. В твоем возрасте глупо вести себя подобным образом. 12. Ты взял машину отца без разрешения. Это было опасно и очень глупо. 25 UNIT 1 i ' ^ Pocu/ to do sth to have sth done 1. My mother cuts my hair once a month. 2. Aunt Polly always makes her blouses, dresses and trousers. 3. The Browns have painted their cottage themselves. 1. Lucy has her hair cut at the hairdresser’s. 2. Betty always has her clothes made for her. 3. The Greens have had their cottage painted. It is yellow now. Mary and Clare are sisters. Mary is very handy and can do a lot of things herself when Clare asks other people to help her. Read the sentences about Mary and speak about Clare. ШеХаМР1Е: Mary always makes her own clothes, but ... Mary always makes her own clothes, but Clare has hers made. r L n r; :.i^D ..j-i Mary Clare 1. Mary paints the walls in her rooms herself, but ... 2. Mary usually cuts the grass in her little garden, but 3. Mary washes her sheets and pillowcases herself, but . 4. Mary often manicures her hands, but ... 5. Mary plants flowers in her front garden, but ... 6. Mary mends the roof of her garage regularly, but ... 7. Mary sometimes repairs her car, but ... 8. Mary washes her car every Saturday, but ... 9. Mary cleans her house properly every month, but ... 10. Mary cooks her Sunday meals, but ... 11. Mary redecorates her house now and then, but ... 26 р UNIT 1 4S Work in two groups. Let each group have an interviewer whose task is to find out how many students in his/her group do things themselves and how many have things done for them. You may use some of the ideas below. ^eXaMPLE: Do you feed your pets or do you have'your pets fed (for you)? to mend holes in the clothes to water plants in your garden to shorten long clothes to paint doors and windows to fix shelves in your flat to repair things in the house to do the flat (room) to sharpen knives to cook meals to do shopping to make your clothes to iron clothes VLi/TENINO CoMPREHENnON 46 A. Make sure that you know these words and word combinations. to be in charge — быть главным, отвечать за все to be in a bossy mood — быть в настроении покомандовать elevenses [I'levnziz] — легкий завтрак в 11 часов утра lettuce [Metis] — салат {растение) beer [bio] — пиво to scream with delight — визжать от восторга to look guilty ['gilti] — выглядеть виноватым В. Listen to the text ‘‘But You Promised You Wouldn’t Tell” (No 4) and say why: 1) Dad was often in charge on Saturdays; 2) the children disliked the idea of having salad for lunch; 3) Mum wanted them to eat salad for lunch; 4) Mum didn’t allow them to have biscuits for elevenses; 5) Dad laughed when Kitty exclaimed she would turn into a rabbit if she ate any more lettuce; 6) the morning passed quickly for the children; 7) Kitty and Daniel ate biscuits for elevenses after all; 8) Dad agreed to eat out and have fish and chips; 9) Kitty told Mum what had happened; 10) Mum was not cross with her husband; 11) Mum was making fish and chips for supper. 27 UNIT 1_____________________________________ с. Say what: a) you think Mum’s job could be; b) your opinion of all the members of the family is (father, mother, the children); c) you would do if you were: — the father of the family; — the mother of the family; — the children (during the elevenses, at lunchtime, in the evening). D. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “But You Promised You Wouldn’t Tell”. ^Reading for Di/cu//ion 47 cm Read the text and say who put sand into every bin in the van. Malcolm’s Story (After Paul Jennings) Well I came top of the class again. One hundred out of one hundred for Maths. And one hundred out of one hundred for English. There isn’t one kid in the class who can come near me. Next to me they are all dumb. Even when I was a baby I was smart. Since then I have always been very advanced for my age. Every year I win a lot of prizes: top of the class, top of the school, stuff like that. I won a prize for spelling when I was only three years old. I am a terrific speller. If you can say it, I can spell it. I can spell every word there is. Some kids don’t like me; I know that for a fact. They say I’m a show-off. I don’t care. They are just jealous because they are not as clever as me. Last week something had happened. Another kid got one hundred out of one hundred for Maths too. That never happened before — no one had ever done as well as me. A kid called Jerome Dadian beat me. He must have cheated.^ I was sure he cheated. It had something to do with that ice cream. I decided to find out what was going on. Ш ’ He must have cheated. — Он, должно быть, списывал (жульничал). 28 UNIT 1 scratch It all started with the ice cream man, Mr Peppi. nail The old fool had a van which he parked outside the school. He sold ice cream, all different types. He had every flavour there is, and some that I had never heard of before. He didn’t like me very much. He told me off once. “Go to the back of the queue,” he said. “You pushed in.” “Mind your own business, Pop,^” I told him. “Just hand over the ice cream.” “No,” he said. “I won’t serve you unless you go to the back.” I went round to the back of the van, but I didn’t get in the queue. I took out a nail and made a long scratch on his rotten old van. He had just had it painted. Peppi came and had a look. Tears came into his eyes. “You are a bad boy,” he said. “One day you will get into trouble. You think you are smart. One day you will be too smart.” I just laughed and walked off. I knew he wouldn’t do anything. He was too soft-hearted. He was always giving free ice creams to kids that had no money. The silly fool. - There were a lot of stories going round about that ice cream. People said that it was good for you. Some kids said that it made you better when you were sick. One of the teachers called it “Happy Ice Cream”. I didn’t believe it; it never made me happy. All the same, there was something strange about it. Take Pimples Peterson for example. That wasn’t his real name — I just called him that because he had a lot of pimples. One day Peppi heard me calling Pimples that name and gave Peterson a purple coloured ice cream. “Here, eat this,” he said. “I £im giving it to you for nothing. It will help you get rid of your pimples.” I laughed and laughed. Ice cream doesn’t get rid of pimples, it gives you pimples. Anyway, the next day when Peterson came to school he had no pimples. Not one. I couldn’t believe it. The ice cream had cured his pimples. torch Pop — папаша {AmE) 29 UNIT 1 I made up my mind to put a stop to this ice cream business. Jerome Dadian had been eating ice cream the day he got one hundred for Maths. It must have been the ice cream making him smart. I wasn’t going to have anyone doing as well as me. I was the smartest kid in the school, and that’s the way I wanted it to stay. I wanted to get a look inside that ice cream van to find out what was going on. I knew where Peppi kept his van at night. So at about eleven o’clock I crept out of the house. There was no one around when I reached the van. I opened the door with a crowbar and shone my torch around inside. I had never seen so many tubs of ice cream before. There was every kind of ice cream you could think of: tasting of apple and banana, cherry and mango, blackberry and watermelon, and about fifty other flavours. Right at the end of the van were four bins with locks on them. I went over and had a look. These were his special flavours. Each of them had writing on the top. This is what they said: Happy Ice Cream for cheering people up. Nose Ice Cream for long noses. Pimple Ice Cream for removing pimples. Smart Ice Cream for smart alecks. mango # blackberry cherry watermelon lock Now I knew his secret. I decided to fix Peppi up once and for all and put sand into every bin in the van. But first I ate some Smart Ice Cream. It couldn’t do any harm. Not that I needed it — I was already about as smart as you could get. Anyway, I gave it a try. I left the van and went home to bed, but I couldn’t sleep. To tell the truth, I didn’t feel too good. So I decided to write this. It iz the nekst day now. Somefing iz hapening to me. I don't feal quite az smart. I have bean trying to do a reel hard sum. It iz wun and wun. Wot duz wun and wun make? Iz it free or iz it for? 30 __________________________________________________UNIT 1 i Imagine that you are Malcolm and answer these questions on his part. 1. What are your grades in English and Maths? What do you think of yourself as a pupil? 2. What do you think of your classmates? What do you think is their opinion of you? 3. What made you think of Jerome Dadian last week? You were much surprised, weren’t you? What made you think he had cheated? 4. What can you say about Mr Peppi and his van? Why do you think he didn’t like you very much? 5. Why didn’t you get in the queue? What did you do at the back of the van? What was Mr Peppi’s reaction to what you had done? 6. What was strange about the ice cream Mr Peppi sold? Who called it “Happy Ice Cream”? 7. What happened to Peterson after he had eaten Mr Peppi’s ice cream? 8. What made you get into Mr Peppi’s van? Was it difficult or easy to do it? What did you see inside? What did you do in the van? 9. How did you feel after you had eaten some Smart Ice Cream? 10. Can you find and correct the mistakes you made in the last part of your story? ^9 A. Match the phrases in English and Russian, find and read out the sentences with them in the text. 1. to know for a fac 2. to tell sb off-__ 3. to get into troub 4. to walk off 5. to get rid of s 6. once and for alb 7. to give sth a try^ ^ 8. to tell sb the trutll 9. stuff like that a) избавиться от чего-то ^ b) сказать правду / с} и всякое такое отчитать кого-либо ) раз и навсегда попробовать что-то знать наверняка (точно) ) попасть в беду i) уйти, отойти В. Express the same ideas using the phrases above. 1. You should memorize these facts and remember them forever. 2. He never tells lies. 3. If I were you, I wouldn’t throw your old teddy bear away. 4. Len loved telling the children his stories of robots, talking machines and things of this kind. 5. You’ll have a lot of problems if you park your car here. 6. Don’t tell me I’m wrong: I know this for sure. 7. Tom nodded to us and went away without saying a word. 8. Mrs Brooks spoke strictly to her niece about the girVs manners. 9. Today I want you to write a short poem, children. Let's see if you can manage it. 31 UNIT 1 ________ _________________________________________ Look through the text again and say what Malcolm thinks about: I) his ability to spell; 2) Jerome Dadian; 3) Mr Peppi; 4) Mr Peppi’s ice cream; 5) Mr Peppi’s order not to push in; 6) the stories going round about the ice cream; 7) Mr Peppi’s secret. Say who or what in the text is described as: 1) dumb, 2) terrific, 3) advanced, 4) jealous, 5) rotten, 6) smart, 7) softhearted, 8) silly, 9) free, 10) long. II ^ Listen to the text “Malcolm’s Story” (No 5) and learn to read it artistically in the announcer’s manner. ^/peaking II Explain why: ^Di/cu//ing the Text 1. Malcolm thought that all the kids in his class were dumb. 2. Malcolm was sure that he had always been smart. 3. Malcolm’s classmates said he was a show-off. 4. Malcolm didn’t care what his classmates thought of him. 5. Malcolm said he knew for a fact that Jerome Dadian had cheated. 6. Mr Peppi told Malcolm off once. 7. Malcolm made a long scratch on Mr Peppi’s van. 8. Tears came into Mr Peppi’s eyes. 9. Malcolm knew it for a fact that Mr Peppi wouldn’t punish him. 10. Malcolm wanted to put a stop to all that ice cream business. 11. Malcolm decided to eat some Smart Ice Cream. 12. Malcolm’s spelling had become almost unreadable. S4 A. Say which of these statements are true about Malcolm. 1. Malcolm was jealous of other people’s success. 2. He had little respect for other people. 3. He was a good friend. 4. He was a liar and a cheat. 5. He was a good student. 6. He was a show-off. 7. He understood other people’s problems. 8. He was a smart aleck. 9. He was a clever boy. 10. He was soft-hearted. B. A lot of people could call Malcolm “a swot”. A dictionary says that “a swot is a student who works extremely hard and takes little interest in other things apart from his or her studies”. Do you think it is a compliment to be called a swot? What do you think is the closest Russian word for it? 32 ± UNIT 1 ss A. Characterize Malcolm. Say what you think of him and if you would like to have him for a friend. Explain why or why not. B. The events the story describes can’t be true-to-life. Do you like stories that have some mystery in them? Can you remember one of them and tell the class what happened in it? и Use the reported speech and tell Malcolm’s story on the part of a) Mr Peppi; b) one of Malcolm’s classmates (Peterson, Jerome Da-dian). S7 Think of a different end to Malcolm’s story. Tell your story to your classmates. Decide whose story was the most unusual and original. VDucu/ЛNc THE Topic Q® Topical VocABULMtY M. People look for jobs at different places. One can: • be employed by the government or a company • work/be freelance We often speak of: • full-time jobs • part-time jobs • regular jobs • odd jobs People may lose their jobs, become unemployed and have to look for new jobs. II. Jobs can offer the following prospects: • promotion • financial reward “ • perks and bonuses w«^ • good job opportunities (in the place where you live) 2 Английский яшк. 8 кл. 33 •CD UNIT 1 III. я Yoar choice of a j^^c^ be influenced s neeaed • your personal qualities y°“>" bent for a job • thd^'tH Ings'^you ^e good at , • qualities of the job • your interest • your talent • your ambition the necessity your wish to study further pressure from your parents (relatives) your friend’s example IV. Jobs can be attractive or not attractive. These are the qualities that make them such. attractive jobs unattractive jobs creative rr\M>fиМ^ tiring i' V. Different jobs can require: • accuracy r^^UAXt^vA • courage a good imagination a lot of (little) experience 0!^ьги0 meeting people physical strength ct —• doctor children’s doctor surgeon ["8з:фэп] L physician [fi^zijn] . -I** interpreter/translator^'-^^”^^^ ‘ • interior [шЧюпэ] decorator -f* journalist [’фз:пэ1151] f •f» lawyer [4o:j9] c-j/ruP. -• librarian fulxu^’ y* machine [ms'Ji^n] operator -f-» model (fashion model) musician [mjur'zijn] VII. of the century are: nurse Mccc'i ^ photographer [ГэЧодгэГэ] physicist ['fizisist] ^ police officer ^<мыи*г/т -j' programmer ['ргэидгаетэ] editor ['edits] •^electrician [1,1екЧпГп] — engineer [,епф'шэ] ^ estate [I'steit] agent fashion designer ^ fireman -f hairdresser ['he9,dres9] ^ ’ receptionist [n'sepjanist] -— secretary social worker •— sports instructor teacheryir/'^M^^ '— primary school teacher secondary school teacher travel agent '*r vet (veterinarian [,уе1эгэ'пеэпэп]) pharmacist ['faimssist] Read the words from section VII of your Topical Vocabulary with the help of the transcriptions, supply them with Russian equivalents and explain what people in those jobs do. Focuf A job is the work that a person does regularly in order to earn money. A profession is a job that requires special training, often a university education and brings a rather high social status. An occupation is a job or profession. A career is the series of jobs that a person does in his or her life, usually in one and the same field. 35 UNIT 1 ___________________ __________________________ Put in the correct words: job, profession, occupation or career. СОиГСО-Г 1. His ... as a pilot came to an end after a bad road accident. . , 2. — How long had Victor been unemployed? — He’s been looking for aj.'ub for three months. • ^ 3. Please write yourthis form and hand it in. 4. My mother is a teacher. I like this ... and I may follow her in her footsteps. tilbcU 'Ob < to Which of the jobs in section VII (Topical Vocabulary): 1) are dangerous; 2) require a university degree; 3) are primarily done by men (done only by men); 4) are primarily done by women; 5) are most prestigious; 6) are least prestigious; 7) are well paid; 8) are hardly paid (in the place where you live). Look at the pictures and say what jobs you associate with these objects, then explain what people in these professions usually do. - ^ ж-s WeAAMPLE: These-ere an axe, a saw and |i^plane^^They-are usually associated with the job of a б^реМег/д oarpenter is a person who is skilled at making and repairing wooden objects. 36 UNIT 1 'iy Л') /(■ ^ Л 6i Give names to the descriptions of these jobs: 1. a person whose job is to help people with the law or talk for them in court; 2. a person whose business is to buy, sell or look after houses/land for people; A hou^ 3. a person who does work to improve bad social conditions and help people in need; WOrfctt 4. a person who welcomes or deals with people arriving at a hotel, at a place of business, visiting a doctor; rtC£^i>Oiust 5. a person trained to look after sick animals; гч t icccu^ 6. a person whose job is to work with electricity; 7. a person who prepares or organizes a newspaper, periodical or book; 8. a person who^ studies chemistry, a scientist who specializes in chemistry; Or 9. a person who makes and sells medicines; 10. a person who owns a travel agency or works there and whose business is to arrange travels. e/ » Choose the correct adjectives (section IV of your Topical Vocabulary) to complete the sentences and characterize the occupations ■mentioned. very ... and ... profession. 2. Last year career and came to some remote area to 1. Linda says that John gave up a rea become a farmer gineer is not as'ili 'ais^lhe life of an architect. —Well, I spend a lot of time travelling. Sometimes five or six hours a day in my car. It’s very ... . a. ^ You are not going to tell me that the life of an en-L as th 37 UNIT 1 4. People who work as firemen should be brave as their job^^ very ... . 5.1 have always thought that any job in the theatre is very ... . People who work ^ a(^€STATOPES SAPIENTIA 70 or 285 Suses^ an c f --'/V ■e ’ ^/>1 ur JX^ ^ Ы>гЫ-ф- How are The organized? r ^ “ They are in forms of about 25, gjsi^^ljy; l^j^j^^some a little more. In the Sixth Form the forms can be in single figures."^ Each. Form has a Form имгг Tutor. liC^^CUO^ What about th^ curriculum, GCSEs and A levels? у GCSE boys studj^ seyen cpp suojects an^^|hree p^Jiions from thirteen, and at A Level fr(^h^five to six subjects from" a range of a^o What about Information computers? There are computers .,^Tdu^'ouOne sc^pl^^We have two I^o^i^|;ion _ Technology labs wfth up-to-d^e eqmpm^h^all witlf Interpet, acc^sTs^ ^ere es room. The-'dse 6f it as a Ibarnihg LL- , ur curriculum. How do y^pu teach science?. 0cc6*\ We are not a co-ed school but we have close links with Girls High School. A Level Theatre Studies and Russian are taught together. A lot of Djj^m^ and Music is done co-operatively. BasM on comnibn sense and reasonably rejta3<^ed and frjopdly, because the atmos^^ere in^^y^ scho^l^i^^bqilt on tolerance and mUtu^^ respect. I^or beJiAyi^r^ 'espeemlify apy. form bullying is treated very firmly. Relations оеШееЬ^ boys and btaVf are‘excellent. '< 6 ' And the food? X0f>0(-^^-^> It’s excellent too! We now serve breakfast as well as lunch. How easy is it to get in? It is difficult to say. It depends on whether Hampton is right for the boy as much as whether the boy is right for Hampton. Each year there are large numbers of applicants who sit the entrance examination. ----------- -C-' '. f. ' end-of-term reports: both in Britain and the USA teachers write a statement about a child’s work at school, sent to his parents 54 UNIT 2 0) preparatory c) co educational in the other forms. 19 Read the text (Ex. 18) again and choose the right item to complete the sentences. 1. Hampton School pupils can stay in the school till ... . a) 2 p.m. b) 4 p.m. @ 5 p.m. 2. Hampton School is open ... days a week, a) 5 Ъ) 6 c) 7 3. Hampton is a ... school, a) day b) boarding 4. Hampton is a ... school, a) girls' boys' 5. In the Sixth Form there are a) more pupils than b) fewer pupils than (c) the same number of pupils as 6. Pupils in Hampton ... . a) don't choose any subjects b) choose all their subjects (c) choose some of their subjects 7. Hampton School pupils use computers ... . a) only at Information Technology lessons b) only at lessons of modern languages (j6) O't different lessons 8. In Hampton School Biology, Chemistry and Physics are ... . (^ separate subjects b) one subject c) not taught 9. The modern language that is not taught in Hampton is ... . a) Spanish b) Russian Italian 10. Hampton School pupils and Girls High School pupils are taught The- atre Studies and ... together, a) Russian b) swimming 11. Hampton School pupils can have a) 1 fi) 2 1. P science ... meal(s) during their school day. c) 3 12. To get in Hampton children .. / a^ have to sit an exam b) don't have to sit an exam c) have to take an interview 55 UNIT 2 п 7L> П] leWQoCi“>Culc. /7) 10 English equivalents for these: 1. внеклассная работа out-^-C^SS womc 2. работники школы S-CCLt^ 3. округ, район, откуда школа набирает учащихся 4. однозначные цифры 5. классный руководитель 6. учебный план, включающий самые разные предметы 7. основные предметы 8. три предмета по выбору 9. информатика 10. лаборатория Со^Ь^ 11. доступ в ИнтернетCUCC£SS ■. J ■ .12. средство обучения и преподавания 13. учитель с высшим образованием Сс 14. разделение класса на группы по способностям 15. ежегодная выдача наград сспгшА/^ Prize IQ. письменная характеристика, свидетельство об успехах ученика в школе 17. родительское собрание, вечер встречи с родителями 18. система проверки способностей и профессионального ориентирования 19. университет или университетский курс, который они предпочитают всем другим 20. тесные связи 21. основанная на здравом смысле и достаточно свободная , 22. терпимость и взаимное уважение 23. травля, запугивание в любой форме строго наказываются 24. большое количество кандидатов (детей, желающих учиться в этой школе) 11 What other three questions would you like to ask about Hampton School? ‘New Language ^Grammar /ection /. More Facts about the Subjunctive Mood If I were you. I wouldn't do it (now). I wouldn't have done it (then). 56 r-i UNIT 2 If Jane were older (now), she wouldn’t have done it. If Nick were a wise man, he would have agreed (then). If Bob had had breakfast in the morning, he wouldn’t be hungry now. If Ann had followed the doctor’s advice, she wouldn’t be sick now. It Choose the right verb form to complete the sentences. 1. If Ian {went/had gone) to university when he was younger, he {would be/would have been) a lawyer now. 2. If Melissa {didn't have/hadn't had) an interview last Monday, she {wouldn't have/wouldn't have had) a regular job now. 3. If Nick {didn't follow/hadn't followed) his friend’s example, he {wouldn't be/wouldn't have been) a very good surgeon. 4. If the Hogs {didn't travel/hadn't travelled) in Africa about five years ago, their children {wouldn't know/wouldn't have known) so much about African fauna. 5. If I {weren't/hadn't been) encouraged by my parents to do English when I was at school, I {wouldn't be/wouldn't have been) a successful translator. 6. James’ ambition has always been to become a singer. If he {didn't try/hadn't tried) to learn to sing when he was younger, he {would do/would have done) it now. u Express the same in English. 1. Если бы Джонни не смотрел вчера ночью футбольный матч, он бы не был теперь таким уставшим и сонным. 2. Если бы я не навестила бабушку в выходные, я бы сейчас не знала о ее решении. 3. Если бы Роуз закончила свой доклад в прошлую пятницу, она начала бы новый проект в следующий понедельник. 4. Если бы Пол любил плавать, он бы ходил с нами в бассейн прошлым летом. 5. Мэри не чувствовала бы себя сейчас такой несчастной, если бы ее дети позвонили ей вчера, чтобы поздравить ее с днем рождения. 6. Если бы маленький Вильям не купался в холодной воде, он не был бы сейчас болен. 7. Я бы играл с вами в теннис, если бы взял уроки тенниса прошлой осенью. 8. Нам бы не пришлось поливать сад, если бы вчера пошел дождь. 9. Я бы пошла в гости (на вечеринку) завтра, если бы купила то симпатичное платье, которое мы видели вчера в магазине. 10. Если бы ты раньше сказал мне правду, я бы не чувствовал себя так глупо сейчас. 57 UNIT 2 14 Make up sentences as in the example. ШеХаМР1Е; If he hadn’t spent all his money yesterday, he would be able to buy a ticket for the new film now. then now — he spent all his money — he can’t buy a ticket for the — we missed our train new film — she failed her exam in maths — we are late for the conference — they didn’t tell us the truth — she has to take the exam again — the plane didn’t arrive on time — we don’t know what to do — I didn’t have any time for the — we have problems with our picture gallery luggage — The party wasn’t a success — we don’t know anything about — We didn’t go to Brighton this modern artist — they arrange another party — we don’t look suntanned at all H Say ten things about yourself as in the example. ШеХаМРЕЕ: When we are very young we have little experience. If had known then what I know now, I ... a) I would be much happier now; b) I shouldn’t have played so much on the computer. **But for** structures If John hadn’t helped us, we wouldn’t have got the job. But for John’s help we wouldn’t have got the job. If Pauline weren’t ill, she would go to the conference. But for Pauline’s illness she would go to the conference. !6 Express the same in Russian. 1. But for her remark (замечание) they wouldn’t have complained about the noise. 2. But for Tom’s new job he would go on with his education. 3. But for my parents I would not have visited Paris. 4. But for the rain they would have gone out. 5. But for grandpa’s hearing aid he would have no channel to the news. 6. But for Caroline’s new friend I wouldn’t feel that worried about her. 7. But for the conference Philip would never have come back to his native city. 58 UNIT 2 Ч Make the sentences complete. 1. But for the rain .... 2. But for the late hour .... 3. ... we would have met our friends at the station. 4. ... the result of the work would be much better. 5. But for the text that we have to write tomorrow ... . 6. ... John would have taken the job. 7. But for her old-fashioned clothes .... 8. But for your friend’s advice .... 9. ... the teacher wouldn’t have given Jane a bad mark. 10. ... his story would be a lot longer. t8 Express the same in English. 1. Если бы не ваши бутерброды, мы бы ужасно проголодались во время экскурсии в ботанический сад. 2. Ты бы чувствовал себя лучше, если бы не высокая температура. 3. Если бы не мамин телефонный звонок, я бы сейчас очень волновался. 4. Если бы не глупая шутка Джона, Лиза не плакала бы вчера после уроков. 5. Если бы не грязные ботинки, Тед выглядел бы очень нарядным на вчерашней вечеринке. 6. Если бы не твоя помощь, я бы никогда не приладил эту дурацкую полку. 7. Если бы не твоя шпаргалка, учительница не сердилась бы на нас сейчас. 8. Я бы поверил ему тогда, если бы не его хитрая (deceitful) улыбка. ^2^ Match the captions with the pictures. b)You realize, of course, that if you hadn’t failed your English, you could think - of a career of a T-shirt slogan writer,^- c) Look how nice and' clean and restful it’s here ^ now. But for the new prices we would have a crowd and a lot of work. d) If last time I was here they hadn’t taught me to read and write, I wouldn’t be here for forgery. CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND NO BAaOAMES, SHOUTWO,RUNNING. CYCLES,SCOOTERS, CLIMBING,nOHTlNQ, KICKING OR ROWING 9^ECT 59 UNIT 2 II. Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison Adverbs as Modifiers An adverb modifies^ a verb, an adjective or another adverb adding meaning to them. An adverb usually tells when, where, how, to what extent.^ 4 beat'Я when: soon, now, then, early, late, today, tomorrow, yesterday, some- times, etc. cx ^J^ere: here, there, everywhere, inside, far, near, up, etc. ‘ ow: well, badly, carefully, loudly, easily, fast, hard, etc. to ^^cient: very, really, too, terribly, rather, quite, almost, etc. Peter acted bravely, {how?) John will arrive soon, {when?) Polly laughs everywhere, {where?) The sky turned unusually dark, {to what extent?) The audience was very quiet, {to what extent?) He came rather late, {to what extent?) Ron waited extremely patiently {to what extent?) JQ Find the adverbs In these sentences and say what they express and what word or words they modify. ^eXaMPLE: I went out early. The adverb is "early”, it says "when” and modifies the verb. 1. We quickly raised the flag. 2. That team always wins the basketball qmcKiy r; s. "'ЗТТогп, games. 3. Tom, sit here! 4. The dog growled angrily. 5. Molly saw that movie yesterday. 6.1 sometimes forget my own telephone number. 7. We prefer to have tea щдМе:. 8. Cats can walk silently. 9.ДегУоиа1ут she trifea to explain what had happened. 10. Anna interprets .wqlL She knows Spanish better than the other girls. 11. We couldn’t walk too far that evening — a'thunderstorm began. 12. The castle stood far from the road. ' to modify ['modifai] — определять, уточнять * to what extent — до (в) какой степени 60 UNIT 2 J] Read the text and find in it adverbs answering these questions: when? where? how? to what extent? A Some great discoveries are made accidentally. In Egypt in 1799, a French army officer was walking slowly. He looked down, saw a highly unusual stone, and examined it quite carefully. The large, rather flat stone was partially buried in the mud. It was quickly pulled from the mud and very thoroughly cleaned. Inscriptions in three languages had been painstakingly carved on the stone. The very first inscription was in ancient Egyptian. The second inscription was in somewhat later Egyptian language. The third was in a more familiar language, Greek. The message was identically stated in the three languages. Ancient Egyptian writing had previously puzzled scholars. The easily readable Greek finally gave them the needed key. Eventually, the ancient Egyptian writing was translated. Now scholars can read the language fairly easily. Today, the historically important Rosetta Stone is permanently displayed in London’s British Museum. Formation of Adverbs I. easy easily clumsy clumsily happy -ly happily busy ■ly busily noisy noisily lucky luckily j heavy heavily gay' gaily II. dry dryly/drily sly* -ly slyly/slily wry^ wryly III. simple simply gentle gently whole -ly wholly I due duly true truly ^ IV. cheerful cheerfully beautiful -ly beautifully typical typically loyal loyally sly — хитрый wry — кривой, перекошенный 61 UNIT 2 31 cm As you see most adverbs are formed from adjectives with the help of the suffix -/y. Form adverbs from the adjectives in the box. Make up three sentences to show how they are used. Example bright — brightly careful, careless, clever, wild, bad, slow, brave, unusual, clear, quick, beautiful, brilliant, loud, patient, correct, foolish, soft, quiet 33 Express the same using adverbs. Write the sentences down, mind the spelling. Ше^амрее / John His speech w^s cheerful. — He spoke cheerfully. 1. The footballers stopped their match as there^was a heavy rain. 2 is wonderfuly&t nraltiplying bigmumbers. 3. Jane gave us a dry answer. 4. Rose is a clumsy cook. 5. It is true that David is happy about his new job. 6. Mrs Abbot gave us a sly smile and nodded. 7. They gave us simple and clear answers. 8. I’m sure uncle Joe did not believe us. Did you notice his wry smile? 9. Why are you so noisy moving along the corridor? 10. We express our whole agreement with you. Adverbs: Degrees of Comparison Absolute (positive) Comparative Superlative^ I. - -er -est 1. Односложные long longer longest и двусложные near nearer nearest наречия, совпадающие по форме с прилагательными. early earlier earliest * Comparative and superlative forms are used more commonly for adjectives than adverbs. Superlative forms are very rarely used as adverbs, while comparative forms are occasionally used. 62 UNIT 2 Продолжение Absolute (positive) Comparative Superlative I ! 2. Некоторые soon sooner soonest односложные 1 наречия. You have to work harder (longer, faster). “Least said, soonest mended.” (jjroverb) II. j - more ... most ... 1 Многосложные patiently more patiently most patiently наречия. frequently more frequently most frequently оканчивающиеся на -ly. dangerously more dangerously most dangerously Jane drives more carefully than you do, but John drives most I carefully. III. - -er/more ... -est/most ... 1. Двусложные brightly brighter/more brightest/most наречия на -ly. brightly brightly образованные clearly clearer/more clearest/most от односложных clearly clearly прилагательных. nicely nicer/more nicely nicest/most nicely 2. Некоторые cleverly cleverer/more cleverest/most 1 трехсложные cleverly cleverly 1 наречия easily easier/more easily easiest/most easily i на -1у. heavily heavier/more heaviest/most i heavily heavily i Who ran slower (more slowly), the tortoise or the hare? Our choir sang loudest (most loudly) of all. 3. Некоторые often oftener/more oftenest/most двусложные наречия. often often ‘ I come to this park oftener (more often) than you do. ; 63 UNIT 2_____________________________________________________ 34 Choose the right adverb forms to complete the sentences below. 1. Jane smiles {more brightly, most brightly) than the sun. 2. Alice explained everything {completely, more completely) than Sarah. 3. Who arrived {most late, latest) at the party? 4. Jill climbed {higher, highest) of all the climbers. 5. Andy spoke {lou^r, more^lbuder) than usual. 6. Melissa danced {more gra^efullu, most 'gracefully) of all. 7. Of ^11 three, this boy runs {faster, fastest). 8. Today it rained {heavier, more heavy) than yesterday. 9. Harriet swam {slower, slovfest) of all. 10. The President spoke {calmly, more calmly) to Congress than to his helpers. 35 Say which of these sentences are right and correct the wrong ones. 1.1 hope that next time you’ll speak to your uncle more politely. 2. Peter usually comes to his classes most late of his classmates. 3. Who can solve this problem most quickly? 4. This time he^ listened to his little sister ■ patienter than usual. 5. Could you speak ^tit^e slower, please? 6. When I was a very young child I thought that to sing best meant to sing loudest. 7.1 think that now I see the whole problem much more clearly. 8. Who lives mor^ ne^^a the school — you or your friend? 9. Alice goes to the theatr^'^'^tf&quentestfbf us all. 10. Will you raise your hands a bit higher, please? I can’t see them. 11. In December it snows oftener than in November. 12. He knows^Jihree languages but he speaks English easiest. 13. Last night I slept peacefulli^ than before. 14. Could you come to school more early and water the plants tomorrow? 15. This new computer works most fast and can solve problems in no time. 36 Express the same in English. I. Ты не мог бы вести машину медленнее? 2. Если мы не пойдем быстрее, мы ни за что (never) не придем вовремя. 3. Поезд прибыл раньше, чем обычно. 4. В течение нескольких часов шел сильный дождь. 5. Моя старшая сестра Джейн помогает маме чаш,е всех других членов семьи. 6. Джон приехал позже всех. Жаль, что он не приехал раньше. 7. В нашей команде было пятеро мальчиков. Из этих пяти спортсменов Том прыгнул выше всех. 8. Из трех врачей миссис Финч разговаривает с медсестрами терпеливее всех. 9. Собака наших соседей лает громче, чем наша. 10. Мой брат пишет бабушке чаще, чем я. II. Анна говорит по-французски более бегло, чем все остальные ученики. 12. Сегодня утром нет тумана, и мы можем более ясно видеть дорогу. 13. Два маленьких мальчика боролись более храбро, чем ты. 14. Он живет ближе всех к школе Хэмптон. 64 UNIT 2 Social Engli/h ^VOCABUIARY /eCTION C1A//R00M Engli/h 37 ШОЭА! an English lesson pupils are expected to speak English to their teachers. Learn to do it correctly in different situations (No 10). X- . — ■ "s. I. You have a problem: I’m afraid I can’t speak any louder. I seem to be losing my voice. Л /пСрЛ/-С^ паРЛ x. I have a sore throat. 'if . CUmJ. I have a headache, jM/хЛ бслсот I’m feeling a bit under the weather, a itC^^yC^tO I’m sorry I’m late. . I’ve overslept, л C/ I’m afraid I’ve left my book at home. Я Cf<>/£>c6 Л ^ Could I leave ten minutes earlier? лС fCUfCO^ I’m sorry I couldn’t attend the class yesterday: I had an appointment ^Onx ceJrs. with the doctor. ^ Sorry, I can’t see welh'^frbm' whdre I am. '/(Ш< appointment о/с%-<Г II. You are confused or have a request: t ;tc ^ t'v I’m sorry I didn’t write that down. Could you say it again? J ' Could you explain again, please? ул ^ ^ ^ Which paragraph are we on? ^ Where are we? What page are we on? I'-i (rU2 it t What do we have to do next? J-ал Огап}' Could you write this word up on the board, please? fie uroi^ Could I have a copy, please? Яг///( u .cl/U ЛСь..-1Г:^ Sorry, I didn’t quite hear what you said. /C( a ) i(a/a Sorry, I can’t find the place, i (xs diCx^ Sorry, I can’t hear. Could you turn it up? yf ((j: r\ ----------------------- --------------) L ., r --y.». /'■ ^/. Lf/i ~ O'У U' 0-Sr III. You ask for instruction: Shall I read silently (to myself) or aloud? Shall we write (copy) that down? Shall I go to the blackboard? Shall I rub (wipe) the sentence off? Shall I leave the sentence on the board? Shall we do the exercise in our workbooks? Are we supposed to finish this off at home? Is it my turn? (Am I next?) у «5 ^ У C-. 65 3 Английский Я1ЫК, 8 КЛ. UNIT 2 IV. You offer help or ask for permission: Shall I turn the lights on (off)? We’ve run out of ch^lc. May I fetch some? Shall I draw the curtains? Shall I pull down (up) the blinds? Shall I put up the screen? May I help with the tape recorder? May )I go outside? Mayyl change my seat? The sun is in my eyes. V. You have a language problem: How do you say this in English? How do you spell the word ... ? Is there another (a better) way of saying this? Is the word order right? I think I can see a mistake on the board. There’s a letter missing in the word ... There’s one letter too many in the word ... Are there two Ts in the word ... ? Could you use the future here? Does it sound good English to say ... ? VI. You inform vour teacher: I think I’m ready. I think I’ve finished. I think it’s my turn. I haven’t had a turn, I’m afraid. 3S Think of what you say when: 1) you apologize for missing a class; 2) you need a copy of something; 3) you are not sure how to spell the word; 4) you are late for your class; 5) your teacher is speaking too quietly; 6) you’re not sure what line to read; 7) you apologize for leaving the book at home; 8) there’s no chalk at the board; 9) you have a problem speaking louder; 10) you’re going to watch a film and you want to help the teacher; 11) you want to find out if the teacher wants the sentence on the blackboard or not. 66 UNIT 2 v/5 39 Express the same in English. 1. Должны ли мы закончить это дома? 2. На каком мы сейчас вопросе? 3. К сожалению, я не мог прийти на урок вчера, я был записан к врачу. 4. В слове “travelling” не хватает одной буквы. 5. Можно мне тоже копию? 6. Кажется, сейчас моя очередь. 7. Простите, я не расслышал, что вы сказали. 8. Я проспал. 9. Не могли бы вы объяснить это снова? 10. Нам это списывать? 11. Извините за опоздание. 12. Простите, я не могу найти нужное место. 13. В слове “break” лишняя буква. 14. Как ото лучше сказать по-английски? 15. Я плохо вижу отсюда. 16. Можно я перейду на другое место? Мне солнце светит в глаза. 17. Мне читать вслух? 18. Я плохо себя чувствую. 19. Не могли бы вы написать это слово на доске? 20. Сейчас моя очередь? 21. Правильно ли так сказать по-английски? 22. Можно выйти? ' 0W, 2 5 ^Phra/al Verb to break JJ to break away — убежать, освободиться The criminal broke away on the way to the police station. It’s time to break away from your old habits. 5 to break down—a) ломать(ся), рушить(ся) The police broke the door down. My bike has broken down, may I use yours? b) потерять контроль над собой, раскиснуть When Lucy failed the exam she broke down and cried. ^ a) to break into — врываться, вламываться Last night my neighbour’s house was broken into, b) to break into a run (a smile, laughter, applause, song, tears) — неожиданно начать делать что-то The child looked at the pieture and broke into laughter. At the sight of the broken toy the little girl broke into tears. ^ to break out — разразиться, начаться What’s the matter? — A fire broke out in the hotel. I don’t know what will happen if panic breaks out at the stadium. 67 40 UNIT 2 ______________________________ Use the right word: away, down, into or out. 1.1 hope that the barriers between the old and the young will break 2. Fighting brokebetween two groims of football fans. 3. The young people on the train suddenly broke/(^(^ong. 4.1 broke ftH'^^rom him and rushed to the door. 5. How awful! My new washing machine has broken 6. The arms holding him were not strong and he easily broke .... 7. A lot of local wars break‘s in modern world. 8. After the tragedy Paul’s health broke4?^. 9. My horse broke'»J^^a gallop. 10. The epidemic ЬгокеСШ suddenly and turned out to be unusually long. Change the sentences to use the phrasal verb to break. 1. Who gave you the right to get into my house without permission? 2. Do you remember when the First World War started? 3. This television doesn’t work, but we can watch the film next door. 4.1 don’t think it will be easy for John to give up the habit of smoking. 5. Tom always started laughing when he came to this place in the book. 6. People won’t soon forget the night when the terrible storm began. 7. I’m not surprised that poor Mary lost control and cried. 8. The bad news is that our talks failed. 4t Make up a short story around one of these phrases. 1) The car broke down in the middle of the road. 2) The fire broke out at midnight. 3) She broke into a hysterical laughter. OiiO- iiO-lCSC 4) And then he began thinking of how to break away. 6 ^ •New Word/ to Learn ^2 A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. jJiO.\UX, Witchcraft ["witjkraifl] is the skill of using magic powers, to make especially bad things happen. In the Middle Ages people believed that witches wore long black clothes, tall black pointed hats, could fly through the air on broomsticks and knew all the^cre^ of witchcraft. — Can you name some Greek philoS'opners — Yes, Aristotle [’aeristDtl] is one of them. He lived in the 4th century BC (384—322 BC) and has had a great influence on Western thought. _______.______ __________________ UNIT 2 CUtO/»^ < John is a caretaker, his job is to look after the building of our school. Sometimes he deals with small repairs to it. Cleopatra le^ndary Queen of Egypt famous for her beau- ty. The legendary ^vis lKesley born in 1935 in America, was the most successful and influential person in popular music from 1956—1963. He died in 1977. Bill can’t concentrate oil Ins work when he is hungry. The crowds concentrated round the palace. n*=;'' /. Everything that is round a place, a person, etc. can be called surroundings. Animals in a zoo are not living in their natural surroundings. Emma wrote to her aunt that she was living in pleasant surroundings. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. /// 44 cm Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. a dormitory ['doimatn] (n): a dormitory is a sleeping room (usually a big bedroom) with several or a lot of beds in a school or some institution. Boys who live at school sleep in dormitories. a witard ['wizad] (л): a wizard is a magician, a man who has magic powers. He is usually shown in fairy stories as an old man with a point(^ h^ and a long cloak who uses a magic wand to do spells, wizardry [^wIzadn] (n): a wizardry is the performing of magic, the process and the result of doing spells. Witches, wizards and fairies are taught at speciaj^ist schools of wizardry. to enrol, (enrolled, enrolling) [in'raul] (v): to enrol at a college, to be enrolled at a university, to enrol on a course [ko:s]. He wants to go to college to enrol on an art course. My friend enrolled at the University of^ J^pgdon. Why have you enrolled on this English course? a queue 1K)u:] (n): a long queue, a queue of people, a queue for sandwiches, to join the queue, to be in the queue for coffee, to jump the queue, a queue jumper. Mary hated the idea of standing in long queup^.^,,The Am^ wo^^ for “queue” is “line”, to queue (up) (queued,^queueing/queuing) (u): to queue for the bus, to queue to buy tickets. People queued at the entrance to the cinema. When he came to a new place people always queued up for his auto-gr^l>. En^ish people often say that queueing is their national hobby, to vanish [VaeniJ] (u): to vanish from sight, to vanish into thin air, vanishing species. When she heard his words the smile vanished from her face. In a second the car vanished from sight. The police couldn’t find him: it seemed that he had vanished into thin air. 69 .UNIT 2 ________________________________________________________ to tickle ['tikl] (v): to tickle someone, to tickle a baby, to tickle the ba-by’5 feet. Babies like to be tickled. This blanket tickles. solid [ solid] (adj): 1 a solid wall, a solid box, solid ice, solid wood. Our boat struck hard against something solid. 2 solid gold. I believe the ring is made of solid gold. 3^ol^^ a^yi^e. This is solid advice, if I were you. I’d take it. to^orce [Jd:s] (u): to force on (upon) someone, to force someone to do something, to force a door, to force your way. Don’t force this medicine on me, I don’t want it. They had to force their way through a big crowd. No one can force me to do a dishonest thing like this. The l^oli^ce foj*ced, the door and rushed into the house. force (n): by force, from force of habit. I said that I had done it only from force of habit. The patient was made to stay in bed by force. to squeak [skwi;k] (v): I heard mice squeaking in the hole. The door of the room squeaked. The old bed squeaks whenever I move. a i(j^:^an one hear the squeaks of bats? squeaky (adj): Her voice was squeaky and unpleasant. What can we do with this squeaky door? a mess (n): to be (in) a mess. What a mess! Look at your bedroomi Isn’t it a mess? Your hair is in a mess, comb it. After the party there was a terrible mess on the floor. messy (adj)'. What ^ ^rr^le messy place! I’m not staying here. to mess i(u): ^ to mess li^a^room. Why do you always mess up our kitchen when you cook? 2 to mess about (around). Some boys and girls mess about in class when they should be working. He spent all day just messing about. complicated ['kbmplikeifid] (adj): a complicated situation, a complicated machine, a complicated problem. This is a very complicated problem, we won’t be able to solve it now. The situation is too complicated, let’s discuss it later. It’s rather complicated to explain, but I’ll try. rare [геэ] (adj): a rare flower, a rare beauty, a rare hobby. I have some rare plants in my garden. My grandfather’s hobby is to collect rare rarely 4adu): I’ve rarely seen her so unhappy. Alice rarely, if ever, goes .out. to relieve [riMi;v] (u): to relieve pain, to relieve trouble, to be relieved. This is the drug that relieves headaches. I’m relieved to hear that Jane . is feeling better now. relief (n): with relief, a sigh of relief, a sense of relief, to one’s relief. To my relief I didn’t have to wait long. 70 _____________________________________________UNIT 2 to dronfe [droun] (i>): 1 An aeroplane droned overhead. A bumble-bee droned in 'the air. 2 to drone on. To ‘drone on’ means to talk boringly for a long time in a low monotonous way. He droned on about his trip though no one was listening.. Л' ' - ^ droning {adj)'. What’s that droning noise? to warn [wo:n] (u): 1 to warn to do sth, to warn sb about/of sth. I don’t know why she fell. She had been warned about the stairs. I do ask you to warn her not to go there alone. The message warned of possible danger. 2 to warn against sth/sb, to warn against doing sth. He warned me against going there at night. We were warned against these people, a wanting Xh): A warning of the danger of smoking is on every pack of cigarettes. Let it be a warning to you. 4S Match the words with their definitions: 1) to concentrate 2) a queue 3) solid 4) messy 5) to vanish 6) to tickle 7) a dormitory 8) to relieve 9) rare 10) a philosopher 11) to force 12) a caretaker 13) a wizard a) hard, strong, reliable b) to disappear c) a big bedroom for a lot of people d) not often seen e) to take away pain or worry f) to think hard about or look hard at something g) someone who studies philosophy h) a line of people who are waiting to do something i) dirty, untidy j) to touch someone lightly so that he feels funny and laughs k) to make someone do something when he doesn’t want to l) a man who has magic powers m) someone whose job is to look after a building 46 Put in the prepositions for, in, on, at, by, about, of where necessary. 1. Excuse me, what are you queuing ...? 2. As we have very little time, let’s concentrate ... our business. 3. How are you feeling ... your new surroundings? 4. 1998 was the year when Charles enrolled ... London University. 5. Sorry, but I can’t make Sue join in the game ... force. 6. Would you like to enrol ... a French course? 7. It’s very impolite to jump ... queues. 8. His room is usually ... a terrible mess. 9. ... Mary’s relief the film was quite good. 10. Don’t say I didn’t warn you ... possible problems. 71 UNIT 2 ' Ьосш' ^ ‘ to disappear to vanish 1. to go out of sight 1. to go out of sight suddenly or The sun disappeared behind in unexpected way a cloud. The magician on the stage made the rabbit vanish. 2. to exist no longer 2. to exist no longer These birds are fast disappear- Many species of animals have ing. now vanished from the face of the earth. 47 Complete these sentences. Use your new vocabulary. 1. This doctor is a real ... : he can work miraclesi 2. She waved to me and ... out of sight in the crowd. 3. Sam and Peter, stop ...ing about or you’ll leave the classroom immediately! 4. Cats like to be ... under their chins. 5. Do you know that this watch is very expensive? It’s made of ... gold. 6. Look at this ...! When will you tidy your room, Kate? 7.1 very ... go to the cinema, I prefer to watch video films at home. 8. Ulanova is a ... figure in the world of ballet dancing. 9.1 did this without thinking, in fact I did it from ... of habit. 10. Which of these courses would you like to ... on? 11.1 hate ...ing, when I see a line of people I go away. 12. If the task is too ... for you, let me know and I’ll help. 13. The house is situated in very pleasant .... 14. The pupils of the boarding school decorated their classrooms and ... for the New Year. 15. The mother was ... to find out that her children were out of danger. 48 Answer the questions to practise the new words. 1. Do you sometimes mess about at school? When do you do it? 2. What do you do to relieve headaches? 3. Have you ever found yourself in a complicated situation? What was it? 4. Have you ever been forced to do something? When was it? 5. What do people generally do when doors squeak? 6. Does any of your friends have a habit of droning on about his plans and interests? 7. Where do the boys and girls who live at boarding schools sleep? 8. Where do you think witches, wizards and fairies get their education? 9. When do people sigh with relief? 10. When do parents usually enrol their children at schools in Russia? 11. What insects drone? 12. What animals squeak? 13. What legendary characters in history do 72 UNIT 2 you know? 14. Can you give names of some rare plants or animals? 15. Have you ever been warned against some people? What people were they? Name 3-5 things that can be: a) messy b) complicated c) rare d) solid e) squeaky. so Change the part of the sentences in italics. Use your new vocabulary. . , l.This watch is made of gold, d he re, is no other metal in it. 2. In old times women suspected of kavi^9^(^ic powers and making bad things to people often burned. 3. The wizard turned up and ^^s^^ond later you should tell nim wha people we^ discijp^Pdrea out of sight. 4. John, ^ inmk you snouia teu nim wna^ra^v^^-^j^^ happen. 5. He gave us ybt^ j^liaote'&dvice. 6. It’s rather difficult^io explain but I’ll try. 7. Notat^all often you can wa^^ ^ beautiful sunset. 8.^h^ decided to join the art course by being officially registered. 9.1 hate standing in lines^ and who doesn’t? 10. The situation was not as bad as he had been warned about, and David was no longer worried (because of this). j SI Express the same in English. 1. Я предупредил ее, чтобы она одна не выходила. 2. Волшебник взмахнул рукой, и кролик неожиданно исчез. 3. Тебе нравится, когда тебя щекочут? 4. Он бубнил что-то о своей «интересной» работе, и это раздражало (irritated) всех. 5. Двух-трехмесячные младенцы не могут есть твердую пищу. 6. Этот цветок редко встречается в Великобритании. 7. Пусть это служит тебе предостережением. 8. Где живут колдуны и ведьмы? 9. Давайте сосредоточимся на новом тексте. 10. В нашей школе недавно появился новый сторож. 11. Он один из тех, кто вечно старается пролезть без очереди. 12. Он хотел поступать в университет и записался на подготовительный (preparatory) курс английского языка. 13. Думаю, мне очень скоро понадобится надежный совет. 14. Полицейские выломали дверь и ворвались в дом. 15. Надеюсь, теперь вы испытываете облегчение. 16. Мэгги выросла в уютной обстановке старого загородного дома. 17. Я не люблю этот новый свитер, он щекочется. 18. Тема (subject) слишком сложная, чтобы обсуждать ее с малышами. 19. Через секунду машина скрылась из виду. 20. «Я здесь», — сказал кто-то писклявым голоском. 73 \J •f оси/ UNIT 2 -/----- to learn 1. We learn something so that we get some practical skills and know to do it. a) I’m learning to be a painter. b) How long have you been learning German? c) You should really learn to drive? 2. We learn facts, words, numbers, lines (often by heart). a) The play is next week and she hasn’t even learnt her lines yet! b) Little Joan has learned the poem well. to study 1. We study something so that we get the theory of the subject (especially by reading books about it and attending classes at school or college). a) Nick studies to be a surgeon. b) At 18 she moved to Boston to study music there. c) In Britain less than 10% of girls choose to study science at school. But: 1. учиться в школе — to go to school, to be at school учиться в университете — to be at university, to be a student We were both at school together. Lizzy would like to go to university. узнать что-то — to learn something (= to find out) We learn sth when we find out sth or get to know it. We learnt the details much later. He learnt of her arrival from the newspapers. He found out how it all happened from the police. 52 Choose the right verb to complete the sentences. 1. Anita is {learning/studying) to swim. 2. Miles is {learning/studying) medicine at college because he wants to be a doctor. 3. We must {learn/ study) the map before we start our journey. 4. You must {learn/study) this poem. 5. I’m trying {to learn/to study) French. 6. She is {learning/ studying) to be a doctor by watching the work of her more experienced colleagues. 7.1 {learnt/studied) to ride a bicycle when I was four. 8. We soon {learnt/studied) to do as we were told in Mr Spinks’ classi 74 rf; UNIT 2 ^LfTENINO CoMPREHENЛON A. Make sure that you know these words. to retire [пЧагэ] — уйти на пенсию а trash can (АтЕ) — мусорный бак to do втЬ а favour — сделать кому-то одолжение not to be made of money — не быть богачом to exclaim — воскликнуть ^ В. Listen to the text “Let There Be Peace” (No 11) and say which answers to these questions are right. 1. What was there near the old gentleman’s new house? A junior school. d) a public library. 2. What did he enjoy doing in his free time? a) Watching TV. Reading books. 3. What changed in the gentleman’s life when a new school year began? (J) He began to be troubled by some noise made by young boys. d) He began to be troubled by some noise made by the school bus. 4. What did the old gentleman suggest that the boys should do? a) He suggested that they should stop beating on the trash cans. He suggested that they should continue beating on the trash cans. 5. Did the old man go down or up on the money he promised to pay the boys? ^ He went down. d) He went up. 6. What did the boys do when they were promised 25 cents? a) They did the job for this money. ^ They refused to do the job for this money. C. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “Let There Be Peace”. 75 UNIT 2 EAOING FOR Dl/CU/ЛON Read the text “Hogwarts”^ and say who was the only pupil that was a success at the first Transfiguration lesson. Hogwarts (After Joanne K. Rowling) Harry Potter is the main character in the series of books by Joanne K. Rowling. We first meet him in the book “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone". At the beginning Harry thinks he is an ordinary boy until he finds out that he is a wizard. Being a wizard, he is enrolled at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The text below describes Harry's arrival at the school. He and his new friend Ron meet their new teachers and get to know their new surroundings. He also realizes that he is quite a legendary figure among the pupils and the staff who heard about him before. scar “There, look.” “Where?” “Next to the tall kid with the red hair.” “Wearing the glasses?” “Did you see his face?” “Did you see his scar?” Whispers followed Harry from the moment he left his dormitory next day. People queuing outside classrooms stood on tiptoe to get a look at him. Harry wished they wouldn’t, because he was trying to concentrate on finding his way to classes. There were a hundred and forty-two staircases at Hogwarts: wide ones; narrow ones; some that led somewhere different on a Friday; some with a vanishing step halfway up that you had to remember to jump. Then there were doors that wouldn’t open unless you asked politely, or tickled them in exactly the right place, and doors that weren’t really doors at all, but solid walls just pretending. It was also very hard to remember where anything was, because it all seemed to move around a lot. The people in the portraits kept going to visit each other and Harry was sure the coats of armour could walk. staircase * Hogwarts ['hogwats] coats of armou 76 UNIT 2 The caretaker of the school was called Argus Filch. Harry and Ron managed to get on the wrong side of him on their very first morning. Filch found them trying to force their way through a door which unluckily turned out to be the entrance to a corridor where pupils were not allowed. He wouldn’t believe they were lost, was sure they were trying to break into it on purpose and was threatening to lock them in the dungeons^ when they were rescued by Professor Quirrell, who was passing. And then, once you had managed to find them, there were the lessons themselves. There was a lot more to magic, as Harry quickly .found out, than waving your wand and saying a few funny words. They had to study the night skies through their telescopes every Wednesday at midnight and learn the names of different stars and the movements of the planets. Three times a week they went out to the greenhouses behind the castle to study Hebrology, with an elderly little witch called Professor Sprout, where they learnt how to take care of all the strange plants and fungi ['fAi^gi:] and found out what they were used for. Easily the most boring lesson was History of Magic, which was the only class taught by a ghost. Professor Binns had been very old indeed when he had fallen asleep in front of the staff-room fire and got up next morning to teach, leaving his body behind him. Binns droned on and on while they scribbled down names and dates. Professor Flitwick, the Charms teacher, was a tiny little wizard who had to stand on a pile of books to see over his desk. At the start of their first lesson he took the register, and when he reached Harry’s name he gave an excited squeak and fell off his pile of books. Professor McGonagall was again different. Harry had been quite right to think she wasn’t a teacher to cross. Strict and clever, she gave them a talking-to the moment they had sat down in her first class. “Transfiguration is some of the most complex and dangerous magic you will learn at Hogwarts,” she said. “Anyone messing around in my class will leave and not come back. You have been warned.” fungus dungeon ['dAncfean] — подземелье, темница fungi needle 77 UNIT 2 _____________________________________________________ Then she changed her desk into a pig and back again. They were all very impressed and couldn’t wait to get started, but soon realized they were not going to be changing the furniture into animals for a long time. After making a lot of complicated notes, they were all given a match and started trying to turn it into a needle. By the end of the lesson, only Her-mione Granger had made any difference to her match; Professor McGon-agall showed the class how it had gone all silver and pointy and gave Her-mione a rare smile. Harry was very relieved to find out that he wasn’t miles behind everyone else. Lots of people had come from ordinary families and, like him, hadn’t had any idea that they were witches and wizards. There was so much to learn that even people like Ron, whose mother was a witch, didn’t have much of a head start. A. See how well you remember the text. Choose the right item. 1. ... had a scar on his face, a) Harry 2. Harry’s problem was ... . a) doing his homework b) Ron b) finding his way to classes 3. Argus Filch, the caretaker ... Harry, a) liked b) disliked 4. History of Magic was the ... boring lesson, a) most b) least 5. Professor McGonagall changed her desk into a ... . a) sheep b) pig 6. Harry ... miles behind anyone else in his class, a) was b) wasn't B. Say ‘true’ or ‘false’. 1. A lot of pupils at Hogwarts wanted to take a look at legendary Harry Potter. 2. There were a hundred and forty-two doors at Hogwarts. 3. Things in the school moved around a lot, even the people in the portraits went visiting each other. __________________________________________________UNIT 2 4. The caretaker wanted to punish Harry and Ron by locking them in the classroom. 5. At one of their lessons the pupils at Hogwarts studied the stars and planets. 6. They studied Hebrology in the greenhouses. 7. Professor Binns who taught History of Magic was a young wizard. 8. Professor McGonagall thought that Transfiguration was an easy subject to learn. 9. At the first lesson the pupils were asked to turn a match into a needle. 10. Some of the Hogwarts pupils came from ordinary families and some came from families of witches and wizards. A. Match these phrases with their Russian equivaients: 1) on tiptoe ^ r 2) to scribble down 4 3) to give someone a good talking-to 4) to make notes 5) to go silver and pointy 6) to have a head start^ 7) to get to know (p 8) to keep doing something / 9) to get on the wrong side of someone C i 10) to crossy I ■€t)-делать записи -b)-узнать, познакомиться не понравиться кому-то d)” иметь преимущество 'е) на цыпочках f)- нацарапать сделать серьезный выговор -Ь)-стать серебристым и острым 4)- продолжать делать 44 сердить В. Express the same in Russian. mhuM jwcai- l.The old man scribbled down his name with a snaking hand. pupil in the school knew that they they got omthe^ wrong side of Miss Trunchbull. 3. tiptoe rmly left her bedroom and went down the stairs. 4. The teacher told her pupils to keep reading )ks and^en^^l^^e.^^^K^jwere you, I wouldn’t punish the child ажооСишк1.0й^о. 6/From the very beginning of the race their ^bj but g: Sam had^^rread' 2tl§iH7T7T’ir*get to know more about Rome after I visit it. 8. Try to get on the right sicje 9. Ben was in the habit of making careful^otos/oi every lecture. 10. The boy suddenly went red in the face with anger. 11. Butter goes soft if УО%^л ^ leave it on the table. 12. A loud noise in the classroom usually crosses//^ teachers. 79 UNIT 2 ___________________________________ У1 Say when these things can happen. ШеХаМР1Е: Ice goes liquid when you bring it indoors. 1) to go grey (about hair) 2) to go sour (about milk) 3) to go mad/crazy (= to get angry) 4) to go free (about countries) 5) to go white (in the face) 6) to go red (in the face) 7) to go right/wrong (about things) Focu//- 1. Then there were doors that 1. Кроме того, там были двери. wouldn’t open unless you asked которые не желали откры- politely... ваться, пока их не попросишь вежливо. 2. May I use your pen? Mine 2. Можно я воспользуюсь твоей won’t write. ручкой? Моя не пишет. 3. Sally pushed the door hard. 3. Салли сильно толкала дверь. but it wouldn’t open. но та никак не открывалась. Express the same in Engiish. 1. Помоги мне, пожалуйста. Окно никак не открывается. 2.—Постарайся отпереть (unlock) дверь. — Я стараюсь, но ключ не поворачивается. 3. Трудно вести машину, если твои руки отказываются держать руль (wheel). 4. Эта книга есть в каждом книжном магазине, но она никак не продается. 5. Я жду уже десять минут, а чайник никак не закипает. В. 1. Коробка, которую ребятишки нашли в лесу, никак не открывалась. 2. Машина не заводилась (start), и я понял, что опоздаю. 3. Я хотел принять ванну, открыл краны, но вода не текла (run). 4. Хотя в комнате кто-то был, ручка двери (handle) не поворачивалась, а дверь не открывалась. 5. Он пытался идти вперед, но ноги его не двигались. ^ Listen to the text “Hogwarts” (No 12) and learn to read it artistically in the announcer’s manner. 80 UNIT 2 Fociu ч- In every language there are words that imitate the sounds produced by living beings and things. It’s useful to remember some of them. Mice and bats squeak. Horses neigh [nei]. Snakes hiss. Frogs croak [кгэик]. Ducks quack [kwaek]. Dogs bark and growl [graul]. Little birds chirp and twitter. Wolves howl [haul]. Geese cackle. Bees and bumble-bees buzz and drone. J Match the names of these 1) cats a) 2) cows b) 3) sheep c) 4) pigs d) 5) cocks . e) 6) hens f) 7) chickens g) 8) crows h) 9) doves i) 10) tigers j) grunt mew coo bleat cluck caw Describe a hot summer day in the country. Use as many sound imitation words as you can. 81 UNIT 2 PEAKING ^DifcumNG THE Text 62 Remember the text "Hogwarts” and explain why: 1) Harry Potter was enrolled at Hogwarts; 2) Harry’s popularity among the pupils and the staff didn’t please him; 3) it was hard for a newcomer to find his or her way at Hogwarts; 4) Argus Filch, the caretaker, disliked Harry and Ron on their very first morning at school; 5) magic was more than just “waving your wand and saying a few funny words”; 6) some of the classes were held at midnight; 7) the pupils at Hogwarts needed to study Hebrology; 8) Professor Binns was an unusual teacher; 9) Professor Flitwick fell off his pile of books the day he met Harry; 10) everyone understood that Professor McGonagall wasn’t a teacher to cross; 11) Professor McGonagall changed her desk into a pig at the beginning of her first lesson; 12) the pupils were not asked to change the furniture into animals; 13) Professor McGonagall gave Hermione Granger one of her rare smiles; 14) even pupils coming from families of witches and wizards didn’t have much of a head start. 6S Describe in as much detail as you can: 1) Harry Potter 2) the interior of Hogwarts 3) what the pupils at Hogwarts were supposed to do in some of their classes 4) some of their teachers (professors Sprout, Binns, Flitwick, and McGonagall) Speak about your first impressions of Hogwarts on the parts of Harry, Ron or Hermione. Act out a talk between Harry and Ron (Hermione) about their first impressions of the school. Compare Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry with an ordinary school. Say what makes them different and alike. 82 UNIT 2 ^Di/cu//ing the Topic 0^ Topical VocABUiARY If you want to describe a system of education, you may need these words: 1 1 • primary education • to go to school • secondary education • to be at school 1 • higher education • to attend school i • compulsory education • to finish/leave school i • school age • a school-leaver 1 i When you are at school in Britain you may be: 1 • in the 1st (2nd, 3rd, 4th) form • a first former, a second former, • in the sixth form a third former etc. When you are at school in the USA you may be: \ • in the 1st (2nd, 3rd, 4th) grade • a first grader, a second grader. a third grader etc. Education can be given in various types of schools: Г • state schools • nursery schools (kindergartens) • independent schools • primary (infant/junior) schools • private schools • secondary (high) schools • boarding schools • special schools ■"> • day schools • schools specializing in English ) • co-educational (mixed) (Maths, Biology etc,) schools • preparatory schools • comprehensive schools • public schools If you speak about school exams you may need these words and word 1 combinations: • to take an exam in ... • GCSE exams • to pass an exam in ... • A level (advanced level) exam • to sit (for) an exam in ... • to take A levels 1 • to fail an exam in school-leaving certificate • GCSE (General Certificate of school-leaving certificate exam i Secondary Education) ! School may be organized differently, but the usual organization includes: 1 t • three or four terms • regular classes on weekdays • school holidays (vacation AmK) • breaks (including a longer lunch break) 83 UNIT 2 A school building usually has: an assembly [a'sembli] hall a cloakroom classrooms a recreation area offices a medical room a staff room a library laboratories (labs) a gym a canteen a history room a geography room a music room an English (French) room science laboratories a biology room (laboratory) a chemistry laboratory a physics laboratory a language laboratory the Headmaster’s (Headmistress’s) office In every school in Russia and abroad pupils: do various subjects write tests (essays and examination papers) go on outings are engaged in after-class activities • sometimes cheat and are punished • prepare/get ready for exams • have their works marked and graded • are assessed by their teachers Ч- оси/ high school High school in Britain is a secondary school for children often for girls, aged between 11 and 16, used especially in names. Manchester High School Bath High School High school in the USA is a general term denoting a common school for children aged 12-17/ 18. In practice high school in the USA usually means senior high school (for ages 14-18). public school Public school is a private fee-paying British and especially English secondary school where children (aged 13-18) usually live as well as study. Public schools are known for their high academic standards and are prestigious. They are expensive and attended usually by people of high social status or with a lot of money. Public school in the USA is a free local school, controlled by the state, for children who study there but live at home, thus it means a school supported by public funds, and corresponds to British English state school. 84 UNn 2 67 Give it a name: 1) a highly prestigious private fee-paying boarding school for pupils aged 13-18 in Britain; 2) to go on short pleasure trips for a group of people; 3) a pupil of the first form in Britain (in the USA); 4) any room in a school where teaching is done; 5) a secondary school in Russia where English is taught at an advanced level; 6) a usual term to describe a state secondary school in the USA; 7) to check up students’ knowledge and give them marks; 8) an exam taken at the age of 16 in British comprehensive schools; 9) schools for children who have a disability of mind or body, where they are given special help; 10) a place in a school where meals are provided; 11) education or training at universities, colleges and polytechnics; 12) exams taken at the age of 18 in British schools; 13) a school at which pupils live as well as study; 14) a period of time when schoolchildren can play or talk. 66 Answer these questions about your school. 1. Is yours a big school? How many pupils has it got? 2. Is it a state or an independent school? 3. Do your parents have to pay fees? 4. Does your school specialize in a certain subject or subjects? 5. Does your school select prospective pupils or does it take any children? 6. How is your school day organized? 7. What after-school activities do you have? 8. How big is your school building? Does it look attractive? 9. What is there in your school building? 10. Where is the school situated? How do the school grounds look? 11. What improvements^ would you like to make in your (f iniCi Cr Ul Look at the questions that were asked about Hampton School (Ex. 18). How would you answer the same questions about your own school? 85 UNIT 2 71 Look at the picture and: Hampton School PHySiCS. ECONOMICS. GEOGRAPNy. ART ROOMS. CHEMiSTRy. Classics. BIOLOGy PHySICS. CHEMiSTRy. СОМРиЛМС. BIOlOGy CTH FORM CENTRE HISTORy LECTURE THEATRE CAREERS 1. pretend that you’re a Hampton School pupil taking newcomers about the school; 2. arrange a talk between a new pupil and an old pupil about Hampton School grounds. Arrange a real or an imaginary tour of your own school. Take turns in playing the role of the guide. 75 / rSpeak about vour schooling. Mention: , ^ j__________ с/ Л ^ УО fcAceC .A^oh^ ^ ^ 1) when you started school ^ ^ J 2) what school it was J ^ ^ 3) if you ever changed schools and why ^0 Пг<л>' 4) what exams you have taken or are going to take 5) your plans for the future . /ШЛ f -7 86 ЦХ^САПЛ CC I'O^ T t<.u is Cl \/е/И О ;■ О.» a UNIT 2 Look at these diagrams. A. Compare the systems of education in the USA and Britain. B. Draw a diagram describing the system of education in Russia. Speak about this system. Mention: 1) pre-school education 2) primary education 3) secondary education 4) compulsory schooling 5) subjects taught 6) examinations taken 7) private schools class (Ж school school class NURSERY SCHOOL or KINDERGARTEN (optional) 3 NURSERY SCHOOL (optional) reception class 5 KINDERGARTEN year 1 INFANT 6 first grdde year 2 SCHOOL 7 second grade year 3 JUNIOR PRIMARY 8 ELEMENTARY third grade year 4 SCHOOL SCHOOL 9 SCHOOL fourth grade year 5 10 fifth grade year 6 11 sixth grade year 7 12 JUNIOR seventh grade year 8 13 HIGH SCHOOL eighth grade SECONDARY SCHOOL Uf ninth grade (freshman) year 10 15> HIGH SCHOOL tenth grade (sophomore) year 11 16 eleventh grade (junior) year 12 SIXTH FORM COLLEGE 17' twelfth grade (senior) year 13 18 freshman firsi year (fresher) 19 COLLEGE sophomore second year POLYTECHNIC 20 Junior third/finai year 21 senior 87 и ■3 I 0 I 1 h i ^T| UNIT 2 75 76 iMCOMZ -iUr/r^ Describe an ideal school as you see It. /jf Describe a school of one hundred years from now. l/CELlANEOUr 77 EE Listen to the poem (No 13) and read it. Try to do your own translation of this famous poem. A Red, Red Rose (By Robert Burns) Л/ О О, my love is like a red, red rose, That’s newly sprung in June. O, my love is like the melody, vJ4.^г^ That’s sweetly played in tune. As fair art thou, my bonny lass. So deep in lov^^^un I, And I will love th^e' still, my dear. Till all the seas go dry. Till all the seas go dry, my dear, And the r(fe;^ks ^elt with the sunl And I will love thee still, my jiear, While the sands of life shall run. Qbb And fare thee well, my only love. And fare thee well a whilel And I will c^me again, my love. Though it were ten thousand milel 71 Did you know that... ... Robert Burns, the national poet of Scotland, was born in 1759 and lived to be 37. He greatly enriched English literature with his unforgettable works. Burns was born the southwest lowland into a poor farmer’s family. Young Robert go^ Kis education at the lo^t^^'^cliool (where he was an excellent English scholar) and supplemented‘it by continuous reading. Evenings would find him reading by candlelight or writing poems with his 88 LI ао ________________________________________________UNIT 2 plough-hardened hands. He wrote about what he knew intimately: the flowering fields and birds singing in the trees, the life of Scottish peasants and the cares and ecstasies of his own heart. Perhaps his best poems are songs of love and nature and his moving often humorous narratives of the joys and mishaps of humble life. , At the age of twenty-seven Robert Burns published a volume of his jp66try. To his зитр:Йё‘ё it was a success and he went to Edinburgh to arrange for a s^c6^nd ed^Jipn. In Edinb^U’^h Burns became a celebrated* • figure among nis admiring readers. *^l&ut Bu^S; Imew that his social success in Edinburgh^wouldn’t last long and, returned to the world that he knew so well. He to^ the ppst.-pf gjo^rniherit inspector for the region around Dumfries and combinated ^is new dut^s with farming and writing poetry. At Dumfries, married to the sweetheart of his youth Jean Armour, he spent the last years of his life. He died at the early age of thirty-seven. His best known songs date from these final years.r ... ""Auld Lang Syne” is one of Burns’s most widely known works. It is sung by British people when they celebrate the beginning of the new year at 12 o’clock on December 31st and on other important occ^ions. ^ A. Listen to the song (No 14) and sing it aiong. Auld Lang Syne Chorus: For auld lang syne, my dear. For auld lang syne, We4l take a cup o’ kindness yet. For auld lang syne. I. Should auld acquaintance be forgot. And never brought to mind? Should auld acquaintance be forgot. And days o’ lang syne? II. And there’s a hand, my trusty fiere. And gie’s a hand o’ thine. And we’ll take a right guid-willie waught For auld lang syne. III. And surely ye’ll be your pint-stowp. And surely I’ll be mine; And we’ll take a cup o’ kindness yet For auld lang synel 89 UNIT 2 . □ В In n w ,4:2 I LlJ r Е.П Г! ща I •3^' 4^ в. Sing the same song in Marshak’s translation in Russian. Забыть ли старую любовь И не грустить о ней? Забыть ли старую любовь И дружбу прежних дней? За дружбу старую — До дна! За счастье прежних дней! С тобой мы выпьем, старина, За счастье прежних дней. Побольше кружки приготовь И доверху налей. Мы пьем за старую любовь. За дружбу прежних дней. За дружбу старую — До дна! За счастье юных дней! По кружке старого вина За счастье юных дней. И вот с тобой сошлись мы вновь. Твоя рука — в моей. Я пью за старую любовь, За дружбу прежних дней! За дружбу старую — До дна! За счастье прежних дней! С тобой мы выпьем, старина. За счастье прежних дней. ^4 0Q Read these well-known lines and say with which of them you agree and why. L Я." 1. Some of the best lessons are learned from mistakes and failures. 2. The love of money is the root of all evil, but the possession of it is an opportunity for much good. 3. Happiness consists not in having many things, but in needing few. 4. A person needs to be ioved the most when he deserves to be loved the least. 5. Nothing is final. r ^Project Work Prepare some material about your school for the Open House Day. Use photographs and pictures, make it look as attractive as possible. Work in small groups. O’ Ш1^1тз _ODf -□ t « It Shopping: The World of Money eREVI/ION I Listen to the recording (No 15) and answer the questions. a □ I Read aloud the lists of things that you can buy at certain shops and say what shops they are. Sdoeet Sbea Cfotbee chocolate(s) ^ toffees ocfucC€CC fruit-drops lollipops t caramels mints marshmallows biscuits (cookies) sweet pies СЛС1С shortbread(s) cream rolls cheesecakes CHftM/rtA doughnuts П1Л сиг>€ t/ ItUfl ox. /itc^ /ijjr/ (j^iU ham sausages pork beef mutton fri^Ci^uiy^Q minced beef (pork) chicken i±. white (wheat) bread brown (rye) bread French loaves crispbread ves rolls buns C ty^C yC{Zi ^ pastrite уьггх-. Greengrocer's ВПШЕК’Н 91 ■I it UNIT 3 oil jUO^O flour vinegar <^x:cyo mustard^ 'W/l/COCy^^ spaghetti C/Ul^lC sugar bouillon ['bu:jnn] cubes butter jMXc^ O cream c.ccc^^u sour cream c*^UUyCC^/ё peas beets ^turnips /icyui paper clips glue paints brushes /ciCc/fLCC files envelopes I notepads fu Ca. , f r tinned fish caviar(e) oC/<^U salmon ЖРСОС6 crab sticks fish cakes fish fingers 1/'f A ^V> pears l^cuyc plums tangerines ‘ у trousers ^ L shirts c{ skirts и->Я T-shirts sweatshirts coats ^.fehmonger's^ 'Щщ 5!-^ COHttCTlOHtR'S 92 UNIT 3 Make up sentences about how this food is sold. ¥ 1. a bottle of I J 2. a packet of 3. a carton of 4. a jar of Un er П. П . Or UJU n f ril LJW- flrrV_ П i ■■■i u: ifl (. ■ п u о П Г it- UNIT 3 5. а can of 6. a tin/can of 7. a bag of 4 Speak about your preferences and say what: 1. sweet food you*d buy for your birthday party 2. hot meal you’d order in a cafe or a restaurant 3. school lunch you’d call ideal 4. food you wouldn’t eat even if you were hungry 5. clothes you’d like to wear for a teenager party 6. clothes you prefer to wear at school 7. clothes you’d hate to wear 8. presents you like to get and give 9. flowers you’d buy for your mother 10. stationery you like to buy and use -J. : D ^ i i'-Hj T ■ m Л ’ UNIT 3 Look at the pictures and compare the English, American and Russian money. Try and compare the value of a pound, dollar and rouble. 95 tJ UNIT 3_______________________________________________________ Make up a story about a young wizard boy. Begin it with the phrase “Once upon a time there lived a wizard...”. Use in your story the foliowing word combinations. was a philosopher with great love of learning possessed rare abilities of making magic was famous in his surroundings had no real education set off to a legendary school of wizardry had to have an interview was asked a lot of complicated questions concentrated on the task made a mess of his answer was offered to solve a magic problem got into the dormitory with no windows and the locked door was warned that that was his last chance forced (didn’t force) the door was informed that he had been enrolled felt relieved 7 A. Express the same in English: I) записаться на английские курсы; 2) взломать замок; 3) грязный т1ол в спальне; 4) легендарные герои; 5) редкий цветок; 6) неожиданно исчезнуть из виду; 7) сосредоточиться на новых словах; 8) стоять в очереди за мороженым; 9) надежный совет; 10) волшебство и колдовство; II) облегчить боль; 12) бубнить о своих проблемах; 13) предостеречь от рискованной (risky) поездки; 14) новый смотритель; 15) пощекотать (почесать) котенка за ушком; 16) скрипучая дверь В. Маке up ten sentences of your own with the word combinations above. 8 Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1. He didn’t pay much attention to his {surroundings/neighbourhood). 2. The Greens have just moved into our {surroundings/nei^j^ourhood). 3. How many {bedrqgrns/dormitories) are there in your new house? 4. The boys had to keep their {bedrooms/dorrnjdories) in perfect order. They cleaned them every evening before the Headmaster came to inspect. 5. We saw the car suddenly {disappear/vanj^h) round the turn. 6. We watched our friend slowly {disappear/vanish) in the distance. 7. The Good Fairy promised to teach the~boy some of her {witchcraft/wizaairy). 8. Black magic is {witchcraft/wizardry) that is meant to harm people. 9. His huge 96 ______________________________________________ UNIT 3 appetite is {famous/legendary) in our family. 10. The city is {famous/ legendary) for electronic inHustries. 11. Look at your {messy/filthy) handsi What have you been doing? 12. Look at this {messy/filthy) room! What have they been doing here? 13. The lock won’t open: someone has been trying to {force/break) it. 14. The branch {forced/ЬгоЫ) under his weight and he fell down. 9 A. Express the same in Russian. 1. The prisoner broke away from the two policemen who were holding him. 2. The old cars were broken down for their metal and parts. 3. A fire broke out suddenly at dawn. 4. I tried to break down her opposition to our plans. 5. Two youngsters broke into Mr Robinson’s house and committed (совершили) a burglary. 6. Cholera broke out during their journey around Africa. 7. Our TV broke down right in the middle of my favourite film. 8. Do you know when World War I broke out in Europe? 9. When you break away from a group, you stop being part of it. B. Express the same in English. 1. Пора кончать с этой вредной привычкой. 2. При взлете самолет сломался, и полет был отложен на день. 3. После смерти матери HojyiH перестала владеть собой и серьезно заболела. 4. Я знаю, что твоя машина сломана, а тебе нужно ехать на вокзал. Ты можешь воспользоваться моей. 5. Глядя на забавную обезьянку, дети рассмеялись. 6. Почему ты расплакалась, Бетти? Ты испугалась? 7. «Почему вы вломились в мой дом?» —спросил старик у полицейских. 10 Develop the ideas as in the example. ^eXaMPLE: a) I’m not a wizard. If I were a wizard, I would make all people happy. b) I didn’t go to the cinema yesterday. If I had gone to the cinema, I would have enjoyed the film. (I would know what the new film is about.) 1. Harry can’t sing at all. 2. Our team lost the match the other day. 3. The dictation we wrote at the Russian lesson was very complicated. 4. Stephen didn’t warn us that the competition would be hard. 5.1 left my textbook at home. 6. Lucy didn’t enrol on the Spanish course. 7.1 fell asleep in the middle of the melodrama. 8. It rained heavily all day through on Sunday. 9. The new dish was delicious. 10. The children didn’t follow their teacher’s advice. 97 4 Аиг.тПский язык. 8 к.1. UNIT 3 II 1. But the 2. But 3. But 4. But his 5. But 6. But 7. But 8. But 9. But Match the two halves of the sentences. for Alice’s advice to catch 6 o’clock train for the weather forecast for your careless spelling for Nick’s absence from English classes for the doctor for her age for the depth of the lake for the locked door for her stupid talk a) I wouldn’t have taken this medicine. b) he would know how to use the Subjunctive Mood. c) Dora would hear well. d) I wouldn’t have arrived here at 7:30. e) John would have dived from the shore. f) one would call her a nice girl. g) you wouldn’t have to rewrite your test. h) I would have got into the room to answer the phone. i) we wouldn’t have taken the umbrellas with us. If Choose the correct form of the adverbs to complete the sen- tences. 1. Please wake me {earlie^ more early) tomorrow. 2. Louise pushed the pram {hardest, bardei^ than Dan. 3. The little kitten came {more near, nearer) to us. 4. The new toaster works (faster, more fast) than the old one. 5. Of the two girls, Anna jumped(X7iig/i^>*, highest). 6. The black fish ate {most greedily, more greedily) of all. 7. Sasha drives {more carelessly most carelessly) than his elder brother. 8. Please move {the most carefully, more carefully^ 9. Of all the children, David paints {more neatly, most neatly)^ 10. Of the two girls, Jane worked {more quickly,» quickest). IS Express the same using adverbs instead of adjectives. ШеХаМРЬЕ: Fred was a faster learner than his friend Nick. — Fred learned faster than his friend Nick. 1. The snow today is heavier than yesterday. 2. Peter is the most careful driver of all I have ever met. 3. You have done such hard work that now you can take a break. 4. Helen did the best translation of the poem in her class. 5. Qur new friend gave us a warm smile before leaving the room. 6. Ann^^^oolr^ comfortable ^^osttiojj iijj^^he aj*^clmir and switched on the televmion. 7. This time^^^f; Hudsori^^'g^i&'l-tho cfiildren a more attentive l6olB?8. Little Andrea was tbe slowest walk«r^mong us and usually legged behind. 9. What does this sad smile mean? 98 ___________________________________________________UNIT 3 14 Complete the sentences by using suitable adverbs from the box. surely slowly comfortably easily loudly ^ fastest widely well quietly slowest 1. Huge African elephants trumpet very ... . 2. The cheetah runs ... of all other animals. 3. When the surface of the earth began to change and they could no longer find food, dinosaurs began ... to disappear. 4. The turtle moves ... of the reptiles and lives chiefly on small fish and insects. 5. The codfish is one of the world’s greatest travellers. They say it can ... cross the Atlantic Ocean. 6. When hunting, tigers often lie ... in wait at water-holes and attack other animals when they come down to drink. 7. Baby kangaroos rest in a pouch of the mother kangaroo’s stomach until they are able to get about ... and learn to walk themselves. 8. The robin hears so ... that it can hear a worm moving under the ground. 9. The cuckoo is one of the most ... known European birds. 10. We don’t know how birds find their way home but we know that they will ... return again with the warmth and sunshine of spring. eReading for Country /tudie/ m A. Listen to the interview about the British shops (No 16). Say ‘true’ or ‘false’. a/fC 1. Oxford Street in London is famous for its shopping. 2. The High Street is an area where theatres are situated. 3. All the people who use supermarkets can get there only by car. '6, . 4. Corner shops sell more specialized goods than supermarkets. {rUC 5. There are three big supermarkets in London. 6. Sainsbury’s is the largest supermarket in London. B. Read the text “Shopping in Britain” and match the answers with the following questions. a) What are the most famous shops in London? b) What does “to withdraw from the High Street” mean? c) What are the largest supermarkets in London? d) What other department stores exist in London and other parts of the country? e) Where do English people usually buy food nowadays? f) What has happened to C&A which used to be one of the main department stores in London? g) And what has happened to traditional English shops: baker’s, butcher’s, greengrocer’s ...? 99 UNIT 3 Shopping in Britain — Perhaps the two most famous shops in London are Selfridges and Harrods. These are both very large department stores. Of course there are many other department stores which exist in most British towns. Q_________________________________________? — The John Lewis Stores is one of them, Marks and Spencer is another. In London a lot of the best department stores are in Oxford Street which is famous for its shopping. □_________________________________________? — Because of competition from the Far East and the cheapness of these products, the profitability of many large department stores is in danger and C&A is one of them. By the way we used to call it “Coats and *Ats”.’ Now that’s a joke. Talking seriously the company is reassessing its priorities, is rethinking its future plans. A decision has been made recently to withdraw from the High Street. As you know the High Street is an area where the shops are and where goods are sold. □-----------------------------------------? — To withdraw in this case means to retreat or to leave the commercial area and therefore to close the shopping outlet. So, it is possible to say that C&A are closing down. В-----------------------------------------? — Currently many people use large or small supermarkets whether they have a car or not. Some people use public transport — buses — to take them to and from the supermarkets. It does mean however that the shopper usually has a lot of heavy shopping to take home with him on the bus. A car is much more useful. — Nothing. A lot of shopping is still done at the small corner shops — small shops on the corner of the street. The small corner shops can often sell more specialized goods which a supermarket does not stock. For example, one prefers freshly baked bread and cakes from the baker’s or one prefers the professionally hutched meat from the butcher’s. He may also make his own sausages. Some people would go to the florist’s for bunches of flowers rather than buy pre-selected flowers in the supermarket. Q____________________________________________? — Tesco is the largest followed by Sainsbury’s^ then it is ASDA which means ’’Associated Dairies'’’ and the fourth one is John Lewis. So there are the four major supermarkets. C&A = “Coats and ’Ats” (’Ats = hats) 100 It ___________ ___________________________ UNIT 3 Complete these sentences. Use the interview (Ex. 15). 1. The two most famous London department stores are ... . 2. The best department stores in London are in ... . 3. A decision has been made recently by the С<ёА Company to ... . 4. We can say that ... are closing down. 5. Many people use ... whether they have a car or not. 6. The small corner shops can often sell ... which a supermarket does not stock. 7. ... is the largest supermarket followed by Sainsbury*s. j]| Look at the pictures and say where these people have been doing their shoppings and what you know about some of these shops. 101 UNIT 3_________________________________________________________ 13 Explain how you understand these words and word combinations from Ex. 15: 1) competition from the Far East; 2) the company is rethinking its future plans; 3) priorities; 4) the High Street; 5) to withdraw from the High Street; 6) a corner shop; 7) professionally hutched meat; 8) pre-selected flowers; 9) major supermarkets. 19 Match the types of shops with their descriptions. 1. shopping centre 2. department store 3. shopping outlet 4. supermarket 5. corner shop a) a large shop which sells all kinds of food and household goods. You walk round the shop and take items off the shelf yourself and pay for them all together before you leave ч b) a small shop, usually on the corner of a street, that sells mainly food and household goods c) a shop which sells the goods made by a particular manufacturer d) a large shop which is divided into a lot of different sections and which sells many different kinds of goods e) an area in a town where a lot of shops have been built close together Advise your friend who knows nothing about English shops where to go to buy food, clothes, presents and souvenirs in London. UNIT 3 ^Reading for Information II Read the text about money once and say what things make mon- ey valuable. What Makes Money Valuable? We use money every day to pay for things we buy. We pay with either coins or paper money. This sort of money is known as cash. There is also another kind of money. It includes checks,^ credit cards, and travellers’ checks. ^ The idea of having such a thing as money is one of the most fascinating ever developed by man. But many people don’t know where this idea came from, or why money is valuable. Thousands of years ago, money was not used. Instead, man had the “barter” system. This meant that if a man wanted something he didn’t have, he had to find someone who had it. Then he had to offer him something in exchange. And if that man didn’t like what he was offered in exchange, the first man couldn’t get what he needed. In time, certain things came to be used as money because practically everyone would take these things in exchange. In the past, people used shells, beads, cocoa beans, salt, grain, tobacco, skins, and even cattle. But coins are much easier to use than, say, cattle. They are easy to store and to carry about. Coins were first used in China. They were also used by ancient Greeks as early as 600 BC. They were first made of either gold or silver. They were stamped with the mark of the government Ъг the ruler of the country for which they were made. The stamp also showed how much each coin was worth. Later, people began to use coins made of cheaper metals. The metal itself had no value, but the coins were still worth the amount stamped on them. People also started to use paper money. It no longer mattered that the money itself had no real value. It was backed by the government and banks. This is the kind of money we use today. Today, of course, we have bills and coins issued by the government, and everybody uses this money. What makes money valuable? What use does it have for us? There are four.main things that money does for you. ‘ checks (AmE) = cheques (BrE) * Travellers’ (traveller’s) checks are checks that you buy at a bank and take with you when you travel abroad, so that you can exchange them for the money issued in this country. 103. UNIT 3_______________________________________________________ First, it makes possible exchange and trade. Imagine you want a bicycle. You’re willing to work for it by mowing lawns. But the person for whom you mow the lawn has no bicycles. He pays you with money and you take this to the bicycle shop and buy your bicycle. Money made it possible to exchange your work for something you wanted. Second, money is a “yardstick of value”. This means money may be used to measure and compare the values of various things. You’re willing to mow the lawn for an hour for 50 cents. A bicycle costs $25. You now have an idea of the value of a bicycle in terms of your work. Third, money is a “storehouse of value”. You can’t store up your tomatoes for a long time, because they can spoil. But if you sell them you can store up the money for future use. Fourth, money serves as a “standard for future payments”. You pay 5 dollars down on the bicycle and promise to pay the rest later. You will not pay in eggs or tomatoes or baseballs. You and the bicycle store owner have agreed on exactly what you pay later. You use money as a form in which later payments can be made. II Read the text “What Makes Money Valuable?” again and say which of these statements are ‘true’ and which are ‘false’. l.Cash is coins, paper money and checks. 2. The barter system means exchanging one thing for another. 3. Coins are very handy and easier to use than tobacco, skins or cattle. 4. Coins were first used by ancient Greeks. 5. The Greek coins were stamped with a special mark that said how much they were worth. 6. Paper money itself has no real value. 7. Nowadays bills and coins are issued and backed by the government. 8. Money makes exchange and trade possible. 9. Money is seldom used to measure and compare values of things. 10. Money is a “storehouse of value” means that you can save money instead of saving things. 11. Money serves as a “standard for future payments” means that you can promise to pay for a thing in future, but don’t pay anything now. Find in the text English equivalents for the following: 1) наличные деньги; 2) ценный; 3) зерно; 4) скот; 5) хранить, копить; 6) (про)штампованный; 7) сколько стоила кажд|1ая монета; 8) монеты, тем не менее, стоили столько, сколько было указано на них; 9) деньги обеспечивались (гарантировались) правительством и банками; 10) выпущенные в обращение правительством; 11) подстригая лужайки; 12) «мера (мерило)» стоимости; 13) разнообразные предметы; 14) если измерить (его стоимость) твоей работой; 15) «хранилище» стоимости; 16) последующие выплаты 104 ________________________________________UNIT 3 Answer the questions. Use the text “What Makes Money Valuable?” l.What new things have you learned from the text? 2. Do you know the difference between cash, credit cards, cheques and travellers’ checks? What is it? 3. How long have people been using money? 4. Why did money appear? 5. What things were used as money equivalents? Why do you think they were chosen as such? 6. Why did people stop making coins of silver and gold? 7. Why do you think paper money appeared? 8. What makes paper money valuable? 9. The author of the text gives four reasons why money is valuable. Can you illustrate them with your own example(s)? ^New Lxnguage ^Grammar Jection /. Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison Irregular Forms Some adverbs change their form completely to make comparisons. Ч well — better — best badly — worse — worst little — less — least much — more — most farther — farthest further — furthest He behaves even worse than his brother. Of the six runners, Tom ran farthest. He also ran best of the six. I see Uncle Jack least of all my relatives. liS Choose the correct form for each sentence below. 1. Today the team played {worse/worst) than it did yesterday. What a pityl 2. Of the three authors he writes {more/most) clearly. 3. Jane solved the problem {better/best) of all her classmates. 4. Of the three books I like “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” {less/least). 5. The new exhibition is {farther/farthest) from the underground station than the old one. 105, UNIT 3 1. hard — упорно, усердно It’s raining hard. You should work hard at your English. 1. hardly — едва, c трудом I’m afraid I have hardly any money. I was so tired that I could hardly move. 2. late — поздно Better do things late than never. John came too late. 2. lately — недавно, за последнее время What have you been doing lately? Have you seen him lately? 3. high — высоко, ввысь (в прямом смысле) How high can you jump? I can throw a ball high into the sky. 3. highly — высоко, c высокой оценкой (в переносном смысле) She speaks highly of her teachers. We think very highly of him. 4. near — рядом We live near London. He was standing near the door. 4. nearly — почти It is nearly five o’clock. I nearly missed the train. 5. most — a) очень; b) больше всего a) I’d most certainly like an ice cream. b) Which do you value most: wealth^ or health? 5. mostly — главным образом, преимущественно This animal hunts mostly at night. '' The weather was mostly dull that week. 6. right — правильно I hope I’ve written it right. If I remember it right, Doris lives in Paris. 6. rightly — af) справедливо; b) верно, правильно (с причастием) a) This little boy was rightly punished. b) The winner was rightly chosen. 7. wrong — неверно, неправильно (с глаголами) You’ve got it all wrong! I guessed wrong, alas! 1 7. wrongly — a) несправедливо; b) неверно, неправильно (с причастиями) a) Не was wrongly punished for something he has not done. b) The boy was wrongly dressed for the party. ‘ wealth [wel9] — богатство 106 UNIT 3 8. wide — широко (характеристика физического действия) Please open the window wide. He left his office door wide open. 8. widely — широко (в переносном смысле) Her books sell widely. He is widely known. <6 Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1. Jack is {hard/hardly) a man to be afraid of. 2. We think very {high/ highly) of his new book. 3.1 have {late/lately) received two letters from my friend. 4. Try to say this difficult word {right/rightly). 5. Think {hard/ hardly) before you give your answer. 6. I’m coming! I’ve {near/nearly) finished washing up. 7. Can you see that plane flying {high/highly) above us? 8. Which do you like {most/mostly)', comedies or tragedies? 9.1 got the phone call only {late/lately) at night. 10.1 have a lot of friends, {most/mostly) girls. 11. Tom was {wrong/wrongly) believed to be a thief. 12. In the theatre I prefer to sit {near/nearly) the stage. 13.1 think that Natasha is {right/rightly) praised for her fluent and correct English. 14. Listen! He is' singing the tune quite {wrong/wrongly). 15.1 looked right into her {wide/widely) open eyes. 16. This is not a problem that should be {wide/widely) discussed. 17 Express the same in English. 1. Откройте ворота настежь. 2. Мы едва знакомы. 3. Какие фильмы ты видел за последнее время? 4. Я понял свою ошибку слишком поздно. 5. Широко известно, что частные школы очень престижные. 6. Джон запустил (to fly) змея высоко в небо. 7. Я едва ли могу назвать тебя настояпдим другом. 8. Идет сильный снег. 9. Как он справедливо сказал, мир находится в опасности. 10. Бетти живет рядом с торговым центром. 11. Рейс 812 прибыл слишком поздно. 12. Он высоко поднял шляпу, приветствуя нас. 13. Последний роман этого писателя широко известен. 14. На этот раз сделай это правильно, не делай этого неверно снова. 15. Боба несправедливо наказали. 16. Эта работа высоко оплачивается. ^*ОСи/! badly John behaves badly (плохо). His brother behaves even worse. John badly (очень) needs that job. His brother needs it more badly. 10^ UNIT 3_____________________________________________________ Express the same in Russian. 1. Everybody knows that Nina plays the piano badly. 2. The TV-set badly needs repairing. 3. We need the money badly. 4. I’m badly in need of advice. 5. I don’t think badly of him for what he did. 6. John can speak Spanish but rather badly. II. Modal Verbs: Can/Could/May/Might can./could/will be able to can/could ability (возможность, способ- possibility, probability ность ) (возможность, вероятность) 1.1 can read Italian but I 1. There are two possibilities: can’t speak it. we can go to the lawyer, or we 2. John could draw well when can forget about it. he was four. 2. Scotland could be very warm 3. One day people will be able to go to the moon on holiday. in September. 3. — I’m having trouble in math class. m к— You can talk to your teacher. can/could ^ can/could asking for and giving permission {просьба о разрешении, разрешение) / making orders, requests and offers {распоряжение, просьба, предложение) 1. Can you come and see me tomorrow? 2. Could I borrow your pen? 3. Could you pass the salt, please? 1. Can I carry your bag? 2. Could we help you? 3.1 could go shopping if you’re tired. 4. Waiter, can I have the bill, please? ' ■ — 20 Divide the sentences into four groups: a) can/could = ability; b) can/ could = possibility; c) can/could = permission; d) can/could = offer, request or order. 1. Could I use your phone, please? 2. We can either go to the cinema or stay at home and watch a video film. 3. In a bookshop: — Can I have a look at some other books by this author? 4.1 know I’m late, but I just couldn’t come earlier. 5.1 don’t think anyone in my class can solve such 108 UNIT 3 a difficult problem. At the lesson: —Can you sit quietly, Jane, and stop fidgeting? 7. It can be snowing in Norway now. 8. Can John borrow your bike, father? 9. Could you tell me the way to the station? 10. Could I give you another cup of coffee? 11. The train could be late, don’t worry. 12.1 can’t remember where I met the woman, but I know that I met her before. can/could When you’re asking or giving permission or making an offer or a request could sounds more polite and more formal than can. {you're talking to a close friend) Can I use your textbook? Can you help me with this exercise? {you're talking to your teacher) Could I use your textbook. Sir? Could you help me with this exercise. Miss? 30 Choose the best item for each situation. 1. You and I are good friends. We are in my flat. You want to use my phone. a) Can I use your phone? b) Could I use your phone? 2. You want to leave your history class earlier. a) Can I leave five minutes earlier today? b) Could I leave five minutes earlier today? 3. You’re in the shop with your father buying a new computer. You are talking to the shop assistant. a) Can we have a loolj at this model? h) Could'we have a look at this model? 4. You’re at the airport standing next to a stranger. You want him to keep an eye on your luggage while you’re buying a drink of water. a) Can you keep an eye on my luggage? b) Could you keep an eye on my luggage? 5. You’re talking to your sister. You want to work at her desk while she is out. a) Can I use your desk? b) Could I use your desk? 6. You and your friend are at the school canteen. You need the salt. a) Can you pass the salt? b) Could you pass the salt? 109. UNIT 3 could/be able to/manage to We do not use could to say that we did something on one occasion. We use was/were able to, managed to. How many eggs were you able to get? After five hours’ trip we managed to come to the camp. But we can use couldn’t to say that we didn’t manage to do something on one occasion. I managed to find the street, but I couldn’t find her house. J| Some of these sentences have mistakes. Find the sentences and correct the mistakes. . , ( C CCCt ^ / 1.1 thought very hard but couldn’t remember his name. 2: Was he able to talk to his bo^^^ S^XQ^ldn’t do the sum myself and asked father to help me. 4. They coula i5ray their parts so well that the audience roared with laughter. 5. How did you manage to come so early? We didn’t expect you before seven. 6.1 could answer all the teacher’s questions and got a 7. The children couldn’t go to the beach.as it was raining. 8. Sally mi aged to win the 100-meter race. 9. At last we -eeuW see the film. 10. Couldn’t you explain the problem more clearly? » . may/might possibility, probability {возможность, вероятность) 1. She might be there tomorrow. ^ 2. — Where’s Emma? — She may be shopping. 3. Peter might phone tonight, but it’s very unlikely. may/might^/be allowed to asking for, giving or refusing permission {просьба о разрешении, разрешение или отказ) 1. —May I put on the telly? — Yes, you may. 2. — I wonder if I might have a little more cake? — No, you may not. 3. They won’t be allowed to join us tomorrow » I i-t c ^ Divide the sentences into two groups: may/might = probability (possibility); may/might = permission. ^ ' 1. Mum, there’s a movie I reAy want to see tonight, may I go? 2. He may be clever but he hasn’t got much experience. 3. James explained to his ' May I and could I are used to ask for permission. They are equally polite. 110 тГ' i.' ir UNIT 3 friends thaOie might be late. 4. We majugo to the south next summer. 5. — May iTTome at 5? — Yes, iut Jane-mSy not be at home. You’ll have only me for company. 6.1 may fly to Glasgow next week. 7. — Is he — He may be. 8. — What’s his name? — It might be John. 9. You may not watch TV for as long as you like. 10. You may not be allowed to smoke in here. U may/might Expressing probability might is not the past tense of may. It is used to talk about a smaller chance than may. Compare: 1. Mary may go to London tomorrow, {perhaps a 50% chance that she will go to London) 2. We may go to London next summer. We have been invited by our friends. 3. John might go with her. {perhaps a 30% chance that he will join Mary) 4. We might go to the mountains in July, but Father is not sure he will be free. » Choose may or might to complete the sentences. 1. Melissa {may/might) wash the dinner dishes. {You're 50% sure she will do it.) 2. David {may/might) take the books to the library. {You're 30% sure that he will.) 3. Betty {may/might) not answer your question. It’s too personal. {You're quite sure she won't answer it.) 4. You {may/might) buy the remote control in this store. {You're 50% sure that it is possible.) 5. There {may/might) be a computer lab in this language school. {/You're 30% sure.) 6. Rachel {may/might) come back home earlier tonight. {You're very sure she will.) FoCU/ !шауЬё 1 may be 1. Maybe I’ll travel round the 1. I may be wrong, but I don’t world in a few years. think that I am. 2. — Do you think it will rain? 2. It may be dry and sunny next — Maybe. month. 3. It’s warm and sunny now, but 3. We may be half an hour late maybe the weather will if there are traffic jams. change. 4. Maybe John’ll come a little 4. Jack may be your best friend. later. but I don’t like him. 5. Maybe it’s a good story, but 5. It may be a good story, though it’s too long. it’s not your best. 111 34 UNIT 3 ______________________________________________ Some of these sentences have mistakes. Find the sentences and correct the mistakes. 1. This may be the happiest day of my life. 2. Maybe it would be better to have your party on Saturday than on Friday. 3. Maybe Г11 call you when I get back home. 4. I may be young, but I’m not stupid. 5. They maybe policemen or officers — look at their uniforms. 6. Such weather maybe too hot for late April. 7. Maybe Jane will come to stay with us in August. 8. Ours maybe the biggest house in the street. 9. May be I’ll be a lawyer or an economist. I haven’t decided yet. 10. This book may be a novel or a crime story, I haven’t seen it yet. 35 Express the same in a different way. Use can, could, may, might. 1. Robert knows Spanish well enough to talk without an interpreter. 2. Mother, will you let me come back home at eleven tonight? 3. I am 50 per cent sure that father will repair my broken bicycle. 4.1 haven’t decided yet if I will come round this evening, I probably won’t. 5. They say I am good at doing sums. 6. Bob promised to phone this evening. I’m 50 per cent sure he will. 7. Johnny, dear, I want you to do something for me. 8. Is it very inconvenient for you to go shopping this evening? 9. You are tired after your journey. I think I’ll do the flat myself. 10. There are some clouds in the sky. I have a feeling that it will rain soon. jl6 Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1. Kevin always boasts that he {can/may) swim best of all his friends. 2. Kate, {could/might) you go out to the blackboard? 3. Polly, dear, {can/ may) I look at your new doll? 4. Officer, {could/may) you help me? I’m looking for Castle Street. 5. How many English words {can/may) you remember in one go? 6. Excuse, me, Mr Evans, {can/could) you pass me the newspaper from your desk? 7. At last they {could/were able to) see the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben. 8. You {maybe/may be) right, but you’ll have to prove it. 9. {May/Can) you explain something to me, father? 10. {Can/May) we have cucumber salad and roast beef, waiter? 37У cm Express the same in English. Я думаю, что вы сможете увидеть на этом острове множество редких птиц. 2. — Где ключи? — Возможно, они все еще в машине. 3. На рынке вы можете купить очень дешевую одежду. 4. Зимой в Сибири может быть очень холодно. 5. Джон не умеет хорошо плавать. 6. {Обращаясь к портье) — Не могли бы вы открыть дверь? 7. — Интересно, какая завтра будет погода? — Возможно, весь день будет идти дождь. 8. {Обращаясь 112 UNIT 3 к малознакомому человеку) — Извините, можно мне взять у вас кетчуп? 9. Мама, можно я надену завтра на дискотеку твою шелковую блузку? 10. Вы можете курить после того, как самолет взлетит. Social Encli/h The Language of /hopping ^VOCABUIARY /eCTION ^ Like any other sphere of life, shopping requires its own language which is useful to remember. These are some of the things that customers and shop assistants say to each other. Learn to do it correctly (No 17). Shop assistant What can I do for you? May I help you? How can I help you? Are you being served? What size do you want/take? What colour blouse would you like? What colour trousers would you like? Would you like to try it/them on? How does it fit/feel? How do they fit/feel? Would you like to follow me to the cash desk? How would you like to pay? Here’s your receipt and your change. Thank you for shopping with us. Customer I’m looking for (a pair of jeans). Thank you. I’m just looking about. Have you got (white winter jackets)? No, can you help me? I wear size (10) in clothes and size (7) in shoes. Ajid what colours does it come in? And what colours do they come in? Yes, thank you. Where’s the fitting room? It fits like a glove. They fit perfectly. It’s a bit loose (on me). It’s a little tight (on me). Can I have this a size bigger/ smaller? Oh, it’s (they are) becoming. How much does it cost? How much do they cost? I’d like to pay cash. I’d like to pay by card. Do you accept Master Card? Thank you. Goodbye. 113^ 'щт :’v* pi' .-V •3 r f] J V Ш • a 39 UNIT 3 Complete these dialogues and act them out. 1. Shop assistant: Are you being served? Customer:....... Shop assistant: I can do the size, but not the colour. These come in navy blue and dark green. Customer:....... Shop assistant: Certainly Г11 get you a navy blue blouse size 12. Customer:....... Shop assistant: Here you are. The fitting room is at the back if you want to try the blouse on. Customer:....... Shop assistant: How does it fit? Customer: ...... Shop assistant: Very good. Would you like to follow me to the cash desk? How would you like to pay? Customer:....... Shop assistant: Yes, we do. We take a Visa, a Master and an Express. Customer:....... Shop assistant: Here is your receipt. Thank you for shopping with us. Customer:....... C' ^ (i fi - I t‘ 0 2. Customer: Hello. Could you help me? Shop assistant:....... Customer: I’m looking for a pair of black low-heel shoes for everyday wear. Shop assistant:....... • ‘ Customer: 7 !4. \ Shop assistant:....... Customer: I like this pair. They are just what I want. May I try them on? Shop assistant:....... Customer: They are a bit tight on me, I am afraid. Can I have a pair half a size larger? Shop assistant:....... Customer: Grey? May I look at them? Shop assistant:....... Customer: They feel wonderful. How much are they? Shop assistant:....... Customer: I’ll pay cash. Shop assistant:....... Customer: Thank you for your help. Goodbye. 114 UNIT 3 40 Make up your own dialogues. Talk about buying: a) clothes, b) shoes, c) food, d) gifts. 41 Match the pictures with their captions. 2. ■■ b) We thought we could try to cut down on our phone bills. c) Can I help you, sir? e) May I have a lift home, please? d) Could you hold this for please? a UD sx~ u H □ . tr: a u ■Ш UNIT 3 ^Phratal Verb to come to come across — наталкиваться, натыкаться I came across a letter from Bruce the other day. Everyone has come across the sort of problem which seems impossible to solve. ^to come down with — подхватить болезнь, слечь He came down with pneumonia. — Why was Bob absent from the lesson? — Oh, he came down with the flu. to come off — сойти, упасть, оторваться Come off the grass! She came off her bicycle. A button came off my coat. to come over — найти (на человека), произойти What came over you? Why are you so angry? I don’t know what came over me but I told her everything. to come round — заглянуть ненадолго Is Nell coming round? I could come round if you like. 42 Complete the sentences, be sure that they make sense. 1. Jane won’t be able to come. She is 6oming ... with a fever. 2. Alice, Rachel won’t come ... this evening. She’s got a telegramme and has to leave for London. 3. What’s come ... him? He’s quite polite today. 4. A button came ... as I was climbing the wall. 5. She came ... some important faxes in course of her search. 6.1 think I’m coming ... with a cold. 7. The hook came ... the wall when I was hanging up my coat. 8. A feeling of strange sadness came ... me all of a sudden. 9. Will you come ... tonight? 43 Express the same in English. 1. Я никогда не встречал такого выражения в английском языке. 2. Ты только посмотри на эти старые фотографии. Я наткнулась на них, когда наводила порядок в (to clear out) нашем старом буфете. 3. Почему бы тебе не зайти поужинать к нам^з субботу? 4. Малыш упал с лошадки-качалки (rocking horse). 5. Что это нашло на моего старшего брата? Он позволил мне поработать на своем компьютере. 6. Джейн ^16 ________________________________________________UNIT 3 так плохо чувствует себя сегодня. Думаю, она подхватила простуду. 7. Загадочная перемена произошла с их новым учителем. 8. Не понимаю, что это вдруг нашло на старую даму. 9. Посмотри, у тебя на блузке отрывается пуговица. I^New Word/ то I^rn Ц А. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. Father said no so firmly that we understood that he would never change his mind. From the roof downwards the house was painted the brightest blue I had ever seen. Everyone thought that Don was an eccentric man because of the clothes he wore and his unusual manner of speaking. ^2^ B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 4S_Read the words, look them up and then study the word combina-___tions and sentences to know how to use them. Oi^mcijaa worth [w3:0] ^puse^ wort^i; 50 000 pounds, to be worth several pennies, to be wor\n idoin^sth,, for all*^someone is worth. The picture is worth much more TTranT^p^d for it. The statue is worth at least 1 000 000 dollars. The book is worth reading. The film is worth seeing. It is not worth getting angry with her. Is it worth visiting Moscow? ^L^:%n,for all I was worth but came second in the race, oumt fautfit] {n)\ a sports outfit, a Child’s cowboy outfit, a camping outfit fancy fer^t^wes of fancy dresses. fanc'^dress^a^l'P a fancy-dress party, a fancy-dress ball. When are we have ouj* anjiual fancy-dress party? immense size, an immense place, an immense improvement. Pumpkins can grow to an immense size. Your decision is of ^m^j^ie^Importance. {adj): a reluctant promise, a reluctant helper. John reluctant to help but he had to agree, relucltahce (*tD: with a certain reluctance, with great reluctance. John agreed to meet Aunt July, but with great reluctance, to attach [o'taetj] (v): to attach sth to sth; to attach labels to the luggage, to attach a document to the letter. She attached a cheque to the order form.^ bridal outfit.. Sh^^Lqoked^.great in her white bridal outfit, cy^fess (ni: a new fancy dress, to buy a fancy dress. These are dif- re an order form — бланк заказа 117^ tvoS UNIT 3 attached: 1 to be attached to sth; a house with a garage attached. In old schools children sat at desks with wooden benches attached to them. Be careful with the handle — it’s not very well attached. 2 to be deeply attached to sb; to be attached to old customs, to be attached to one’s car. I became quite attached to the little girl. The English are very attached to their national traditions, to detach [di'taetj] (u): to detach sth from sth; I can’t detach the handle from the frying pan. Can you help me? detachable [di'tset/sbl] (adj): a detachable collar, detachable cuffs detached (adj): a detached attitude, a detached house, a detached view of an event. David looked detached and not interested in what was going on. to tie (u): to tie sth to sth; to tie sth round sth; to tie a knot [not], to tie a bow [Ьэи], to tie shoelaces, to tie a tie, to tie a hair-ribbon, to be tied with string/rope. The mysterious parcel was tied with thin string. We are going to tie this letter to a brick and throw it out of the window, a tie (n): a dark tie, a bow tie. Ties are worn mainly by men. Nick was wearing a dark jacket and a dark blue tie. starch (n): to contain starch. Starch is found in bread, potatoes, pasta and rice. to starch (l>); to starch linen, to starch tablecloths starched (adj): starched collars, starched cotton. The nurses in the hospi- stif^''"^^^^a^^^ff c^llmff^^air of stiff boots, stiff brown paper. Shoes ire often stiff when they are new. 2 a stiff back, a stiff leg. I can’t play the piano as I used to — my fingers have gone stiff. He felt very stiff the day after his first weight-training class. , 3 a stiff smile, stiff manners. There was a stiff smile on Jane’s face.’ to chew [tju:] (o): to chew one’s food; to chew on sth. Chew your food well before you swallow it. Don’t try to bite more than you can chew. John started to chew a piece of meat. He was still chewing on his cake, chewing gum: Chewing gum is a kind of sweet which you can chew for a long time but which you do not swallow, ridiculous [n'dikjulas] (adj): a ridiculous idea, a ridiculous answer, to look ridiculous. Don’t be ridiculousi They sold their house at a ridiculous price. xUOtvalh , to flap (flapped, flapping) (o): to flap in the wind, to flap in the breeze, to flap the blanket. The bird flapped its wings. The sails were flapping ^^ai^t Uj^mast. ДЬр, ijy,^jiains were flapping at the open window, funeral ['Ijumarar] (nV. to hold a funeral. The old lady’s funeral was held at tl^^<^j с]^ш^.^ Д funeral procession, a funeral march, a funeral rite, dignity [^nignitij (n): beneath one’s dignity, to ^eep one’s dignity, to lose one’s dignity, to stand on one’s dignity. A man’s dignity depends not 118 t _______________________________________________UNIT 3 upon his wealth or rank but upon his character. The dignity of the occasion was spoilt. Mrs Robinson is an old lady of great dignity, dignified {adj): a dignified old lady, a dignified manner. The Headmaster of the school was a white-haired dignified gentleman. 46 Answer the questions to practise the new words. 1. What things do you usually do with reluctance? 2. Do you like chewing gum? What are your favourite kinds? 3. What can flap in the wind? 4. Have you ever seen a funeral procession? Are funerals always held at churches? 5. Have you ever worn a tie? When was it? Did you like it? Do girls ever wear ties? What do you think of this? When and where do people usually wear ties? 6. Have you ever looked or felt ridiculous? When was it? What made you feel like that? 7. Have you ever worn starched clothes? How do you feel in them? 8. Have you got a sports outfit? What is it like? 9. What things can you tie with string? 10. What is a fancy dress? What is a fancy-dress party/ball? 11. Do you think that dignity is important for life? Why (not)? 12. When we speak about people who are dignified we usually mean people who are not very young. Can you explain that? 13. What houses can be described as detached? 14. Why do you think people say that they feel stiff after a long walk? 15. What parts of our dress can be detachable? 16. What books in your opinion are worth reading? 47 Name 3—5 things that can be: 1) immense 5) starched 2) reluctant 6) stiff 3) detached 7) ridiculous 4) detachable 8) dignified TOCllf worth 1. The new grammar rules are worth practising. 2. The new words are worth looking up. 3. This book is not worth reading. 4. Is the new game worth trying to play? 1. It is worth practising the new grammar rules. 2. It is worth looking the new words up. 3. It is not worth reading this book. 4. Is it worth trying to play the new game? — 5. It is worth going there at once. 6. It is not worth doing these ^ sums now, etc. 48 UNIT 3 ___________ Can you say what it is? 1. goodness and nobleness of ‘ character, it usually makes people feel respect and admiration 2. unusual or amusing clothes worn for a special occasion 3. a set of clothes worn together 4. unwillingness to act 5. a product made for stiffening cloth 6. something worn round the neck inside a shirt collar 7. a ceremony of burying or burning a dead body 8. a kind of a sweet which you chew but shouldn’t swallow 49 Express the same in Engiish. Use the two possibie modeis where you can. 1. Фильм стоит посмотреть. 2. Стоит попробовать приготовить этот салат. 3. Об этом не стоит волноваться. 4. Статью стоит перевести. 5. Не стоит жить без дружбы. 6. Тебе стоит подстричь волосы. 7. Очень холодно. Думаю, не стоит идти гулять. 8. Стоит научиться плавать. 9. Стоит купить этот карнавальный костюм. 10. Стоит побывать в этом магазине. Focu/У^ English Russian English Russian singular plural plural singular funeral похороны pajamas (pyjamas) пижама clock часы clothes одежда watch наручные часы traffic lights светофор money деньги stairs лестница so А. Choose the right pronoun and the right form of the verb to complete the sentences. 1. — (Is, Are) the money in the bag? — No, I’ve put (it, them) in the drawer. 2. The stairs (was, were) high and I got tired climbing (it, them). 3. Your new clothes (is, are) on the bed. Why don’t you put (it, them) on? 4. Are you looking for your watch? (It, They) (is, are) on your wristi 5. The traffic lights (is, are) a set of coloured lights used for controlling and directing traffic. (It, They) (is, are) widely used in modern cities. ^20 _______________________________________________ UNIT 3 6. (This/These) (is, are) Lucy’s favourite pyjamas. 7. In England a funeral (is, are) often held in church yards. (It, They) (is, are) attended by relatives and close friends. 8. Of all the clocks in the house (this, these) (is, are) the oldest. (It, They) (is, are) worth a lot of money. B. Express the same in English. 1. Bee деньги мира не могут купить счастья. Во многих случаях они (деньги) бесполезны. 2. Твоя одежда в ванной. Думаю, что она уже сухая. Можешь взять ее. 3. Похороны мистера Брауна были в понедельник. Они были первыми в тот день и начались в 10 утра. 4. Светофор находится прямо напротив здания школы. 5. У меня есть две пижамы: одна голубая, а вторая розовая. Я больше люблю розовую. 6. В школе Хогварт было много лестниц. Самая таинственная из них была лестницей в подземелье. 7. Эти большие часы немного отстают, а мои наручные часы спешат на две минуты. Focu/y- funny 1. causing laughter 2. strange, unexpected 1. I find many stories by Chekhov quite funny. 2. He had all sorts of funny ideas. hilarious 1. causing wild laughter ' 2. — l.What a hilarious comedy! It’s the best I’ve seen. ridiculous 1. looking or appearing foolish 2. — 1. The price of the strawberries was ridiculous so we bought a lot. 51 Choose the right word funny, hilarious or ridiculous to complete the sentences. 1. What? You think you’ll win a million in the lottery? Don’t be ... . 2. The film was absolutely .... The audience shrieked with laughter.^ ' to shriek with laughter — визжать от хохота 121 UNIT 3_________________________________________________ 3. When we were younger our grandfather told us ... stories that he made up himself. We liked to listen to them. 4. What a ... little animal! What is it? 5. Take off this stupid hat, you look ... in it. 6. Yesterday I heard a ... joke. It was great. I nearly laughed myself silly. You must hear it. П 0 SI Complete the sentences. Use your new vocabulary. 1. I’ve been invited to a party on Saturday but, to be honest, I’m rather r... to go. 2. In the old days skates were t... to shoes with pieces of string. 3. Do you think the book is w... buying? Have you read anything by this author? 4. The wind was strong and the dog’s long ears were f... in the air. 5. Recently I’ve become quite a... to the Smiths. They are such a nice family! 6. My grandmother says when she was young they s... linen after washing it. 7. The only f... that I have ever seen was my great-grandfather’s. He died a couple of years ago. 8. If you d... the long handle from the pan, you can use the pan in the oven. 9. What is a traditional o... of an English nurse? 10.1 don’t like the look of that i... cloud. It looks like rain. 11. It’s not polite to ch... and talk at the same time. 12. When we met Bryan that day his face was s... and unsmiling. 13. You and your r... ideas! Why should you always think of something stupid! 14. Sally gave us a d... look and left the room without saying a word. ТЛ LL|-, Ij *□ S3 Express the same In English, I. Думаю, стоит купить этот комплект спортивной одежды. 2. Маленький мальчик выглядел довольно нелепо в своей новенькой, с иголочки форме. 3. Каждый народ (people) имеет свою традицию в проведении похорон. 4. К нашему удивлению, на этот раз Том дал нам ответ, полный достоинства. 5. «Юнион Джек» развевался на ветру над крышей дворца. Было ясно, что королева находится в своей резиденции. 6. Он еш;е жевал бутерброд, когда прозвенел звонок. 7. Какое поведение ты назвал бы эксцентричным? 8. Терпеть не могу надевать туго накрахмаленные рубашки. 9. Дети решили устроить костюмированный бал накануне Нового года. 10. Колеса у велосипедов делают с':гёмными. II. Между этими двумя близнецами огромная разница. 12. В центре комнаты стоял большой деревянный стол с приделанными к нему лавками. 13. Каждый молодой человек должен уметь как следует завязывать себе галстук (таке а proper knot on sth). 14. He стоит есть гамбургеры. Они приносят больше вреда, чем пользы. ^122 UNIT 3 ^IHENINO CoMPREHENЛON A. Make sure that you knowthese words: a verger ['уз:фэ] — служащий церкви, помощник викария а vicar ['vika] — викарий, священник to irritate ['iriteit] — раздражать B. Listen to the text “The Verger”, part 1 (No 18). Answer these questions. 1. What was the position of Edward Foreman at St Peter’s Church? 2. Who was the man he didn’t like? 3. What was Edward’s problem? 4. Did Edward have to leave St Peter’s? C. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “The Verger”, part 1. A. Make sure that you know these words and word combinations: the week’s takings — выручка за неделю to invest — вкладывать {деньги) to sign [sain] — подписывать РГ] в. Listen to the text “The Verger”, part 2 (No 18). Say ‘true’ or ‘false’. 1. Edward Foreman had saved 30 thousand pounds while working at St Peter’s Church. 2. Edward walked along some street thinking about his future. 3. Edward was a heavy smoker. 4. Edward had left his cigarettes at home. 5. Walking along the street he had an idea of opening there a little shop to sell sweets and tobacco. 6. Edward’s business became very successful. 74 The bank manager wanted to borrow 30 thousand pounds from Edward. 8. Edward was a rich man but he could neither read nor write. 9. If Edward had been able to read and write in his childhood, he would still be a verger at St Peter’s Church. C. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “The Verger”, part 2. 123^ UNIT 3 ^Reading for Dl/cu/лoN Read the text “Getting Dressed for the Big School” and say why the boy telling us the story, hated his new uniform and what pieces the uniform consisted of. Getting Dressed for the Big School (After Roald Dahl) When I was twelve, my mother said to me, “Fve enrolled you at Marlborough ['тэ:1Ьэгэ] and Repton. Which would you like to go to?” Both were famous Public Schools, but that was all I knew about them. “Repton,” I said. “I’ll go to Repton.” It was an easier word to say than Marlborough. “Very well,” my mother said. “You’ll go to Repton.” We were living in Kent then. Repton was up in the Midlands, near Derby ['dcrbi], and some 140 miles away to the north. On the day of my departure, I had to get dressed for the part. I had been to London with my mother the week before to buy the school clothes, and I remember, how shocked I was when I saw the outfit I was expected to wear. “I can’t possibly go about in thosel” I cried. “Nobody wears things like that!” haven’t made a mistake?” my mother said to the “Are you sure shop assistant. you tailcoat waistcoat straw hat “If he’s going to Repton, madam, he must wear these clothes,” the assistant said firmly. And now this amazing fancy dress was all laid out on my bed waiting to be put on. “Put it"bn,” my mother said. “Hurry up or you’ll miss the train.” stud collar laces braces Ж sleeve butte buttonhole __________________________________________________UNIT 3 “ГИ look like a complete idiot,” I said. My mother went out of the room and left me to it. With immense reluctance I began to dress. First there was a white shirt with a detachable white collar. To attach the collar to the shirt you needed a back stud and a front stud. It took me ages to get the studs through the slits of the collar starched stiff. I tried for all I was worth but they just wouldn’t go. Finally I put both the front slits of the collar into my mouth and chewed them until they were soft and at last I was able to get the studs through the collar slits. Around the collar I tied a black tie, using an ordinary tie knot. Then came the trousers and the braces. The trousers were black with thin grey lines running down them. I buttoned the braces on to the trousers, six buttons in all, then I put on the trousers and fixed the braces to the correct length. I put on a brand new pair of black shoes and laced them up. Now for the waistcoat. This was also black and it had twelve buttons down the front and two little waistcoat pockets on either side, one above the other. I put it on and did up the buttons, starting at the top and working down. I was glad I didn’t have to chew each of those buttonholes to get the buttons through them. All this was bad enough for a boy who had never before worn anything better than a pair of shorts and a blazer. But the jacket put the lid on it. It wasn’t actually a jacket, it was a sort of tailcoat, and it was without a doubt the most ridiculous garment I had ever seen. Like the waistcoat, it was jet black and made of a heavy material. In the front the two sides of it met only at one point. Here there was a single button and this had to be done up. From the button downwards, the lines of the coat separated and came together again at the backs of the knees, forming a pair of “tails”. When you walked, these tails flapped against your legs. I put the thing on and did up the front button. Feeling like an undertaker’s apprentice in a funeral parlour,^ I crept downstairs. My sisters shrieked with laughter when I appeared. “He can’t go out in thosel” they cried. “He’ll be arrested by the police!” “Put your hat on,” my mother said, handing me a stiff wide-brimmed straw hat with a blue and black band around it. I put it on and did my best to look dignified. The sisters fell all over the room laughing. My mother got me out of the house before I lost my nerve completely and together we walked through the village to the station. “Nobody’s taking the slightest notice of you,” my mother said as we walked through High Street. And curiously enough nobody was. an undertaker’s apprentice [s'prentis] in a funeral parlour ['pcrla] — младший служагций похоронного бюро 125^ UNIT 3 _____________________________________________________ “I have learnt one thing about England,” my mother went on. “It’s a country where men love to wear uniforms and eccentric clothes. Two hundred years ago their clothes were even more eccentric than they are today. Think how lucky you are. You don’t have to wear a wig^ on your head and ruffles^ on your sleevesi” “I still feel an ass,” I said. A. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text and read them out. 1. to get dressed 2. to take someone ages 3. to shriek with laughter 4. to put the lid on sth 5. jet-black 6. brand-new 7. to lose one’s nerve 8. to take (no) notice (of) a) (не) обращать внимание b) черный как смоль c) стать последней каплей, добить (разг.) d) визжать от смеха e) требовать много времени f) одеться g) оробеть, струсить h) совершенно новый, с иголочки В. Express the same idea using the phrases above. I 1. Yesterday it took me an extremely long time to do my homework in Russian literature. 2. Her thick hair was coal black and her eyes were big and brown. 3. The bad mark in history was the laM drop. 4.1 wanted to tell her what I thought of her but lost my^courage. 5. She looked quite a picture in her smart evening dress and absolutely^new shoes. 6. All through the comedy the audience laughed hysterically and loudly. 7. The man walked along the street pretending'that he didn’t notice me. 8. Come on! Put on your clothes. Breakfast is ready. SB Choose the right item. 1. {Which/What) would you like — steak or fish? 2. {Which/What) countries would you like to visit? 3. {Which/What) parent is more important in the first year of life? 4. {Which/What) is the make of John’s car? 5. {Which/What) books can I read on the subject? 6. {Which/What) qualifications do you have? 7. {Which/What) kind of teacher do you like best? 8. {Which/What) would you prefer — lemonade or coke? 9. {Which/What) way shall we go — up the hill or along the river bank? 10. Tell me. {Which/What) size do you want? * wig — парик * ruffles — рюши .126 V UNIT 3 i Ьосш L ' what which 1 What is used when there is rath- Which is usually used when there I er a large choice and it is not is a limited choice (of two-five 11 It clear exactly how many possibili- possibilities). J ties there are. 1', What colour are her eyes? “I’ve enrolled you at Marlborough 1 What films do you like? and Repton. Which would you What soap do you use? like to go to?” lll t Which cold colour is your favou- rite — green, blue or grey? 1 Which genre do you like more — fr horror films or westerns? if- t Which of you has won the game? Г»- ) Which of you is the best runner? Look at the pictures and say what in your opinion the underiined words mean. 7. 8. CXI Alec has laced up his^ ^ unlaced his trainers. Alec has buttoned un l^is jacket. " Alec has unbuttoned his jacket. Alec has buckled up Ms belt.^'^^-^^^^^^Alec has unbuckled his belt. Alec has zinned up his anorak. Alec has unzipped his anorak. 4 ,'»»/!> 127 UNIT 3 Focu/ to lace (up) — to unlace to button (up) — to unbutton to zip (up) — to unzip to buckle — to unbuckle Say what pieces of clothing the boy described in the following way. pockets on both sides looking like a tailcoat made of a heavy material, with one button collar 1. 2. 3. tie trousers 4. braces 5. shoes 6. waistcoat jacket 7. hat 8. correct length band 61 See how well you remember the text and answer these questions. 1. Why did the boy choose Repton School but not Marlborough School? 2. Where did the boy’s family live? How far was it from his new school? How could he get there? 3. Who took the boy to the shop to buy his uniform? Where did they go to buy it? 4. Why did the boy have to chew the slits of the collar? 5. Did he have to chew the buttonholes of his waistcoat too? 6. What kind of clothes was he used to? 7. Who shrieked with laughter when the boy appeared in his new outfit? And why did they fall over the room laughing? 8. How did the boy’s mother comment on the tastes of Englishmen? 9. Why could the boy consider himself lucky in her opinion? ^2 Find Kent and Derby on a map of England. Think why it says in the text that Repton was *‘up in the Midlands”. What would the text say if the boy had to travel from Derby to Kent? ^2 Ш Listen to the text “Getting Dressed for the Big School” (No 19) and learn to read it artistically in the announcer’s manner. 128 UNIT 3 PEAKING |4" 11^ № ^Di/cu//ino the Text Tell the story of **Се^тд Dressed for the Big School” pretending that you’re a) the boy’s mother, b) one of his sisters or his friend.' A. Describe the boy’s uniform in as much detail as you can. Think of why he compared the uniform with a fancy dress and why he ‘^felt an ass” wearing it. B. Would you feel the same if you had to wear some eccentric and uncomfortable clothes to your school? C. Describe an ideal school uniform as you see it. Speak about what pieces it should consist of and what they should be like. Choose the right colours for your uniform. (Draw a picture if you can and use it.) Look at the picture of an Etonian. Describe his uniform. Comment on it. QJ' □ t e I ° c □ □ 5 Английский язык. 8 кл. UNIT 3 Work in pairs and discuss the pros and cons of wearing a school uniform. Here are some of the arguments that you may use. Pros a uniform disciplines you feel that you belong to a certain group it’s easy to say to which school a child goes to schoolchildren don’t envy each other schoolchildren can concentrate on work rather than on their classmates’ clothes Cons when everyone wears the same clothes you can’t express your individuality you have to wear the same things every day and it’s boring you have to wear a uniform even if it isn’t becoming (if you don’t look good in it) your peer^ who don’t have to wear a uniform may laugh at you ^Di/cu//ing the Topic Topical VocABUiARY I. Life in the modern world is unthinkable without banks and their services. Sooner or later we all come to a bank either at home or abroad and there we all speak the language of banking. A lot of people go to the bank to borrow money. Then the bank: • lends you money • loans money • asks for guarantees • checks your credit • charges some money for its services And you: • pay the money back on time and try not to get yourself into debt Very often you put your money in the bank to save it. If you do that you: • open a bank account (current or savings) • fill in/out a form and sign it (up) • pay in a certain sum of money * a peer [pia] — ровесник 130 ___________________________________________________UNIT 3 • become an account holder • get a bank card • get a cheque (check) book • take some money out of the bank or withdraw it from the bank • use the bank’s cash point • get 3 per cent interest Some of the other things that a bank can do for you are: • change your money/give you change for your money • exchange your money (at a certain rate of exchange) • sell your traveller’s cheques • cash your cheques II. Probably the best way to spend your money is to go shopping. Among thousands of things that you can buy in a modern shopping centre are: • ready-made clothes • stationery • fashion clothes • books • footwear • hi-fi • children’s wear • musical instruments • jewellery/jewelry {AmE) • sportswear • home furnishings • tableware • fabrics • gifts and souvenirs • food and drinks • cosmetics and perfume • toys III. Coming to the shop you become a customer. Customers usually: • look about • ask the assistant for help • find out the price and if there’s any discount (reduction) • try a thing on • choose the right size, model, and colour • make a purchase ['paitjss] or purchase things • buy a thing on credit • pay by cheque or by card • pay (in) cash • get the change 131 UNIT 3 IV. As for the shop assistants they: • welcome you • ask you if they can help • help you to choose the right thing • show you where the fitting rooms are • lead you to the cash desk • accept your payment • give you your change and a receipt • wrap (up) your purchase or put it into a plastic bag • explain to you anything that you need to know V. Shops are ideal places to spend your money. Modern shopping centres do their best to prove to you that shopping may be fun. That’s why they tend to combine shopping and leisure.^ A modern shopping centre often looks like a city under one roof where you can find: department/variety stores shops and their outlets theme parks with rides, amusements and games cinemas restaurants, food courts, cafeterias [ДаеГэЧюпэг] and cafes ['kaefeiz] information desks banks opticians photo services hair and beauty salons ['saelnnz] post offices travel agencies car parks car washes petrol stations VI. To make shopping convenient for all and everyone shopping centres may offer you free of charge: • late night shopping • recreation areas • special facilities for the elderly and disabled (wheelchairs etc.) • shopping trolleys and baskets ' leisure ['1езэ] — зд. развлечения 132 UNIT 3 Give English equivalents to these word combinations: A. 1. заполнить бланк, форму, 2. сберегательный счет, 3. хранить деньги в банке, 4. давать денежный заем, ссуду, 5. стать обладателем банковского счета, 6. внести (на счет) определенную сумму, 7. обналичить чек, 8. снять деньги со счета, 9. получать пять процентов прибыли, 10. курс обмена, 11. пользоваться банкоматами B. 1. универсальный магазин 2. место, стилизованное под определенную эпоху или тему 3. ресторанная зона 4. аттракционы и развлечения 5. помещение для отдыха 6. корзины и тележки для покупок 7. специальное оборудование для пожилых и немощных 8. модная одежда 9. обувь 10. ювелирные изделия И.ткани 12. предметы домашней обстановки 13. предметы сервировки стола 14. канцелярские товары 15. звуковая аппаратура 16. сделать покупку 17. заплатить наличными if Match these words with their definitions: I. a) money 1) b) cash . c) change 2) 3) a) credit 1) b) lending 2) c) loaning 3) cost or money in low-value coins or notes II. ally paid back in weekly or monthly payments 133. UNIT 3_______________________________________________________ Answer the questions. If you don’t know some of the answers, ask your teachers, parents or other grown-ups. 1. When does a bank ask for guarantees and check the customer’s credit? 2. What does the customer guarantee when he/she borrows money? 3. Why do people open bank accounts? 4. What is interest? 5. How do people use bank cards and credit cards? 6. How do they use cheque books? 7. What’s a cash point like? 8. Why are banks useful? What can they do for you? 9. What would happen if there were no banks? 71 Remember if you had any pocket money last week and how you spent it. Say if you could have spent^ it wiser. income outgoings 1 1 2 2 A. Comment on this saying. Support what you say with examples. Money doesn’t buy happiness but it helps. B. Say what money means to people: is it a curse^ or a blessing^? 73 Answer the questions. 1. What makes shopping centres convenient and attractive for customers? 2. Have you ever been to a big shopping centre? Did you enjoy shopping there? Why (not)? 3. If you went to a big shopping centre, where would you spend most of your time? Would you spend more time on shopping or on entertainment? 4. Which of these do you enjoy buying: clothes, food, stationery, books or household goods? Can you explain why? 5. What’s the difference between buying things on credit and paying for them immediately? 6. Why do a lot of people prefer to pay by cheque or by card? What are their advantages? 7. What questions do you usually ask a shop assistant? Are shop assistants in your local shops helpful? What makes an ideal shop assistant? And what makes an ideal customer? ‘ could have spent — могли бы потратить ^ a curse [ksis] — проклятие ® a blessing ['blesiij] — благо .134 74 7S -------------------------------------------- UNIT 3 A. Explain what a big modern shopping centre is like to someone who has never been there. B. Do the same in the form of a dialogue. Work in pairs. C. Remember a very successful and a very unsuccessful visit to the shops that you once made and speak about it. D. Imagine that you want to open a shop. What would your shop be like? How would you make it attractive for the customers? Say if you like shopping for clothes and footwear. Explain why (not). Describe one of your visits to a clothes shop or a clothes department. Look at these clothes and describe them like you would do at a fashion show. Use the word combinations below. Begin with: Ladies and gentlemen, let me present a new outfit designed by ... . As you can see it*s ... . 1) — the skirt reaches the ankles l^lT/cCL^ — close-fitting leather jack^ M>f — high-heel sandal shoes utCCi — matching hand and belt. — classical combination of modern style and tradition 2) — long-sleeved top with a zip fitting at the waist C ^ — white shorts ''' — classical combinations of colours 135 UNIT 3 -*5Г- [С Г tC I ЮМ — fashion for the young i ' Y' — matching high-heel shoes to complete the outfit — elegance and simplicity 3) — in two colours — unusual and daring combination —^^cket of a classical cut г.,^Я J ^ skirt that is always in fashion — plain black. top c ^ — black leatbW belt and high boots to complete the outfit 4) —smart evening dress t f r - • — made of shiny silk S J... 00) ^ ^ — trimmed with beads - - f i- r* / ■ jj — long sleeves and a short skirt i^r ’ — low cut \ ^ '■ — the outfit is complete with elegant high-heel sandals 5) — smart evening trousers suit — thin black silk — flap pockets — scarf of the same material round the waist — sleeves slightly puffed at the shoulders and narrow at the wrist О H Arrange a fashion show in your class. A. Speak about a profession of a clothes designer. Find information about a world famous designer and say what makes him or her clothes special, what details he or she uses. B. Say if you could (would like to) work in a bank or in a shopping centre. Would these occupations attract you? Why (not)? •m I/CELIANEOU/ 79 Read the lines and say with which of them you agree and why. Business, you know, may bring money, but friendship hardly ever does. {Jane Austin) The love of money is the root of all evil, {the Bible) Money is like a sixth sense without which you cannot make a complete use of the other five. {W. S. Maugham) — The rich are different from us. — Yes, they have money. {Francis Scott) Remember that time is money. {Benjamin Franklin) ^136 IfiA ^ Listen to the song (No 20) and sing it along. UNIT 3 Can’t Buy Me Love {The Beatles) Can’t buy me love, love. Can’t buy me love! I’ll buy you a diamond ring, my friend. If it makes you feel all right. I’ll get you anything, my friend. If it makes you feel all right, ’Cos I don’t care too much for money. For money can’t buy me love. I’ll give you all I’ve got to give. If you say you love me too, I may not have a lot to give. But what I’ve got I’ll give to you. I don’t care too much for money. Money can’t buy me love. Can’t buy me love, everybody tells me so. Can’t buy me love, no, no, no, no. Say you don’t need no diamond rings And I’ll be satisfied. Tell me that you want the kind of things That money just can’t buy. I don’t care too much for money Money can’t buy me love. Can’t buy me love, everybody tells me so, Can’t buy me love, no, no, no, no. Say you don’t need no diamond rings And I’ll be satisfied. Tell me that you want the kind of things That money just can’t buy. I don’t care too much for money Money can’t buy me love. Money can’t buy me love. Money can’t buy me love. UNIT 3 g| Ш Listen to the poem “Leisure” (No 21) and read it. Try to do your own translation of this poem. Leisure (By W. H. Davies) What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare? No time to stand beneath the boughs And stare as long as sheep or cows. No time to see when woods we pass. Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass. No time to see, in broad daylight. Streams full of stars, like skies at night. No time to turn at Beauty’s glance, And watch her feet, how they can dance. No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began. A poor life this is if, full of care. We have no time to stand and stare. RojECT Work Advertisements are very much a feature of modern life. To create an effective advertisement takes creativity. Try your hand at it. Design an advertisement for: a) a new shopping centre, b) a new bank, c) a new fashion house. Compare your advertisements. some imagination, time, effort and UNIT 4 s V У S » Г * Г и 5 - г. ;j 'u\ ш ■':« Fascination and Challenge: The World of Science and Technology' Wevuion I Listen to the recording (No 22) and answer the questions. I whose invention or discovery it is: 1. Galileo [,gaeli'lei3u] Galilei 2. Michael Faraday [Taeradei] 3. Johann Gregor Mendel ['mendl] 4. Isaac Newton ['nju:ln] 5. Albert Einstein ['ainstain] 6. Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen ['mntgan] 7. Alexander Bell [bel] 8. Alexander Popov 9. Louis Pasteur [pics'ls:] 10. John Logie Baird [bend] 11. Rudolf Engine ['enchm] 12. Marie Curie ['kjuori] 13. Dmitry Mendeleev 14. Ts’ai Lun [tsai Mun] 15. Ivan Pavlov a) paper b) thermometer and microscope c) X-ray d) theory of relativity e) law of universal gravity f) diesel ['di:zl] engine g) vaccines ['v£eksi:nz] against cholera ['knlnrn] h) telephone i) table of chemical elements j) conditional reflexes k) laws of heredity [hi^rednti] l) radium ['reidinm] m) electromagnetic induction [in'dAkJn] n) radio o) television J Say if it’s ‘true* or ‘false’. 1. Russia was the first country in the world to send a satellite ['s£etnlail] into space. 2. The television was invented in the 19th century. 3. Diamonds and coal are made of the same chemical ['kemikl] element. 4. Worms [w3;mz] have tiny legs that can be seen only under the microscope. 5. Nuclear energy and atomic energy are the same thing. technology |tek'nnl.ict)i 1 — техника 13^ тл UNIT 4__________________________________________________________ 6. Neptune ['neptju:n] is the closest planet to the Sun. 7. American astronauts landed on the Moon in 1982. 8. The Earth is a huge natural magnet. Invisible lines of magnetic force spread out around the planet joining the North and the South magnetic poles. 9. Leopards often hunt from trees, lying in wait on a branch. 10. Leonardo da Vinci thought of such modern things as the helicopter, the flying machine and the machine gun and made drawings of them. 11. The laser is a device that strengthens sound. 12. The human nervous system includes brain, nerves and stomach. 4 Match the texts with their titles, one title is not needed. a) SPACE CITIES e) LARGER THAN PASSENGER LINERS... b) HIGH LIVING f) GRAVITY IN SPACE c) GIANT SHIPS g) GIANT PLANES d) COLD MOUNTAINS 1. People used to think that the closer you went to the Siin, the hotter it would be. But as hot air rises it expands and cools, so the higher you go the colder it is. Air cools by 3°C for every 305 m it rises. This is why the tops of mountains are cold. 2. The first successful submarine was built in the 1620s by a Dutch inventor, Cornelius van Drebbel. It had a wooden frame covered in greased leather and was rowed along with 12 oars [d;z]. The biggest submarines today are Russian nuclear submarines. Larger than passenger liners, they can stay under for two years without refueling. 3. There is less oxygen the higher up you go. Mountain people and animals can live at great heights because they have bigger hearts and lungs, which carry more blood, and therefore more oxygen. Quechua Indians live 3 650 m up in the Andes ['aendiiz], where they grow potatoes and corn, and herd sheep. 4. The human race is about to enter a new age of travelling and living in space. Shuttles will one day make journeys into space as common as ordinary airplane flights today. Space cities holding thousands of people will circle the Earth, metals will be mined, and one day special trees might be developed so that they can grow on comets and distant planets. 140 UNIT 4 I ] 5. Modern oil tankers are the largest ships ever built. The Seawise Giant is one of the biggest tankers of all. Fully loaded it weighs 574 000 tons and is as long as 15 tennis courts laid end to end. A ship big like this takes over 6 km to stop at sea. 6. Plans have been suggested for building giant colonies in space, housing thousands of people. The land areas would be on the inside surfaces of giant cylinders or wheels which would spin round to provide gravity similar to the Earth’s. Inside people could walk around as freely as on Earth and grow their own food. Insert what or which to complete the sentences and answer the questions. 1. ... of the two is used to make distant things seem closer: the telescope or the microscope? 2. ... country did Nicolas Copernicus come from? 3. ... of the two countries uses the Space Shuttle: Russia or the USA? 4. ... is the usual body temperature of most mammals? 5. ... is the Sun’s diameter: a) 1 392 000 km; b) 13 920 km; c) 139 200 km? 6. ... are the only mammals that can fly? 7. ... is bigger: the Hermitage in Russia or the National Gallery in London? 8. ... is the memory capacity of the most powerful computer today? 9.... is a tornado? 10.... of the three is true: a) our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains about 300 000 million stars? b) it contains about 700 000 million stars? c) it contains about 100 000 million stars? ^ Remember your active vocabulary and topical vocabulary (Unit 3) and complete the sentences. ^>C4Zr/$ tib^n l.A ... is the part of your clothes that goes round your neck. 2. A ...^js a. flat thin strip of cloth, put round the straw hat. 3. р^Л' of а/ dress, shirt or coat, that covers your a^m. 4. a^ piece^oi clothing like a jacket with no sleeves. 5. ...'^Sr^e strapsa ma^ wears over his shoulders to keep his trousers up. 6. A ... is a tiling ^used instead of a button and a buttonhole. 7. A {f. i's a loiig'^^harrow cut. 8. formal jacket which has two long pieces hanging down the back. 9. f is a long narrow piece of cloth that a man wears round the neck of his shirt. 10. A ... is a long fastener made of two sets of metal or plastic teeth and a sliding piece that joins the teeth together. 141 7 UNIT 4______________________________________ Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1. We were at the zoo yesterday and saw a very {funny, hilarious) monkey. 2. Are you going to our {dress, fancy-dress) party on Saturday? 3. The idea of going there seems {hilarious, ridiculous) to me. 4. They {attached, detached) the flag to the long stick and marched on. 5. We parted and I {waved, flapped) to my friends standing on the platform. 6. The Titanic [tai'taenik] sank because it had crushed into an {immense, big) iceberg. 7. He felt bad that day and went to school with {reluctance, dignity). 8. The little boy {unlaced, laced up) his shoes himself before going to bed. 8 Complete the shopping dialogue and act it out with a partner. Shop assistant: Can I help you? Customer: Yes. (1) ... for a blouse like this, but in green. Shop assistant: I see. What (2) ...? Customer: I usually wear size 14. Shop assistant: Right. I’ll go and see (3) ... . Customer: Thank you. Shop assistant: Here we are. What about this one? Customer: Great! I like it (4) ... . Shop assistant: Of course you can. Customer: Where is (5) ... ? Shop assistant: It’s down there on the left. What do you think? Customer: I rather like it. I think I’ll take it. Where (6) ... ? Shop assistant: Over there at the cash desk. Customer: And can I pay (7) ... ? Shop assistant: Yes, of course. We take Visa and Express cards. 9 quickly you can answer these questions. 1. What’s the money in Britain called? 2. Which is worth more - a dime or a nickel? 3. If you want to spend your money, do you pay it in or withdraw it? 4. If your bank loans money to you, do you lend it or borrow it? 5. What do you give to the shop assistant if you pay cash? 6. How else can you pay? 7. If the price of a pair of shoes is 20 pounds, how much does the shop charge you for them? 8. What else do you do with a form after you’ve filled it in? 9. Who helps customers in the bank? 10. If you want to know how much your friend paid for a book, what question will you ask him or her? 142 _____________________________________________________ UNIT 4 10 Find a general word to describe each group of items. ШеХаМПЕ: 1_________: tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers. 1. Vegetables: tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers. 2. ____: a skirt, an outfit, trousers. 3. ____: banknotes, coins, cash. 4. ____: shoes, boots, sandals. 5. ____: pears, apples, oranges. 6. ____: a gold ring, a silver chain, a brooch. 7. ____: pencils, envelopes, pads. 8. ____: a sofa, a desk, a wardrobe. 9. ____: a piano, a violin, a guitar. 10. : forks, knives, spoons, plates, glasses. IV Complete the sentences using the most appropriate form: can, can’t, could, may, may not. ШеХаМРЕЕ: —We are going to read one of Shakespeare’s plays at school. I think it is “Mark Is Dead” or “Macbeth", but I’m not sure. — It could (can) be “Macbeth", but it can’t be “Mark Is Dead”. 1. Mum, there’s a good film on TV at 7. ... I watch it? 2.1 don’t know if “spring” is a noun, a verb or an adjective. It ... be a noun or a verb, but it ... be an adjective. 3. {At the food couri:, to a stranger)'. — Excuse me, there isn’t any salt on my table. ... I take yours? 4. ... I have another cup of tea. Granny? 5. Bob, I don’t want my chocolate. You ... have mine if you want. 6. Excuse me, ... I have the menu, please? 7. Before we begin the tour, I’d like to tell you that you ... take pictures outside, but you ... not use your cameras inside the palace. 8. For the last time, Dolly. No, you ... go to that fancy-dress party, so don’t ask me again. 9.1 wish I had learnt Spanish at school. Then I ... speak to my Spanish pen friend. 10. The English test was really hard. I ... not answer most of the questions. 14^ UNIT 4 ^Reading for Country /tudie/ ]| Ш A. Listen to the text “The Man and His Work” (No 23) and say which of the two is right. 1. In 1870 one of the experts at the US Patent Office left his job because he felt that ... . a) everything had been invented b) there were too many inventions to register 2. Alexander Graham Bell was born in ... . a) Scotland b) England 3. After graduating from the University of London Alexander Bell was a ... . a) scientific worker b) teacher 4. Bell’s assistant knew a lot ... about electricity than Bell did. a) less b) more ' 5. The telephone was invented in the ... century, a) 19th b) 20th 6. Bell recited ... monologue when he was demonstrating the telephone to his guests. a) Hamlet's b) King Lear's B. Read the text and make up questions to which the phrases «below are answers. l.The 20th century. 2. They made experiments with the human voice. 3. He taught the deaf. 4. It was a cylinder with a membrane and a stylus attached to it. 5. Because Thomas A. Watson knew about electricity more than Bell did. 6. At a big exhibition in Philadelphia. 7. Because he thought that his invention wasn’t ready. 8. He asked Bell to demonstrate his machine. 9. It was the first line from Hamlet’s monologue. 10. For both the multiple telegraph and the telephone. The Man and His Work The story is told that in 1870 one of the experts at the US Patent Office left his job because he felt that everything had been invented and there was no future in it. . It happened at the time when the telephone, the radio, and television had not yet been invented. And when Edison gave the world the electric light, his invention paved the way to the immense use of electricity in the 144 UNIT 4 20th century. The 20th century also gave us the automobile, the airplane, the helicopter, the cinema, the computer and the nuclear reactor. Two world wars helped to develop the chemical industry to the level that allowed to produce synthetics and other scientific marvels. Some people believe that inventions occur as the need arises. From this point of view, someone else might have invented the telephone. As it happened, it was Alexander Graham Bell. Born in Scotland, Bell spent his youth in England. His grandfather and father were elocution teachers. While the family lived in England, the parents moved in scientific circles, where experiments were being carried out on the human voice. Alexander and his brother became interested in the subject. They made a puppet with throat organs based on those of the human being and experimented with reproducing the human voice. Alexander became interested, too, in experimenting with a multiple telegraph that could send more than one message at a time. It was through his interest in this field that he invented the telephone years later. After graduating from the University of London, Alexander was a teacher of the deaf. The family moved to America where Alexander’s father had been asked to read lectures. They emigrated to Canada and settled in Ontario. Within a few months, Alexander accepted a teaching position with the Boston School for the Deaf and left for Massachusetts. In the course of his efforts to perfect a multiple telegraph. Bell had invented a little machine, that he had used in teaching the deaf. It was a cylinder with a membrane stretched across one end and a stylus (a thin stick) attached to the membrane. When someone spoke into a cylinder, the membrane vibrated and the stylus traced a zigzag line on smoked glass. This little machine that he called the phonautograph, gave him a key to the invention of the telephone. Bell took on an assistant, Thomas A. Watson, who knew about electricity a lot more than Bell did. The two men were working on the multiple telegraph, when Bell’s idea for the telephone came to him. In 1876 when Bell showed his first model of the telephone, it was still a rather simple instrument. This was the year of the Centennial, that celebrated the first hundred years of progress in the United States. To celebrate the event they organized a big exhibition in Philadelphia. Bell, who thought that his invention wasn’t quite ready, rather reluctantly agreed to exhibit it. The telephone receiver was connected with the transmitter across the room. One of the distinguished guests, the Emperor of Brazil, asked Bell to demonstrate his machine. Leaving the Emperor at the receiver the inven- 145^ UNIT 4 __________________________________________________________ tor went to the transmitter on the other side of the room and started reciting Hamlet’s monologue “To be or not to be” into it. The shocked and amazed Emperor soon rushed to Bell with the tails of his formal coat flapping. “It talks,” he cried. The other judges gathered about and took turns listening. Bell’s invention was immediately called the greatest of the time. Alexander Graham Bell received the Centennial prize awards for both the multiple telegraph and the telephone. In his memoirs Bell wrote: “I went to bed, the night before, an unknown man, and awoke to find myself famous.” ' ^ \/|J In the text “The Man and His Work” there are a lot of international words the meanings of which are easy to guess. Read through the text again and complete the list of such words. Make sure that you read them correctly. Give the Russian for them. 1) expert 12) industry 23) ... 2) patent 13) 24) machine 3) 14) experiment 25) assistant 4) 15) 26) 5) television 16) 27) instrument 6) 17) university 28) transmitter 7) automobile 18) 29) • • • • • • • • • 8) 19) position 30) 9) 20) cylinder 31) prize 10) 11) reactor 21) 22) 32) ••• V 14 Complete these sentences. Use the Man and His Work”. information from the 1. Edison’s invention paved the way to ... . 2. Some people believe that inventions occur ... . 3. Alexander Bell and his brother became interested in ... . 4. After graduating from the University of London Alexander . 5. This little machine that he called the phonautograph, gave him 6. The telephone receiver was connected *.. . , 7. Bell’s invention was immediately called ... . 8. “I went to bed, the night before, an unknown man, ... .” a key f J Divide the text “The Man and His Work” into five logical parts and give them names. In Tell the story of Alexander Graham Bell. J46 V UNIT 4 ^Reading for Information \J]^ Read the article from “USA Today” once and answer these ques- ^ tions. 1. What kind of war is described at the beginning of the text? 2. What are the advantages of the new virtual technology? 3. Do we have answers to all questions connected with virtual reality? 4. What in virtual technologies may turn out to be dangerous: a) for their users generally, b) in science, c) in training? 5. What may happen to human ethics and morality as a result of using virtual technologies? Virtual Reality: Danger Ahead? Virtual reality is an environment in which computers create the effect of a world which seems almost completely real to the people in it. War has begun. You are seated in an M-1 tank simulator. A head display is fixed over your eyes. As you sit, the display flashes computer-generated images of the battle field into each eye. You look around. The helmet with the help of sensors picks up your eye and head movements and sends them to the computer, which changes the scene. An enemy tank fires from the south. You use the controls and your tank “moves”. When the fighting is over you know how many soldiers are “killed” and how many tanks are “destroyed”. If your result isn’t impressive, don’t worry. You will work at warfare until you get right. Welcome to virtual reality, the technology that allows users to interact with computer-simulated images and some day may offer getting into make-believe worlds. In today’s virtual worlds people can do a lot of things and their advantages — both real and potential — are clear. Doctors j practise operations on different parts of human body, students learn somef > geography and history by “walking” into the places they are interested in, tourists take far-away trips to other countries etc. J Less clear, though, are possible side effects on individuals, groups of people and/or society itself. Will virtual reality (VR) be the new television? How will virtual trips (journeys) effect our minds, judgment and relationships? Will virtual reality make us better people? Will it make us worse? Critics of VR say that this sort of technology without careful regulation Will be nothing more than a high-tech instrument for spreading violence, pornography and advertising. Already, they say, a lot of VR 147^ UNIT 4_______________________—______-________________________ programmes are exercises in killing rather than in thinking. Many scientists see some truth in this. Some of them say: “A strong concern of ours with virtual technologies is the use of violence, especially because the . realism of simulators is getting better and better.” Some psychologists Vf warn that for the young and mentally ill virtual trips could be very dan-■ gerous because after such trips they mix up the real world with the virtual one. As virtual models that scientists design become more and more realistic, people may start believing these models to be true and forgetting to go to the real world to see if it is really so. In science, this tendency can lead to wrong conclusions. In training it could result in unpreparedness for risky situations. The pilot trained on a plane model that is realistic, but not true, for example, would be ready for a virtual flight, but not a real one. Perhaps the biggest question of all is what virtual reality will mean for human ethics and morality. There is a danger that traditional morality will break down in virtual worlds. There is no chance of hurting another person in the world of VR and so the feeling of immorality will be taken away. Nothing in a virtual world ever will be believed immoral, anything will go: no harm, no damage. ^ So, what is the final word on virtual reality? It can be a curse or a blessing. In the end this new technology will be what we make it. Read the article again for more details and match the English ' words and word combinations with their Russian equivafents: 18 1) simulator 2) a head display 3) flashes images 4) a battlefield 5) picks up your movements 6) warfare 7) to interact 8) make-believe worlds 9) both real and potential 10) side effects 11) to effect our minds, judgment and relationships 12) without careful regulation 13) high-tech 14) spreading violence ... 1^) anything will go: no harm, -no damage (^) боевые действия /^^b) вымышленные миры .ffc) побочные эффекты ;td) взаимодействовать ^ е) технология высокой сложности f) имитирующее устройство оказывать влияние на наш разум, суждения и взаимоотноше- ■ffg) l|fh) г) j) ния все сойдет: нет вреда, нет урона поле битвы шлем виртуальной реальности распространение насилия ^П) улавливает ваши движения 7ш)без тщательно выработанных г ^ правил п) высвечивает образы о) как реальные, так и возможные (потенциальные) 148 19 __________________________________________UNIT 4 Find in the text and read out the lines that prove the following: 1. Specialists still argue if virtual technologies do more good than harm. 2. Virtual technologies may give results not wanted by society. 3. Virtual technologies can be very useful. 4. Virtual reality is a technology that gives users an opportunity to act together with the computer. *• * 5. There’s a danger that users of virtual technologies may lose the feeling of what is right and what is wrong. 6. It’s computers that make virtual reality possible. ^New Language ^Grammar /ection I. The Place of Adverbs in Sentences He is working {how?) well. They live {where?) in the village. We quarrelled {when?) yesterday. when how where when 0 12 3 ^ W ^ She sang very well at the concert last night. 1 2 3 Last night she sang very well at the concert. 0 He works best at home at night. She was crying quietly in her room then. The girl practises the violin here every evening. After verbs of movement (go, come etc.) the order of adverbs can be different (adverb of place can come first). He went upstairs quietly. 149^ UNIT 4 ir ^ Complete the sentences using the items in brackets in the right order. 1. Jane spoke {at the meeting, last Wednesday, firmly). 2. The player caught the football (at the stadium, quickly). 3. The fans cheered their favourite team (yesterday, wildly, at the gym). 4. The director spok^ (at the rehearsal, on Monday, excitedly). 5. Bob threw the ball (in the hall, * then, high). 6. Belinda was moving the chairs (noisily, last night, in her room). 7. The children ran (quickly, downstairs). 8. The little kitten crept (silently, upstairs). Adverbs of Time and Frequency always usually often frequently generally sometimes occasionally seldom rarely hardly ever never (not) ever With adverbs of frequency the word order is as this: 1. The boys often play football in the schoolyard. Subject^ Adverb Predicate^ 2. They are sometimes late for their lessons. Subject Be Adverb Predicative^ just already finally 3. If there is more than one auxiliary verb, adverbs usually go after the first auxiliary. The roof has never been repaired. ' I will definitely be seeing him tonight. I have never been so happy in my whole life. Subject Auxiliary V Adverb Auxiliary V/Predicative * subject — подлежащее ^ predicate ['predikat] — сказуемое ® predicative [pri'dikativ] — именная часть составного именного сказуемого 150 II UNIT 4 Put a suitable adverb in the right place. never sometimes often usually rarely seldom just already ever frequently hardly ever occasionally finally ^ 1. People think about the future of the planet. 2. We like our granny’s stories. 3. Films made by this director are popular with the public. 4. This room is clean and tidy. 5. The two brothers agree. 6. They sing songs at their English lessons. 7. We quarrelled when we were young. 8. Little children have five or six meals a day. 9. Jane has finished her project. 10. We come to this place which is so picturesque. 11. Her pupils send her letters. 12. People win at the lottery. 13. Little Tom learnt to count from one to ten. 14. My parents visit big shopping centres. 22 Say in which of the following sentences adverbs expressing time or frequency are placed: ' a) before the main verb, b) after the verb fo be, c) between an auxiliary verb and a main verb. 1. Ann always comes on time. 2. Ann does not often comes on time. 3. Does Ann ever come on time? 4. Ann is always on time. 5. Is Ann sometimes on time? 6. Ann is not often on time. 7. Has Ann already come? 23 Express the same in English. 1. Эмма никогда не видела снег. 2. Джемма тихо открыла дверь - все студенты радостно обсуждали последние новости. 3. Ее почти никогда не бывает дома, в библиотеку она тоже редко заходит. 4. Дик никогда не опаздывает, он всегда приходит в офис вовремя. 5. Собаки и лошади исключительно умные животные. 6. Его не часто здесь видят. 7. Вы когда-нибудь думаете о своей будуш;ей работе? 8. Время от времени я посещаю цирк. 9. Вчера Джон пришел достаточно поздно и был удивительно спокоен. 10. Я абсолютно свободен сейчас, хотя я редко бываю свободным. 151 UNIT 4 II. Modal Verbs: Must/Have to/Should/Ought to must/had to/ivill have to obligation, necessity {долженствование, необходимость) a) I must clean my room. b) I had to clean my room yesterday. c) I will have to clean my room tomorrow. mustn’t prohibition {запрещение, категорическое «нельзя»), a) You mustn’t watch TV for so long. b) You mustn’t stop here. - 1 must probability {вероятность, большая степень уверенности) a) The phone is ringing. It must be Sally. b) You haven’t eaten since morning. You must be hungry. 24 Say in which of these sentences must means: a) obligation, b) probability, c) prohibition. 1. It must be a terrific film if Kate has seen it four times. 2. Sorry, I must leave a little earlier today. 3. You mustn’t tell anyone about this — it’s a secret. 4. Must I take this medicine: it has a bitter tastel 5. They must be having a wonderful time at the seaside. 6. Kids mustn’t get smart aleck with grown-ups. 7. London must be bigger than Paris. must/have to Must and have to both express necessity, but they are not exactly the same: must 1“ i 1) You must phone home at once. {Вы должны, это важно и срочно.) 2) 1 must stop smoking. {Я хочу это сделать. Это мое соб ственное решение.) 3) This is а terrible party. We really must go home. {Это наше собственное мнение, наше решение.) + i"l) 2) 3) have to I have to' go home at once. {Мне придется, обстоятельства, предварительная договоренность и т. д. вынуждают.) I have to stop smoking. {Мне надо это сделать, это указание (приказ) врача.) This is а lovely p£u*ty, but it’s getting late and we have to go home. {Мы вынуждены это сделать по не зависящей от нас причине.) ^152 UNIT 4 must 1) You mustn’t phone home now. 1) {Категорически нельзя. Я вам i запрещаю.) ; 2) Your little brother is asleep. 1 2) You mustn’t shout so loudly. {Категорический запрет.) have to You don’t have to phone home at once.' (Б этом нет необходимости.) You don’t have to shout so loudly. I can hear you well. {B крике нет необходимости.) 1) Must you wear old dirty jeans 1) all the time? {Это так важно j лично для вас?) 2) Must you always interrupt me I 2) when I’m speaking? {Тебе так j важно это делать?) ! J Do you have to wear a tie at work? {Вам приходится его носить? Это правило?) Do you have to interrupt your speech to explain new words? {B этом есть необходимость?)^ Must is not usually used to talk about past obligation, had to is. (Must is used mainly for giving orders, and you cannot give orders in the past.) I had to go to London yesterday. Choose have/has to or must to complete these sentences.' 1. You ... go on a picnic with us — it will be great funi 2. The Smiths ... pay for their new car every .month: they’ve bought it on credit. 3. University students ... take exams twice during the year. 4. You ... be more thoughtful of other people. 5.1 ... visit my aunt in the hospital, I know she’ll be glad to see me. 6. Jane lives far from her school and ... get up very early not to be late for the first class. 7.1 haven’t written to my pen friend in the USA for two months. I ... do it this week. 8. Sally ... go to the shops in town as she lives on a farm with no shops in the neighbourhood. A. Stephen is a pupil. He is on holiday now. Continue the list of things that he doesn’t have to do. 1) He doesn’t have to get up early. 2) ......... 3).......... 15^ UNIT 4 ------------------------------------------------------- /2^ в. Interview your classmates. Find out what chores they have to do about the house. Make a general conclusion about how much time children of your age have to spend on housework daily on an average. C. Compare people of these professions. Say what they have/don*t have to do as part of their jobs. a receptionist in a hotel a police officer a social worker a nurse an air host a travel agent 17 must not or do/does not have to to complete these sentenc- es. 1.1 have already finished all my work, so I ... study tonight. 2.1 ... forget to take my notebook with me. 3. Bats can navigate in the darkness. They ... see in order to avoid obstacles.^ 4. David! You ... play with sharp knives. 5. We ... go to the cinema if you don’t want to, but the film is good. 6. If you want to be a good manager, you ... be rude with a customer. 7. If you are afraid of dogs, you ... show any signs of fear. 8. You ... tell anyone my secret. 9. A person ... become rich and famous in order to live a successful life. 18 Complete the sentences with your own words. 1. Children don’t have to ... 2. Children mustn’t ... 3. Waiters don’t have to ... 4. Waiters mustn’t ... 5. Nurses don’t have to 6. Nurses mustn’t ... have to « have got to We do not use got forms to talk about habits or something we do repeatedly. 1) I don’t have to do the dishes in the morning. My mother always does them. 2) Oh, my! I’ve got to wash a lot of dirty dishes tonight. * to avoid obstacles ['obstsklz] — зд. избежать столкновений, облетать препятствия ^154 UNIT 4 Choose have/has or have/has got to to complete the sentences. Say where both are possible. l.Oh, it’s getting really late I ... to go now. 2. My father ... to travel a lot on business: he is a sales manager for a big company. 3. Melissa ... to look after her little brothers as her mother works in the evenings. 4. If you miss the last bus, you ... to walk home. 5. They ... to clean their shop every evening after closing it. 6. Sam ... to decide for himself who his real friends are. 7. They ... to practise more if they want to be good tennis players. obligation, moral, duty, advice {обязанность, мягкое наставление, совет) You should (ought to) see "Titanic'* — it’s a great film Drivers should (ought to) obey the speed limit. 30 Work in pairs and give advice to your partner. ШеХаМРЬЕ: —I don’t feel well. I think I am coming down with a cold. — I think you should (ought to) lie down and take your temperature. 1. I can’t see the blackboard when I sit in the back row. 2. My granny is in hospital. 3. There is no food in the house. 4. My friend is arriving in Moscow but I forget what time his plane gets in. 5. Our apartment is in a mess, and my mother is coming from her holiday tomorrow. 6. My little brother has toothache. 7. Alice wants to improve her English. 8. Oh, I’m terribly cold. 31 Choose the verbs that fit the situation best, in some cases two are possible. 1. A person ... eat in order to live. a) must b) should c) has to 2. A person ... eat a balanced diet. a) must b) should c) has to 15^ UNIT 4___________________________________________________ 3. I don’t have enough money to take the bus so I ... walk home, a) must b) should c) have to 4. You ... walk to and from school instead of taking the bus if you want to get more exercise. a) must b) should c) have to 5. This pie is very good! You ... try a piece.' a) must b) should c) have to 6. If you want to become a teacher of English, you ... work hard at the language you’re learning. a) must b) should c) have to 7. Rice ... have water in order to grow. a) must b) should c) has to 8. Your back hurts and the box is heavy. You ... carry it. a) mustn't b) shouldn't c) don't have to H Match the pictures with their captions. Sometimes in speaking, must has the meaning of a very enthusiastic should: You must see this film. It’s excellent. ,156 UNIT 4 33 Express the same in English. l.B нашей школе мы можем носить джинсы, если нам хочется. Мы не обязаны носить форму. 2. Ты не должен выходить без пальто. На улице страшный холод. 3. Если туфли жмут (hurt you), не следует их носить. 4. Кто-то украл мой паспорт. Мне нужно пойти в полицейский участок. 5. Твои родители не знают, где ты. Уверена, они будут волноваться о тебе. Ты должен им позвонить. 6. Ты не думаешь, что латынь следует изучать в школе? 7. Наш поезд сломался вчера, и нам пришлось заканчивать наше путешествие на автобусе. 8. Моя мама купила посудомоечную машину (а dishwasher), так что мне больше не придется мыть посуду. 9. Мои родители очень строгие. Я должен рано приходить домой. 10. Не смей дотрагиваться до этих пирожных. Они не для тебя. ///. Substantivized Adjectives deaf Deaf people are not able to hear. Speak up. I’m rather deaf. the deaf : Have you heard about a sign language for the deaf? blind He can’t see: he is blind from birth. the blind In each big city there are usually special schools for the blind. I ' dumb Deaf people are very often also dumb. the dumb I How do the dumb communicate? old How old is this city? the old The old need our loving care. young It’s wonderful to be youngl the young The young often find it difficult to understand the old. rich Can you give me an example of a rich country? the rich The rich have their own problems. poor They are as poor as church mice. the poor This government has helped the rich but done nothing for the poor. 157. UNIT 4 Use the adjectives from the table (page 157) with or without the definite article. 1. ... can learn to read with the help of their fingers. 2.1 would like all the people in my country to be ... and happy. 3. ... and ... are the two categories of people who may have problems with finding a job. 4. What do we call people who can’t hear: do we call them ... or ...? 5. This is the part of the city where ... live, it looks very attractive. 6. The historical part of our town is ... and beautiful. ®/0CIAL EnGLI/H Notice/ and Warning/ ^Vocabulary Jection 35 ^ Learn to understand these English notices (No 24). 1. Some notices give you information: OUT OF ORDER ) ( NO VACANCIES ) ( SOLD OUT ) It means *some machine, phone etc. is not working'. It means 'the hotel is full'. It means 'there are no tickets left for a film or a concert'. 2. Some notices tell you to do or not to do certain things: No Smoking ^ Г No Parking ^ ---- ------,1. Please Do Not Feed the Animals No Exit No Talking No Trespassing ^ \ Please Do Not Disturb V. Please Do Not Remove the Furniture Please Queue Other Side Please Stack Your Plates Neatly on This Table ( Please Keep off I. the Grass Keep Right Гоо Not Leave Bags ^ Unattended ( Do Not Lean out of the Window Keep Your Dog on the Lead 158 UNIT 4 3. Some notices are warnings — they tell you to be careful because something bad may happen: (MIND YOUR head) (mIND YOUR STEP) ( FRAGILE ) It means Ъе careful, you may hit your head.’ It means ’be careful, you may hit the step and fall*. It means ‘be careful, this breaks easily’. (beware of pickpockets З ( BEWARE OF THE DOG ) It means ’be careful, there are people here who will steal things from your bag or pocket’. It means ’be careful, there is a dog in the house’. и a) Please do not ... Beware ... b) Mind your ... c) Sold ... Try and complete these notices and warnings. e) f) g) No ... Out ... d) Keep ... h) Keep off ... Say where you can see these notices or warnings. 2) 1) Do Not Lean out of the Window Fragile 4) Keep Right 5) Nothing to Declare 6) Mind the Step 7) Do Not Leave Bags Unattended 8) 11) Beware of the Dog 9) No Trespassing 10) No Smoking Mind the Doors! 159 > UNIT 4 ШРн RATAL Verb to see ri' to see smb around — {часто) встречаться с кем-то I’ve seen him around quite a lot recently. Goodbye, I’ll see you around! 3) to see through sth or smb — видеть что-то/кого-то насквозь You don’t fool me. I can see through your tricks! to see to sth or smb — позаботиться о чем-то/о ком-то Don’t worry, the house will be cleaned out. I’ll see to it. See to it that you are not late for your English class again. Could you see to my pets while I’m away? to see smb off — проводить кого-то My mother always saw me off to school when I was very young. Will you come to the airport to see me off? 18 Say the same in a different way. 1. Don’t worry. I’ll take care of your garden in summer. 2. We all came to the airport to say goodbye to our friend who was flying to the USA. 3. I’m sure that I’ll be meeting you quite often now that the school year has begun. 4. I’m very surprised that he didn’t understand at once that his little sister was lying to him. 5. When are you leaving? I’ll come to say goodbye to you. 6. Last week I met Jeremy quite often. Where is he now, I wonder? 7. The criminal in the film was so clever, that he could easily understand the detectives’ actions. 8. Make sure that the lights are switched off before you leave. J9’ Complete the sentences using the missing words. ^60 1. After all those years she had learned to see his lies. 2. Don’t you worry about that. I’ll see that. 3. John said he would see our luggage. 4. She saw him ff. at the station. 5. The schoolchildren saw their teacher’s scheme. 6. Do you see Bob at all? 7. She knew him well enough to see L. his laughter. 8. He saw his friend^... at the bus station. 9. Have you seen Lizzy i.. lately? 10. Will you see ... the children? ____________________m______________________ UNIT 4 40 Express the same in English. 1. Мы поехали на вокзал проводить тетушку. 2. Не могли бы вы позаботиться о том, чтобы наших гостей напоили чаем? 3. Никогда прежде я не встречал человека, который насквозь видит все детские уловки (tricks). 4. Кто из вас видел (встречал) его в последнее время? 5. Кто-нибудь должен позаботиться об удобстве отдыхающих. 6. Можно я приду на вокзал, чтобы проводить тебя? 7. Нам нужен кто-то, кого трудно обмануть (to be deceived), кто видит противника насквозь. 8. Ну, пока, увидимся! ®New Word/ то Learn A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. The rights of the individual [,indi'vidju3l] are perhaps the most important rights in a free society. Don’t you know what a robot ['raubnt] is? Kleptomania [,к1ер1эи'теш1э] is a maniaof stealing things. Jane Roberts was a lady of great talent and intellect. The two writers worked well in combination^ Their talents combined created a lot of unforgettable characters. The h3^iu fhaibrid] of a donkey and a horse is called a mule. Have these instruments been sterilized ['steralaizd], nurse? And where do you keep the sterilized instruments? Some birds can imitate ['imiteit] human voices. Robert is a potential [psu'tenjl] winner at our school competitions. Little Jimmy became very emotional [I'msujanl] when we had to leave and started to cry. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 4t Q® Read the words, look them up and then study the word combina-. tions and sentences to know how to use them. / ЛШ14М1С express [ik'spres] (u): to express one s opinion, to express-one’s.ieelings. , Гш writing a letter to express my ,thanks for a lovely, holiday. (n): 1 to suff^^fi^in nei*veS,^ to 'od^’'s nerves. His ;e very bad. Loud music gets on my nerves. ,, ^i’h’ife’’nerveY<^%c/‘^h, £6'the<^bf^^ to do sth. John is the nerves i 2 to ha^ dirtiest man I know and he has the nerve to tell me that my shoes need cleaning. I wanted to tell Robert exactly what I thought but I lost my nerve. 161 6 Английский язык, 8 кл. UNIT 4 ___________________________________________________________ UCfJU4uC nervous ['ii3:v3s] (adj): a nervous smile, a nervous speech, a nervous man. Don’t be nervous — the doctor won’t hurt you. I’m a bit nervous about (u): to bother sb (with, about) sth. I’m busy, don’t bother me just now. I won’t bother you with my problems any longer. I’m sorry to bother you, but can you tell me the time? Don’t bother your-details. indimrent [m'difranl] {adj): an indifferent person, an indifferent lawyer, an indifferent teacher, an indifferent look. His manner was cold and indifferent. indifferently (aav): Did he talk to you indifferently or was he interested Г^ щ your plan? beside [Ы'said] (prep): Come and sit beside me. Brighton is a town beside e sea. The lady sitting beside the driver ^wa^^^'vjery pervous. ire" [n'kwaia] (o): to require sth, to be req^red'{b do sth, to be required of sth/sb. This job requires a clear head. Is there anything further you require, sir? This plan will require careful thought. Silence is required in library reading rooms. What is required of you? All passengers are required to show their tickets, equipment [I'kwipmsnt] (n): writing equipment, technical equipment, studio equipment, laboratory equipment. Pens, pencils and paper are writ-inff engineer tested all his video equipment, supply [sb'plai] (u): to supply sb with sth, to supply sth to sb/sth. Will you supply US with all the equipment required? Butchers supply us The government supplies free books to schools, su^ly (n): a large supply of food, a good supply of vegetables. Mother supply of food in the house. irnt^iep {adj): an irritable man, to get (become) irritable. Jack bewm^^<^ite irritable when he has toothache, imramly ['iritabli] {adv): Philip easily becomes angry and speaks with peo-nle^ritably. casep^Js] {n): a case of robbery, a case of murder, to work on the case, a classic case of good education. There are five cases of food poisoning in the hospital. 1 in case. I shall take my umbrella in case it rains. 2 in any case. Come to see me tomorrow in any case. 3 just in case. Victor, come and take all the papers just in case. 4 in that case. — Shall we go for a walk if it rains? — Yes, but in that our umbrellas and raincoats with us. worn [wD:n] out {adj): a worn out hat, a worn out coat. I threw the shoes ^^^^^^jgway because they were worn out. r^OTd ['rekDid] (n): 1 A doctor keeps a record of his patients’ illnesses. 2 to set a record, to break the record, to hold the record for discus throwing. Who holds the record for long distance swimming? 162 recora fri'l UNIT 4 'ko:d] (l>): 1 to record facts, to record the score. What became of this famous sportsman is not recorded. Will you record the score in my notebook? 2 to record music, to record a concert. Their conversation was secretly predict [pri'dikt] (u): to predict future, to predict the result, to predict one’s answer. He looked at the sky and predicted rain. The fortune-^^l^^^^re^^ed that I would marry a scientist. insist [in'sist] (u): to insist on sth. David insisted that he had seen a ghost. I said I would walk to the station, but he insisted on driving me desire [di'zaia] (n): a desire to write a poem, one’s greatest desire, a desire for success. Michael expressed a desire to see the papers. I know about his desirg^o attend our meeting. desire^di'zaia] (u): to desire happiness, to desire to see sb. We all desire happiness^^d^^;^ess. varidi^^f^'raiau] (n): a large variety of goods, a great variety of colours. There’s a large variety of dishes on the menu. My job is boring — there is no variety. various ['veoriss] (adj): various parts of the country, various species, dogs. For various reasons I prefer to see him. advamaget^u vamticfe] (n): an advantage over sb, to have the advantage of doing sth, to do sth to advantage, to take advantage of sth. What are the advantages of this method? Polly has an advantage over Alice, she can speak Spanish. James had an advantage over all the candidates — he had some experience in the job. You should take advantage of the fine weather to paint the fence. Frank has the advantage of being able to drive. 43 Complete the sentences using the new words. I. The children got a v...y of toys on their birthdays. 2.1 have a sudden d... for a bar of chocolate. 3. What are the a...s of air travel? 4. The teacher i...s on good behaviour. 5. The old man p...d a change in the weather. 6. John is happy. He has r...d the whole concert of his favourite group. 7. I’ve had the jacket for seven years, it is absolutely w... out. 8. I’ll take an umbrella in c... it rains. 9. Jack had a headache and was in an i... mood. 10. The town is s...d with water from a river in the hills. II. Without the right e... the mechanic could not repair the car. 12. The lamp is b... the bed. 13. Is there anything you r... ? 14. He spoke to us i.... 15. Jane told him to stop b...ing her. 163 44 UNIT 4 Express the same, use your new vocabulary. 1.1 threw my old shoes away because they were totally finished as I had used them a lot. 2.1 could tell from the look on Don’s face that he was very pleased. 3. Some people can say that it will rain by just looking at the clouds. 4, I wanted to go to the station by bus but my father said very strongly that he would drive me there. 5. He ran the race in the fastest time. 6. I’d love to go travelling, I badly need change. 7. What special things do we require to make a video film? 8. There’s no reason for you to be afraid and worried: I’m sure you’ll pass this exam. 9.1 had an idea of going on a boat trip on the river, but my friends were not interested. 10. By that time I was so tired that my only strong wish was to go to bed. 11. Every autumn this little garden gives us wonderful tasty apples. 12.1 hope you’re not going to trouble dad with your homework now that he is ill in bed. 13. At that moment the police had several murder problems on their hands. 14. Anna’s cousin was a kind man who easily became angry. 15. Quick thinking is useful for a driver. 16. // it rains, we won’t go out. 4S Answer the questions to practise the new words. 1. If a person has a fixed idea of stealing things, what would you say he or she suffers from? 2. In what fields of industry do people use robots nowadays? 3. Why do people send ‘Thank you cards’ to people who they have visited? 4. What do you think is the way to speak to people who are nervous? 5. Have you ever met indifferent people? How can people’s indifference do harm to others? 6. Can you name some jobs that require a clear head? 7. Why do you think some people don’t like to be bothered with problems that do not concern them? 8. What equipment is usually required for PT lessons at school? 9. What can make a person irritable? 10. What do you do with your worn out clothes? 11. Have you ever broken the record in a sport? 12. Do you like recording music? How often do you do it? 13. Do you believe it is possible to predict future? Can you prove it? 14. What are the advantages of living a) in a big city; b) in the country? Name 3 things (persons) that can be: a) potential; b) emotional; c) nervous; d) indifferent; e) irritable; f) various. 164 Д7 See if you can find a name for the following: a.f'obOl 1) a machine which works^Uk^ a man and sometimes looks a little like a man; 2) madness the sufferer of which has a kind of fixed idea and may be dangerous; 3) the ability to think or reason; 4) a single person; , A r- c.' eot О- 7ПТ- UNIT 4 5) usually a plant or an animal produced from two different^ species; 6) to make sth so clean th^^i^c^pa cannot grow on it; 7) a very strong wan^^^ or wish; 8) a look on your race which shows your feelings; 9) the clothes, ^ machines, tools etc.^^ecessary for a particular kind of work or activity; 10) the quality 6i being of many different kinds; ll)a*wnfteh report of facts, events; 12) easily annoyed . ' If! Choose the right prepositions to complete the sentences. 1. Why was he chosen? What’s his advantag^^.f^ the rest of the candidates? 2. With this variety 2.: dishes on the menu you will surely find something to your taste. 3. Nigel’s desire ... the stage was so great that nothing could stop him. 4. So, this is your decision. Do you insist<^C5^ it? 5. My friend keeps a careful record all the books he has read. 6. Though it wasn’t raining then I took an umbrella just ».:? case. 7. I’m looking for someone who will be able to supply me'.V.'Hhe information I require. 8. The head manager explained what was required ... me. 9. You ^ are making a mistake: Michael is not indifferent .2. you at all. 10. Little 2 children often bothe;r their parents ..." liundreds of questions. 11. She was a little nervous cv^' steng her old friend again. 12. The loud sound of the television always gets^^/Л my nerves. 13Г/:.." the expression on his face I saw that he didn’t understand what was happening. Focu/'/'^ ' different {различный, неодинаковый) various (различный, разнообразный) 1. They have different plans. 2. Bill and Ann can’t agree. Their opinions are different. 3. The two brothers have made different decisions of the problem. I’m not sure who is right. 1. They can offer various plans to us. 2. There exist various opinions as to what we should begin with. 3. I’ve heard of various approaches to the problem, various decisions of it. 4} Complete these sentences using different or various. 1. These gloves are not a pair. They are ... . 2. His reasons for leaving were many and .... 3. We often have ... opinions but we never quarrel. 4. My ideas of success are absolutely ... from his. 5. You can find ... books in this shop. 6. The new and old computers are very ... . The new ones are much faster. 7. Shoes of ... sizes were on sale. 165 UNIT 4 SO Give English equivalents to these word combinations: 1) тяжелый медицинский случай; 2) в случае непогоды; 3) в моем случае; 4) на всякий случай; 5) в случае пожара; 6) в этом случае; 7) в случае, если пойдет дождь; 8) в любом случае; 9) классический случай; 10) несколько случаев. 51 Express the same in English. 1. Я купила разные фрукты — яблоки, груши, абрикосы и персики. 2. Мы очень разные — я люблю быть дома и вести тихий образ жизни (to lead а quiet life), а Мэри часто ходит в театр, кино, на вечеринки. 3. У него хорошая библиотека дома — ты сможешь найти на полках самые разные книги. 4. Говорят, о вкусах не спорят. Это правда. У нас с тобой различные вкусы. Мой выбор всегда отличается от твоего. Я бы никогда не купила такие брюки. 5. Давид коллекционирует марки. В его коллекции есть разные марки, включая и редкие. 6. Существуют различные способы объяснения этого. Я знаю по крайней мере четыре. 4------------------------------------------------------- Focixf ^ beside besides 1. I do love to be beside the sea! 2. I prefer sitting beside the driver. 3. Their house is beside a lovely green park. 1. Besides us there were only two more people in the swimming pool. 2. Besides the long summer holidays British children have some more holidays. 3. I’m not going with you. I don’t like to watch melodramas, besides I’m tired. St Complete the sentences using beside or besides. 1. Come and sit ... me. 2. I don’t like that new dictionary, ... it’s too expensive. 3.1 have three other brothers, ... John. 4. There are many rivers in England, ... the Thames. 5. You can easily find my house. It’s a tall white building ... the bank. 6. Is anyone coming ... Polly? 7. She sat ... his little sister trying to comfort her. 8. — Where would you like to sit? — If you don’t mind, I prefer sitting ... Mark. 166 UNIT 4 eLl/TENING CoMPREHENЛON 53 A. Make sure that you know these words: with a naked eye — невооруженным глазом an extraterrestrial [,ekstr3t9'restri3l] — внеземное существо in flesh and blood — во плоти гг: к в. Listen to the text “is There Life in Space?” (No 25) and say ‘true’ or ‘false’. 1. Some stars in the sky can be seen with a naked eye, to see others you require special equipment. 2. Now scientists know everything about stars. 3. Now people ^an travel to stars. 4. It will take a person not more than twenty-five years to reach the farthest star. 5. Scientists try to find information about stars sending out radio signals to them. 6. The radio signals go through space as fast as spaceships do. 7. If you send a radio signal to space, you can get an answer not earlier than in :hfty years. 8. Some scientists believe that there are living things on some stars and they may have intellect. 9. Large telescopes have been sent into space. 10. The telescopes supply us with scientific information. C. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “Is There Life in Space?”. ^Reading for Di/cu//ion 54 Read the text “The Surgeon” and say what makes the end of the story unexpected. The Surgeon (After Isaac Asimov) The surgeon looked up without expression. “Is he ready?” “He is nervous,” said his assistant. “They always are... Well, it’s a serious operation.” “I’ll see him in this room,” said the surgeon. “Has he made up his mind?” “Yes. He wants metal; they always do.” The surgeon’s face didn’t change expression. He stared at his hands. “Sometimes one can talk them out of it.” “Why bother?” said the assistant, indifferently. “If he wants metal, let it be metal.” “You don’t care?” 167 UNIT 4 _________________________________________________________ “Why should I? Either way it’s a medical engineering problem and I’m a medical engineer. Why should I go beyond that?” “I care. I have to try.” The surgeon pushed a small button and the door opened. The patient moved into the room in his motorchair, the nurse stepping along beside him. “You may go, nurse,” said the surgeon, “but wait outside. I will call you.” He nodded to the assistant, who left with the nurse, and the door closed behind them. The man in the chair watched them go. He looked worried and uncomfortable. He said, “Will we be starting today?” The surgeon nodded. “This afternoon.” “I understand it will take weeks.” “Not the operation itself. But there are a number of small points to take care of.” “Is it dangerous?” Then, as though trying to sound friendlier, but against his will, he added, “...doctor?” The surgeon paid no attention to this. He said calmly, “We take our time to make it less dangerous, and we already have all the required equipment. But I must ask you to make a decision. It is possible to supply you with either of two types of cyber-hearts* metal or ...” “PlasticI” said the patient irritably. “Cheap plastic. I don’t want that. I’ve made my choice. I want the metal because it is better.” “It depends on the patient. In my opinion, in your individual case, it is not. And we prefer not to call them plastic. It is a fibrous^ cyber-heart. It’s made of a polymeric material designed to imitate as closely as possible the human heart you now have in your chest.” “Exactly, and the human heart I now have in my chest is worn out, although I am not yet sixty years old. I don’t want another one like it, thank you. I want something better.” “We all want something better for you. The fibrous cyber-heart will be better. It has a potential life of centuries.” “But it does wear out. No, I want it to be metallic, doctor. What’s the matter with you? Are you afraid I’m making myself into a robot... into a Metallo, as they call them since Metallos became citizens?” “There is nothing wrong with a Metallo. As you say, they are citizens. But you’re not a Metallo. You’re a human. Why not stay a human?” “Because I want the best and that’s a metallic heart. And will you be the surgeon in charge? They tell me you’re the best.” The surgeon nodded. “Very well. I will do what I can to make the operation an easy one.” cyber hearts ['saib3,ha:ts] comes from the word cybernetics [,saiba'netiks], the scientific study of the way in which information is controlled in the machines and the brain. A cyborg ['saibo:g] is a man-like creature that is partly human and partly machine. fibrous ['faibrss] (from fibre) — the stuff parts of human body consist of 168 UNIT 4 The door opened and the chair moved the patient out to the waiting nurse. The medical engineer came in. “Well,” he said, “I can’t say what happened just by looking at you. What was his decision?” The surgeon bent over his desk, putting together some records. “What you predicted. He insists on the metallic heart. It has become a real mania with people ever since Metallos became citizens. Men have this strange desire to make Metallos out of themselves because they think that Metallos are physically strong and powerful.” “It isn’t one-sided, doc. You don’t work with Metallos but I do; so I know. The last two who came in for repairs have asked for fibrous elements... I suppose that some day we shall have Metallos that are a kind of flesh and blood, and humans half made of metal. We have two varieties of intellect on Earth now and in the near future we won’t be able to tell the difference between them. We’d have the best of both worlds; the advantages of man combined with those of robot.” “You’d get a hybrid,” said the surgeon almost angrily. “You’d get something that is not both but neither. I believe in being what one is. I wouldn’t change a bit of my own structure for any reason. I am myself; well pleased to be myself; and would not be anything else.” He had finished now and had to prepare for the operation. He placed his strong hands into the heating oven’ and kept them there until they became red-hot and completely sterilized. Though his speech had been emotional, his voice had never risen, and on its metal face there was, as always, no sign of expression. a See how well you remember the text and choose the right item. 1. The patient had a ... problem. a) brain b) heart c) eye 2. Before the operation the surgeon wanted to talk to the ... . a) nurse b) medical engineer c) patient 3. The surgeon wanted to supply the patient with a ... heart, a) metallic b) fibrous polymeric c) human 4. The patient wanted to get a ... heart. a) metallic b) fibrous polymeric c) human 5. The surgeon ... the results of his talk with the patient. a) was pleased with b) was not pleased with c) didn't care about oven ['луп] — печь 169, f Щ Й: UNIT 4 6. The medical engineer thought that in the near future there would be only ... on Earth. a) humans b) robots c) hybnds of men and robots 7. The surgeon himself was ... . a) a human b) half a man and half a robot c) a Metallo и A. Match the word combinations in the two columns: 1. to talk sb out of sth (into jth> 2. against one’s will 3. to pay (no) attention to sth 4. to take one’s time 5. (to be) in charge 6. (in) flesh and blood 7. in the near future 8. to tell the difference a) против воли (желания) b) не спешить c) различить d) отвечать за что-то e) отговорить кого-либо от чего-то (уговорить на что-то) в ближайшем будущем g) плоть и кровь h) (не) обратить внимание на что-то f) В. Express the same In Russian. 1. I’m not going anywhere in the near future. I’ve got some work to do here. 2. The road won’t be repaired soon. The workers are taking their time. 3. The twins are so much alike that even their parents can’t tell the difference. 4. Ron boasts that he has never done anything against his will in his whole life. 5. The lecturer went on speaking paying no attention to the noise. 6. May I ask you who is in charge of the expedition? 7. He is not willing to go to the theatre but I’ll try and talk him into it. 8. Those soldiers are made of flesh and blood; be careful with their lives. 9. She talked her friend out of going on holiday to France. C. Express the same idea using the phrases above. 1. Soon people will know how to build houses at the bottom of the ocean. 2. I’ve heard much about this man but I have never seen him alive. 3. You can hand in your paper later. Don't hurry. 4.1 would like to talk to him and make him give his apologies to his aunt. 5. Who is the person in control of the job? 6. Now, children, will you listen carefully to what I’m saying? 7. Can you see any difference between the two projects? 8. They made me join the other children though / didn’t want to. 9. He wants to see this awful film. Let’s talk to him and make him change his mind. 170 a, Ц ■ 3o: IV. 13 r UNIT 4 fF ocur In positive sentences do may be used to strengthen or support another verb. 1. — Your new heart has a potential life of centuries. — But it does wear out. 2. Do be carefull 3. You do look well today. 4. — Why didn’t you tell me? — I did tell you. Ш Make these sentences more emphatic. Use the verb do in the right form. 1. Come to my party. No party can be fun without you. 2. Turn down the telly; I have a terrible headache. 3. I want to tell you that I know the answer. 4. — You never keep your promise. — I keep my promise. It just isn’t true. 5. Will you come in, Robert? Sit down. 6. Jane thinks I don’t love her, but I love her. 7. Dolly, you look nice today. 8. — Why didn’t you drive carefully? — I drove carefully. 9. — Jill hates skiing. — I don’t think you are right. She loves skiing. 10. — Why didn’t you buy either apples or pears? — But I bought some apples. ^Focuj When we mean any person or everyone we often say we, you or one. 1. We seldom meet people like him. 2. You seldom meet people like him. 3. One seldom meets people like him. {Редко встретишь человека, похожего на него.) Use one in the meaning everyone in these sentences. ШеХаМРЬЕ: We should do our duty. — One should do one's duty. 1. If it’s necessary, you can always use a dictionary. 2. You can’t always get what you want. 3. We should wash ourselves regularly. 4. You shouldn’t expect all people to like you. 5. We live only once. 6. We have to learn to do a lot of things ourselves. 7. You never forgive a friend who lets you down. 171 UNIT 4 Read these sayings and think of some context where you can use them. I.One cannot be in two places at once. 2. One cannot put back the clock. 3-One is never too old to learn. Si rr 'll 4. One must draw the line somewhere. 5. One cannot serve two masters. 'i ■ . r 172 '.'Г UNIT 4 оси/ either/neither A. Either means one or the other of two or any of two; neither means not one and not the other. 1. We can get there either by train or by air. 2. Take either of the books: they are both good. 3. — Will you have tea or coffee? — Neither, thanks. 4. “You’d get a hybrid,” said the surgeon. “You’d get something that is not both but neither.” B. Either and neither are the singular, not the plural. 1. Neither of my parents is a doctor. 2. — Would you like an apple or a banana? — Either is fine, thank you. But: either ... or ... and neither ... nor ... are either the singular (in formal speech) or the plural (in informal speech). 1. Either John or Mary come/comes to see me at weekends. 2. Neither John nor Mary come/comes to see me at weekends. C. We use either and neither to speak about two things. We use any and none to speak about more than two things. 1. I have two good friends; neither is the same age as me. 2. I have a lot of friends: none is the same age as me. 3. Please give me either of these two postcards. 4. Please give me any of these five postcards. iO Choose either, any, neither, none to complete the sentences. 1.1 have two full-time Disney cartoons and I like ... of them, I think they are silly. 2. I’ll talk ... to Victor or to Sam. One of them may be able to help us. 3. The Greens’ dog has puppies and they say I can have ... of the five! 4. He promised to lend me three new video films but gave me ... . 5, ... of our teachers works on Sundays. 6. Could I have ... fish or chicken, please? 7. I’m afraid I don’t like ... of the stories in this collection. 8. ... Ireland nor Great Britain is a big country. Express the same in English. 1. — Что мы будем делать сегодня? — Мы можем пойти либо в кино, либо в театр. Чего бы тебе хотелось? — Ни того, ни другого. Я устал и хочу остаться дома. 2. Ни один из домов на нашей улице не выглядит 173. UNIT 4 --------------------------------------------------------- современно. 3. Дай мне, пожалуйста, ручку или карандаш. Годится либо то, либо другое. 4. Ты будешь фрукты или мороженое? — Ни то, ни другое, спасибо. 5. Я собираюсь пригласить в театр либо Ника, либо Кейт. Это зависит от того, кто из них будет свободен во вторник. 6. Ни мои друзья, ни я никогда не слышали об этом писателе. ^2 1лЕ Listen to the text “The Surgeon” (No 26) and try to read it artistically in the announcer’s manner. Ш PEAKING ^Di/cuf/iNO THE Text 63 Answer the questions. l.Why was the patient nervous before the operation? 2. What did the surgeon want to try and do? 3. Why was a fibrous cyber-heart better for the patient? 4. Did the patient agree with his doctor? 5. What was the patient’s argument? 6. Who were Metallos? 7. What made Metallos attractive for humans? 8. Was the idea of becoming human also attractive for Metallos? What could make this idea attractive for them? 9. How did the medical engineer see the future of his planet? 10. Why did the engineer’s words make the surgeon angry? 11. Whose point of view - the surgeon’s or the engineer’s — would you support? Why? 12. At what point in the story did you begin to understand that the surgeon was not human? 13. What details in the story could make us understand that the surgeon was a Metallo? 14. Science fiction stories tell us about impossible things but they also help us to understand ourselves better. What does this story teach us? 15. Do you think that hybrids of humans and robots can appear in future? Can modern engineers and doctors make polymeric organs for the human body? Can you look at that as the first step in this direction? 64 Comment on this. “Surgeons think that within 50 years one person in ten will have at least one artificial part (implant) inside them.” ^2 Imagine that you are the medical engineer from the story “The Sur- geon” and speak about the events described in it. Make up and act out two talks: a) between the surgeon and the patient; b) between the surgeon and the medical engineer. 174 ________________________________________________ UNIT 4 ^1 The main character of the story “The Surgeon” is a robot.’ Say what robots are and name some fields of life where they can be used. Some people nowadays think that robots can do more harm than good. Work in two groups and discuss if robots are “a curse or a blessing”.^ Here are some ideas that you may use. Support your arguments with examples. Robots Pros 1. can help people in dangerous situations 2. perform tasks where great strength or accuracy is required 3. can help weak and helpless people (the blind, the old, invalids etc.) 4...... Cons 1. can make people lazy 2. can break down and become dangerous 3. can take over and rule the people on the planet ^Di/cu//ing the Topic Topical Vocabuiary I. Science can be defined as the development and systematization of people’s knowledge about the physical universe. The word science also means 0 branch of such knowledge. Some of the branches are: • mathematics • geology • engineering • physics • chemistry • biology • microbiology • botany • zoology • astronomy ' The word robot was first used in a story and play produced in 1921 by Karel Chapek. Soon the word became international and got into other languages of the world. * a curse or a blessing — зло или благо 175 UNIT 4 II. ^ Speaking about science requires its own vocabulary. Cf^^L6XJU • science and technology _ / • to discover/^ discpyery • marvels of modern science t'Ov. ^ ехрк^Д^) '^plora^^ -7 • to ap^ly^e apd systematize facts ' ^ to inv^^iu ’ /■ • analysis ahff systematization of facts • to discover fundamental laws of nature to make to do modern high information new observations discoveries inventions experiments tests research technology Ш • to оЬзеп^ё)'ап observation • to test/a test ■ V scientific methods laws studies theories research(es) (■' '1^ achievements 1 j и breakthroughs ^ ■ ,-nn^n 'if ^3-1 ii' mention only a few. n . ■ C finding and^using pltjprhative sources of ei learning hjfwiio sdvfenn(i consei^ ё^1б¥^у III. Here are some of the urgent problems scientific minds are working at, to ■ /..M ' nergy ^ - ^ { rr ' г -- 'С1Шс crealjihg' 11шЬ1у effective systems .pt communication . TOllefetih^i Storing, using^ and sending out information ^ recycling and reusing materials kX> studying partibi^'^ smaller thaii^atoms _ creating new materials (with new characteristics) .. climatic cjiange Uic(({CCA '' serious diseases like cancer, AIDS, heart and Vessel problems, drug addiction J'lC^fXJ ^ // - J /х/уЛ/ exploring the underwater world иСу^О-^^^'УССил ''' v / studying the first humans and ancient civilizations developnient of life on the planet UFOs’ and the possibility of alien visits К/ ■ У' г Ars'i UFO — an unidentified flying object — НЛО (неопознанный летающий объект) 176 /: UNIT 4 IV. Space exploration has been one of the most essential problems of our time. It began on the 4th of October 1957 when the first Soviet satellite ['ssetalait] (Sputnik 1) orbited the Earth. These things are done by scientists and engineers to maintain [mein'tein] • design ana/build spacecrafts a) spaceships manned or not manned b) satellites у c) rockets .. d) space shuttles Г c - / . ^ c ' * ' ‘ e) probes It, ^ . : > / / s ^ ^ :V- • . ж ' ■ ' 1. ■ -L c f Л O ' • equip them with an engine powerful enough to take a spaceship beyond the Earth’s atmosphere • develop the necessary instruments and devices for the vehicle • use the right kind of fuel • design and make spacesuits • launch the space vehicle into outer space • control the flight • help the astronauts (cosmonauts) to survive in critical situations and land safely The astronauts’ mission usually includes: Г" • travelling in/into space • exploring outer space and other planets • observing objects in outer space • making experiments in a weightless environment • living and working in orbital space stations • producing new materials in zero gravity In the near future the mankind [maen'kaind] may carry out some of the following space projects: • building space stations suitable for scientific research • colonize other planets, including the Moon • make interplanetary flights to Mars [ma:z] • develop technologies for Earth observation • send probes* to Venus ['vi:nos] and Mercury ['maikjuri] ' a probe [ргэиЬ] — зонд 177 ■V. i D Г-: ''I va ^ Гф ^ i :J . □ - в 0 i I i'l" i UNIT 4 / Ш Find a name to each of these sciences: 1) the study of things that occur naturally, such as heat, light, sound, electricity, magnetism etc. 2) the science of living things 3) the science dealing with measurements, numbers and quantities 4) the scientific study of the Earth through its rocks, soil etc. 5) the scientific planning of a machine, road, bridge etc. 6) the scientific study of the planets, stars, the Sun etc. of outer space 7) the science that deals with the nature of substances and the ways in which they act on, or combine with, each other 8) the scientific study of plants 9) the scientific study of animals 10) the branch of biology that deals with the study of microorganisms -П " 0 n epOCU/'/L .uc . ' to invent to create something new to discover ^ to find, see or learn of something no one knew before qh 1. Trains were invented long be- 1. Galileo discovered the planet fore cars. Jupiter ["cfeuipito]. 1 2. Nobody knows who invented the 2. Columbus discovered America. n wheel. lO 1 , 3 Complete the sentences using either discover/discovery) or invent/ invention in the right form. l.Who5.. computer? 2. When did they i. oil in the North Sea? 3. The mobile telephone is a wonderful x . 4. Writing was probably the most revolutionary of all human Щ. Ъ. Penicillin was i. by Alexander Fleming. 6. The L. of the atom meant the beginning of a new era in physics. 7. People have not only il. nuclear weapons but also have tried them on other people. 8. The 15th-17th centuries were the time of great geographic . 9. Australia was i.. for Europeans by James Cook. 10. In what country was money first i.l^(sCCvf i Ч i . ' i yf ^ ^1 insert the words discover {discovery, discoveries, discovered), explore {exploring, explored), invent {invention, invented), observe {observatfon(s), observed), test {testing) to complete the sentences. 1. Let’s go to^.^f the 6aves. 2. Jane "... his actions with interest. 3. The Ct'inM. obiOrveA teacher is 178 the students on their French. 4. When was the telegraph ...? , ^.... ck scove^^ ;p п9 UNIT 4 a new virus. 6. The country became very rich follow- 5. Scientists h^ve ing the oil. 7.1 think he made these proposals mainly to .7. the public opinion. 8. The oceans have not yet been fully William is in hospital under ^„f^l6?^he made some interesting scientific of the telephone was the beginning of the new era of communication. 12. The"^f.H of adrenalin came about through a mistake. 13. Printing depended on the much earlier Chinese of paper making. 14. We soon daSCOt^e^ec/ the truth. 15. One T.. something that did not exist before. 16. She has the stars all her life. techn техника ology технология J science and technology agricultural technology a high level of technology 'We already have the technology to do this. The plant uses the very latest technology. n Answer the questions. / 1. What discoveries in the history of mankind do you regard as breakthroughs? 2. What inventions in the history of mankind do you regard as most important? 3. Which of the centuries in your opinion saw the greatest inventions and discoveries? 4. What things can you describe as marvels of modern science? And why are they such? 5. Can you remember any outstanding names of well-known scientists, explorers, inventors and discoverers in Russia, Western Europe and the USA? 6. How'do you understand the terms “high technology” and “new technology”? Do they describe absolutely the same things? 7. What makes the work of a scientist dull on the one hand and exciting on the other? 8. What in your opinion does a scientist do? Give an example. 9. Would you like to become a scientist? If you would, what field of research would you choose? , , / 7} Look at the list of urgent problems (Topical Vocabulary III, p. choose one of them and describe it. 176), J f № S! u DP ' few li-j L OCUJ UNIT 4 -/----- craft (plural craft) = a boat or a ship an aircraft — a lot of aircraft a spacecraft — a lot of spacecraft a sailing craft — a lot of sailing craft Vehicles that fly in space are called spacecraft. The harbour was full of all kinds of craft. ^4 Match the English words and word combinations with their Russian equivalents: 1. satellite 2. shuttle 3. fuel 4. spacesuit 5. aircraft 6. vehicle 7. space 8. weightless environment 9. device 10. probe 11. manned spaceship 12. essential problems 13. interplanetary flight 14. zero gravity a) топливо b) транспортное средство c) условия невесомости d) зонд e) основные (существенные) проблемы f) спутник g) космический корабль с человеком на борту h) отсутствие гравитации i) самолет, летательный аппарат j) скафандр k) космос l) межпланетный полет (перелет) т) корабль многоразового использования п) средство, приспособление Remember your Topical Vocabulary IV and name as many activities as you can to describe what people do on the Earth and in outer space to maintain a space flight. All the words below are computer terms. Match them with the numbers in the picture. a) disk/floppy — гибкий диск/дискета b) keyboard — клавиатура c) mouse pad — коврик для мышки ^80 I ■ ___________________________________________UNIT 4 d) CPU (central processing unit) — ЦПУ {процессор) e) display monitor/monitor/screen — монитор/экран f) slot — слот {разъем) g) surge protector — устройство защиты от перепадов напряжения h) scanner — сканирующее устройство/сканер i) CD-ROM player — CD-ROM проигрыватель j) program/application — программа/прикладная программа k) CD-ROM disc — CD-ROM диск l) cable — кабель/шнур 111) disk drive — дисковод n) user’s manual—руководство пользователя o) mother board — материнская плата p) printer — принтер q) power switch — выключатель r) mouse — мышь/мышка s) port — порт t) modem — модем u) laptop — портативный компьютер {лаптоп) v) external speaker — звуковая колонка w) hard disk drive — накопитель на жестком диске 181 UNIT 4 -------------------------------------------------------- 77 0^ You surely know a lot about computers. See if you can understand the words and word combinations in bold type and give their Russian equivalents. A computer is an electronic device that stores information and allows changes in it through the use of (1) instructions. A modern computer is capable of doing various tasks, like (2) word processing and (3) accounting. Personal computers (PCs) are widely used but working on them requires some techniques. After turning on the computer a (4) PC user should (5) log into the (16) network by entering their (7) user name and (8) password. Allow some time for the (9) operation system to (10) load. Soon you’ll see a (11) menu (or icons) on the monitor screen. With the help of the mouse or the keyboard choose the needed icon and start the programme. The programme allows the user to type texts, draw objects and (12) diagrams. While drawing one can (13) shape, (14) move, (15) transform, (16) copy and (17) fill objects. When creating texts we (18) format, (19) edit and copy them. Both drawings and texts can be (20) saved or (21) deleted. If you have a printer, you can (22) print the information displayed on the screen. Don’t forget to save your (23) file onto your (24) hard disk and (25) back it up onto the floppies. CD-ROMs can be used to produce images on the computer screen. The user can move around the programme by (26) clicking on different parts of the screen with a mouse. Clicking on the text will provide a new screen with more information, either in the form of text and diagrams, or as an animated cartoon. Computers give us (27) access ['aekses] to the Internet — an international computer network connecting other networks and computers from companies, universities or individuals etc. You can spend a lot of your free time (28) surfing the Internet and get all sorts of information from it. You can enter the (29) chat room with other Internet users and debate urgent problems (30) on line. If you are connectable by (31) e-mail (have an e-mail address), you can correspond with your friends or open your own (32) web page (web site) and place there information about yourself. 78 A. Explain to someone who doesn’t know it how to work on a computer and say what advantages a computer gives to a user. B. Today computers help people to do many things: — bankers use them to keep track of money; — telephone operators use them to put calls through; — without computers, weather forecasters would make more mistakes. The list of uses is long. Can you continue it? C. Say what advantages a computer gives to a user. 182 : ___________________________________________UNIT 4 People depend on computers so much that they sometimes think the machines are giant brains. But there is another point of view. Some people say: “Compared to people, computers aren’t at all smart. Computers are machines that will do only what they are told to do.” Which point of view do you share and why? JQ Interview your classmates and find out who in your class: 1. has never seen a computer 2. has never seen a laptop 3. has never worked on a computer 4. has ever worked on a laptop 5. has a computer (laptop) of his own 6. uses a computer only for playing games 7. uses a computer only for work 8. uses a computer both for work and playing games 9. spends 3 or more hours daily in front of the computer 10. can make computer programmes 11. can work on the computer unassisted 12. will have to use the computer in their future job as they think 13. hates working on the computer 14. thinks that computers do harm to their users health Here are some of today’s most controversial problems are. Work in pairs or groups and discuss if they are a curse or a blessing. 1) nuclear power, 2) new information technology, 3) computerization 4)cloning4 5) genetic engineering^ •M l/CELLANEOU/ Ш Listen to the song (No 27) and sing it along. Yellow Submarine (The Beatles) In the town where I was born lived a man who sailed the sea. And he told us of his life in the land of submarines. ^ cloning ['к1эишг)] — клонирование ^ genetic engineering — генная инженерия 183. UNIT 4____________________________________________ So we sailed up to the sun till we found the sea green. And we lived beneath the waves in our yellow submarine. We all live in a yellow submarine ... And our friends are all on board, Many more of them live next door, And the band begins to play. We all live in a yellow submarine ... And we live a life of ease. Everyone of us has all we need. Sky of blue and sea of green in our yellow submarine. We all live in yellow submarine ... ^ Listen to the poem (No 28) and read it. The Cloud-Mobile (By May Swenson) Above my face is a map. Continents form and fade. Blue countries, made on a white sea, are erased, and white countries traced on a blue sea. It is a map that moves faster than real, but so slow. Only my watching proves that island has being, or that bay. It is a model of time. Mountains are wearing away, coasts cracking, the ocean spills over, then new hills heap into view with river-cuts of blue between them. It is a map of change. This is the way things are with a stone or a star. This is the way things go, hard or soft, fast or slow. ^Project Work Prepare a quiz on science and technology. 184 г а С' "■f S' м Ч “ ^SfNIT 5 Going to Places: The World of Travelling PRevi/ion 1 Ш Listen to the recording (No 29) and answer the questions. 2 On what kind of trip do people usually take this baggage? X :|: ] t 1 ^c 1. rucksack 4.briefcase tCtiXC (backpack) (attach^ case) :■ 7 ' fi i. Ч • Ч. у 9. utility case ^cucc 2. suitcase UJ.Wqa*i (j 3. trunk 5. garment bag iitt u a a 10. tote bag 11. shoulder bag c ■ 6. vanity case jL 7. duffel bag ^Uiuku □ О '-4-1 18^ i UNIT 5 _____ ___________________________ Interview your classmates and find out which of them: — never travelled to other towns or cities; — never travelled abroad; — travelled alone; — stayed at hotels; — never travelled by air; — never travelled by sea; — prefers travelling on foot; — hates travelling by train; — can drive a car; — takes a lot of luggage on a journey; — travels light (with little luggage); — likes talking to his or her fellow passengers; — likes seeing people off; — believes that “there is no place like home”. 4 Choose the right item. 0 186 1. You usually get your travel ticket at the ... . a) box-office booking office c) ticket office 2. Lost things can be found in the ... . a) inquiry office b) waiting room Qcf^lost-and-found 3. If you go abroad, you have to go through the ... . customs b) customers c) custard 4. At the railway station you can leave your luggage at the ... . a) luggage van b) Luggage trolley CB) left luggage office 5. Letters and parcels can go in the ... . a) guards van b) mail van c) letter van 6. The word that has nothing to do with trains is ... . “dining car" b) “sleeping car” “cable car” 7. You make a voyage if you travel by ... . sea b) air c) land 8. If two cars crash into each other on the road, we call it ... . a) an incident b) a precedent 0) an accident 9. ... is a word used mostly in British English. a) “Baggage” b) “Railroad” 0) “Carriage” 10. A person in a hotel, station or airport who carries your luggage is a ... a) guard 0) porter c) steward UNIT 5 ! Insert the prepositions where necessary. 1.1 didn’t stay ... a hotel, I stayed ... my aunt when I was ... London. 2. Can you tell me how to get ... the airport ... your house? 3. Which method ... travelling do you prefer, ... car or ... plane? 4. There is nothing like travelling ... sea. 5. The train arrived ... the station and the passengers got ... . 6. When the old lady got ... the car it drove away at once. 7. Jane doesn’t like to change trains when ... a journey, she prefers through trains. 8. Was there a swimming pool ... board ... the ship? 9. What bus do I take ... King’s Cross Station? 10. How much is a first-class ticket ... London, please? ^ Read the texts and decide which of them describes: a sea port, a railway station and an airport. oJ- a) The customs clearance area is close at hand, and you must decide on the ‘red’ or ‘green’ channel. ‘Red’ means you have something to declare, and your baggage will be inspected. ‘Green’ means nothing to declare, and the customs officers make only random checks. You will probably be able to manage your luggage yourself, with the help of a trolley. b) ... We had to wait in the waiting room. Next door to the waiting room was the refreshment room; and there were other notices: inquiry office, left luggage and parcels office. I chose to carry my luggage and Peter pushed his on a trolley. The ticket collector stood at the gate checking the travellers’ tickets. (Д ia po>b c) From the top deck I could see the huge cranes lifting the cargo. I saw members of the crew walking getting ready for the voyage. I could see the passengers, leaning over the rails and waving goodbye to their friends standing below among the crowd. J Express the same: a) in. Russian, Ы in English. сгсил A. 1. Our friers to see off all their relatives who go travelling. 2. We soon sav^lfrongh him and his little plan. 3. I’ll go and^^^to 4ne dinner. 4.1 don’t see Jbim round a lot these days. B. 1. Кто провожал господина Свифта в аэропорту, когда тот улетал в Америку? 2. Обещаю, я позабочусь о том, чтобы детей накормили обедом. 3. Ему никогда не удавалось обмануть (deceive) свою старшую сестру — она видела его насквозь. 4. Когда мы увидимся снова? а UNIT S____________________________________________________ Use your active vocabulary instead of the underlined words and expressions in the text and think what the end of the story could be. Once upon a time there lived a famops, eijtjjimologist. He was ia devoted scientist but he often felt worried ^n'^'^af^raid (1) that his- wife didn’t understand him and was not at interested in (2) (Шшгеаь (3) species of insects that he had in his collection. The wa^mis face looked (4) was not very often attractive. Sometimes he spoke showing that he way^V annoyed with (5) her lack of interest and w^^fS) to see Ms ^ollecfion. She didn’t like to listen to his stories about tM necessary facilfities for his experiments and other t^in^he ncfe^oiSh He had many friends who oHen^sent^hj,m^^]^rmous aMoimls (9) of insect food. And that certainly VvCAdut ’ifirm in’ a bettfr position yj)) th^n other colleagues of his who rather liked him but didn’t like to ibrofel^le (11) him as he could use some not very pleasant phrases (12). i cicA 9 Complete these sentences with either ... or or both ... and ... . neither nor •eXaMPLE: ... is a mammal/are mammals a) Either a fox or a crocodile is a mammal. (Либо лисица, либо крокодил — млекопитающее.) b) Neither а bee nor а fly are mammals. (Ни пчела, ни муха не являются млекопитающими.) c) Both dogs and cats are mammals. (И собаки и кошки — млекопитающие.) can fly. was/were invented-in the 20th century, can be used as fuel for space rockets. 1) ... 2) ... 4) ... can be called (an) aircraft. 5) . 6) . 7) . 8) . 9) . 10 was/were discovered by the English, is/are in the Southern Hemisphere, is/are done by computers, is/are heavenly bodies. ^ can imitate human voices. ,>• '/J.; r. Ш Divide the sentences into 3 groups: a) those expressing obligation, b) those expressing objective necessity, c) those that express friendly advice. l.You should try various methods before you draw conclusions. 2. You must keep a careful record of the experiment; a lot depends on how careful you’ll be. 3. You should learn these English expressions: they may turn out to be very useful when you go to the country. 4. Someone has 188 UNIT 5 to supply US with the laboratory equipment we require. 5. In case you feel nervous before the examination, you should remember that you are our top student and can’t fail. 6. The poor girl had to wear old shoes and worn out clothes. 7. I’m afraid I must insist on your copying this text again. 8. If you want to win, you should have some advantages over your rivals. 9. Why do I have to predict the future? I have never been good at it. II Say which of the two you’ll use in these situations: mustn't or don't/doesn't have to. 1. You’re telling a young child that it’s very rude to talk back to grownups. 2. You’re telling your younger brother that you have plenty of food in the house and there’s no need to go to the shop. 3. You’re telling your friend what present you’ve bought for your sister and asking him not to let out your secret. 4. You’re telling a neighbour’s little boy that he is crossing the road in the wrong place. 5. You’re telling some young children that it’s wrong for visitors to feed the animals in the Zoo. 6. You’re telling your mother that you’ve washed the plates and she can relax and have some rest. 7. You’re telling your classmates that the first lesson tomorrow morning has been cancelled,^ and they needn’t come to school early. 8. You’re telling your English teacher that you’ve already fitted the tape in the VCR and the pupils can begin watching the video film. II Use each of the adjectives below in two sentences: a) as a substantivized adjective and b) as a not substantivized adjective. #eXaMPLE : a) The hungry should be fed, and the sad cheered up. b) Oliver Twist was hungry and sad and needed an understanding friend. 1) dumb 2) dead 3) strong 4) elderly 5) rich 6) disabled 7) unemployed 8) young 13 Express the same in English. Think of the place of adverbs in the sentences. 1. Утром мой отец всегда покупает газету в киоске (newspaper stand). 2. Джон редко ездит в отпуск осенью. 3. Время от времени я опаздываю на уроки, но вовсе не горжусь этим. 4. Этот фильм только что показан юным зрителям. 5. Он вряд ли когда-нибудь бывал в Англии зимой. 6. Часто ли вы встречали в театре столь талантливых людей? 7. Господин Робертс обычно не спускается к чаю. 8. Какими фруктами часто снабжают столицу летом? to cancel ['kaensi] — отменять 189 UNIT 5 ^Reading for Country /tudiet 1^ Ш A. Listen to the text “Canada” (No 30) and say which of the two is right. V 1. The name “Canada” comes from an Indian/French word. 2. The largest country in the world is Canada/Russia. V 3. Most of the Canadians live in the north/south. \/ 4. Can^a has 10 provinces and 3 territories/3 provinces and 10 territories. 5. Forests/prairies cover about half of Canada. 6. The Queen is represented in Canada by the lord governor/governor- general. V 7. There are 3/4 political parties represented in the House of Commons. 8. Every child in Canada can be educated in English/English and French. B. Read the text “Canada” and match its paragraphs with their names. a) PROVINCES AND TERRITORIES b) POPULATION c) GENERAL FACTS d) NATURAL RESOURCES e) CLIMATE f) EDUCATION g) POLITICAL SYSTEM G eN/Ci'D Canada The name Canada is believed to come from the Tli,^ fact aloi the In 'vict^^Vancouverr ONTARIoX^-L^lf Vxl 2 ъ)) BRITISH " ; '^•j .''" ', Лг,л ^ j^vd.K,uuv^ , 0НТАр10Хл^о~Г V.O " '1л ' ’ ” Winn?^ ' . , \ Л /red^fictot?\^ j r^---------iResina \ Г*: ' „ °Г-'>Г=Л'\*Л Ч \ 0°' . -----------— . . ■ Montrea ,- ; '‘v% 1 NEW BRUNSWICK 2 PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 3 NOVA SCOTIA -----— ;MontreaL- , !x_^T Lake\ m.f ^ \л1 "У и Halifax \л.1 -> 81(Ы(и}ап\ A Tororito^^^^"*^ E>M Л. Ш PC .if ^ - f fi^‘ itit Canada has a population of over 30 million, about 80% of which live in the south. About three quarters of Canada’s population live in towns and cities. Canada’s largest metropolitan areas are Toronto [ta'mntou], Montreal [.montri^oil], Vancouver [vaen"ku:v9] and Ottawa. The French were the first to settle in the country in large numbers during the 17th and early 18th centuries. People of British origin came to stay there mainly after 1763, the year when the British conquered the French Colony of New France. As a result Canada has a dual cultural heritage and both French and English are official languages. Other groups of population are Germans, Italians, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Poles, the Dutch and Eskimo (Inuits). 191 UNIT 5 Canada has 10 provinces and 3 territories, each with its own capital city. French Canadians are mostly concentrated in the provinces of Quebec [kwi'bek] (capital — Quebec City) and New Brunswick ["brAnzwik] (capital — Fredericton). They have kept not only their language, but also their own culture. Both Ottawa, the country’s capital, and the largest city of Canada Toronto are situated in the province of Ontario [nn'teariau]. ЩШ The country is rich in natural resources: gas, oil, coal, gold, copper, iron ore, nickel, uranium, zinc, along with wood and water. It is one of the world’s leaders in mineral exports. Its soils, which are especially rich in the three prairie provinces of Alberta [аеИЬз:1э], Manitoba [^таешЧэиЬэ], and Saskatchewan [sae^skaetfawan] are intensively utilized and make Canada one of the world’s largest exporters of agricultural products. Forests cover about half of Canada. They are the basis for such important industries as lumbering and paper production. Forests also give home to deer and caribou, squirrels, minks, skunks, mooses, beavers, black bears and other animals. wm P 5 Canada is a constitutional monarchy. Elizabeth II, Queen of England, is also Canada’s Queen and sovereign of a number of realms. The Queen is the head of state, and is represented in Canada by the governor-general. Legislative power is vested in Parliament, which includes the Queen, the Senate of 104 appointed members and the House of Commons with about 300 elected members. National elections are held at least once every 5 years. The leader of the political party with the largest number of seats in the House of Commons usually becomes prime minister and forms the government. There are three main political parties represented in the House of Commons: they are the Liberal Party, the Progressive Conservative Party, and the New Democratic Party. n E I) ■ Each of the provinces and territories administers its own educational system. Schools are operated by local education authorities and generally give 6 to 8 years of elementary and 3 to 5 years of secondary schooling. Any child can be educated in either of the two official languages. Canada has community colleges that offer technical and vocational training and a number of universities and four-year colleges. Among the largest universities are the University of Toronto (Toronto), University of British Columbia (Vancouver), University of Alberta (Edmonton), in which the language 192 _________________________________________________ UNIT 5 of instruction is English. Prominent French language universities are the Universite de Montreal, Loval Universite, and the Universite du Quebec. IS Remember the text “Canada” and say: 1. what information about the country you found new; 2. what other facts on Canada (apart from those mentioned in the text) you know; 3. what kind of information is missing in the text; 4. make a list of ten questions answers to which you can’t find in the text, see if your friends can answer them. If they can’t do it, find the required information in reference books yourself and then share it with your friends. 16 Complete these sentences from the text “Canada”. 1. Now Canada is the second largest country after ... . 2. The country’s most important symbol is ... . 3. The French were the first to settle in the country in large numbers during ... . 4. Both .... and ... are official languages. 5. Canada has ... provinces and ... territories, each with its own ... . 6. Forests cover about ... . 7. Legislative power is vested in Parliament, which includes ... , ... of 104 appointed members and ... with about 300 elected members. 8. ... can be educated in either of the two official languages. II See If you understand these words and word combinations right and choose the correct definition. 1. A time zone is ... . a) any of the 24 parts, each about 15° wide, into which the Earth is divided for the purpose of keeping time. The difference between each of the neighbour parts is one hour. b) a division of the Earth’s surface according to temperature, marked by imaginary lines running round it. 2. A moderate climate is ... . a) a mild climate with no great difference between minimum and maximum temperatures. b) a harsh climate with very low temperatures in winter and very high temperatures in summer. 193, 7 Английский яшк, 8 кл. J UNIT 5_________________________________________________________ 3. Metropolitan areas are ... . a) countryside territories. b) territories of big cities or capitals. 4. Cultural heritage is ... . a) good general knowledge of a certain culture. b) cultural traditions passed from generation to generation. 5. Dual is ... . a) a fight with guns or swords between two people. b) consisting of two separate parts. 6. An Eskimo (Inuit) is ... . a) a member of a race of people living in the far north of North America. b) anyone living in the icy far north of North America. 7. An exporter is ... . a) a person, company or country that sells goods abroad. b) a person, company or country that buys goods from abroad. 8. Lumbering (in American English) is ... . a) cutting trees or wood. b) building houses of wood (wood houses). 9. A prime minister is ... . a) the leader of the government. b) the leader and the ruler of the country. 10. Vocational training is training preparing one for ... . a) the career of a vocalist. b) specific jobs. IS Answer the questions about Canada. Use the map. 1. Where is Canada situated and what countries does it border on? 2. What oceans is the country washed by? What are Canada’s biggest rivers and lakes? Where do the rivers rise and where do they flow? 3. How can you characterize the relief of the country? Has it got any mountain ranges? How high are they? 4. Where do most of the Canadian population live and why? 5. What is the administrative division of the country? 6. What are the biggest cities of Canada and where are they situated? 7. What natural resources is the country rich in? 8. What places in Canada would you like to visit and why? 194 UNIT 5 . ( /< f / / n ('F A \ Alert» V;*' Banks'- ШйпИ i. "и^:.Л'&В25 If ana- ^ Mesoiup, ----”- ICELAND Kuujjuaq '"mi», *" -■ .Г COYOTE^ ^ u 1 T .E D ’;—* “^:.f ^ i'Л ■Supir^or Jllvinnipeg Ж МВЙАООЙ т ^ch^fferVIjle A -^' St|^oKn'yi ■ .,JJewf^i^d0)^\ , , Cha^^ttetown Minerals and energy A Oil C Gold /\ Natural gas A Iron ore □ Uranium ■> ^««»» V . 5.___ ____ .IMiJilJt. Montreal ^ ^ ^ ffTianrax ■\ Fjreaerlplbn 1^ A lot of people think that Canada is in many ways like Russia. Say what makes our countries alike and different. 2Q Imagine that you work for a travel agency. How would you adver- tise a trip to Canada? 21 Use Ex. 14 В and speak about Canada. ^Reading for InformaSon ^ u 22 Read the text and say when the travellers for whom these instruc- ' tions were written lived. Expiain your choice of the time period. Etiquette ['etiket] helps the wheels of life to turn smoothly and happily. It is especially important for travellers to know how to behave both in their own country and in foreign places. 195 UNIT 5__________________________________________________________ A little knowledge enables one to give due consideration to others, to appear and to be at ease in all circumstances ['ssikamstsnsiz], to say and to do the right thing at the right time. Remember that the spirit of true courtesy ['ksUisi] does not find expression only on social occasions but in everyday affairs such as travelling in public vehicles and walking in the streets whether at home or overseas. First Rules for Travellers Money: Take one fourth more than your estimated expenses, and a good supply of small change. Geography: Acquaint yourself with the geography of the route [ru:t] and region of travel. Luggage: Arrange, if possible, to have only one piece of luggage to look after. Dress: Better be too hot for two or three hours at noon than be cold for the rest of the twenty-four. Time: Be at the place of starting fifteen minutes before time, thus allowing for unexpected detention by the way. Breakfast: Do not begin a day’s travel before breakfast, even if it has to be eaten at daybreak. Dinner or supper can be more easily ignored than a good breakfast. Manners: Respect yourself by demonstrating the manners of a gentleman or lady, and then you will receive the respect of others. Language: A good knowledge of the language of the country you are to visit is an immense help and will make the journey more agreeable. Climate: No special considerations may be necessary when travelling to moderate climates or on short journeys, but for longer journeys and to tropical climates it is important to have tropical clothes as part of your hand luggage. The traveller’s comfort depends on his dress being suitable to the climate he is in. Packing: Always allow ample time for packing. See to it that every piece of luggage is properly labelled and that all labels previously used are removed. The principal point to remember in packing is to leave the things you are most likely to require, during the journey or on arrival, until last. If you carry a handbag, small portmanteau [,pD:t'maent9u] or hold-all, they should be put in these. Trains: This new mode of transport should not be feared. It is safer to ride on the railroad than to walk through the streets. It is unwritten law that the passengers occupying the window seats facing the engine have “charge” of the windows. There is no reason why you would not ask one of the window seat passengers if he would object to a window being opened. 196 _________________________________________ UNIT 5 Make-up: It is not a correct thing to do to make up while travelling. Many girls prefer not to show too openly how much the rosy of their cheeks owes to art instead of nature. It’s not right for young men to use a comb or nail-file in public places. Lost: If you are lost, use your watch. Point the hour to the sun and the south is exactly half way between the hour and the figure 12 on the watch. For instance, suppose it is 4 o’clock, point the hand indicating 4 to the sun and 2 on the watch will be exactly south. Journal: Many experienced voyagers keep a journal while they are travelling. A well kept journal acts as a remembrancer for years to come. Be sure to pack inks, nibs, blotters and note pads. 23 Read the text (Ex. 22) again and choose one of the titles for the instructions above. Explain your choice. a) PROS AND CONS OF TRAVELLING b) TRAVELLERS GUIDE BOOK c) PRACTICAL ADVICE FOR THE TRAVELLER 24 0^ •'? each paragraph of the text (Ex. 22) one sentence is missing. Find the right paragraphs for the sentences below. 1. Several maps of the place where you are going can be handy. 2. It is better to wait for extra 15 minutes than to miss your train or coach. Besides, everyone knows: “First come, first served.” 3. An umbrella is essential for any climate. 4. Pack a good writing case. 5. Try and learn at least some minimum vocabulary to be able to show your politeness. 6. Remember: travelling light is faster and much easier. 7. Don’t limit yourself to a cup of tea and a sandwich. Eat something filling. 8. Consider the comfort of your clothes before elegance and don’t pay too much attention to change in fashion. 9. Every watch is a compass. 10. There are usually separate carriages reserved for ladies who need to travel alone. 11. You may be expected to tip porters at railway stations and hotels. 12. Good manners are a letter of recommendation. 13. When packing remember the saying: “A little method is worth a great deal of memory.” 14. A vanity case anyhow is one of the most important things on a journey. 197 IS UNIT 5____________________________________ in the text (Ex. 22) find equivalents for these: 1) свободно чувствовать себя при любых обстоятельствах; 2) дух истинной галантности (вежливости); 3) предполагаемые расходы; 4) маршрут и место путешествия; 5) непредвиденные задержки; 6) на рассвете; 7) заслужить уважение других; 8) сделать путешествие более приятным; 9) особое внимание; 10) достаточное время; 11) не следует бояться; 12) по ходу поезда; 13) иметь окна «в своем распоряжении»; 14) возражать против того, чтобы окно было открыто; 15) насколько румянец щек является естественным, а не созданным с помощью косметики; 16) пилочка для ногтей; 17) направьте часовую стрелку, указывающую на цифру 4, на солнце; 18) вести дневник; 19) напоминание 'New Language ^Grammar /ection I. Modal Verbs: to Be (to)^ and Need plans and arrangements {запланированные действия) Especially when they are official, formal style. a) The president is to visit Nigeria next month. b) They are to get a 10 per cent wage rise in June. c) The Queen was to visit Japan next year. orders {приказания) Often used by parents to their children. a) You’re to do your homework before you watch TV. b) Liz, you are not to be back late. c) Jane is to eat all her supper before she goes out. instructions and notices {инструкции и объявления) (with passive infinitive^) a) This form is to be filled in ink. b) To be taken 3 times after meals (on a medicine bottle). c) These tablets are to be kept out of reach of children... ‘ Глагол to be (to) может иметь формы настоящего или прошедшего времени. Для выражения необходимости совершить что-то оговоренное в будущем употребляется глагол to have to: We’ll have to arrive earlier than six. * passive infinitive — to be -I- past participle of the main verb (to be taken, to be filled in, to be returned) 198 К ___________________________________________________UNIT 5 Divide the sentences into 3 groups: a) to be = a planned or arranged action; b) to be = an order; c) to be = a notice or an instruction. 1. Now listen, children! I’ll leave you for a second and you are to be quiet until I come back. 2. These tablets are to be taken with a lot of water. 3. The conference is to begin at ten exactly. 4. You are to report to the head as soon as you come to work. 5. The delegation was to arrive on Saturday, but the time of the arrival was changed. 6. The gate is to be locked after 8 p.m. 7. You are to do the washing up before you leave for the cinema. 8. Dogs are to be kept on a lead.‘ 9. The visit was to last for five days. 10. To be handled with care. 17 Express the same in English. Use the verb to be. 1. Вам следует поторопиться: зал должен быть готов к началу заседания. 2. Всем вам надлежит остаться после уроков и закончить работу. 3. Инструменты следует оставлять здесь. 4. Принимать с водой или фруктовым соком. 5. Документы должны быть зачитаны в парламенте. 6. Премьер-министр должен посетить нашу страну в августе. 7. Спутник должен был быть запущен в начале лета. 8. Не нагревать (to heat) выше 50 градусов. 9. Ты должен попросить родителей зайти в школу. 10. Эта проблема должна быть решена правительством в ближайшем будущем. do/does to ordinary verb Everybody needs to rest sometimes. She says she needs me. Do we need to reserve seats on the train? She says she doesn’t need me any more. We don’t need to talk to them again. John, you don’t have much time. You need to hurry up. modal verb {quite rare these days except for needn’t which is common) He needn’t explain anything — we understand the situation. We needn’t reserve seats — there’ll be plenty of room on the train. — Must I pay cash? — No, you needn’t. We take cards. ' a lead — поводок 199 UNIT 5 Read the sentences and say in which of them need is a modal verb and in which it isn’t. 1. How much bread do shout: I can hear you. 4. We needn’t help Alex think I need to tell you advice only when it’s completed the test very I’ll call you myself. 9. classes tomorrow. you need for your sandwiches? 2. You needn’t 3. Everyone in this world needs love and care, he will manage the job perfectly well. 5. I don’t that Alice’s holiday was a huge success. 6.1 give needed. 7.1 didn’t need any extra time and quickly. 8. Must I call back? — No, you needn’t. The kids needn’t go to bed early: they have no 19 Express the same in English. Use the verb need. 1. Нам не нужно покупать сегодня продукты, мы идем обедать в ресторан. 2. Кому-нибудь нужен чудесный серый котенок? 3. Не надо спешить, до поезда еще три часа. 4. Я понимал, что Сэм нуждается в моей помощи. 5. Нам не нужна еще одна актриса на эту роль. 6. Не нужно говорить об этом снова, я все помню. 7. Вам нужны новые копии этого текста? 8. Если нам не надо сегодня готовить уроки, давайте сходим в кино. 30 Complete the sentences with needn’t or shouldn’t. ШеХаМР1Е: You needn’t explain anything: I understand. (He надо ничего объяснять, я все понимаю.) You shouldn’t explain anything: you’ll be wrongly understood. (He надо (не советую) ничего объяснять, тебя неправильно поймут.) 1. You ... take а taxi, we have plenty of time. 2. Children ... spend so much time in front of the television. 3. Tell your mother that she ... worry: it’s bad for her heart. 4. You ... worry, dear, I’m sure that everything’s going to be just fine. 5. Your friend ... stay here for the night. I’ll take him home in my car. 6. Little children ... be allowed to walk the streets not accompanied by grown-ups. 7. Young people ... forget that they’ll be old one day. 8. You ... mention this again: I’ll never forget it. 9. Mr Anderson ... book a room in the hotel: they can stay with us. .200 I ’ UNIT 5 II. Modal Verbs with Perfect Infinitive^ 1. Modal verbs usually refer to the present or the future. However, modal verbs can be used with perfect infinitives to talk about the past. modal + have + past participle (main verb) could have done shouldn’t have done should have done needn’t have done 2. We often use perfect infinitives to talk about actions and events: things that didn’t happen. ‘imaginary” past could have + past participle (main verb) = something that was possible but didn’t happen You could have told me about it. Ты мог бы сказать мне об этом (а ты не сказал). That was а bad place to go skiing — you could have broken your leg. ... ТЫ мог бы сломать ногу (но, к счастью, не сломал). John could have read the note. Джон мог бы прочитать записку (но не прочитал). should/shouldn’t have + past participle (main verb) = about something that didn’t happen I should have phoned Ed, but 1 forgot. Мне следовало позвонить Эду... (но я не позвонил). You shouldn’t have worn your mother’s shoes. Тебе не следовало надевать мамины туфли (а ты надела). You shouldn’t have said things like that to Granny. Тебе не следовало говорить подобное бабушке (а ты сказал). needn’t have + past participle (main verb) = about something which was done but that was not necessary I needn’t have cooked so much food. Nobody was hungry. Мне не стоило готовить так много ... (а я приготовила). We needn’t have watered the flowers. Just after we finished it started raining. Нам не было нужды поливать цветы ... (а мы их полили). ' perfect infinitive = (to) have + past participle of the main verb (to have finished, to have done, to have told) 201 UNIT 5 ________________________________________________ Divide the sentences into two groups: a) those in which the described action took place; b) didn’t take place. 1. You should have told your father the truth when he asked you. 2. The minister shouldn’t have mentioned this fact at the press conference. 3. We should have come a little earlier, then we wouldn’t have missed the beginning of the film. 4. The house should have been painted years ago. 5. The tourists shouldn’t have taken a boat trip that day: it was too cold. 6. Justin shouldn’t have asked for his friends’ advice, he should have decided himself. n Michael was in London last Sunday. He had a chance to visit the National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey. Say what other sights Michael could have seen (visited) in the capital of Great Britain. ШеХдМР1Е Michael could have visited the Victoria and Albert Museum. .202 UNIT 5 3! Express the same in English using modal verbs. 1. Мне не стоило звонить Энди. Моя сестра позвонила ему до меня. 2. Ты мог бы сказать мне, что мы не идем в школу в понедельник. 3. Алисе не надо было пить холодное молоко. 4. Ким стоило напечатать письмо. Ее почерк никуда не годится. 5. Михаила не нужно об этом спрашивать. Он знает ответ на этот вопрос. 6. Ты мог бы принять участие в соревновании. Почему ты не пришел? 7. Кэролин, тебе следовало вымыть посуду. 8. Нам не нужно искать бабушкины очки. Она их уже нашла. 9. Джеку не стоило ходить в магазин. Дома полно еды. 10. Им следовало покрасить стены в желтый цвет. Госпоже Адамс нравится этот цвет. 203. UNIT 5 34 Polly is a lazy-bones. She is on holiday now and spends all the days lying in bed and watching TV. Her eider sister comes home after work. The flat is in a mess. Think of 10 sentences she may use speaking to Polly. 0eXample You should have made your bed. 35 Your school holidays are over and you may regret some things that you should/shouldn't have done, could have done or needn’t have done. What are they? ШеХаМРЕЕ: a) I shouldn’t have slept so much. b) I could have visited some museums. c) I needn’t have repaired my bike: my parents are going to buy me a new one. III. More Facts about Adverbs: Adverbs and Adjectives English Russian Adjectives are used to say how something is, seems, becomes, gets, grows, looks, feels, tastes, smells, ' sounds, appears, turns. Adverbs are often used in ; similar cases. William feels sad. Jane looks great. It’s growing cold. ' The music sounds loud. Roses smell sweet. Уильяму грустно. Джейн выглядит отлично. Становится холодно. Музыка звучит громко. Розы пахнут сладко. 204 UNIT 5 » Express the same in English. Use the verbs from the table above. 1. Ларри прекрасно выглядит для своего возраста. 2. Мальчик кажется слишком усталым, чтобы идти дальше. 3. Анна говорит, что прекрасно чувствует себя после отдыха у моря. 4. Пирог хорош на вкус, спасибо. 5. Становится жарко, давай откроем окно. 6. Его рассказ звучит интересно. 7. Чайник все еш,е горячий на ош;упь. 8. Хорош ли суп на вкус? 9. Вы выглядите очень нарядно. Куда вы идете? 10. Твой братишка кажется вполне счастливым. 11. Песня звучит слишком тихо, я не понимаю слов. 12. Что это за блюдо? Оно так вкусно пахнет! П Маке up sentences of your own. Use the verbs and adjectives below. Verbs: look seem feel taste sound smell appear turn Adjectives: good wonderful nice lovely pleasant unpleasant awful horrible I^eXaMPLE: Liz looked wonderful at the party. PFocu/'.'^ / adjective adverb 1. That day John looked sad and unhappy. 2. Tom grows very nervous when I mention Kis marks. 3. Th^ answer appeared unexpected. ' ■ 4. Sally turned pale and left the room. 5. My mother’s perfume smells very nice.. 1. John looked at us sadly but said nothing. 2. The flowers grow wonderfully in such weather. 3. John appeared unexpectedly at the end of the party. 4. Sarah turned the leaves of her book quickly. 5. A dog’s nose can smell very well. 38 Express the same in English. 1. Сирень (lilac) пахнет сладко. 2. Джон всегда говорит тихо. 3. Мой дядя посмотрел на меня сердито. 4. Музыка звучит громко. 5. Нелли чувствует себя хорошо, а ее сестра все епде выглядит плохо. 6. Дети плохо говорят по-испански. 7. Когда Анна услышала эту новость, ей стало грустно. 8. Джеку было тепло. Он не чувствовал, что на улице подмораживало. 9. Госпожа Бигс холодно поприветствовала нас и вышла из комнаты. 10. Пища горька на вкус. 11. Становится темно. 12. Прощаясь с нами, он грустно улыбался. 205 UNITS Phocu/y^ well (an adverb meaning “in a good manner") well (an adjective meaning “healthy, not sick") Ron writes well. Well modifies the verb and describes how Ron writes. Mary was sick, but now the girl is well. Well doesn’t modify the verb, it modifies the noun ‘girl* and describes her state. (The girl is not ill.) Note: Aftef~the linkinff verb feel, either good or well mav be iiseH: I feel good and I feel well have essentially the same meaning. However, well usually refers specifically to health, whereas good to one’s physical and/or emotional condition. I feel well. = I’m healthy, not ill. I feel good. = Everything is OK. IV. More Facts about Substantivized Adjectives Nation and Nationality Words Substantivized Adjectives and Nouns Adjective People. Representatives of a Nation Nation Singular Plural Adjectives ending ш -an for Czech, Greek, Thai. add -s for the plural. It is also true American an American Americans the Americans Belgian a Belgian Belgians the Belgians Bulgarian a Bulgarian Bulgarians the Bulgarians | Canadian a Canadian Canadians the Canadians 1 German a German Germans the Germans Italian an Italian Italians the Italians Mexican a Mexican Mexicans the Mexicans Norwegian a Norwegian Norwegians the Norwegians Czech a Czech Czechs the Czechs Greek a Greek Greeks the Greeks Thai a Thai Thais the Thais UNIT 5 Продолжение Adjective People. Representatives of a Nation Nation Singular Plural Adjectives ending in -ese, -ss do not add -s for the plural. ! Chinese Japanese Portuguese Swiss a Chinese a Japanese a Portuguese a Swiss Chinese people Japanese people Portuguese people Swiss people the Chinese the Japanese the Portuguese the Swiss 1 ^ Some adjectives ending in -sh or -ch are used neither to name I ; Ф representatives of a nation or a nation as a whole we use special nouns for both, | British a Briton a Britisher Britons Britishers the British Dutch a Dutchman a Dutchwoman Dutchmen Dutchwomen Dutch people the Dutch English an Englishman an Englishwoman Englishmen Englishwomen English people the English Finnish a Finn Finns the Finnish French a Frenchman a Frenchwoman Frenchmen Frenchwomen French people the French Irish an Irishman an Irishwoman Irishmen Irishwomen Irish people the Irish Scottish Spanish a Scot a Spaniard Scots Spaniards the Scottish the Spanish Welsh a Welshman a Welshwoman Welshmen Welshwomen Welsh people the Welsh 1. Notice that all nationality words have capital letters. ; 2. In phrases like «Я русский» у «Он американец» we more often use adjectives than nouns: “I am Russian.’* “He is American.” (“I am a Russian.” “He is an American.” are possible but not often used.) 207 UNIT 5__________________________________________________________ J9 Look at the table of Nation and Nationality Words (page 206-207) and say what adjectives are not used to give names to languages. Why? 40 Say people of what nationalities live in these countries and what languages they speak. #eXample The Danes live in Denmark. They speak Danish. 1) China, 2) Italy, 3) Britain, 4) Norway, 5) Russia, 6) Sweden, 7) Japan, 8) the Czech Republic, 9) Ireland, 10) the USA, 11) Portugal, 12) Turkey, 13) Canada, 14) Greece, 15) France, 16) England, 17) Wales, 18) Mexico, 19) Holland, 20) Scotland 41 Remember what food we associate with different countries and ‘ match the words in these columns. i 1. English‘d 2. Italiark^/u 3. Swiss 6 4. Czech 5. Greek Я 6. Portugese j 7. Turkish b 8. Norwegian ^ 9. Dutch 10. Russian d 11. Chinese 12. German в- a) cheese b) coffee V tea У d) caviar(e) Ю e) sausages -f) pizza Z g) olives jT h) rice 'fY i) chocolateJ? j) sardines ^ k) beer ^ l) salmon S 42 Some people believe in national stereotypes and associate certain qualities with certain nations. See if your associations will be the same as your classmates’ and decide if the idea of national stereotypes works. Ikc : The Italians are very good singers. oCi/y> 1) ... go sightseeing all over the world, and take pictures. 2) ... eat a lot of spicy food. 3) ... are very reserved and never talk to strangers. bN-i ’lsh 4) ... drink a lot of beer. Ctcch 208 UNIT 5 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Qt'CL’til either watch or play football whenever they have time. love to welcome guests and give them lots of food. , e; 'ir о can’t imagine their life without driving a car. c>or> are very polite with older people and have a lot of respect for themr^ are greedy and don’t like spending money. ^ 6r ^cu) are lazy and hate working. ^t-rCU h 43 Express the same in English. 1. В прошлом году к нам в школу приезжали две англичанки. 2. Я бы хотел больше узнать о королевской семье Бельгии. 3. Мексиканцы говорят по-испански. 4. Китайцы принадлежат к очень древней цивилизации, и каждый китаец гордится этим. 5. Финны — прекрасные лыжники, и норвежцы тоже. 6. Она ирландка, но живет в Англии. 7. В их футбольной команде играют два итальянца и немец. 8. Испанцы славятся своими песнями и танцами. 9. Эти два юноши — канадцы. Они приехали к нам из Оттавы. 10. Имя этого художника знакомо каждому французу. V. The Possessive Case with Inanimate Objects 1. Geographical names: New York’s skyscrapers America’s policy Hong Kong’s future 2. Time references: a day’s work an hour’s delay a month’s salary two days’ journey today’s newspaper three years’ absence yesterday’s speech 3. Distance references: a mile’s walk two kilometres’ distance i M Paraphrase these word combinations using possessive case where possible: 1) the nest of an ant; 2) a ham sandwich; 3) the dream of a child; 4) the shade of a tree; 5) the price of success; 6) the streets of London; 7) the trip lasting a day; 8) the salary one gets monthly; 9) a wait lasting two years; 10) the speech given yesterday 20^ UNIT 5 ■VOCABULNRY /eCTION ^/OCIAL EnOLLTH AiKiNc FOR Direction/. Giving Direction/ Learn how to ask for directions traveiiing about town and how to give directions (No 31). — A. Askinsr for Directions B. Giving Directions Excuse me... It’s at the far end of this street. Could you help me, please? It’s just round the corner. How do I get to Central Station? It’s opposite the bank. Could you tell me the way to It’s not far from here. Central Station? It’s next door to the Bank of What’s the best way to Central England. Station? Go/Keep straight on (ahead). How far is Central Station from Walk as far as the bridge. here? Go diagonally across the park. Is it a long way from here to Turn left at the traffic lights. Central Station? Walk (for) half a mile and turn How long will it take me to get to right at the roundabout.’ Central Station? You’ll see the post office on your Is there a bus or had I better right. walk? Go over the zebra crossing. Where (At what stop) do I get Take the second turning to the off? right. What bus will take me to Central You’ll see the station on your Station? left. Where’s the nearest underground You can’t miss it. (Metro) station? Take a bus (the underground, the Do I change trains? Where do I Metro). change? Alight at Central Station. What line do I take to get to Get a single (return) to London Central Station? Bridge. Is this the right platform for ^ London Bridge? J a roundabout — a place where several roads meet. It has a circular area in the middle round which the traffic must go. ^210 V UNIT 5 'll J[ u Put the phrases in the right order to make the taik iogicai. a) Thank you, sir. b) Could you tell me the way to the railway station? c) Yes. The station is on your right next to the big roundabout. d) What do you want to know? e) OhI You’ve taken the wrong turning. You need to go back the way you’ve come as far as the main road, turn left, and go straight ahead for two miles. f) Excuse me, sir, could you help me? g) For two miles? Match the pictures with their captions c) Well, have I passed my driving test? d) Excuse me, which bus do catch for Marble Arch? 211 КГг UNIT 5 i M: '-1 i B: r' M: '] B: M: :k t B: ихй А. Read the dialogue and a) find at least three things that help passengers in the London Underground; b) do the tasks that follow It; c) listen to the dialogue and then act It out (No 32). Dialogue Margaret: Bryan, could you help me, please? I’m going to Oxford Street. I’d be very grateful if you could explain how to get there. Bryan: If I were you, I would take the underground. The nearest underground station here is Tooting Broadway. It’s just round the corner. You see, it’s my first journey in the London Underground. I hear that it’s rather confusing. Do you think I’ll manage? I’m sure you will. Just take your time and look at the signs. Use this underground map. It may turn out to be helpful. Oh, thank you. Where is Tooting Broadway? Here, almost at the bottom of the map, nearly at the end of the Northern Line. Can you see it? Yes, I can. So, if I take a train at Tooting Broadway, where do I travel? Your destination is Tottenham Court Road. It’s here where the black and the red lines cross. But you must make sure that the train will pass through Tottenham Court Road, as some of the trains, those which go to Edgware ["ефуеэ], don’t. How can I make sure? There’s a television screen at each station which says where the train is going. You need a train going to High Barnet or Mill Hill East. That really sounds easy. I won’t have to change trains or platforms. Thank you very much for the directions and for the map. Oh, there’s a text on the other side. {Margaret reads.) The Underground There are more than 250 Underground stations in London and its suburbs. In the centre of London you are never likely to be more than a few minutes from one of them. Stations are indicated by an illuminated London Transport symbol. Look at your Underground map to decide your journey. You must buy your ticket before travelling, either from a ticket machine or a ticket office. You cannot buy books of tickets, but the special tourist tickets may well save your time and trouble. Trains run frequently until about 00.15 (Sundays 23.30) from the central area. Make sure you wait on the correct platform for your destination, and choose your train by the indicator on the platform or the front of the train. It is important to know the final destination of the train you want, because from some platforms trains leave for several different destinations. Please ask one of the station staff if you are lost. M: B: M: UNIT 5 ’ Your ticket takes you right through to your destination. Just follow the signs for the цвР: want, and at all stations there are maps to help you. Keep your ticket to □ Я 0 give up at the end of your journey. Most trains stop at all stations, but certain stations are closed at weekends. a Ll-i ощс Q Э 21^ UNIT 5 i M: B: 1 M: B: M: ii B: М: В: Very helpful, indeed. I say, Bryan, it mentions tourist tickets. What are they? These tickets give you 4 or 5 days’ unlimited travel on all of London’s Red Buses and in the Underground. You can visit every place of interest in London without worrying about the different tickets or unfamiliar money. I’m afraid that won’t be of much use in my case: I’m leaving London the day after tomorrow. Then I would advise buying a travel card. What’s a travel card? A travel card permits the purchaser to travel by bus, underground or main line train for any numbers of journeys from 9.30 a.m. until midnight on the day of purchase. It is an excellent way to travel in the London area for an average tourist, as it is convenient and helps you to save your money. Where can I buy a travel card? It is on sale at all railway and underground stations and in certain small shops, usually news agencies. They have a special sign on the door. B. Fill in the missing information. 4f Study the map of the London Underground (Ex. 48) and say: ^214 1. To get from Tooting Broadway to Tottenham Court Road (by underground) you use the ... Line. 2. To tell the passengers where the train is going they use ... at each station. 3. In London there are over ... Underground stations. 4. There is a special illuminated ... for London transport. 5. One can buy a ticket either from a ... or the ... . 6. Tourist tickets and ... save your time, trouble and money. 7. From some platforms trains leave for different ... . 8. In the London Underground one keeps the ticket till the end of the journey and ... leaving the Underground. 9. Tourists tickets and travel cards are not only for the Underground, they are also for ... and even .... 10. You can buy your travel card ... and in some small shops. It. t: l)how many lines they have; 2) on what bank of the River Thames most of them are situated; 3) if there is a circular line; 4) what station names are associated with the places in London that you have heard of; 5) if you can say that London’s Underground is very old just by looking at the map; 6) what additional information the map gives in the picture. C. ,r L — UNIT 5 St Work in pairs. Ask for and give directions. Use the vocabulary of Social English and the map (pp. 210, 213). ^Phra/al Verb to drop to drop in (on smb/at some place) — навестить, зайти, заглянуть (к кому-то/куда-то) Let’s drop in on Jim and Mary while we’re in the neighbourhood. Look who’s just dropped in! After the game’s over, I may drop in at a small cafe for a cup of coffee. ^ to drop off — a) выходить, высадить (из машины) Thanks for the ride, I’ll drop off here. Drop me off at the corner, and I’ll walk from there. Ъ) оставить, «забросить» (веш,и) куда-то I just want to drop the letter off. I’ll drop my coat off at the cleaner’s on my way to the office. 2) to drop on smb — a) набрасываться, нападать на кого-либо Why drop on me? It’s not my fault. b) наткнуться, натолкнуться на кого-либо, случайно встретить We dropped on the perfect house after searching for weeks. I dropped on this old photograph in the back of the drawer. ^ to drop out — выбывать, выходить из чего-то, бросать (школу) James dropped out of the game at the very beginning. Who has dropped out of the contest? SI Express the same in Russian. 1. He dropped out of school. 2. Why don’t you drop in sometime and have a look at my holiday snaps of St Petersburg? 3. Shall I drop you off at your house? 4. Jane dropped in on me after supper. 5. There are only seven people left in the group — five dropped out last month. 6. Why drop on your younger brother for what he evidently hasn’t done? 7. I just dropped in to wish you a Merry Christmas. 8.1 dropped on an old friend in town today. 215 г N3 О) U1 UNIT 5 Si Insert the missing parts of the phrasal verb to drop to complete the sentences. 1. Please drop ... and see us any time you are in Bradford. 2. After the first year, very few students dropped, ...: most go on to complete their studies. 3. — Why don’t you come round to our place for a cup of tea one night? — I tell you what, I’ll drop .. you on the way home tomorrow. 4. I can drop Daisy ... on my way home. 5. The boys had dropped ... of school and gone to work. 6. Kim dropped ... my uncle in the trade centre yesterday. 7. Drop ... and see us when you’re next in London. 8. He dropped ... of college after only two weeks. 9. I’ll drop my luggage ... at the hotel and we can go to your office then. 10. Never drop like that. me •New Word/ to Learn , tU rib. ^ c S3 V . . A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. Believe me. I’ve told you^the absolute ['aebs9lu:t] truth. 1) How much is that altolfe^er, how much is that аЦ^ in all? 2) Some of what you say is true, but I don t agree, and John A cavalcade [^kaevl'keid] is a procession of riders or vehicles//^ v К/^ The film was very good but it was not a commercial success and' sb brought in not too much money. There’s a countless number of stars in our Galaxy alone. Have you ever heard of Norwegian fjords [fjordz], narrow channels with rocky shores?^^h^^ are very picturesque. Linda is my half-sister, we have^^^e s^e mother but different fathers. Their marria^^s very happy, idyliic [r(5i(ik], I may say. A steward {'istjuisd] is a person who serves passengers on a ship, plane or train. This time I totally [Tautli] agree with you. Be sure that in the Greens’ house you’ll get a very warm welcome: they are the nicest people I’ve met. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 217 UNIT 5 И cm Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. thrill (y): to thrill someone, to be thrilled by sth. The news of Paul’s Jh^^ed his mother. If you are thrilled, you feel excitement. tnnll {n)\ a big thrill, a great thrill, the thrill of going abroad. It was a .great ^rillto win the first prize. tlmiliii^'yz^/): What a thrilling gamel niare tnMmes] (n): — John, wake upl You were crying in your sleepl ^ Зотгу^ I h^ a nightmare. Our journey was a real nightmare. clatter the dishes, to clatter on the roof (about hailstones). Plates, pots and pans can clatter. We heard hooves clatter on the bridge. cla^r (n): a clatter of dishes cSsS^e (v): 1 to confuse sb. His questions confused me. He confused me by his questions. His late arrival confused the party. 2 I always confuse Robert and his twin brother. Don’t confuse the jvord^“^ea^er” with “whether”. a confusing answer {adj): 1 a rough road, a rough sea, rough weather. When wood is first cut, it feels rough. Strong winds cause rough seas. 2 a rough voice, a rough boy. The child’s voice was rough with crying. 3 a rough idea, a rough paper. The artists did a rough drawing before loing the painting. c u ГО sirilc""^): to sink — sank — sunk. The boat had a hole, so it sank. He dropped a^tcme into the river and it sank to the bottom, groanluj: tog^omn with pain. He groaned as he lifted the heavy box. The after the accident. qjd^^man l^iy groaning beside the road fn^r^a groan of despair, a groan of of disappointment, to give a groan tremble (v): to tremble with fear (cold, weakness), a voice trembling with emotion. The old man was trembling with rage. The whole house ^^^Med-as the train went by. ■annu^ L^?njuol] (adj): an annual meeting, an annual report, an annual event, an annual salary. The annual rainfall in this area is light, annual event. 6Ш10П (n): an annual reunion, a family reunion. We hold an annual .Г reunion of former students of our college. [im'breis] (y): to embrace sb. Florence embraced her little brother warmly. The two sisters met and embraced tenderly, tear [tio] (n): tears of joy, tears of gratitude, tears of laughter, to burst into tears. Jane burst into tears when she heard the bad news. UNIT 5 flow (y): to flow to/into the sea. The river flowed along rapidly. As they iround the fire, the conversation began to flow freely. [дТ a flow of blood, a flow of traffic, a flow of words. The flow of |i^he pipe is slow. ^npkld] (adj): a wrinkled face, wrinkled hands, wrinkled stock-l/t/) back of her skirt was wrinkled from sitting on it. ^ aiiwMuon^desti'neiJn] (д): the destination of the journey, to arrive at one’s destination. The destination of our trip is San Francisco. What’s ^our destination? ^vessel (д) {formal): a grain-carrying vessel, a fishing vessel. That day we ^ could see a lot of vessels in the port. '^ЙГ^Ьеэ] {adj): a bare tree, a bare wall, bare feet. He walked across the bare floor. They were all bare from the waist up. The tree branches were bare — there were no leaves on them. Without the sofa and two lairs the room looked bare, leadea wcmen; barefooted children le ['клр1] (д): a couple of friends, a couple of dollars, a couple of days, a married couple. Jane and Tom are a couple that love to go dancing. The young couple decided to start their tour immediately. 5S Give it a name. Use your new vocabulary. 1. Nouns: 2. Verbs: ^.Adjectives: a frightening dream; a meeting of people who haven’t met for some time; a drop of liquid coming from your eyes when you cry; the place to which you are going; a ship; two things to excite; to make a loud noise like hard objects striking against each other; to go underwater; to make a deep sound in your throat from pain or unhappiness; to shake with cold or fear; to put your arms around someone to show love; to move along in the way that water does mixed up, not clear; not smooth, not even; happening every year; full of small lines on your skin; naked, uncovered 219. 4L-' • В ‘i: I UL 'i^K/ '. "Г .■-ii UNIT 5 IP 11'^ ^ Give English equivalents for these: стучать no крыше; путаный (неясный) ответ; неспокойное море; опуститься на дно; стон отчаяния; дрожать от ярости; нежно обнять; рыболовное судно; поток слов; конечная цель нашей поездки; морщинистые щеки; ежегодный праздник; разразиться слезами; голые ветки деревьев; захватывающая игра; воссоединение семьи; настоящий кошмар; супружеская пара у Н) doi^f ^ ^ *'О0^ J COt, fvt'hA 3 II Complete the sentences using your new vocabulary. l.The a... meeting of the Association is always held in spring. 2. They gave a thrXM'^rformance. 3.1 heard the dCU^^f dishes being washed. 4. Be^piie she could Sam stepped away. 5. There were t.4f^ her w):.‘ ?ace. 6. Jim and Polly made a curious сбхч*к7.1 reached my dft.^^iilaolii® half past two. 8. The torpedo hit one of the boats, which blew up and s/.H at once. 9. Can you give me a roitf^ldescription of the project? 10. In nljlH'R^^^burnt his house. 11. Г^е been dreaming about our family r.^^ior 10 years. 12. You must be 6*.*?.mg me with someone else, my name is not Fred. 13. The walls of the room were painted light green. 14. The № patient on the bed next to mine was g(!ang. 15. Most of the rivers in this country f... eastward. Focu//- , , ' couple ^ $ г CU rafe^ pa”" 1. Two (often different) things. Two things of the same kind that always go together. a couple of books a pair of shoes a couple of dancers a pair of gloves a couple of friends a pair of socks a married couple a pair of tights a pair of trousers 2. Approximately two things or a pair of pajamas quantities (we are not sure of a pair of mittens the exact number). a pair of slippers He met her a couple of years a pair of boots ago. I’d like a cup of tea and a couple of cakes, please. a pair of eyes .220 siai UNIT 5 S3 Complete the sentences with pair or couple. l.I’d like to get a new ... of shoes to go with my smart dress. 2. In summer I like to wear a ... of shorts and a T-shirt. 3. A ... of fried eggs make a very good breakfast. 4.1 easily recognized that ... of lovely eyes. 5.1 have a ... of very good friends with whom I can share everything. 6. Have you got a ... of seats for today’s evening performance? 7. This ... of hands can cope with any work. 8. Look, Mary is wearing a new ... of earrings. 9. LookI How beautifully that ... is dancing. 10. We invited ten ...s to the party. coup Lt^ St Express the same in English, use your new words. 1. Сходи в магазин и купи пару килограммов яблок. 2. Первый день их путешествия был настоящим кошмаром, но потом все изменилось к лучшему. 3. Море было таким неспокойным (штормило), что почти все заболели морской болезнью (почти всех укачало). 4. Дерево было голым, на нем не было листьев. 5. На морщинистом лице старушки были слезы, не так ли? 6. Какая волнующая новость! 7. Без ковра моя спальня выглядит совсем пустой (голой). 8. Фиона — моя единокровная (единоутробная) сестра. 9. Почему ты дрожишь, Диана? По-моему, здесь не холодно. 10. В (into) какое море впадает река Северн? 11. Ее слова ввели меня в заблуждение. 12. Я слышала звяканье посуды (pots and pans) на кухне. 13. Корабль затонул на глубине (in deep water). 14. Бабушка обняла свою внучку с нежностью. 15. Я всегда читаю этот ежегодный журнал. 30 А. Маке sure that you know these words: to collide [ks'laid] with sth — столкнуться c чем-то to clutch [kUtJ] — ухватиться, схватить a steering ['stiario] wheel — руль a speedometer needle — стрелка спидометра brakes [breiks] — тормоза to crash [kraej] — врезаться a car bonnet ['bnnit] — капот a windscreen ['windskri:n] — ветровое стекло acquaintance [a'kweintsns] — знакомство 221 '^'ИГЯ UNIT 5 _______________ _ ____ __________ ЕЕ В. Listen to the text **A Drive in the Motor Car” after Roald Dahl (No 33), and say which of these statements are ‘true’ and which are ^false'. 1. The boy’s mother came to St Peter’s School at the beginning of Easter holidays. [ 2. The weather was cold, rough and frosty. 3. The new motor car was long and black. ' 4. The boy’s half-sister was 21 years old. * 5. People didn’t have to take a driving test in 1925. 6. The boy’s half-sister was an experienced driver. 7. Everyone in the car wanted the car to run faster. 8. Their destination was the city of London. 9. They crashed into the hedge because the road was rough. 10. The boy’s first acquaintance with a motor car was extremely pleasant. C. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “A Drive in the Motor Car”. ^Reading for DI/cu/лoN 61 Read the text “Going to Norway” and say how the family travelled on the fourth day of their journey. Going to Norway (After Roald Dahl) The summer holidays! Those magic words! The very mention of them used to thrill me. All my summer holidays, from when I was four years old to when I was seventeen (1920 to 1932), were totally idyllic. This, I am certain, was because we always went to the same idyllic place and that place was Norway. Except for my half-sister and half-brother, the rest of us were all pure Norwegian by blood. We all spoke Norwegian and all our relations lived over there. So in a way, going to Norway every summer was like going home. We were always an enormous party. There were my three sisters and my half-sister (that’s four), and my half-brother and me (that’s six), and my mother (that’s seven), and Nanny (that’s eight), and in addition to these, there were never less than two of my half-sister’s friends (that’s ten altogether). Looking back on it now, I don’t know how my mother did it. There were all those train bookings and boat bookings and hotel bookings to be made in advance by letter. She had to make sure that we had enough 222 UNIT 5 rails deck-chair prorлenade deck lifeboat quayside harbour funnel shorts and shirts and sweaters and gymshoes and bathing costumes (you couldn’t even buy a shoelace on the island we were going to), and the packing must have been a nightmare. Six huge trunks were carefully packed, as well as countless suitcases, and when the great departure day arrived, the ten of us, together with our mountains of luggage, would set out on the first and easiest step of the journey, the train to London. When we arrived in London, we got into three taxis and went clattering across the great city to King’s Cross, where we got on to the train for Newcastle, two hundred miles to the north. The trip to Newcastle took about five hours, and when we arrived there, we needed three more taxis to take us from the station to the docks, where our boat would be waiting. The next stop after that would be Oslo ["nzlou], the capital of Norway. When I was young, the capital of Norway was not called Oslo. It was called Christiania [,kristi:'8enj3]. But somewhere along the line, the Norwegians decided to do away with that pretty name and call it Oslo instead. As children, we always knew it as Christiania, but if I call it that here, we shall only get confused, so I had better call it Oslo all the way through. The sea journey from Newcastle to Oslo took two days and a night, and if it was rough, as it often was, all of us got seasick except our fearless mother. We used to lie in deck-chairs on the promenade deck, within easy reach of the rails, our faces green refusing the hot soup and ship’s biscuits' the kindly steward kept offering us. And as for poor Nanny, she began to feel sick the moment she set foot on deck. “I hate these things!” ship’s biscuits — галеты 223. UNIT 5 _______________________________________________________ she used to say. “I’m sure we’ll never get therel Which lifeboat do we go to when it starts to sink?’’ Then she would retire^ to her cabin, where she stayed groaning and trembling until the ship was firmly tied up at the quayside in Oslo harbour the next day. We always stopped off for one night in Oslo so that we could have a grand annual reunion with our Grandmother and Grandfather, our mother’s parents. When we got off the boat, we all went in a cavalcade of taxis straight to the Grand Hotel to drop off our luggage. Then, keeping the same taxis, we drove on to the grandparents’ house, where an emotional welcome awaited us. All of us were embraced and kissed many times and tears flowed down wrinkled old cheeks and suddenly that quiet gloomy house came alive with many children’s voices. The next morning, everyone got up early and eager to continue the journey. There was another full day’s travelling to be done before we reached our final destination, most of it by boat. We loved this part of our journey. The nice little vessel with its single tall funnel would move out into the calm waters of the fjord. Unless you have sailed down the Oslofjord like this yourself on a lovely summer’s day, you cannot imagine what it is like. It is impossible to describe the feeling of absolute peace and beauty that surrounds you. The boat winds its way between countless tiny islands, some with small brightly painted wooden houses on them, but many with not a house or a tree on the bare rocks. Late in the afternoon, we would come finally to the end of the journey, the island of Fjome [^fjoimi]. This was where our mother always took us. Heaven knows how she found it, but to us it was the greatest place on earth. About two hundred yards from the coast along a narrow dusty road, stood a simple wooden hotel painted white. It was run by an elderly couple whose faces I still remember clearly and every year they welcomed us like old friends. A. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text and read them out. 1. to be certain 2. in a way 3. in addition (to) 4. to make sure 5. I had better 6. within easy reach 7. to come alive 8. it was run by... a) убедиться b) поблизости, под рукой c) ожить . d) в каком-то смысле e) им управляли, его содержали f) быть уверенным, убежденным g) вдобавок, помимо h) уж лучше я ‘ to retire — вд. удалиться ^24 UNIT S B. Express the same in Russian. l.You had better say that you’re sorry. I think that the mistake was yours. 2. If I were you, I would first make sure that the door is safely locked. 3.1 like to keep a couple of dictionaries on my desk within easy reach. 4.1 like Sally in a way but I can’t say that we’re good friends. 5. Schools in England are run by local education authorities. 6. Are you quite certain that the film is worth seeing? I wouldn’t like to waste my time. 7. Every morning the school comes alive with children’s voices. 8. In addition to Maths and Russian we’ll have to take an exam in History. C. Express the same in English. 1. В каком-то смысле день удался. 2. Уж лучше я подожду вас здесь; на улице дождь. 3. Лежа на диване с книжкой, я всегда держу кулечек конфет под рукой. 4. Давай сначала убедимся, что можем купить билеты на этот поезд. 5. Кто содержит этот теннисный клуб? 6. Утром лес ожил от птичьих голосов. 7. Вы уверены, что мне стоит идти с вами? 8. Вдобавок к двум собакам, у них есть три кошки. WFocu/',-. besides (in addition to, as well as, plus -I-) }ме except (leaving out, minus -) All of us have passed the exam besides John. (И Джон, и все мы сдали экзамен.) All of us have passed the exam except John. (3a исключением Джона, все мы сдали экзамен.) 63 Choose the right word besides or . except to complete the sentences. 1. “Everyone was invited ... me,” the girl said with a sigh. 2. ... my brothers, my cousins turned out to be winners too. 3. There are many rivers in Russia ... the Volga. 4. He works every day, ... Saturday. Saturday is his day off. 5. Is anyone coming ... Peter? 6. All the puppies are here ... Spotty. Where is he? 7. Your story was good ... that it was too long. 225. 8 Английский язык, 8 кл. UNIT 5 to w^ait for sth/sb to await sth/sb (formal) 1. What are you waiting for? 2. Someone is waiting for you downstairs. 3. They are waiting for the beginning of the performance. 1. Who knows what awaits us? 2. I’m awaiting a letter from my partner. 3. A warm welcome is awaiting you at home. i4 Complete the sentences using awalt/wait for and their forms. 1. How long have you been ... his arrival? 2. Don’t ... for Jane. She is not coming. 3. We have been ... for the bus for half an hour. 4.1 wonder what surprises ... us today. 5. A big welcome ... Ben when he comes home. 6. While ... for me he bought an ice cream. 7.1 am ... an answer to my application for the job. Щроси/yL ' ... had better ... would rather You’d better — ты уж бы лучше I’d rather — уж лучше бы {на- {совет, учет существующих об- личие выбора) стоятелъств) 1. It’s seven o’clock, we’d better 1. I’d rather go home now (not put the meat in the oven. later). 2. He’d better hurry up, if he 2. I know that you’d rather go to wants to get home before dark. a party than stay at home and 3. They’d better not wake mother do your homework. 3. My sister would rather go to when they come back. Edinburgh than to Glasgow. 6S Complete the sentences with had better or would rather. 1. I think you ... look the word up again: you don’t remember what it means. 2. Where ... you ... go — to Paris or to Madrid? 3. ... not he ... stay with us until he gets well? We can look after him. 4. My sister ... eat fruit and sweets than meat and chicken; I know her taste. 5. You ... wear your warm jacket it’s quite cold today. 6. We ... finish the work today as tomorrow is going to be a busy day. 7. I ... have five lessons of English than one lesson of Chemistry. 8.1 know I'... go to the shop now, but I ... do it tomorrow. 226 l,C 1 UNIT 5 Focu/'/- ' quiet ["kwaiat] adjective quite [kwait] adverb тихий, спокойный Be quiet — the baby is asleep. Let’s have a quiet evening at home. Have you ever seen such quiet children? Can I have a quiet word with you? 1. абсолютно, совершенно That’s quite another story. You’re quite right. I quite agree. 2. довольно It’s quite warm today. John is quite a good player. It was quite good, but not perfect. In American English quite can be used to mean very in sentences where in British English it means fairly (довольно). That dress is quite nice. =Am£; That dress is very nice. BrE: That dress is fairly nice. ik these rows. 1. a quiet life, a quiet evening, ... 2. quite ready, quite different, .. B. Think of your own sentences or situations with the words quiet and quite. Focur by (preposition) = using something by boat letter post (mail) e-mail fax phone hand ticket In all these and some other cases the preposition by expresses the idea of how, through what means the action takes place. 1. I didn’t get this strange letter by post, it was given to me by hand. 2. My friend and I usually communicate by e-mail. 3. You can reach the little island only by boat. 4. When telephones were not very common or didn’t exist, people sent each other information by letter. 5. The goods will be delivered to you by air, you’ll get them very soon. 6. Entrance by ticket. 227 UNIT 5____________________________________________________________ Listen to the text “Going to Norway” (No 34) and learn to read it artisticaliy in the announcer’s manner. 'PEAKING ^Di/cu//ing the Text Remember the text “Going to Norway” again and answer the foilowing why-questions. 1. Why did the narrator remember the summer holidays of his young years so well? 2. Why was going to Norway almost like going home? 3. Why did it take the family four days to get from their English home to Norway? 4. Why was it a problem for his mother to get everything arranged for the trip? 5. Why did the family have “mountains of luggage”? 6. Why did they have to go to Newcastle, and specifically to the Newcastle docks? 7. Why does the narrator write about Oslo if the name of the capital was Christiania? 8. Why was crossing the North Sea not always pleasant, especially for Nanny? 9. Why did the family stop off for a night in Oslo? 10. Why did the family love the last stage of their journey? 11. Why, in your view, was the island of Fjome “the greatest place on earth” for the narrator? Look at the map and follow the family’s route from their home to the Oslofjord. Remember what the narrator said about each stage of the journey. ^228 __ UNIT S ШDl/cu/ЛNO THE Topic QS Topical Vocabuiary I. Most people enjoy travelling. Some travel for pleasure, and some — on business; some travel light, and some take a lot of luggage on their travels, journeys, voyages or trips. They may choose various means of travelling (transport) and go: by air by land by sea by (air)plane by train by boat • by car • by coach (bus) • on horseback • on a bike • on foot II. Every journey has to be arranged beforehand. There’s a number of things one must take care of if they want to make their journey comfortable: a) choose the most convenient way of getting at your destination: • a sea (ocean) liner • a through train • a direct flight • a fast coach (train) • a local or a long-distance train • a sleeper (sleeping car) • a smoker or non-smoker • a train with a dining car or a buffet ['bufei] car b) book/reserve/buy a ticket: • a train ticket • a coach ticket • a first-class, second-class, economy (tourist)-class ticket • business-class ticket • a single ticket • a return ticket • a ticket to a place (e.g. to London) c) find out the time of departure and the time of arrival, pack your luggage neatly and come to the railway station, coach station or airport well in advance; 229. ft UNIT 5 _________________________________________________________ d) allow yourself enough time for: • finding the right platform, carriage and compartment, cabin or the right gate at the airport; • checking in for the flight or voyage; • going through the customs formalities and passport control; • filling in a declaration; • taking your heavy or bulky luggage to the luggage van; • weighing your luggage and paying excess luggage charges if necessary; • doing some last-minute shopping at the station, airport or duty-free; • boarding the train, ship or plane on time. 111. These things can make your journey easier or more rewarding: • a season ticket or a travel card cost you less than a regular ticket; • a nice book or an interesting magazine help you to while away the time on the journey; • a hearty talk with your fellow passengers may be very pleasant; • you can look through the window and admire the picturesque views. IV. These things can spoil the impression of your journey: • travel sickness (but you can take a medicine for it); • heavy luggage (but you can hire a porter or use a trolley); • talkative fellow passengers (but you can always pretend that you’re reading or that you are deaf); • missing your transport (this won’t happen if you’re welborganized); • bad food (but you can always pack a couple of sandwiches just in case); • delays and cancellations [^kaenssMeiJnz] of trains, flights etc. (but it may be nice to have some time to yourself); • bad weather (but suitable clothes can help you). V. When you come to another city you are likely to stay in/at: • a hotel • a motel • a hostel • a boarding house • a guest house • bed and breakfast (B & B) 230 __________________________________________ UNIT 5 When you stay in a hotel you: • cheek in (register) at a hotel; • ask for a room, suite [swi:t] for a night, two nights etc. The room you ask for can be: • single or double • with a shower or a bath • with a view of the sea (overlooking the sea) • with a twin bed, a double bed The manager of the hotel can show you the room and the facilities available. The price of your room can include service (e. g. laundry service), breakfast and some facilities. Don’t forget to check out at the end of your stay. JQ Give English for the following: 1. пешком 2.билет в один конец 3. спальный вагон 4. время прибытия 5. место назначения 6. пройти таможенный контроль 7. сделать последние покупки 8. оплатить перевес багажа 9. попутчики 10. задержка или отмена поезда И. маленькая частная гостиница, предоставляющая ночлег и завтрак 12. зарегистрироваться в гостинице 13. номер из нескольких комнат 14. комната с видом на море 15. предоставляемые услуги 16. рейс в Осло 17. поезд дальнего следования 18. загодя, заранее 19. сесть на поезд вовремя 20. его укачивает в машине 231 UNIT 5 i'l iSpocu/ travel — moving from one place to another, from one country to another, touring During our travels in Europe, we enjoyed England most of all. journey — a long trip (usually over land) Is it a long journey from Glasgow to London? voyage — a sea journey A voyage from London to New York takes a lot of time. trip — a short journey for pleasure or for a particular purpose She often goes on business trips abroad. Y Complete the sentences using the words a travel, a journey, a voyage or a trip. 1. We had a ... to the coast last Saturday. 2. ... agencies are very useful: they plan your holidays for you. 3. My first ... from London to New York across the Atlantic was unforgettable. 4. Is it a long ... from Glasgow to London by coach? 5. By train, it is a two-hour ... from here to Sergiev Possad. 6. The ... from Europe to America used to take many weeks. 7. Jules Verne wrote a novel about ... around the world in 80 days. 8. Anna went on a short ... to Pavlovsk with her class and enjoyed it. 9. A couple of years ago we took a ... by boat from Odessa to India. 10. During our ... in Europe, we enjoyed Austria most of all. 11. Our ... from Vladivostok to Moscow took a long time. 12.1 forgot to buy milk, so I had to make another ... to the shops. 13. Did you go to Rome during your ...s? 14. The ... from England to Australia used to take several months. 15. We’ll have time for a ... to Suzdal on our way back to Moscow. 71 Read these phrases. Where would you expect to hear them? 1. Single to Manchester, please. 2. What time does the coach leave? 3. Where’s the booking office? 4. I’d like a room with a view of the mountains. 5. Do I have to pay excess luggage? 6. Is there a buffet car? 7. Do I have to reserve a seat? 8. Can I get a sleeper to Edinburgh? 9. Where’s the lost property office? 10. Excuse me, how can I get to Deck 3? .232 UNIT 5 tlJ Complete these dialogues and act them out. 1. A: ___________ B: Single or return? , A-------------- B: A Day Return to Manchester will cost you £40. A: ___________ B: There’s a train at 3 p.m. and another one at 6.45 p.m. A:____________ B: The 3 o’clock train is due in Manchester at 5.30 p.m. and the 6.45 train arrives at 8 p.m. exactly. A-____________ B: No, it’s a through train. A; ___________ B: Yes, we accept Visa Cards. A; ___________ B: You’re welcome. 2. A;____________ B: Certainly. We usually have some vacant rooms on weekdays. But we’re quite busy at weekends. A_____________ B: Tuesday to Friday? Very well. A double room for three nights will cost you 150 pounds. A ____________ B: Sorry, I thought you wanted a double room. Singles are a little more expensive, 210 pounds for three nights. A: ___________ B: Yes, it does. The service is included, but breakfast is not. A;____________ B: All our rooms are fitted with showers and some of them have baths. Would you like a bath in your room? A ____________ B: You can use hotel facilities free. We have a small swimming pool, snooker, workout gym and a colour TV in every room. A; ___________ B: I can give you a room overlooking the park or one overlooking the lake. A ____________ B: No, you can pay when you check out. Just now sign the register, please. Here’s your key. The room is on the 2nd floor. A: ___________ 233 UNIT 5 ®Focu/ sick sick =1) not well physically John is sick with the flu. 2) upset in the stomach We felt sick as soon as the ship began to move. When one travels, one is likely to get seasick (while travelling by sea), airsick (while travelling by air) or travelsick (in all other cases). Young children are often travelsick in a car or in a bus. I seldom fly because I usually get airsick when the plane takes off or lands. Tom says he is a good sailor and never gets seasick. Щ- fiy-- 74 Think of the best way to express it in Russian. 1. Were you seasick on the voyage? 2. Alice never travels by car, she easily gets travelsick. 3. My parents always travel by plane, they are never airsick. 4. My granny doesn’t like travelling by bus. She often gets travelsick on a bus. li Act out these situations. 1. Your train is due out in ten minutes and you are still queuing up at the booking office. Explain your situation to the people who want to buy tickets for later trains and then tell the clerk what ticket you want. 2. You are sitting in the waiting room, trying to get some sleep and your neighbour is singing. You think of possible ways of making him stop. 3. They can’t find your luggage at the left luggage office and bring bags of every possible description. Describe pieces of your luggage. 4. The clerk at the inquiry office doesn’t hear what you’re saying. You don’t understand her either. 5. The air in the compartment is stuffy. Try and persuade your fellow passengers to open the window. 6. You’ve missed the train to Irkutsk. You have to take the plane although you’ve never flown before. Describe your trip. 234 UNIT 5 i T г ( -1 Ir Answer the questions. 1. How do you prefer to travel — by air, by sea or by land — and why? 2. What are the most expensive (the cheapest) train tickets and plane tickets? 3. What facilities and conveniences can you find in a longdistance train? 4. What formalities do people go through in an airport if they go abroad? 5. What is a modern sea liner like? 6. Which things can make your journey more pleasant? 7. What can spoil the impression of your journey? 8. What was the longest journey you’ve ever made? к What was the most pleasant journey you’ve had? How can you describe it? 10. What do you think the transport of the future will be like? Make up and act out dialogues on one of these topics. a) booking a flight; b) booking a train journey; c) checking in a hdtel; d) checking out of a hotel. Ij'r Look at the map of the London Underground (Ex. 48). You’re at Edgware Road. Explain to a passenger how to get at his or her destination. Look carefully at these tickets. Say what information they give you. Make up a story centred round one of them. GU DE FRIDAY 1. S'* ^ 2? Э65100 TNEEOMURGHTOUt ' BMunr -тксдяп1»жтмв One PayThmelard***" "** qm TidraityM A FTk* mmttm STO ШиаЬ«: E4-7IX laNOUOO 4954 liTwUOO 2. 3. 235. ti»' UNIT 5_____________________________________________________ ► IQ These are some types of accommodation. Describe each of them. Speak about their advantages and disadvantages. Which would you choose? Why? a hotel, a hostel, a motel, a guesthouse, a boarding house, a camping site 81 Say when people ask for these rooms in a hotel. single rooms double rooms ■b rooms overlooking the sea (park) rooms looking out on the town (mountains) suites II Which of these conveniences do you think are most important in a hotel? Name them In the order of their importance. cold and hot running water laundry service telephone lift central heating air-conditioning refrigerator newspaper stands 11 Say which of these facilities are generally available in a big hotel and mention what they are for. swimming pool tennis court TV lounge [launch] restaurant bar garage parking space gym conference hall 84 Here are some hotel regulations. Which other hotel regulations can you think of? ^36 UNIT 5 THE SEA VIEW HOTEL Room 134 For one person Terms: Bed and Breakfast: 20 pounds Full Board: 30 pounds May we draw the attention of our guests to the following arrangements: 1 4 5 BREAKFAST LUNCH DINNER 7:30 a.m. — 9:30 a.m. 12 a.m. — 2 p.m. 7 p.m. — 8:30 p.m. Morning tea is served at a charge of 3 pounds. Rooms must be vacated by 1 p. m. on the day of departure. Otherwise the management regrets that an extra day must be charged. Laundry may be handed to the chambermaid who can give details of the charges for this service. Newspapers can be ordered at the reception desk. Guests are requested to be as quite as possible after 11 p.m. so as not to disturb other people’s rest. Any complaints should be made to Reception or direct to the Manager. The management wishes you a very pleasant stay. IS Comment on the lines. The world is a great book, of which they who never stir from home read only a page. He travels fastest who travels alone. (Proverb) 237 I UNIT 5 l/CELLANEOU/ Match the traffic signs and their descriptions. У 2. PEDESTRIANSi (push button and wait for signal opposite I WAIT P 8. a) the London Underground b) London area Train Services c) motor cycles prohibited d) no overtaking e) one way traffic f) vehicles may be parked partially on the verge of footway g) direction to services at which fuel, parking, refreshments, telephones and toilets are available h) instructions to pedestrians for crossing the road with the help of the push-button control i) light signal for pedestrians ‘Wait’ j) light signal for pedestrians ‘Walk with care’ UNDERGROUND 10. D'.- ^ii. ^38 UNIT 5 и Ш Listen to the poem (No 35) and read it. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (By Robert Frost) Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year. He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake. The only other sound’s the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep. Listen to the song (No 36) and sing it along. Pasadena^ (Karen and Alice Maywood) Come with me to Pasadena, Today at ten we will arrive. I have been in Pasadena For a great deal of my life. Refrain Come with me to Pasadena If you want to have some fun. Watch the dancing seniorinas In the heat of the sun. ' Pasadena [,paes3'di:n3] — a suburban city in southern California, located just north of Los Angeles. The city was founded in 1894, it is famous for its annual parade held on January, 1. 239 UNIT 5 When I woke up today I heard someone say, ‘Girl, it’s raining And they’re expecting snow.’ And it’s morning I knew What I had to do Take the next plane And finally go. / Refrain We are going to Greece Take a trip to Paris To escape from the Stress and strain. Saving money each day There must be a way To get out In this gather again. Refrain ^Project Work Write a paper on one of these subjects: a) Ottawa — the capital of Canada; b) Canada: nature and wildlife; c) Canadians who made history.' * Someone who makes history does something that is considered to be important in the development of the world or the society. J. ШЁМ1Т 6 Newspapers and Television; The World of Mass Media* ^REYmON l|E Listen to the recording (No 37) and answer the questions. 'f Describe the magazine(s) you know best. You can find these useful: serious/entertaining/thick/thin magazine; a national/local edition; interesting/amusing/funny materials; boring/badly-written/slow-moving stories; exciting/fascinating/witty articles; depressing/optimistic/true-to-life information. magazine writing about: sports and famous sportsmen; science and technology; music and pop-stars; medicine etc. a colourful magazine with/without photos, posters and pictures. Interview your classmates to find out how many people in your class: 1) never or seldom watch television 2) watch TV from 2 to 4 hours a day 3) watch TV more than 4 hours a day 4) watch only their favourite programmes 5) watch anything that is on * mass media ['maes 'miidja] — средства массовой информации 'Mi UNIT 6 ! b •! — 6) prefer watching: a) films b) TV games c) musical programmes d) cartoons e) documentaries f) educational programmes g) sports programmes etc. 7) like to watch TV alone 8) prefer watching TV with their family and friends 9) watch TV: a) to relax b) to have a good laugh c) to learn something new d) to while away the time e) for other reasons ■ ^ 10) think that TV is a blessing 11) think that TV is a curse 4 ^3tch the beginnings of these newspaper articles with their head* linesM 1 S S5S55S£c , 55КЯ2*? -Sj&SSbSt • ^ a headline — заголовок ^242 V ______________________________________________________ UNIT 6 Д“И’8 hardly possible to make a profit out of the high arts, just as it’s impossible to make a profit out of a hospital or a university. But one can try to insure they don’t lose money. I help the arts because they serve to make us more humane, more civilized and wealthier. I don’t like loud statements, I like doing something specific to show what one can do for others.” Q With a great number of telephone users, Russia’s leading telecom operators now face the problem of market situation. The problem is further worsened by, the fact that the potential for price reductions is very limited, and the service has become affordable to broad masses in the country. 01A collection called “White Irises” brought victory to Helena Venedic-tova of Omsk at the Russian final of the Smirnoff International Fashion Awards 2001. Now she will represent Russia at the international finals to be held in Toronto this November. “I’ll try hard to win in Toronto,” Venedictova said. Q Certainly, medical officials should take some action against even the possible outbreak of anthrax in Russia. We need additional border controls and any other strict measures that would be effective. We need to be prepared for any letters with anthrax that might come from abroad. Still, I don’t think it’s time to panic. I hope there are specialists in Russia who are ready to handle any situation that might occur here. В The second Moscow International Festival of poetry, which took place in a number of the city’s museums and art-cafe clubs lasted from October, 16 through October, 20 — and unexpectedly turned out to be, if anything, too successful. ' vocabulary of Unit 5 instead of the words in bold type. 1. When earthquake strikes, the ground shakes and moves under your feet, it must be very scary. 2. Unfortunately John sent me the wrong magazines because he mixed them up with other ones. 3. Paul walks with his head uncovered even in cold weather. 4. The whole journey was like a bad dream for the whole family. 5. We set off on a journey not knowing where we were going. 6. Some of the passengers got dizzy with upset stomachs when it stormed. 7. The meeting of our school leavers happening once every year is always a great success. 8. Lava slowly ran down the sides of the volcano. 9. What really fills me with excitement, fear and pleasure is riding a roller coaster. 10. The old woman put her arms around my neck, kissed me and welcomed me to her house. 243^ UNIT 6 6 Express the same In English. A. 1) путешествовать no суше; 2) билет <<туда и обратно»; 3) вагон-ресторан; 4) вагон для некурящих; 5) время отправления; 6) приехать на вокзал заранее; 7) зарегистрироваться (пройти регистрацию) на рейс; 8) заполнить декларацию; 9) взвесить багаж; 10) заплатить за перевес багажа; 11) багажный вагон; 12) магазин товаров, необлагаемых пошлиной; 13) попутчики; 14) «скоротать» время в пути (во время путешествия); 15) путешествовать налегке; 16) отменить поезд; 17) задержка рейса; 18) опоздать на корабль; 19) морское путешествие; 20) прямой поезд; 21) бюро находок B. 1) остановиться в отеле; 2) забронировать двухместный номер на неделю; 3) зарегистрироваться в гостинице; 4) номер на одного с ванной; 5) двуспальная кровать; 6) администратор (в гостинице); 7) предоставляемые услуги; 8) бассейн; 9) цветной телевизор; 10) расписаться в журнале; 11) выписаться из гостиницы 7 Insert the articles а or the where necessary. 1. ... Japanese have a long and interesting history. 2. Olaf is ... Finn, I don’t speak ... Finnish and can’t talk to him. 3. Ron and Anna are ... Norwegians. Have you been to ... Norway? 4. ... Greeks can be proud of their ancient culture. 5. There was ... Englishman, ... Swiss and two Turks on the ship. 6. ... Canadians mostly live in big cities. 7. My new friend is ... Spaniard. From him I’ve learned a lot about ... Spanish and their culture. 8. Hans is ... German, but he can speak ... French and ... Portuguese. 9. ... Mexican food is usually hot and spicy. 10. — Is Paul ... Welshman or ... Irishman? — Neither. He is ... Scot. a Use the right prepositions to complete the sentences. 1.1 was quite thrilled ... the idea of going to South America. 2. Why drop ... me? It’s not my fault and you know it. 3. The children gave a groan ... disappointment when their team lost the game. 4. The poor dog was trembling ... cold outside the house, naturally, I let it in and gave it some food. 5. She cried again, but this time they were tears ... joy. 6. When we arrived ... our destination the sun had gone in and a cold wind was blowing. 7. Every time we mention the broken toy the little girl bursts ... tears. 8. The battleship sank ... the bottom of the sea and stayed there for many years. 9. The Angara flows ... of Lake Baikal. 10. The heavy drops of rain began clattering ... the roof of our cottage. ^44 UNIT 6 9 Answer these questions using would rather. 1. Where are you now? Where would you rather be? 2. What are you doing right now? What would you rather be doing? 3. What would you rather do than help about the house? 4. What would you rather do than study biology? 5. Where would you rather go than visit a museum? 6. What game would you rather play this afternoon? 7. Where would you rather eat — at the cafeteria or at the school canteen? 8. Where would you rather live — in town or in the country? 9. How would you rather spend this evening — go to the cinema or to a concert? 10. What method of travelling would you rather choose — travelling by car or by boat? 10 Choose had better or would rather to complete the sentences. 1. There is no milk and bread left. You ... go shopping. 2. He needs to improve his English. He ... read more in the original. 3. I ... buy a fur coat. It will be winter soon. 4. My roommate snores. I think she ... consult the doctor. 5. Roy, your room is in a mess, and Granny is coming to visit tomorrow. You ... do it as soon as possible. 6. I ... take this tote bag with me. It is much lighter than the rest and I like it. 7. — How much do you weigh? — I ... not tell you. 8. John says he ... be lying on a beach than sitting in the stuffy reading hall looking through the article. Complete these sentences in two ways: a) the situation can be changed or improved; b) the situation can’t be changed or improved. #eXample Your shirt is wrinkled again {to iron it) a) Here’s an iron. You should iron it. b) You should have ironed it. Why didn’t you do it yesterday evening? 1. Ann is lost, (to give directions) 2. Your tooth is aching, {to consult a dentist) 3. We’ve run out of vegetables, {to buy some tomatoes, carrots and cucumbers) 4. Old Miss Johnson has written a letter, {to post it) 5. You’re late again, {to get up earlier) 6. Polly’s trousers are dirty, {to wash them) 245, ’■i-. UNIT 6 ^Reading for Country/tudie/ |tr A. Listen to the text “The Press in Britain and Elsewhere” (No 38) and say which of the two is right. 1. People buy newspapers ... . a) for various reasons b) because they are light and it is easy to read them 2. ... are called “the press”. a) Printed forms of the media b) Newspapers, magazines and television 3. ... newspapers tend to be either serious or popular. a) Everywhere in the world b) In the United Kingdom 4. Depending on the area over which newspapers are sold they can be further divided into ... . a) daily or weekly b) local, national and international 5. A symbol of the British Press is ... . a) Fleet Street b) Oxford Street 6. Popular papers are also called ... . a) quality papers b) tabloids B. Read the text “The Press in Britain and Elsewhere” and say what is missing in these pairs. 1) Mass Media: — the press _________________________? 2) Newspapers: 3) Newspapers: — weekly — morning 4) Newspapers: — local 5) Newspapers: — Sunday 6) Newspapers: — quality (serious) ________________________? 7) Newspapers: — general interest _________________________? ^46 UNIT 6 The Press in Britain and Elsewhere It’s common knowledge that newspapers report the news. Published on a regular basis, usually daily or weekly, they also interpret events behind the news. In addition, newspapers give useful information, such as stock market prices, weather reports and television programmes. They are also a popular source of reading for entertainment. People often buy newspapers for their feature articles on subjects of wide interest, such as travel and fashion, for their comics and crosswords, and for their regular columns on topics, such as gardening, eating out, show business, gossip and astrology. Together with other means of communication, such as radio, television, and magazines, newspapers form the media. Printed forms of the media, including newspapers and magazines are also called “the press”. Newspapers treat the news in two different ways. They can take a serious line, reporting and explaining the news with the aim of informing the readers as fully as possible. Alternatively they may take a more popular approach which requires more entertainment in the choice and presentation of stories, photographs and larger eye-catching headlines. Many newspapers combine the serious and the popular approach, but tc FINANCIAL TIMES Evening News The Guardian un THE INDEPENDEIW THE TIMES Wkt firiqitli 247^ UNIT 6 _____________________________________________________ in the United Kingdom newspapers tend to be either one thing or the other. Both serious and popular newspapers can be further divided into daily or weekly (depending on how often they are published), morning or evening (depending on when they are published) and local, national, or, in a very few cases, international (depending on the area over which they are sold). Newspapers of general interest are supplemented by specialist newspapers, which publish news and stories for people with particular interests. Religious, financial, and sporting newspapers are examples. The British are believed to be the greatest newspaper readers in the world. They read newspapers at breakfast, on the bus or on the train when they go to work and on the way back home. A symbol of the British Press is Fleet Street — a street in London that used to be home of most British national newspapers. Fleet Street is conveniently situated on the north bank of the River Thames close to a number of large railway stations, which makes it easy to deliver the papers to the trains taking them round the country. Fleet Street is also not far from such important British institutions as the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, the Houses of Parliament and the Law Courts, which allows the Fleet Street journalists to keep an eye on things. British daily papers are published from Monday to Saturday. The serious or quality papers such as The Times^ The Guardian^ The Financial Times, The Independent and The Daily Telegraph are for those who want to know about important happenings everywhere, both domestic news and foreign news. Compared with Russian papers, British quality papers are very thick. They usually consist of separate sections such as Politics, Finances, Business, etc. It’s not uncommon for a newspaper reader to use only one or two sections and throw the others away. Popular papers or tabloids, such as The Daily Mail, The Sun or The Daily Express make a much easier reading and have a more general readership. Many popular papers run strip cartoons and humorous drawings, a lot of them have a woman’s page, and readers’ letters. Nearly all papers pay special attention to sports news. The evening papers, such as The Evening News are often bought because people want to know the winner of a race or the result of football pools. The Sunday papers are not Sunday editions of the daily papers but separate weekly editions coming out on Sundays. In addition to the news they usually provide interesting articles on arts, newly-published books, and gardening. Some of them, such as The Sunday Times have a very high reputation and the best critics and journalists write for them. ^48 1 UNIT 6 Decide what these words and word combinations from the text mean and choose the right item. 1) common knowledge 2) feature article 3) comics 4) headline 5) stock exchange 6) law court 7) readership 8) football pool a) everyone knows it b) some people know it a) an especially long article in a newspaper or in a magazine b) an article about a feature film a) people who are funny b) set of drawings telling a short story a) a name of a story in a newspaper printed in large letters b) the first line in a newspaper story a) a place where money is exchanged b) a place where stocks, bonds and shares^ are bought and sold a) a place where people come to hear a law case b) home of a king or a queen a) newspapers and magazines read by the public b) people who read a newspaper or a magazine a) a game of football played by local teams b) a kind of game in which people try to guess the results of football matches, risking small sums of money and getting much bigger sums if they guess correctly 'lib r Answer the questions on the press. l.What else do newspapers do besides reporting the news and interpreting it? 2. What kind of information can one find in a paper? 3. In what two different ways do papers treat information? 4. What do British papers tend not to do compared with other newspapers? 5. How can you tell a popular paper from a serious one by looking at it? 6. What categories of newspapers can you name? How do you categorize them? 7. What’s the symbol of the British Press and why? 8. Names of what British quality papers and tabloids can you remember? 9. What are Sunday papers? 10. In what way do British quality papers differ from most of Russian papers? r-:.. ‘II Speak about: a) newspapers generally; b) British newspapers. ‘ stocks, bonds and shares — разные виды ценных бумаг fi V’l 24^ .I t I ьЛ-.-- \u. UNIT 6 ^Reading for I nformation ^ Read the interview with Prince Wiiiiam from “Heiio! Magazine", October 2001 once and name some of the things that he iikes and disiikes. Interview with Prince William As he starts university Prince William gives his most revealing interview. I Nineteen-year-old Prince William started | at St Andrews in Scotland last week. William says he wants to be “an ordinary student" and hopes that the media won’t invade his privacy. Here is part of his interview with Sam Greenhill. | Did you enjoy your year out before university? I “I loved my gap year. I wish I could have another one.” j__ What was the highiight of that year? • “I loved working on a farm in England. It was the best part of my year. I enjoyed the fact I was put in as a hand and was paid and was just another guy on the farm. I got my hands dirty, did all the chores and had to get up at 4 am. I got to see a completely different lifestyle.” What did you think of your three months in Africa? “I loved Africa and learned a lot from it. I met some really decent people.” Why did you choose St Andrews? “I didn’t want to go to an English university because I’ve lived there and wanted to get away to try something else. And I do love Scotland. There’s plenty of space, I love the hills and mountains and I thought St Andrews had a real community feel to it.” is history of art something you want to pursue after degree? “I’m much more interested in doing something with the environment I’m not sure what yet.” St Andrews is very different from Eton. How easy wiii it be to make friends? “I do not choose my friends on the basis of where they are from or what they are. It’s about their character and who they are and whether we get on. I just hope I can meet people I get on with. I don’t care about their backgrounds.” :250 ____________________________________________________ UNIT 6 Are you excited about moving away from home and being able to take more control of your life? “Having more independence is quite a big thing, although I’ve always got policemen around so I’m never completely independent. However, I’m looking forward to being able to manage my own time in a relaxed atmosphere.” Will you return home often? “No. Although I will miss it, it’s going to be difficult to get back home. Even if I had the time — and I probably won’t — it’s seven-and-a-half hours by car and three-and-a-half by plane. I’ll be a long way from friends at home. I know a couple of guys at St Andrews who are older and a couple in my year, but most of my friends are at the other universities. So I would like to spend weekends with my new friends. Weekends at St Andrews I’ve been told are rather quiet. I’m not a party animal, despite what people might think, but I like to go out sometimes like anyone else.” As a football fan, will you begin supporting one of the Scottish teams, Dundee or Dundee United? “I will support a team after a while but for the time being I’m just concentrating on Aston Villa.” Why have you decided not to join any of the clubs at St Andrews? “I’m going to take my time until I’m settled.” Are you worried about media intrusion into your student life? “The way the media treated me in my gap year was great and if that could continue everyone would be happy, especially me. If it does get too curious and intrusive, I will feel really uncomfortable.” 17 Read the interview with Prince William again and say which of the following topics he didn’t mention in it. 1) football 2) his family 3) his gap year 4) his plans for the future career 5) his hobbies 6) his friends 7) mass media 8) how he is going to spend his free time at university 9) what kind of people he dislikes 10) his choice of university 251 18 UNIT 6__________________________________________ Find in the text English equivalents for the following: 1) средства массовой информации не будут вторгаться в его личную жизнь, 2) год, который студенты университетов проводят вне его стен, путешествуя, знакомясь с будущей профессией, расширяя свой кругозор, 3) самое значительное, что произошло в течение года, 4) выполняя все поручения, 5) чувство товарищества, общности, 6) после получения диплома, 7) мне безразличны их происхождение и то, чем они занимались прежде, 8) я с нетерпением жду, когда я смогу сам планировать свое время в более спокойной обстановке, 9) я не большой любитель вечеринок, 10) вмешательство средств массовой информации в студенческую жизнь, 11) то, как средства массовой информации обращались со мной, 12) слишком любопытные и навязчивые 19 Say what kind of person Prince William is like and how his interview impressed you. ‘New Language I. Ing-forms in English ^Grammar /ection V + -ing go -b -ing start playing go boating begin writing go camping 1 finish reading go dancing stop smoking go fishing i keep coming go shopping etc. 1 enjoy dancing i mind opening etc. have + N Ving have fun playing have difficulty reading have trouble finding have a good (hard) time working etc. 1 Prepositional combinations + about/of for from in of to complain dream talk think apologize blame forgive thank keep smb prevent smb stop smb believe be interested participate succeed be capable be guilty be tired take care look forward object be used ^52 _________ __________________ „ UNIT 6 IQ A. Give Russian equivalents for these and make up sentences with some of them. 1) complain of (жаловаться на): 2) dream of/about (мечтать): 3) blame someone for (винить, упрекать в): 4) keep/prevent someone from (удержать от): 5) succeed in (преуспеть, удаваться): 6) be capable of (быть способным): 7) look forward to (c нетерпением ждать): 8) object to (возражать): 9) be used to (привыкнуть/иметь привычку): the music playing so loudly the flight being delayed the money not being paid on time going away on a holiday taking a day off finding a good job coming too late missing the train writing a test badly telling the truth getting into trouble quarrelling putting on the play writing a good story repairing the bike working hard making the right choice talking to people politely going back home visiting the British Museum giving the party spending the money moving to another city watching TV so late at night getting up early reading in English eating Chinese food B. Express the same in English using these word combinations. 1. Я возражаю против того, чтобы переезжать в другой город. 2. Мечтаю о том, чтобы выучить несколько языков. 3. Я жалуюсь на то, что рейс задерживается. 4. Я не виню его за испорченную вечеринку. 5. Мне удалось написать неплохой рассказ. 6. Удалось ли вам удержать их от ссоры? 7. Уважаю людей, которые способны говорить правду. 8. Я привык читать английские книги в оригинале. 9. Я с нетерпением жду, когда мы увидим новый фильм. 10. Кого вы вините за опоздание на поезд? 11. В этом ресторане никто не жалуется на плохую кухню (на плохое приготовление еды). 12. Я никак не дождусь, когда получу от него письмо. 13. Никто не смог удержать его от совершения этой ужасной ошибки. 14. Вам удалось организовать потрясающий вечер. 253 I II ii. UNIT 6 |Й’ Insert the right prepositions. 1. I’m more interested ... sport than ... arts, but my best friend is very devoted to music. 2. Please don’t blame Sam ... what’s happened: he couldn’t stop the child ... going out and losing his way. 3. Do you object ... my staying here a little longer? 4. Many customers complained ... getting bad services in the Star Hotel. 5. Who could predict that Mike would be capable ... acting on the stage? 6.1 really look forward ... going away for my summer holidays: I’m a little tired ... studying. 7. Did they succeed ... finding a nice present for Irene? 8. Take care ... the pennies, and the pounds will take care ... themselves {proverb). 9. Show me someone who believes ... meeting witches and wizardsi 10. Let’s not talk ... failing the exam: we need to be positive about it. 11. Who can keep you ... making a mistake? Only very good friends. Choose the item that is true about you or give your own version. 1. I can have real fun ... . a) reading a thick novel b) gardening c) partying with my friends d) playing computer games 2. I usually have trouble ... . a) doing homework in English b) understanding English texts c) coping with English grammar d) memorizing English words 3. Every summer I look forward to a) going away on holiday b) going back to school c) gathering the harvest in our garden d) autumn coming soon 4. I’ll never give up ... . a) playing football b) learning languages c) acting d) studying sciences 5. My favourite pastime is to go a) fishing b) (figure) skating c) dancing d) shopping 6. I never mind ... . a) having a good strong cup of tea b) having a drink of coke c) drinking coffee in the morning < d) drinking a glass of milk in the evening ^54 UNIT 6 7. There’s nothing I enjoy more than a) dancing at a disco b) playing a game of chess 8. I get easily bored when I keep a) working about the house b) shopping c) watching a good comedy on the video d) spending a day in the open air with my friends .. for some time. c) listening to music I don’t like d) walking about museums «F оси/ Do you mind opening the window? Do you mind my/me opening the window? Do you mind his/him opening the window? Do you mind her opening the window? Do you mind our/us opening the window? Do you mind their/them opening the window? Do you mind John’s/John opening the window? t3 same in a different way. ШеХаМР1Е: Polly and Alice are late. They blame Patrick for this. Polly and Alice blame Patrick for their/them being late. l.Jane came to the party too early. She blames Simon for this. 2. We bought a faulty bike. We blame the shop assistant for this. 3. Robert sent the telegram to the wrong address. He blames his granny for this. 4. Dan had to mend his trainers. He blames Colin for this. 5. Boris mixed up the words “principle” and “principal”. He blames us for this. 6.1 lost the keys. I blame my younger sister for this. 7. Alice got a bad mark for the dictation. She blames her teacher for this. 14 Express the same in English. 1. Я c нетерпением жду новой встречи с вами. 2. Ты не возражаешь, чтобы я выключил телевизор? Пора ложиться спать. 3. Ты хорошо провел время, танцуя на дискотеке? 4. Никогда не жалуйся, что у тебя мало времени. Если захочешь, время всегда можно найти. 5. Попытайся не допустить, чтобы Макс пошел в поход, он нездоров. 6. Спасибо, что вы пришли. 7. Думаю, что тебе стоит извиниться за грубость. 8. Она всегда интересовалась изучением языков. 9. Кто-нибудь будет возражать, если я приду немного позже? 10. Полиция не позволила вору забраться в дом через окно (остановила его). 11. Он не привык мыть посуду после еды. 12. Я виноват во многом, но не виноват во лжи. 255^ м UNIT 6 II. The Infinitive V-l-Vto N-l-Vto - Adj -1- Vto It’s beginning to I told her about my His accent is not rain. decision to leave. easy to understand. I expect to be free Have you got a key She is very nice to r at 5. to open the door? talk to. Can we afford to I need some more I am glad to see buy it? sugar to buy. you. Never forget to an- We have no wish to Their words are swer letters you re- change. difficult to inter- ceive. pret. V + wh + Vto I wonder who to invite. Show me what to do. Tell me where to go. He doesn’t know what to answer. Why go there so late? Why pay more at other shops? Why not ask Susan to help you? Why not explain it in plain English? J IS Complete these sentences with suitable verbs. 1. We can’t afford ... this expensive car, we have no money. 2. He promised ... on time for this occasion. 3. Bob managed ... the heavy box into the house by himself. 4. We offered the old man ... the flowers in the garden. It hadn’t rained for several days. 5. John decided not ... a taxi, but go to the airport by bus. 6. My elder sister wants ... to drive a car. 7. Alice refused ... the rule to John again. She said she had already done it twice. 8. In the middle of the winter Mr James happened ... in Australia. 9.1 was walking straight in his direction but he pretended not ... me. 10. Stephen made a pause and then unexpectedly started ... Italian. ^56 UNIT б t6 Report what someone said by using one of the verbs in the box to introduce an infinitive phrase. ^eXaMPLE: The teacher said to Henry, “You may come later.” The teacher allowed Henry to come later. M/l advise expect encourage wdrn order ask force remind require tell 1. Fred said to me, “Would you please close the door?” 2. Justin said to his younger sister, “Don’t forget to take your books back to the library.” 3. Paul said to Bob, “You should take French lessons. You are so good at languages.” 4. We were playing war and Max who pretended to be a general said to us, “Surround the enemy.” 5. Little Lizzy didn’t want to go to the dentist, but her mother said to her, “You must go, Lizzy. You have a bad tooth.” 6. The head teacher said to me, “Come to the meeting earlier.” 7. The law says, “Every driver must have a valid driver’s licence.” 8. Pauline’s friend said to her, “Don’t forget to translate the article.” 9. Mrs Fowels said to her children, “Don’t play with matchesi” 10. The experienced teacher said to her younger colleague, “Explain the things the pupils don’t understand again, but try to do it differently.” 17 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets Vto/Ving. •w 1. I have no idea what {do) after classes? SOtfL 2. Ken wrote to me he was looking forward to (see) us at Christmas. 3. Don’t forget (do) your homework tonight. (O dO 4. Did you have a good time (play) table tennis? 5. Charles says he promises (give) up (smoke). C ^ 6. I have always tried (be) a good sister. rok- 7. While travelling why not (drive) by car? cij'f/iE 8. Hellol Did you have any difficulty (find) us? ^ nd nO 9. How many times a week do you have (go) (shop)l -h/*Q-{> 10. I’m finishing (read) the article. 11. Cheer up and keep (smile). 5/h f (/л^ 9 Английский язык. 8 кл. UNIT б li Focu/','- ' to offer/to suggest 1. to offer sth (objects or activities) 1. to suggest sth (ideas or plans) = представить на рассмотрение He offered me a cup of coffee. They offered their help. We were offered interesting books to read. They suggested a trip to Pskov. They suggested a game of chess. Bob suggested the idea of visiting the National Gallery. 2. to offer to do sth {предложить сделать что-то, m. e. сделать это самому, предложить свои услуги или помощь) Ving 2. to suggest ^ should do sth {предложить кому-то что-то сделать и, возможно, принять участие в этой деятельности) Mike offered to take care of my garden while I was away. Linda offered to make a chocolate cake. I offered to open the door for the guests as all the rest were busy in the kitchen. Mike suggested our going to the cinema. Mike suggested visiting a museum. I suggest that you should join our group for English classes. Dan suggested that we should meet more often. 2^ Say which of the two verbs offer or suggest you would use if you want to describe these situations. 1. Ты предлагаешь друзьям пойти в кино. 2. Ты предлагаешь приятелю билет в театр. 3. Тебе предложили лететь к морю самолетом. 4. Тебе предложили покататься на лыжах. 5. Тебе предлагают стакан сока. 6. Ты предлагаешь сходить в магазин за хлебом (в магазин пойдешь ты сам). 7. Ты предлагаешь сходить в магазин и выбрать подарок однокласснику (в магазин вы пойдете все вместе). 8. Ты предлагаешь самостоятельно накрыть на стол. 9. Ты предлагаешь, чтобы семья пообедала в саду, потому что в доме жарко. 10. Ты предложил приятелю свою помощь. 11. Ты предложил отцу свой велосипед, чтобы тот съездил на рыбалку. 12. Тебе предложили осмотреть достопримечательности города. ^58 UNH б 19 Complete the sentences with offer or suggest. 1. Someone ... going to the cinema and we all liked the idea. 2. Sally lost her purse and I ... her some money to get home. 3. I’ve often ... people my help in solving their problems. 4. May I ... you some tea and biscuits while you’re waiting? 5. Mum ... that we all should go to the park after dinner. 6. He ... that we should have lunch at the hotel. 7. We ... to help clean the house. 8. Mary ... reading poetry aloud. 9. As Jane was ill, Jill ... to go shopping and do the flat. 10. My uncle ... that I should get a job in a bank. Focuj I offer to read poetry to the children. (Я предлагаю свои услуги.) I suggest reading poetry to the children. (Я предлагаю, чтобы кто-то это сделал.) I suggest her reading poetry to the children. (Я предлагаю, чтобы она это сделала.) I suggest David’s/David reading poetry to the children. (Я предлагаю, чтобы Дэвид это сделал.) 30 Express the same in English. 1. Мама предлагает сходить в театр. 2. Мама предлагает, чтобы мы сходили в театр. 3. Я предлагаю завтра купить билеты на этот спектакль (это сделаю я сама). 4. В конце интервью мне предложили работу. 5. Сэлли предложила нам сходить поплавать. 6. Дэн предложил другой план. 7. Вилли предложил сделать это именно так. (а) Вилли сам будет это делать, (б) Вилли выдвинул идею (но не свои услуги). 8. Полли предложила госпоже Стэйн 20 долларов за картину. 9. Он даже не предложил мне чашки чая. 10. Я предлагаю, чтобы мы остановились и выпили по чашечке кофе. Focuj used to do sth = to be/get used to doing sth = to have a habit, to be in the did it in the past habit of doing sth 1. When I was young I used to l.I’m not used to eating spicy believe in Santa Claus. food. 2. When we were at the seaside 2. When did you get used to we used to spend a lot of time on the beach. swimming in cold water? 3. Some time ago I used to play 3. When we lived abroad we got tennis, but now I’m a bit old for this game. used to staying in hotels. 259^ UNIT 6______________________________________________ 31 Complete these sentences. A. 1. When my grandparents were young people they used to 2. In prehistoric times people used to ... . 3. In the 18th century they used to ... . 4. Before airplanes were invented people used to ... . 5. When there were no telephones people used to ... . B. 1. When I was two or three years old I got used to ... . 2. Later, when I was five, I was already used to ... . 3. When I went to school I quickly got used to ... . 4. A couple of years ago I still wasn’t used to ... . 5. And now I think I am used to ... . H Express the same in English. 1. Простите, я не привык разговаривать с незнакомцами. 2. Он привык читать серьезные книги, когда был еще ребенком. 3. В молодости он, бывало, ездил на велосипеде на работу и ему это очень нравилось. 4. Когда-то мы ходили по субботам в кафе и ели вкусные пирожные. 5. Когда-то я не любил летать самолетом. 6. Боюсь, я не привык к морским путешествиям. 7. В Индии мы привыкли ездить на слонах. 8. Хорошо приобрести привычку смотреть фильмы на английском языке. III. Verbs That Can Be Followed by Vto and Ving Forms Some verbs can be followed both by Vto and Ving forms with a difference of meaning. 4------------------------------------------------------- Focu/ remember/forget Ving Vto We remember (or forget) doing We remember (or forget) to do things in the past — things we things which we have to do. did. I still remember visiting the Did you remember to buy my Tower of London though it was medicine? years ago. We’ll never forget meeting the You mustn’t forget to go and Queen. meet Bryan at the station to- morrow. 260 ss ________________________________________UNIT 6 Choose the right form of the verb to complete the sentences. l.I remember {watching/to watch) the first man landing on the Moon. 2. Remember {telephoning/to telephone) me tonight. 3. Remember {switch-ing/to switch) off the television when you leave. 4. Do you remember {travelling/to travel) in Europe last year? 5. She had forgotten {ringing/ to ring) him up. So he rang her up the next day. 6.1 will never forget {dancing/to dance) at my first ball. 7. Did you remember {posting/to post) the letter? 8. She says she will always remember {meeting/to meet) Peter. 9. Don’t forget {locking/to lock) the door. 10. My great-grandfather can remember {seeing/to see) the first planes flying. l^pocu/',^ . / stop Ving Vto If you stop doing something, you don’t do it any more {перестать делать что-то). If you stop to do something, you pause (in the middle of something else) in order to do it {остановиться, чтобы сделать что-то). I really must stop smoking. 1 stopped to have a chat with Sally. Can’t you stop making that awful noise? The old man stopped to have a little rest. It has stopped raining. Can you stop at the butcher shop to buy some meat for dinner? n Choose the right form of the verb to complete the sentences. l.Stop {eating/to eat), you’ve had enough. 2. Our friend stopped {saying/ to say) hi. 3. The train stopped at the station {taking/to take) in the passengers. 4. Can you, please, stop {talking/to talk)? 5. The members of the expedition stopped at the lake {looking/to look) at the map. 6. The little girl can’t stop {crying/to cry). 7. He stopped the car {getting/to get) out. 8. Bob stopped {picking up/to pick up) the keys. 261 UNIT 6 Focu/'/-. / regret Ving Vto You regret doing something in the past, you are sorry that you did it. You regret to say something, you are sorry you have to say it. 1. I regret missing the film. Everybody says it’s worth seeing. 2. We regretted telling the kids a lie. 3. Do they regret not saying goodbye to Sam when he was leaving? 1. We regret to say that our team has lost this important game. 2. I regret to tell you that you didn’t pass the exam. 3. We regret to announce that our supermarket is closing down. » Choose the right form of the verb to complete the sentences. 1. We regretted {telling/to tell) Mary that we didn’t want her to go with us. It made her very unhappy. 2.1 regret {telling/to tell) you that we’re closing earlier today. Please leave the shop. 3. The teacher regretted {informing/to inform) us that our school trip would be cancelled. 4. Do you regret {being/to be) rude to me? 5. Do you regret {taking/to take) a course of Japanese? 6.1 regret {asking/to ask) you to leave now: I’ve had a bad day and am very tired. 7.1 regret {staying/to ^tay) out late yesterday: Mum was very worried. 8. He regretted {asking to ask) us to stop the music. He said he had a headache. Focu/ allow Ving to allow doing something Vto to allow somebody to do something 1. Sorry, we don’t allow walking 1. Will you allow me to use your on the grass. telephone? 2. Is skiing allowed here? 2. We don’t allow our children to watch TV at night. 3. They allow using library com- 3. Please allow us to join you for puters from 9 am to 8 pm. the game. 262 и —______________________________________UNIT 6 Choose the right form of the verb to complete the sentences. l.They do not allow pupils (visiting/to visit) nightclubs. 2. Sorry, we do not allow {bringing/to bring) dogs to the stadium. 3. Do they allow (taking/to take) pictures in the museum? 4. Will you allow us {going/to go) to the cinema tonight? 5. Who allowed the kids {watching/to watch) such a shocking film? 6. Did you allow Sarah {using/to use) your skates or did she take them without asking? 7. They do not allow {removing/to remove) things in the supermarkets. 8. Would you allow {smoking/to smoke) in the bedroom? — I wouldn’t. ^VOCABUIARY /eCTION Ш/OCIAL EnGLI/H Giving д Call Receiving a Call J] Using the telephone has become part of our daily routine. Learn to do it correctly (No 39). A. Givinff a call B. Receivintf a call Hello. Hello? Mary here. Who’s that speaking? Mary speaking. Who’s calling, please? My name is Mary. Is that Mary? May I have a word with Linda? I’ll just see if she’s in. Is Linda there, please? Linda is not here. Would you tell her I rang? Linda is out at the moment. May I leave a message? Linda’11 be available after lunch. Could you take a message? Linda can’t take the phone now. I’ll call (ring) back. Linda, that’s for you. Would you ask her (Linda) to call Linda, you’re wanted on the back? phone. Sorry, I have the wrong number. Hold the line, please. Sorry, wrong number. Hold on, please. It’s a bad line. I’ll hang up and Hang on a moment. phone again. Can I take the message? It’s a crossed line. I’ll ring again. Would you like to leave a message? I called earlier but the line was Hi, Mary, it’s me, Linda. engaged (busy). Linda here. J 263 UNIT 6_____________________________________________________ Combine phrases from section A with phrases from section В (Ex. 37) to make microdiaiogues of 2-4 replies. WeXaMPLE: A: Hello? B: Hello. May I have a word with Jane? A: Hold on. I’ll just see if she is in. Complete these talks with suitable phrases from Ex. 37. 1. Alice: Hello? Dan: ... Alice: 0\iy hi, Dan. How are you? Dan: ... A/ice; Sally is out at the moment. Can you call back after five? Dan: Sorry, ... Alice: Would you like me to take a message? Dan: Yes, please. ... Alice: OKt Г11 ask Sally to call you. Dan: ... Alice: Goodbye. 2. Alice:... Pauline: Pauline here. Is Robin there, please? Alice:... Robin: Hello, ... Pauline: is that you, Robin? I didn’t recognize you. It’s a very bad line, Г11 phone again. {Robin hangs up.) The telephone rings again. Robin: Hello. ... Pauline: YeSy I can hear you much better now. I’m calling to tell you that the first class tomorrow has been cancelled. We’re beginning at 9:15. Robin:... Pauline: You’re welcome. See you tomorrow. Robin:... 4Q Make up a telephone talk and act it out with a partner (with your backs to each other). ^64 . is^l - 1? i, ~ 'it/, _____________________________________ UNIT 6 Match the pictures with the captions and say what these objects and their functions are: phone box telephone directory (phone book) answering machine fax machine mobile phone (cellphone) telephone phone card .4!' cm Say in what order you do these actions when using a pay phone: a) dial the number b) listen for the dial tone c) hang up d) pick up the receiver e) deposit coins or insert the phone card f) leave a message g) have money ready ^Phra/al Verb to hold to hold (oneself) in — сдерживать(ся) Jim was angry but held himself in. Jim managed to hold in his feelings. 265 UNIT б to hold off — a) оставаться, находиться на расстоянии The ship will hold off from the shore. b) придерживать, задерживать, сдерживать They managed to hold off Napoleon’s army. Hold off your dog, please. ^ to hold on — a) прикреплять(ся) The handle was held on with glue. b) держаться за что-то She held on the rope. c) держаться, продолжать делать что-то (часто несмотря на сложности) The ship held on in the stormy ocean. 6) ждать (особенно при разговоре по телефону) Hold on, ГП call her. ^ to hold out — протянуть, выставить Hold out your hand to greet the uncle. The robber held out a gun and everybody raised their hands. 4} Express the same in Russian. I. Hold on a minute till I’m ready. 2. The fortress held on for six weeks. 3. Hold on down the road until you come to the railway station. 4. John held his dog off. 5. Hold on! {on the telephone) 6. Rain held on steadily all afternoon. 7. He greeted me and held out his hand. 8. Alec was able to hold in his anger and avoid a fight. 9. We must hold off the enemy’s attack until after dark. 10. The little girl held on to her mother’s hand. II. You go ahead! I’ll hold on here till the others come. 44 Insert the right words where necessary: on, out, off, in. 1. I’m afraid the line is busy, would you like to hold ... ? 2. The town was surrounded, but the citizens held ... until help came at last. 3. It was impossible for the children to hold ... their laughter any longer. 4. If there is a branch near you, hold ... to it until we can get the rope. 5. The car door was held ... with string! 6. We could hardly hold ourselves ... . 7. We somehow managed to hold ... the enemy’s attack. 8. We are only asking you to hold ... a little longer. 9. Did the rain hold ... steadily all day long? 10. Mary tends to hold ... from people who try to be friendly too suddenly. ^66 UNIT 6 Wew Word/ to Learn 45 A. Look at the pairs of words. In each pair there is a word you know. Try and guess what the other word in the pair means. limit — limited head — to head (for) injured — injuries capable — incapable distance — distant vacant — vacancy compliment — uncomplimentary Q^\ B. Look the words up to make sure you have guessed right. C. Read the sentences beiow. Translate them into Russian. The choice was very limited: we could go either to Oxford or to Cambridge. The boys headed for home. Bob fell off the ladder and had serious injuries. Max can’t concentrate on what he is doing. He is incapable of learning anything. She is studying the distant stars. We have a vacancy for a typist but no vacancies for secretaries. My teacher was rather uncomplimentary about my test though he didn’t criticize it severely. 46 C® Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. fierce [fios] (adj): a fierce dog, a fierce wind, a fierce storm, fierce heat. After a fierce battle the enemy was forced back, memory (memories) (n): happy memories, sad memories. My memories of a London childhood are happy ones. Now I have happy memories of that holiday. ability (n): the ability to work (to run, to sit), computer’s abilities, children of different abilities, the acting (drawing) abilities of a person. I have great respect for his ability as a journalist. Small babies don’t have the ability to walk. Jane’s drawing ability will be useful on this project. to do something to the best of one’s ability(ies). You are just there to do your job to the best of your abilities, idle ["aidl] (adj): idle people, an idle life, idle talk, idle hopes, idle dreams. If you are idle, you are not doing anything, especially when you could be doing something. A healthy child cannot be idle, he has to be doing something all day long. 267^ UNIT 6 illiterate {adj): an illiterate person, computer illiterate. The word “illiterate” generally describes someone who can’t read or write or is badly educated. An illiterate note is a note which is badly written, point (n): 1 the point of a pin (needle), a sword point. Betty stuck the point of the needle through the cloth. 2 In punctuation, a point is another name for a full stop. 3 at this point, at that point. At that point their teacher entered the classroom. 4 What is the point of this meeting? Do you see my point? I don’t see any point in it. to point (u): to point to a high tower, to point to the poster, to point out mistakes in sb’s report. Jemma pointed out that Robert was wrong, to waste (u): to waste money, to waste time, to waste one’s life, to waste one’s chances. There was no need to waste any energy thinking about it. Your jokes are wasted on him. Fine clothes are wasted on her — she is a tomboy.* You need only one piece of paper — don’t waste any more, wasteful {adj): a wasteful woman, wasteful habits. It’s wasteful to throw these things away, we might be able to use them one day. passionate (adj): passionate words, a passionate speech, a passionate nature. Angela burst into passionate sobbing. James’ passionate speech made a great impression on the audience, marvellous/marvelous (AmE) (adj): a marvellous view, marvellous weather, a marvellous idea. I think Miss Birdbrain is a marvellous name for her. obvious {adj): an obvious reason, obvious lies, an obvious answer. For obvious reasons, I preferred my house to his. obviously (adv): She was obviously thirsty and she drank a lot of water, glorious {adj): a glorious history, a glorious holiday, the most glorious flowers ever seen. Something that is glorious is very beautiful and impressive. What a glorious colourl flame (n): The flames from the fireplace give off a pleasant warmth. A small flame burned in the lamp. The dry sticks burst into flames. The whole city was in flames. to absorb (u): to absorb the rain, to absorb water. The towel absorbed water from the sink. The walls of the house absorb heat during the day. to be absorbed in sth. I was absorbed in a book and didn’t hear your call, to float (u): to float on water, to float in the sky. Empty things float. Something that floats lies on or just below the surface of the liquid, to enclose (u): 1 to enclose with a fence. A high wall encloses the prison. The fence that enclosed the house was painted white. 2 to enclose sth with a letter, to enclose a cheque, to enclose a photo. Write to them enclosing a stamped addressed envelope. a tomboy — сорванец ^68 UNIT 6 gift (л): 1 Christmas gifts, an unexpected gift. My grandmother made me a gift of her silver chain. 2 Jane has a gift for music. Betty has a gift for learning languages. Nora has a gift for singing. gifted {adj): a very gifted musician. Jane was a gifted actress. Roy is very gifted at French. 47 Match the words with their definitions. Nouns 1. memories a) something given freely to another, a present 2. ability b) a job or place that has not been filled 3. flame c) the skill and the power to do something 4. gift d) a hot bright light produced by burning 5. injury e) harm or damage, a wound 6. vacancy f) past events that you remember 1. to point a) to aim in a particular direction 2. to waste b) to put something inside a letter or its 3. to depend envelope c) to go to a place 4. to enclose d) to use more than is necessary 5. to head e) to rely on something or somebody 6. to absorb f) to take in (often water) Adjectives 1. idle a) talented 2. illiterate b) expressing criticism 3. limited c) not working 4. incapable d) not very great in amount 5. gifted e) far-away 6. uncomplimentary f) not able 7. distant g) unable to read or write Adverbs. 1. fiercely a) very emotionally 2. passionately b) in a wonderful or pleasant way 3. obviously c) angrily, violently 4. marvellously d) evidently 269. 4t UNIT 6________________________________________ Complete the sentences. Use your new vocabulary. 1. “I’ll make your tea,” she said h...ing for the kitchen. 2. He is one of those people who always do their work to the best of their a... . 3. James kept silent and it became o... that he didn’t know the answer. 4. Mary spoke so p... that tears appeared in the listeners’ eyes. 5. What are your earliest m... of yourself as a child? 6. In your next letter, will you e... a photo of yourself? I’d like to see how you look now, after so many years. 7. The weather that week was g...: sunny and pleasantly warm. 8. Jeremy is a g... young artist whose pictures I’d like you to see. 9. It was a foggy day and we couldn’t see the tops of the d... hills: they were hidden in the fog. 10. The little vessels f...ing on the water of the sea looked like beautiful toys. 11. A proverb says that devil finds work for i... hands. 12.1 don’t see any p... in what the man is saying. Do you? 13. The piece of paper quickly vanished in the hot red f... , 14. The child was so a... in the book that he didn’t notice us enter the room. 15. Going to the seaside? What a m... ideal 4f Use the right prepositions and adverbs to complete the sentences. 1. Don’t waste your time ... trying to please Sue: she is the hardest person to please I’ve ever met. 2. “That’s the post office over there,” said the man pointing ... the tall building at the end of the road. 3.1 have some pleasant memories ... my fifteenth birthday. 4. Let me point ... to you that you are not always right either. 5. The house burst ... flames so quickly that when the firemen came they found it in ashes. 6. My younger sister has a gift ... singing and is taking lessons. 7. I’ve drawn a little picture of you sitting in your favourite armchair which I’m enclosing ... the letter. 8. When Steve is absorbed ... listening to music he doesn’t allow us to disturb him. so cm Give replies to these questions and statements using the words in brackets. 1. Why can’t he explain in plain English what he means and write his request down? {illiterate) 2. What does he think of your offer? {marvellous) 3. Why can’t she afford to go away on holiday? {waste) 4. Alice was to have an interview on Friday. Do you know the result? {vacancy) 5. Where does he plan to finish his travel? {distant) 6. Why was your sister smiling reading Andrew’s letter? {enclosed) 7. What is your opinion of George’s speech? {obvious^ glorious) 8. Why was Marshal Zhukov so much spoken about during the war? {gifted) 270 UNIT 6 *Focu/ Prefixes with the meaning **not’ The prefixes un-, in-, il-, im- and ir- are often used to give adjectives a negative meaning: un- is used with a lot of different words: unfriendly, unable, untidy, unpleasant etc. im- is used before some words beginning with m or p: impolite, impatient. il- is used before some words beginning with 1: illegible, illegal. ir- is used only before some words beginning with r: irresponsible, irresistible, irrational. in- is used before a limited number of words: invisible, inaccurate, inactive etc. SI help of the prefixes un-, in-, ir-, im-, il- make adjectives of the opposite meanings. There are 13 i/n-words, only 4 /л-words, 1 //-word, 1 /m-word, and 1 /r-word. prestigious complimentary interesting flavoured creative exciting fulfilling expensive wrapped popular accurate required dependent rewarding literate limited capable injured regular moral ?i!FoCU/'^ to allow smb to do sth — разрешать to let smb do sth — разрешать Active Voice Active Voice 1. She doesn’t allow her children 1. She doesn’t let her children to play in the street. play in the street. 2. Will Mrs Sanders allow you to 2. Will your mum let you come? join us? 3. My parents allow me to come 3. My dad lets me eat a lot of home late. candy. Passive Voice Passive Voice to be allowed to do sth — 4. Walking on the grass is not — allowed. 5. They are not allowed to go — out. They are punished. 271. SI UNIT 6_____________________________________________________ Express the same idea using the verb to let where it is possible. 1. My parents don’t allow me to smoke. 2. Are you sure your mum will allow you to go with us? 3. She wanted to go to the theatre but her granny did not allow her. 4. He never allows me to drive his car. 5. They are not allowed to go out on Sundays. 6. Allow me to explain. 7. We would like to come, but he is not allowed to. 8. We are only allowed a three-minute break. ^Focu/ to lie — лежать, ложиться to lie — lay — lain — lying She switched off the light and lay on the sofa. to lie — лгать, солгать to lie — lied — lied — lying He lied to me yesterday. to lay — класть, положить to lay — laid —laid — laying I laid the papers on the table. to lay the table — накрывать на стол to lay eggs — откладывать яйца ss Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1. Judy was {lying/laying) on the bed. 2. Betsy {lay/lied/laid) ill for a week. 3. She {lay/lied/laid) the baby gently on the bed. 4. The camera doesn’t {lie/lay). 5.1 am not {laying/lying) a place at table for him. 6. Will you {lay/lie) the carpet on the floor? 7. Several dictionaries {lay/ lied/laid) on the shelf. 8. Rudolph was sure that Thomas was {lying/ laying) but he could not prove it. 9. “You {lay/lied/laid) to me, Doctor.” 10. The table was all {lay/lied/laid) for lunch. 11. Don’t {lie/lay) in bed all day, 12. She {lay/lied/laid) the papers on the table. ^72 UNIT 6 ^Li/TENINO CoMPREHEN/lON Щ A. Make sure that you know these words and word combinations: Bedouins [^eduinz] — бедуины willful [Wilful] — своенравная common sense — здравый смысл sheik IJeik] — шейх grazing grounds — пастбища Ш В. Listen to the text “Willful Nadia” (No 40) and say which answers to these questions are right. 1. Where did Nadia live? a) On an island full of yellow sands and tall trees. b) In the distant land of glorious palms, sands and camels. 2. What was Nadia like? a) She was illiterate and incapable of doing anything. b) She was illiterate and incapable of doing sums but full of common sense. 3. How many children did Sheik Tarik have? a) He had seven children. h) He had six children. 4. Who was Sheik Tarik’s favourite child? a) Nadia was. b) Hamed was. 5. Why didn’t Sheik Tarik allow his people to mention Hamed’s name? a) He couldn't bear his grief. b) He had forgotten his son. 6. When did Nadia begin mentioning her brother’s name? a) When she began to explain her brother's rules of the game. b) When she saw the dangerous flame in her father’s eyes. 7. Why did Nadia speak to her father about Hamed? a) She wanted to bring her brother back to the hearts of those who remembered him. b) She was too willful and wanted to have her own way. 8. Why did Sheik Tarik order to call his daughter Nadia wise? a) Because she helped her father to remember Hamed. b) Because her words made her father cry. C. Try to remember which of the new words were used in the story “Willful Nadia”. 272^ 10 Английский язык. 8 кл. UNIT 6__________________________________________________ ^ReApTnO FOR Dl/ClIf/lbN Ш In the text you’re going to read there will be a number of geographical names. Make sure that you read them correctly. Find these places on the map (No 41). Egypt ['i:cfeipt] the Bay of Biscay ["biskei] Gibraltar [ф'Ьгэ:11э] the Mediterranean [^medits'reinjan] Malta ['тэ:кэ] Naples ['neiplz] Port Said [,po:t 'said] the Suez Canal ['su:iz ka'nael] the Red Sea ['red 'si:] Nairobi [nai'rsubi] Kenya ['kenja] Libya ['libis] __________________________________________________ UNIT 6 Ki Read the story and say what moment changed the narrator’s whole life. How I Became a Writer (After Roald Dahl) A fiction writer is a person who invents stories. But how does one start on a job like this and become a full-time professional writer? Nowadays just about every single successful writer has started out in some other job - a schoolteacher, perhaps, or a doctor or a journalist or a lawyer. Let me tell you how I myself got in through the back door and found myself in the world of fiction. At the age of eight, in 1924, I was sent away to boarding school in a town called Weston-Super-Mare, on the southwest coast of England. Those were days of horror, of fierce discipline, of no talking in the dormitories, no running in the corridors, no this or that or the other, just rules, rules and more rules that had to be obeyed. My memories of school are mostly nightmarish. My end-of-term reports^ contained only uncomplimentary words about my abilities in the subject called English Composition. Only some of the examples are “incapable of putting his words on paper”, “vocabulary limited”, “idle and illiterate”, “no interesting ideas”. Little wonder that it never entered my head to become a writer in those days. When I left school at the age of eighteen, in 1934, I turned down my mother’s offer (my father died when I was three) to go to university. Unless one was going to become a doctor, a lawyer, a scientist, an engineer or some other kind of professional person, I saw little point in wasting three or four years at Oxford or Cambridge, and I still hold this view. Instead, I had a passionate wish to go abroad, to travel, to see distant lands. So I got a job at the Shell Oil Company, where they promised me that after two or three years’ training in England, I would be sent off to a foreign country. “Which one?” I asked. “Who knows?” the man answered. “It depends where there is a vacancy. It could be Egypt or China or India or almost anywhere in the world.” That sounded like fun. It was fun. When my turn came to be sent abroad three years later, I was told it would be East Africa. That journey took two and a half weeks. We went through the Bay of Biscay and called in at Gibraltar. We headed down the Mediterranean by way of Malta, * end-of-term reports: both in Britain and the USA teachers write a statement about a child’s work at school, sent to his/her parents 275, UNIT 6 ______________________________________________________ Naples and Port Said. We went through the Suez Canal and down the Red Sea. It was all tremendously exciting. For the first time, I saw great sandy deserts, and Arab soldiers on camels, and palm trees with dates growing on them, and flying fish and thousands of other marvellous things. By the summer of 1939, it became obvious that there was,going to be a war with Hitler’s Germany. On the next day after Britain entered the war I got into my car and drove north to Nairobi, in Kenya, to join the RAF.’ For six months they trained us in small airplanes called Tiger Moths, and those days were also glorious. There were twenty of us training to be pilots out there in Nairobi. Seventeen of those twenty were killed during the war. I myself was shot down. My plane crashed in the Libyan desert and burst into flames, but I managed to get out and was finally rescued by our soldiers. In 1942 my injuries began to give me too much trouble and I had to stop flying. They gave me a month’s leave and then sent me to Washington, D. C. as assistant air attache, at this point the United States was already in the war as well. I was twenty-six years old when I arrived in Washington, and I still had no thoughts of becoming a writer. During the morning of my third day, I was sitting in my new office at the British Embassy when there was a knock on my door. “Come in.” A very small man with thick spectacles entered the room. “Forgive me for bothering you,” he said. “My name is Forester. C. S. Forester.”^ I nearly fell out of my chair. “Are you joking?” I said. “No,” he said, smiling. “That’s me.” And it was. It was the great writer himself. “Look,” he said. “A magazine called the Saturday Evening Post will publish any story I write. I have a contract with them. And I have come to you because I think you might have a good story to tell. I mean about flying. Come and have lunch with me,” he said. “And while we’re eating, you can tell me all about it. Tell me your most exciting adventure. I’ll write it up for the Saturday Evening Post. The Americans should know more about this war and help us.” I was thrilled. I had never met a famous writer before. In the small French restaurant we took roast duck with vegetables and potatoes. The dish required so much attention that I found it difficult to talk. And apart from that, I have never been good at telling stories aloud. “Look,” I said. “If you like I’ll try to write down on paper what happened and send it to you. Then you can rewrite it properly yourself in your own good time. Wouldn’t that be easier? I could do it tonight.” t: RAF [,сиг ei 'ef]— Royal Air Force, the British airforce C. S, Forester (1899-1966) — a British writer, best known for his stories about the Royal Navy in the days of sailing ships, especially those about the character Captain Horatio Hornblower ^76 _____________________________________________________ UNIT 6 That, though I didn’t know it at the time, was the moment that changed my life. That night I sat down and wrote my story. For the first time in my life, I became totally absorbed in what I was doing. I floated back in time and once again I was in the hot desert of Libya. Everything came back to me. Writing it down on paper was not difficult. The story seemed to be telling itself. When it was finished, I gave it a title. I called it “A Piece of Cake.”* The next day I sent it off to Mr Forester. Then I forgot all about it. Exactly two weeks later, I received a reply from the great man. It said: Dear RD, You were meant to give me notes, not a finished story. Your piece is marvellous. It is the work of a gifted writer. I didn’t touch a word of it. You will be happy to hear that the “Post” accepted it immediately and have paid one thousand dollars. I enclose the check. It’s all yours. The “Post” is asking if you will write more stories for them. I do hope you will. Did you know you were a writer? With my best wishes and congratulations, C. S. ^o/vster A. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with these phrases in the text and read them out: 1. to turn down one’s offer 2. to hold the view (that...) 3. it’s little wonder 4. to head (for a place) 5. to give sb a month’s leave 6. apart from that 7. in your own good time a) дать кому-либо месячный отпуск b) в удобное для вас время c) направиться куда-то d) отклонить предложение e) не удивительно f) кроме того g) придерживаться взгляда В. Express the same idea using the phrases above. 1. Many think that only few people are capable of learning foreign languages. I, personally, ... that everyone can do it given enough time. 2. Linda has never left home in her whole life, ... she is nervous now that she is going abroad. 3. Don’t finish your essays now, take them home and complete them ... . 4. My elder brother was offered a job at a big hotel. He likes the idea of being a hotel manager and I don’t think that he will ... . 5. We saw a nice place for our picnic under the shady trees and immediately ... it. 6. After his first year in the army Jake was given ... to visit his family. 7. I’m going to skip tennis today: I’m tired and ... I don’t feel very well. ‘a piece of cake” (informal) means “very easy to do’ 277^ UNIT 6____________________________________________________ Replace the underlined parts with the word combinations from Ex. 57 A. Think of how this story could end. Personally, I believe (1) that the best way to spend a holiday is to go travelling. That’s why when I was allowed to take a week’s holiday (2) at work I saw my chance and went to (3) the Three Palms Travel Agency. At that moment they were selling tours at a big reduction and it was not surprising (4) that the agency was full of would-be holidaymakers. When my turn came I spoke to a young efficient travel agent. He suggested a few countries in Asia and Africa but I had to sav no to his offers (5) as I wanted to see more of good old Europe. Besides (6) it was the wrong season for hot countries. Unfortunately all the tours of Europe turned out to be too expensive and I lost all hope to have a holiday abroad. I was on the point of leaving the agency when my agent held out to me a brightly coloured booklet and said I could take it home and look through it when I had spare time (7) ... See how well you remember the text “How I Became a Writer” and answer these questions. 1. What kind of school w£is the narrator sent to: day or boarding? 2. What are some of the things that were forbidden in his school? 3. What did his teachers think about his ability to write? 4. Why didn’t the narrator want to go either to Oxford or to Cambridge? 5. Where did he want to go? 6. To what place did he go after three years of training? 7. What were some of the “marvellous things” he saw during his journey? 8. What did Roald become when the war began? 9. How long did he fly? Why did he have to stop flying? 10. What made him go to the USA? 11. Who came to see him one morning? What did that person want? 12. Why didn’t Roald tell the writer about his adventures in the restaurant? 13. What did Roald call his first story? 14. What newspaper published his story? 15. What complimentary things did the great man write to Roald about his talent? Remember the text “How I Became a Writer” and match the nouns with their attributes. 1) professional 2) herce 3) nightmarish 4) limited 5) passionate 6) distant 7) sandy 8) thick 9) exciting 10) finished a) wish b) deserts c) adventure d) memories e) story f) writer g) lands h) spectacles i) discipline j) vocabulary ^78 _______________________________________________UNIT 6 Remember the text “How I Became a Writer” and fill in the missing verbs. 1. A fiction writer is a person who ... stories. 2. Those were days (...) just rules, rules and more rules that had to be ... . 3. Little wonder that it never ... my head to become a writer in those days. 4. “Who knows?” the man answered. “It ... where there is a vacancy.” 5. For six months they ... us in small airplanes. 6.1 myself was ... down. 7. My plane ... in the Libyan desert and ... into flames. 8. Tell me your most exciting adventure and I’ll ... it up for the Saturday Evening Post. 9. The dish ... so much attention that I ... it difficult to talk. 10.1 ... back in time and once again I was in the hot desert of Libya. 11. The story ... to be telling itself. 12. Exactly two weeks later, I ... a reply from the great man. 13.1 ... the check. It’s yours. ^Focu/ Noun an Arab — араб (a member of the people who originally lived in Arabia' and speaks Arabic) Adjective I. Arab ['аегэЬ] {арабский) Arab history Arab countries Arab population the Arab world Arab societies Arab nations Arab tribes the United Arab Emirates ['emarats] Arab oil Arab-Israeli [iz'reili] War II. Arabic ['asrabik] {арабский — characteristic of the language) the Arabic language the Arabic literature the Arabic alphabet Arabic numerals III. Arabian [a'reibian] {аравийский, арабский — characteristic of Arabia) the Arabian Peninsular the Arabian Desert a/the Arabian horse, camel Arabian Nights = “The Thousand and One Nights” * Arabia [a'reibja], the peninsular, which contains Saudia ['saodi] Arabia, Yemen and several other countries — Аравийский полуостров 279. 61 UNIT б_______________________________________ Complete the sentences with Arabj Arabic or Arabian. 1. In the library I found some ... books and manuscripts. 2. What ... countries do you know? 3. For the first time I saw ... soldiers on camels, 4. The boys wrote their names in ... as they had been taught. 5. Which do you find more difficult: Roman numerals or ... numerals? 6. Have you read “... Nights”? 7. The ... camel is a one-humped riding camel. 8. An ... is a member of the ... race. 9. The ... Sea is situated between Arabia and western India. 10.... horses are swift, intelligent and graceful. 11. Some day IM like to go to the United ... Emirates. ^3 GI3 Listen to the text “How I Became a Writer” (No 42) and learn to read it artistically in the announcer’s manner. PEAKING ^Ducu/ЛNc THE Text IM Explain why: 1. Roald Dahl speaks about getting into the world of fiction “through the back door”; 2. his memories of school were “mostly nightmarish”; 3. he never thought about writing when he was at school; 4. he didn’t go to university; 5. he chose the Shell Oil Company as his first employer; 6. Roald found his long journey to Africa “tremendously exciting”; 7. he joined the RAF; 8. he had to stop flying; 9. C. S. Forester wanted Dahl to tell him about his war experience; 10. Roald agreed; 11. he didn’t tell his story; 12. he found it easy to write the story down; 13. the “Post” asked Dahl to write more stories for them. '^3 Speak about: 1. Roald Dahl’s way to a writing career (on his part or in the 3rd person) 2. Roald Dahl meeting C. S. Forester (on the part of one of them) Л J ^80 UNIT б и Act out: 1. a talk between the editor of the Washington Post and C. S. Forester who is trying to talk the editor into employing Dahl; 2. a talk between Dahl and C. S. Forester that they could have when they met again. Roald Dahl writes about a certain moment that changed his life. Can you remember a moment that changed your iife or something in it? What was changed and how? The text you’ve read is autobiographical. What other autobiographies have you read? What impression did they make on you? If you had to write an autobiography, what would you mention and what would you leave out? When and under what circumstances’ did Britain, Russia and the USA enter the Second Worid War? What facts connected with their participation in the war do you remember? When and how did the war end? ^Dl/cu/лNG THE Topic ^ Topical Vocabulary I. The mass media is a collective name for newspapers and magazines, radio, television and the Internet. Newspapers and magazines are the oldest of the mass media. These are various kinds of editions: • daily • weekly • monthly • morning • evening • national • local • serious (quality) • popular (broadsheet, tabloid ['taebbid]) circumstances ['saiksmstsnsiz] — обстоятельства 281 UNIT 6 In an issue of a paper or a presented in: II. magazine one can find various information • articles • photographs • leading articles/editorials • cartoons • features • strip cartoons • reports • crosswords and puzzles • comments • (classified) advertisements • reviews • obituaries [a'bit/usnz] III. Usually papers are divided into sections. With the help of this division we can easier find the information we need. Another helpful device for finding information is headlines. Some of the popular sections are: politics ['pnbtiks] economics business and finance science and technology patterns culture home news cooking foreign (international) news current affairs reviews programmes sports news readers’ letters entertainment fashion and dress children’s pages recipes (for) gardening weather forecasts radio and TV programmes Newspapers and magazines are published in a great number of copies. A good edition is: • accurate • impartial • comprehensive A good edition: • should help us to keep an eye on the news • should give a wide coverage of current events • should be current • should be informative • should provide information on various subjects • should cater for all opinions/satisfy any taste • should inform, instruct and entertain the reader 282 V UNIT 6 IV. People who make newspapers are: • freelance ["fri:la:ns] (journalists) • editors • correspondents reporters critics photographers Newspapers readers: • buy them from newsagent’s, newspaper stands and street-sellers • subscribe to their favourite editions • go to public libraries and read them VI. Probably the most popular of the mass media nowadays is television. Modern television: • broadcasts its programmes all over the country • has various channels to satisfy any taste • shows programmes live and in recording • allows us to watch cable and satellite television with a wider choice of programmes, the news and films in foreign languages • keeps us informed about the recent events at home and abroad • educates and entertains us VII. People tend to spend more and more time in front of the box glued to the screen watching their favourite programmes or just switching over from channel to channel (surfing the channels) leisurely with the help of remote control. The choice of programmes modern television provides is really wide: • the news (e. g. the nine o’clock news) • the regional news • music request programmes • feature films • cartoons • talk (chat) shows • documentary films • educational programmes • soap operas, serials • interviews • quizzes (games) 283. UNIT 6__________________________________ VIII. TV viewers see on the screen the familiar faces of: • TV journalists • newscasters • newsreaders • commentators • show and quiz hosts and hostesses • art critics IX. Recently the public has grown quite concerned about: • people’s addiction to television • too much influence of TV on young viewers • too much violence and crime on TV • too passive a role of TV viewers in getting information • too many commercials 70 Give it a name: 1) a collective name for newspapers and magazines, television and the Internet; 2) a title printed in large type at the top of a newspaper or magazine story; 3) a specific printing of a periodical or a book; 4) a particular copy of a magazine or a newspaper; 5) an article about the good and bad points of an artistic work; 6) a longer article about special subjects; 7) a piece of writing about character and achievements of someone who has just died; 8) an article in a newspaper which comments on an item of news and which explains the opinion of the editor or publisher; 9) a newspaper that is published every day of the week except Sunday; 10) a small-sized newspaper in which the news stories and articles are short, usually with a lot of photographs; 11) a newspaper that is printed on one large sheet of paper; 12) a specific wavelength which is used to receive the television or radio programmes that are broadcast by a particular company; 13) a system of controlling a television from a distance; 14) a popular television drama serial about the daily lives and problems of the same group of people; 15) a person who reads the news on a television or radio broadcast. 284 UNIT 6 II Give English equivalents to these: A. 1) различные издания 2) текущие события 3) зарубежные новости 4) события в стране 5) реклама (в газете) 6) объявления 7) комиксы 8) карикатуры 9) комментарии (к событиям) 10) политика и экономика 11) рецензия 12) письма читателей 13) рецепты приготовления пищи 14) точное, информативное, беспристрастное издание 15) широко освещать текущие события 16) удовлетворять вкусам (мнениям) всех (быть на любой вкус) 17) внештатный журналист 18) подписываться на любимые издания 19) предлагать информацию на различные темы 20) следить за событиями 21) обстоятельная статья (очерк) на определенную тему B. 1) средства массовой информации 2) транслировать передачи по телевидению 3) показывать передачи в прямом эфире 4) показывать передачи в записи 5) кабельное и спутниковое телевидение 6)переключать телевизор с канала на канал 7) широкий выбор передач (программ) 8) музыкальная передача по заявкам зрителей 9) художественный фильм 10) викторина, игра 11) телезритель 12) телекомментатор 13) ведущий новостей 14) быть озабоченным чем-то 15) пристраститься к телевизору 16) насилие и преступления 17) реклама на телевидении 71 Answer the questions, using the Topical Vocabulary. A. 1. Where do you usually get your newspapers? 2. Do you subscribe to some papers? 3. What kind of issues are they? 4. What in your opinion are the functions of a newspaper? 5. Why do you read newspapers? 6. Which of them are you specially interested in? 7. In what order do you read various sections of a newspaper? 8. What are the characteristics of a headline? 9. Why do some articles begin on the front page and continue on the next? 10. Do you like doing crossword puzzles? Why? 11. What are the characteristics of a good advertisement? What types of advertisements commonly appear in newspapers? Should advertisements be included in magazines? 12. Why do people write letters to the editor? B. 1. Why do people say that radio and television belong to mass media? 2. What is the name of the Russian broadcasting corporation? What about the British one? 3. How many TV channels are there in Russia? 4. On what channels do you usually watch TV programmes? 5. Which of the programmes do you think are programmes of general interest and which of them cater for minority interests? 6. What is a typical Saturday evening (Sunday morning) TV programme like? 7. What programme on TV would you try not to miss? Why? 8. What programme would you never watch? Why? 9. What are the main advantages of having television? 285 UNIT 6______________________________________________________ 10. Are there any disadvantages? Can you name some? 11. Why do some families have two or more TV-sets in the house? 12. Can you give examples of good (bad) commercials? What makes them good or bad? Explain the difference between: I. 1) a national newspaper — a local newspaper 2) a morning newspaper — an evening newspaper 3) a serious newspaper — a popular newspaper 4) a newspaper — a magazine 5) an announcement — an advertisement 6) a report — a comment 7) a serial — a strip cartoon 11. 1) an advertisement — a commercial 2) a TV journalist — an art critic 3) a TV commentator — a newscaster 4) a quiz show — a talk show 5) a music programme — a music request programme 6) a serial — a soap opera 7) a TV fan — a person addicted to television 74 Say what the opposite of these are: 1) to turn the television on 2) to turn the volume down 3) to satisfy tastes of very few people 4) to mention current events, giving few facts 5) an international news 6) to dislike television Explain these headlines in your own way. Think of what the articles may be about. 1. HOW TO KEEP UP WITH TECHNOLOGY 2. WEBLIFE 3. BLACKPOOL DELEGATES CONSIDER THE FUTURE 4. RAF MAN JOINS NATIONAL COUNCIL 5. MILITARY VEHICLES TO BE PERMANENTLY ON SHOW 6. PENSION REFORM PLANNED 7. TIME FOR RADICAL RETHINKING ON NATO 8. THE TOP TEN 286 п UNIT 6 А. Buy and compare two papers (English and/or Russian) to see how much space they give to the following information: international news home news feature articles culture and education business — sport — radio and TV programmes — crossword — weather forecast — other information B. Say in what other way(s) these two papers are similar and different. Which of the two would you choose for reading and why? 77 Here is a part of a TV programme. Can you guess what some of the programmes are about? Say what programmes they are and what helped you to guess. BBC2 ITVl 6.00 Open University: Talking 6.00 GMTV about Care 9.25 Watch to Win 7.00 Charlie Brown and Snoopy 9.30 Trisha Show 10.30 This Morning 8.10 Bob the Builder 12.20 ITV Lunchtime News. 8.30 Little Bear Weather 9.00 Ready, Steady, Cook with 1.05 Regional News Ainsley Harriott 1.35 The Biggest Game in 9.40 Playdays Town 10.00 Teletubbies 2.05 Crossroads 10.50 Ethelbert the Tiger 2.35 ITV News 11.00 Conference Live. 2.40 Regional News Ian Dune an-Smith’s first 2.45 Animal Stories leadership speech. 3.35 The Adventure of Captain 1.00 Science Zone Pugwash 1.30 Working Lunch 4.00 The Quick Trick Show. 2.00 Film: “Bundle of Joy”. Advice on how to perform A salesgirl’s life changes when tricks at home. she finds a baby. Musical, 4.15 The People Versus with starring Debbie Reynolds. Kaye Addams 3.50 BBC News. Regional News. 4.50 Crossroads Weather 5.20 Regional News 4.00 The Weakest Link 6.00 ITV Evening News. Weather 4.45 Star Trek: The Next Gen- 7.00 Emmerdale. eration Marlon is left in no doubt 6.00 The Money Programme as to his position. 287 UNIT 6_____________________________ Match the pictures with their captions. a) Oh, the programme wasn’t that bad, dear. You want to watch a certain TV programme but your friend prefers another one. Act out a talk, give good arguments why you want to watch it. A. Think of and write down in the order of importance a list of features that make a successful journalist. Compare your lists and explain your choice of priorities. ШеХамРЬЕ: a journalist must be careful when a story about a person or group of people might be harmful to their reputation. B. Say what modern newspaper and TV journalists you know and what they write or make programmes about. Are they good journalists? What makes them such? What makes journalism an attractive but difficult profession? 288 UNIT 6 •м l/CELLANEOU/ 51 know that ... ... the first collection and distribution of news that we know of was made by members of the Roman senate in the 1st century BC. The first Roman papers were written out in more than 2000 copies and sent everywhere in the Roman Empire and hung up in public places. People who could read called out the news to people who could not. For centuries news travelled very slowly, and reached few people. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century quickly led to the publication of newspapers and magazines. Newspapers were first published on a regular basis in German cities and in Antwerp, Belgium, in the early 17th century. ... the word “magazine” comes from the Arabic makhaziriy which means a store house, or place to keep things. In one sense, that is exactly what magazine is. It is a store house of stories and articles. Many magazines are highly illustrated with colour photographs and drawings, but some, called journals^ are more scientific and generally have fewer illustrations. ... magazines can be divided into two main types: general interest magazines, which contain articles on a variety of subjects and are more or less of interest to everyone; and special interest magazines. Some of the best-known general interest magazines are Reader’s Digest and Time. Specialist magazines usually deal with a certain subject, for example, music {Top of the Pops, New Musical Express), language learning {English Today), science and economy {New Scientist, Economist), etc. 289^ □ h> UNIT 6 ... some magazines are produced specially for children. Many of these are comics containing comic strips, in which stories are told in pictures. In the US, comics were originally meant for the large immigrant population, who understood little English. But children also liked them, and “superheroes” such as Superman and Batman became folk heroes. EE] A. Listen to the poem “If-” (No 43) and read it. If- (By Rudyard Kipling) If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you. If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you. But make allowance for their doubting too; If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies. Or being hated, don’t give way to hating. And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise; I-,, ^ .,290 If you can dream — and not make dreams your master. If you can think — and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same; If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools. Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stop and build ’em up with worn-out tools; lll’fS- ' i.. Um:-\ “ f- ' 0 -.1 -■J 0 fH. r- " I ___________________________________________ UNIT 6 If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss. And lose, and start again at your beginnings And never breathe a word about your loss; If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue. Or walk with Kings — nor lose the common touch. If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you. If all men count with you, but none too much; If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run. Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it. And — which is more — you’ll be a Man, my son! B. Compare the poem “If-” with its Russian translation by S. Marshak. Если... О, если ты покоен, не растерян. Когда теряют головы вокруг, И если ты себе остался верен. Когда в тебя не верит лучший друг, И если ждать умеешь без волненья. Не станешь ложью отвечать на ложь,' Не будешь злобен, став для всех мишенью. Но и святым тебя не назовешь, И если ты своей владеешь страстью, И не тобою властвует она, И будешь тверд в удаче и в несчастье. Которым, в сущности, цена одна, И если ты готов к тому, что слово Твое в ловушку превращает плут, И, потерпев крушение, можешь снова — Без прежних сил — возобновить свой труд. И если ты способен все, что стало Тебе привычным, выложить на стол. Все проиграть и вновь начать сначала. Не пожалев того, что приобрел. 29^ UNIT б 0 „ Г, Ч:, ш (3 й ^ ' i43 и если можешь сердце, нервы, жилы Так завести, чтобы вперед нестись. Когда с годами изменяют силы И только воля говорит: «Держись!» И если можешь быть в толпе собою, При короле с народом связь хранить И, уважая мнение любое. Главы перед молвою не клонить, И если будешь мерить расстоянье Секундами, пускаясь в дальний бег, — Земля — твое, мой мальчик, достоянье! И более того, ты — человек! U 1Ш; Ш IFFj Listen to the song (No 44) and sing it along. I Just Called (By Stevie Wonder) No New Year’s Day to celebrate. No chocolate girls or candy hearts to give away. No birds of spring, no song to sing. In fact it’s just another ordinary day. No April rain, no flowers bloom. No wedding Saturday within the month of June, But what it is, is something true Made up of these three words that I must say to you. I just called to say, “I love you,” I just called to say, how much I care, I just called to say, “I love you.” And I mean it from the bottom of my heart. No Summer’s time, no warm July, No harvest moon to light one tender August night. No Autumn breeze, no falling leaves. Not even time for bird to fly to southern skies. No Libra sun, no Halloween, No giving things toward the Christmas joy you bring. But what it is, though, oh, so new. To fill your heart like no three words that I ever knew. ^Project Work Organize and play the game “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?” in your class. Prepare questions with four possibie answers to each. Decide what the prizes will be. .292 Enoli/h-Ru//ian Vocabulary adj — adjective — прилагательное prep — preposition — предлог adv — adverb — наречие pron — pronoun — местоимение con) — conjunction — союз smb — somebody n — noun — существительное sth — something pi — plural — множественное число V — verb — глагол Aa ability [a'bilati] способность to do 8th to the best of one’s ability делать что-то в меру своих способностей absolute ['aebsaluit] абсолютный absorb [ab'sDib] впитывать, поглощать to be absorbed in sth быть поглощенным чем-то addition [3'diJ(9)n] добавление, пополнение in addition вдобавок advanced [ad'vamst] для продвинутого уровня advantage [sd'vaniticfe] преимущество to advantage c пользой (для кого-либо) to have an advantage over smb иметь преимущество перед кем-либо to take advantage of sth воспользоваться чем-то age [eictsl столетие It takes ages to do sth. Требуется вечность, чтобы сделать это. altogether [,э:119'дедэ] в общей сложности, совершенно annual ['ienjual] ежегодный apart [a'puit] раздельно, врозь apart from that кроме того Arab ['icrob] араб; арабский Arabian [s'reibiaii] аравийский, арабский Arabic ['aerabik] арабский attach [эЧаесЛ прикреплять attachable [a'taetfsbl] съемный attention [эЧеп/(э)п] внимание to pay (no) attention to sth (не) обращать внимание await smb [s'weit] ожидать кого-либо Bb barber [Ъа:Ьэ] (мужской) парикмахер bare [Ьеэ] голый, обнаженный, оголенный barefooted [,bea'futid] босой bareheaded [,be3'hedid] с непокрытой головой beside [bi'said] около, рядом besides [bi'saidz] кроме того bother smb with sth ['Ьпдэ] беспокоить кого-то чем-то, досаждать brand-new [,br£cnd'nju:] совершенно новый, с иголочки break [breik] ломать, разбивать to break away убежать, освободиться to break down a) ломать(ся), py-шить(ся) б) потерять контроль над собой, раскиснуть to break into а) врываться, вламываться б) пуститься, неожиданно начать делать что-то to break out разразиться, начаться buckle ['Ьлк1] застегивать на пряжку button up ['bAtn Чр] застегивать на пуговицы 293 ENCL1/H-RШЛAN VOCABULARY Cc case [keis] случай in case в случае in any case во всяком случае just in case на всякий случай саге [кеэ] забота; заботиться to take care of smb заботиться о ком-либо to саге about волноваться о чем-либо to саге for атЪ быть неравнодушным к чему-либо I don’t саге. Мне все равно, caretaker ['кеэ,1с1кэ] смотритель, комендант (здания) cavalcade [,kaev3l'keid] кавалькада, вереница certain ['saitn] уверенный to be certain of/about быть уверенным в чем-то charge [tfcucfe] забота, попечение to be in charge отвечать, иметь на попечении cheat [yi:t] жулик, обманщик; жульничать, списывать cheat-sheet шпаргалка chew [фл:] жевать chewing gum ['tjuiiQ длт] жвачка, жевательная резинка clatter ['klaeta] звяканье; звякать combination [,kDmbi'neiJn] сочетание, комбинация combined [ksm'baind] совместный, объединенный соте [клт] приходить to come across наталкиваться, натыкаться to come alive ожить to come down with слечь (от болезни) to come off сойти, упасть, оторваться to come over найти; произойти to come round заглянуть (ненадолго) commercial [кэ'тз:/(э)1] коммерческий, финансовый complicated ['komplikeitid] сложный concentrate (on) ['knnsantreit] сосредоточиться (на) confuse [kan’fjuiz] путать, запутывать confusing [ksn'fjirzio] запутанный countless ['kauntlas] бесчисленный, несчетный couple ['клр1] пара a married couple супружеская пара creep [kri:p] красться creep(s) мурашки It gives me the creeps. От этого у меня мурашки (мороз) по коже. Dd desire [di'zais] желание; желать destination [,desti'nei/(d)n] место назначения detach [di'taetj] отделять detachable [di'taetfabl] съемный, отделяемый detached [di'taetft] беспристрастный, равнодушный а detached house отдельный дом а detached view of ath беспристрастная точка зрения на что-то dignified ['dignifaid] полный достоинства, величавый digfnity [’digniti] достоинство to keep one’s dignity сохранять достоинство to lose one’s dignity потерять достоинство disappear [,diS3'pid] исчезать distant ['distant] отдаленный ^94 ЕЫСи/Н-ВШЛАЫ VOCABULARY dormitory ['doimitri] спальня (в интернате) downwards ['daunwodz] вниз dressmaker ['dres,meik3] портниха drone [draun] жужжать, гудеть to drone on бубнить droning гудящий, жужжащий drop [drop] ронять to drop at (a place) зайти куда-то to drop in забежать ненадолго, заглянуть, навестить to drop off a) выходить, высадить {из машины) б) забросить вещи куда-либо to drop on smb a) нападать, набрасываться на кого-то б) случайно встретить кого-то, наткнуться to drop out выбывать, выходить из чего-то, бросать dumb [dvm] а) немой б) глупый Ff Ее embrace [im'breis] обнимать emotional [i'm9ufn(3)l] эмоциональный, волнующий enclose [in'klauz] а) окружить, обнести (изгЬродью) б) прикладывать, приложить {обычно к письму) enrol (enrolled) [in'raul] зачислять-(ся), записывать(ся) to enrol at а college быть зачисленным в колледж to enrol on а course записаться на курс equipment [I'kwipmont] снаряжение, экипировка, оборудование except [ik'sept] кроме, помимо, за исключением exception [ik'sepj(9)n] исключение express [ik'spres] выражать expression [ik'sprej(9)n] выражение expressive [ik'spresiv] выразительный fancy dress [,faensi 'dres] маскарадный костюм fear [fi9] страх firmly ['fa:mil] твердо fix [fiks] укреплять, закреплять to fix smb up «задать» кому-либо {разг.) fjord [lj9:d] фиорд flame [fleim] пламя to be in flame быть охваченным пламенем to burst into flames вспыхнуть flap [Пзер] a) хлопать, шлепать б) развеваться to flap in the wind развеваться на ветру flavour ['fleiv9] вкус, привкус flavoured с привкусом flesh [ПеЛ тело, плоть (in) flesh and blood плоть и кровь float [fl9Ut] плавать flow [fl9u] течение, поток; течь to flow into 8th впадать в (о реке) to flow to 8th течь в направлении чего-либо foolish ['fu;lij] глупый force [fo:s] сила, мощь; принуждать, заставлять by force силой from force of habit в силу привычки to force one’s way прорваться, проложить себе дорогу to force 8th on/upon smb навязывать что-то кому-то to force smb to do 8th заставить что-то делать funeral ['fjuinorol] похороны future ['fju:tj9] будущее in the near future в ближайшем будущем 295^ ж ENCU/H-RUmAN VOCABULARY Gg get [get] становиться to get dressed одеваться, одеться to get rid of ath/smb избавиться gift [gift] подарок, дар gifted ['giftid] одаренный, талантливый glorious ['glDTias] великолепный, изумительный go [дэи] становиться to go pointy заостриться to go silver стать серебряным groan [greun] стон; стонать to give a groan испустить стон to groan with pain стонать от боли Hh hairdresser ['Ьеэ,dress] парикмахер half-sister ['haf,sists] сводная сестра hand [haend] передать to hand down передать no наследству to hand in сдать to hand out раздать to hand over передать harm [ho:m] вред to do harm причинять вред to do more harm than good принести больше вреда, чем пользы head [hed] (for) направляться куда-либо head start [,hed 'stat] преимущество hilarious [hiMesnss] очень смешной hold [hsuld] держать, содержать to hold (oneself) in сдерживать to hold off a) оставаться, находиться на расстоянии б) придерживать, задерживать, сдерживать to hold on а) прикреплять(ся) б) держаться за в) держаться, продол- жать делать что-либо г) ждать {при разговоре по телефону) to hold out протянуть, выставить hybrid ['haibrid] гибрид li idle ['aidl] праздный, ленивый idyllic [I'dilik] идиллический illiterate [I'litsrst] неграмотный imitate ['imiteit] имитировать immense [I'mens] огромный, громадный indifferent [m'difsrsnt] равнодушный indifferently [in'difsrsntli] равнодушно individual [,indi'vicfeusl] личность, индивидуум insist (on 8th) [in'sist] настаивать intellect ['intslekt] ум, разум, интеллект irritable ['iritsbl] раздражительный irritably ['intsbli] раздраженно Ji jealous ['(tselss] ревнивый, завистливый jealously [^c^elssi] ревность jet-black [,cfeet'blaek] черный как смоль Кк keep [kip] держать, содержать to keep doing sth продолжать делать что-либо kid [kid] ребенок (разе.) know [пэи] знать to get to know узнать to know for a fact знать наверняка ^96 lH LI lace up ['leis 'лр] зашнуровать leave [li.'v] отпуск to give smb a month’s leave дать месячный отпуск legendary ['lecfeondon] легендарный lid [lid] крышка to put the lid on sth «добить»; стать последней каплей limited [’limitid] ограниченный Mm manage to do sth ['maenicfe] справляться, ухитряться сделать что-то mania ['тешю] мания marvel(l)ous ['moivobs] восхитительный, изумительный the (mass) media [,maes 'miidia] средства массовой информации memory ['тетэп] a) память б) воспоминание mess [mes] беспорядок; запачкать to be in a mess быть в беспорядке to mess about sth играть (шалить) to mess up sth пачкать, портить messy ['mesi] неубранный, неряшливый, грязный mind [maind] (sth/doing sth) a) возражать 6) присматривать Mind your own business. He вмешивайтесь в чужие дела. Never mind. Ничего. He беда. Nn nerve [пз;у] a) нерв б) смелость to get on one’s nerves действовать на нервы to lose one’s nerve робеть, трусить ЕНС11/Н-В11/ЛАЫ VOCABULARY nervous ['n3:v9s] нервный nightmare ['пашпеэ] кошмар notes [nsuts] записи to make notes делать записи, записывать notice ['nautis] a) предупреждение 6) объявление to take (no) notice of sth (не) обращать внимание Oo obvious [bbvias] очевидный obviously ['obvissli] очевидно offer ['nfa] предложение; предлагать to turn down one’s offer отклонить предложение once [wAns] однажды once and for all раз и навсегда Pp park [po;k] припарковать машину passionate ['paejsnat] страстный philosopher [fi'lnsafa] философ point [point] острие; указывать, показывать to point out подчеркнуть, указать to point to указать на potential [po'ten/ol] потенциальный predict [pri'dikt] предсказывать Qq queue [kju:] очередь; стоять в очереди to jump the queue пройти, пролезть без очереди to queue for sth стоять в очереди за чем-то queue jumper человек, проходящий без очереди 297^ ENCLI/H-RU//IAN VOCABULARY Rr гаге [геэ] редкий rarely ['reali] редко reach [ri:^ доступность, досягаемость within easy reach под рукой, на близком расстоянии, в пределах досягаемости record ['reko:d] рекорд to break the record побить рекорд to hold the record держать рекорд to set the record установить рекорд record [n'kDid] записывать, регистрировать relief [n'!i:f] облегчение relieve [ri'lhv] облегчать to be relieved чувствовать облегчение reluctance [пМлкСэпв] нежелание with reluctance c неохотой, c нежеланием reluctant [n'Uktant] неохотный require [n'kwais] требовать(ся) to be required of smb требовать(ся) от кого-либо reunion [,ri:'ju:ni3n] воссоединение. встреча ridiculous [n'dikjulas] смешной, нелепый robot ['гэиЬт] робот rotten ['rotan] a) гнилой б) отвратительный (разе.) rough [глГ] грубый а rough drawing эскиз, набросок а rough road неровная (ухабистая) дорога а rough sea бурное, неспокойное море а rough voice грубый голос run 8th [глп] вести дело, управлять, возглавлять to be run by управляться, быть возглавляемым Ss scribble ['sknbl] небрежно, быстро писать to scribble down «нацарапать» see [si:] видеть to see around часто встречаться с кем-то to see 8тпЬ off проводить кого-либо to see through видеть насквозь to see to 8mb/8th позаботиться show [/эи] off выставлять напоказ, рисоваться shriek [fri:k] визжать to shriek with laughter визжать от смеха side [said] сторона to get on the wrong (right) side of 8mb (не) понравиться кому-то silly ["sill] глупый sink [sfok] тонуть, погружаться to sink to the bottom опуститься на дно smart [smcLt] умный, сообразительный smart aleck наглец, нахал to be smart with 8mb дерзить кому-либо soft-hearted [,soft'ha:tid] мягкий, отзывчивый, добрый solid ["solid] a) твердый, плотный б) однородный, сплошной solid advice надежный совет squeak [skwik] писк, скрип; пищать, скрипеть squeaky ['skwiki] писклявый, скрипучий starch [stoitf] крахмал; крахмалить starched [stcLtft] накрахмаленный sterilized ["steralaizd] простерилизо-ванный steward ['stju:ad] управляющий, эконом, стюард 298 stiff [stif] онемевший, оцепеневший, жесткий а stiff back онемевшая спина а stiff collar жесткий воротничок а stiff leg затекшая нога stuff [stAf] материал, вещество, сырье stuff like that и все такое stupid ['stjuipid] глупый suggest [sd'c^est] (doing) ath предлагать сделать что-либо supply [sa'plai] запас; снабжать to supply атЪ with ath снабжать кого-либо чем-то sure [fu9] уверенный to make sure удостовериться, убедиться surroundings [sa'raundiQz] местность, окружение Tt tailor ['teila] портной talk [to:k] говорить to talk amb out of ath отговорить кого-либо от чего-либо talking-to ['tDikiQtu:] выговор to give amb a good talking-to отчитать кого-то tear [tis] слеза to burst into tears расплакаться technology [tek'nolactji] a) техника 6) технология tell [tel] сказать, рассказать to tell amb off отчитать кого-либо to tell amb the truth сказать правду to tell the difference различать terrific [ta'rifik] потрясающий thrill [0ril] восторг, восхищение; вызывать трепет, волновать to be thrilled испытывать трепет tickle ['tikl] щекотать ENCLl/H-RUZ/IAN VOCABULARY tie [taj] галстук; привязывать, завязывать time [taim] время in your own good time в нерабочее (свободное) время to take one’s time не спешить tiptoe [4iptdu] цыпочки on tiptoe на цыпочках top [top] вершина at the top of ath на вершине totally ['tautali] целиком, полностью tremble ['trembi] (with ath) дрожать (от) trouble ['trAbl] беда, несчастье to get into trouble попасть в беду (в переделку) try [trai] попытка to give ath a try испытать, опробовать Uu unbuckle [,An'bAkl] расстегивать пряжку unbutton [,ап'Ьа1эп] расстегивать пуговицы uncomplimentary [АпДотрИ'тегиэп] нелестный unlace [An'leis] развязывать шнурки, расшнуровывать unzip [An'zip] расстегивать молнию Vv vacancy ['veiksnsi] вакансия vanish ['уаешЛ исчезать to vanish from sight исчезнуть из виду to vanish into air растаять, как призрак vanishing species исчезающие виды 29^ [»■ ■ 4r П p rf^ ENCIXm-Rm/lAN VOCABULARY variety [va'raisti] разнообразие various ['vesnss] разнообразный for various reasons no разным причинам vessel ['ves9l] судно view [yju;] a) вид 6) точка зрения to hold the view that придерживаться точки зрения, что -Ww walk [wdJc] идти пешком to walk off уходить warn [wo:n] smb (about/against sth) предупредить кого-то (о чем-то) warning ['wo;nio] предупреждение waste [weist] трата; тратить зря wasteful ['weistfal] расточительный way [wei] a) путь, дорога б) способ in а way до известной степени, в некотором смысле witchcraft ['witTkra:flt] черная магия, колдовство wizard [Vizdd] волшебник, кудесник wizardry ['wizadri] волшебство, чары wonder ['w\nda] чудо it’s no wonder неудивительно worn out [,wo:n 'aut] поношенный worth [w3;0] стоящий to be worth doing sth стоит сделать что-то wrinkled ['riokld] морщинистый Zz zip up ['zip 4p] застегнуть на молнию D - I . I г и гг Content/ tr UNIT I. CHOOSING A CAREER: THE WORLD OF JOBS Revision: The Subjunctive Mood: General Rules. Present Subjunctive ... 3 Reading for Country Studies: ^'Unusual Jobs: A Bodyguard” ....... 9 Reading for Information: “Little House on the Table” (By N.N. Click) 11 New Language: Grammar Section: The Subjunctive Mood: Past Subjunctive .... 13 Vocabulary Section: Social English. Offering a Suggestion ................. 19 Phrasal Verb. To hand .................................. 20 New Words to Learn...................................... 21 Listening Comprehension: "But You Promised You Wouldn't Tell” . . 27 Reading for Discussion: “Malcolm's Story” (After P. Jennings) .... 28 Speaking: Discussing the Text .................................... 32 Discussing the Topic ................................... 33 Miscellaneous .................................................... 41 Project Work...................................................... 42 UNIT 2. EDUCATION: THE WORLD OF LEARNING Revision: UNIT 1 ................................................. 43 Reading for Country Studies: “Secondary Education in Britain” ... 50 Reading for Information: “Hampton School”......................... 53 New Language: Grammar Section: I. More Facts about the Subjunctive Mood — Present Subjunctive and Past Subjunctive .......................... 56 II. Adverbs: Degrees of Comparison ..................... 60 Vocabulary Section: Social English. Classroom English ...................... 65 Phrasal Verb. To break.................................. 67 New Words to Learn...................................... 68 Listening Comprehension: “Let There Be Peace”..................... 75 Reading for Discussion: “Hogwarts” (After J.K. Rowling) .......... 76 Speaking: Discussing the Text .................................... 82 Discussing the Topic ................................... 83 Miscellaneous .................................................... 88 Project Work...................................................... 90 a Q 30^ т :h CONTENT/ UNIT 3. SHOPPING: THE WORLD OF MONEY Revision: UNIT 2 .................................................. 91 Reading for Country Studies: "Shopping in Britain”............... 99 Reading for Information: “What Makes Money Valuable?” ...........103 New Language: Grammar Section: I. Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison. Irregular Forms ......105 II. Modal Verbs: can/could/may/might ....................108 Vocabulary Section: Social English. The Language of Shopping.................113 Phrasal Verb. To come ..................................116 New Words to Learn......................................117 Listening Comprehension: “The Verger” (parts 1, 2).................123 Reading for Discussion: “Getting Dressed for the Big School” (After It Dahl).................................................124 Speaking: Discussing the Text ....................................129 Discussing the Topic ...................................130 Miscellaneous ....................................................136 Project Work.......................................................138 Vi UNIT 4. FASCINATION AND CHALLENGE: THE WORLD OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Revision: UNIT 3 ...................................................139 Reading for Country Studies: “The Man and His Work” (After A. G. Bell)...................................................144 Reading for Information: “Virtual Reality: Danger Ahead?” .........147 New Language: Grammar Section: I. More Facts about Adverbs: The Place of Adverbs in Sentences ...................................................149 II. Modal Verbs: must/have to/should/ought to ...........152 III. Substantivized Adjectives ...........................157 Vocabulary Section: Social English. Notices and Warnings..................... 158 Phrasal Verb. To see......................................160 New Words to Learn........................................161 Listening Comprehension: “Is There Life in Space?”.................167 Reading for Discussion: “The Surgeon” (After I. Asimov)............ — Speaking: Discussing the Text .....................................174 Discussing the Topic .....................................175 Miscellaneous ......................................................184 Project Work......................................................... — ^02 CONTENT/ UNIT UNIT 5. GOING TO PLACES: THE WORLD OF TRAVELLING REVISION: UNIT 4 ...................................................185 Reading for Country Studies: “Canada"...............................190 Reading for Information: “First Rules for Travellers” .............196 New Language: Grammar Section: I. Modal Verbs: to be (to)/need .........................198 II. Modal Verbs with Perfect Infinitive...................201 III. More Facts about Adverbs: Adverbs and Adjectives .... 204 IV. More Facts about Substantivized Adjectives. Nation and Nationality Words ...................................206 V. The Possessive Case with Inanimate Objects .........209 Vocabulary Section: Social English. Asking for Directions, Giving Directions . 210 Phrasal Verb. To drop ....................................215 New Words to Leam.........................................217 Listening Comprehension: “A Drive in the Motor Car”..................222 Reading for Discussion: “Going to Norway” (After R. Dahl) ........... — Speaking: Discussing the Text .....................................228 Discussing the Topic .....................................229 Miscellaneous .......................................................238 Project Work........................................................240 6. NEWSPAPERS AND TELEVISION: THE WORLD OF MASS MEDIA Revision: UNIT.......................................................241 Reading for Country Studies: “The Press in Britain and Elsewhere” .. 246 Reading for Information: “Interview with Prince William” ...........250 New Language: Grammar Section: I. “Ing-forms” in English ................................252 II. The Infinitive .......................................256 III. Verbs that Can Be Followed Both by Vto and Ving Forms 260 Vocabulary Section: Social English. Giving a Call. Receiving a Call...........263 Phrasal Verb. To hold.....................................265 New Words to Learn........................................267 Listening Comprehension: “Willful Nadia” ............................273 Reading for Discussion: “How I Became a Writer^' (After KDahl) . 274 Speaking: Discussing the Text .....................................280 Discussing the Topic .....................................281 Miscellaneous .......................................................289 Project Work.........................................................292 English-Russian Vocabulary ..........................................293 i 30^ Qi UNIT UNIl Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Учебник для VIII класса школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Центр германских языков Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова Зам. руководителя Н. И. Максименко Редактор Н. И. Максименко Художественный редактор Э. К. Реоли Художник В. Е. Киселев Техническое редактирование и компьютерная верстка Е.А. Стрижевской Компьютерная обработка рисунков В. В. Брагин Корректор 3. Ф. Юрескул Операторы О.Ю. Русакова, Н.А. Степанова Налоговая льгота — Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005 93—953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД №05824 от 12.09.01. Подписано в печать с диапозитивов 07.04.06. Формат 70 X 90 Vie- Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура SchoolBookA. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 19,47 + 0,45 форз. Тираж 50 000 экз. Заказ № 2793. Открытое акционерное общество «Издательство «Просвещение*. 127521, Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Отпечатано в ОАО «Тверской ордена Трудового Красного Знамени полиграф-комбинат детской литературы им. 50-летия СССР*. 170040, г. Тверь, проспект 50 лет Октября, 46. 302 $ ти l>CNr-c воон Учебно-методический комплект по английскому языку для VIII класса школ с углубленным изучением английского языка авторов О. В. Афанасьевой и И. В. Михеевой является продолжением линии УМК для II-VII классов, созданной авторскими коллективами под руководством И. Н. Верещагиной и О. В. Афанасьевой. Учебно-методический комплект состоит из: • учебника • рабочей тетради • книги для чтения • книги для учителя • звукового пособия Отличительные черты учебно-методического комплекта: - коммуникативная направленность обучения - формирование высокого уровня владения навыками и умениями в говорении, аудировании, чтении и письме - углубление филологических знаний учащихся - расширение страноведческих знаний учащихся ISBN 5-09-015220-9 152204 ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО