Английский язык 7 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева

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о. V. Afanasyeva I. V. Mikheeva Student’s Book . V PROSVESHCHENIYE PUBLISHERS УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А94 На учебник получены положительные экспертные заключения по результатам научной (заключение РАН № 10106-5215/204 от 12.10.2011 г.), педагогической (заключения РАО № 187 от 29.01.2014 г., № 042 от 05.02.2015 г.) и общественной (заключения РКС М 196 от 07.02.2014 г., № 701 от 01.04.2015 г.) экспертиз. The authors are sincerely grateful to our British colleagues Prof. Bryan Woodriff and Carmen E. Boothe for practical support and valuable comments. Условные обозначения задание с использованием аудиозаписи ДСП.. © - задание для подготовки к экзамену (State final assessment) дополнительная информация из Интернета А94 Афанасьева О. В. Английский язык. VII класс : учеб, для общеобразоват. организаций и шк. с углубл. изучением англ. яз. / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева. — 3-е изд. — М.: Просвен];ение, 2016. — 352 с. : ил. — ISBN 978-5-09-037572-6. Учебник является основным компонентом учебно-методического комплекта «Английский язык» и предназначен для учащихся VII класса общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка. Основная задача курса — совершенствование приобретённых ранее знаний и умений и подготовка учащихся к сдаче Основного государственного экзамена (ГИА) по английскому языку. Материалы учебника способствуют достижению личностных, метапредмет-пых и предметных результатов обучения. Учебник получил положительные знн;гн»чения по итогам научной, педагогической и общественной экспертиз на соответствие Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту среднего (полного) общего образования. УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ВВК 81.2АНГЛ-922 I.4HIV «7Н-5-(Ю-«37572-в 2014 Издательство «Просвещение», Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2014 Все права защищены I RUSSIA, MY HOMEIAMD THE WAY WE SEE OURSELVES THE WAY OTHERS SEE US US AND THEM' .eviswn Knowing a foreign language gives you a chance to exchange information with people from other countries. Naturally, we want to know as much as possible about each other. Russia has always been a country of mystery and attraction for foreigners. Winston Churchill once said that Russia “is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma^”. We, people living in Russia, love our country and are proud of it. We would like other nations to understand and love our homeland. That’s why it’s important to learn to talk about ourselves. * us and them = we and they (colloq.) “ an enigma [I'nigma] — загадочное, непостижимое явление; загадка 1. See if you can answer these questions about Russia. Student’s Books IV (Lessons 53—57), V (Lesson 5), VI (Units 2, 3, 8) can help you. Republics in the ® Caucasus (3) Altai I—^—I Russian Federation @ Urals (Ural Mountains) (3) Mountains of East Siberia 1. What is the official name of our country? 2. How many republics are there in the Russian Federation? 3. Who was the first Russian President? 4. What is the highest law of the Russian Federation? 5, Who is the Russian President at the moment? Who is the Prime Minister? 6. When did Russia stop being a monarchy ['mnnaki] and become a republic? 7. What is its capital? What can you say about it? 8. Can you name some other major cities of Russia? 9. Russia is the largest country in the world, isn’t it? 10. Where are the Altai and the Caucasus mountains situated? What other Russian mountain chains do you know? 11. Where are the rivers Lena and Ob situated? What other Russian rivers do you know? 12. What are the names of the seas around our coasts? 13. What do you know about Lake Baikal? 14. What do you think are the most important events in the history of Russia? 15. Can you name any famous people of Russia? Who are they? What are they famous for? 16. What symbols of Russia do you know? 17. What do you know about the Russian national flag? Say why white, blue and red have always been symbolic 4 colours in Russia and what they symbolize. 2. А. Look at the chart and describe the Russian National Government. Say who the Head of the country is, who the Head of the Council of Ministers' is. What is the official name of the Russian Parliament? Who is the Head of the Federal Council?® Who is the Head of the State Duma? The Russian National Government % the President and his aides (helpers) the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister ll the Federal Council (the upper House) the Federal Assembly® (the Parliament) ) the State Duma (the lower House) j V.. . ■ ■. B. Find out what role the political parties play in our country. Ask your parents if necessary. 3. Choose the right item. 1. The official name of our country is .... a) Russia b) the Russian Federation c) the Republic of the Russian Federation 2. There are ... republics and 62 other regions in the Russian Federation. a) 22 b) 12 c) 17 3. The National Government of Russia consists of ... . a) the President and the Prime Minister b) the President and the Council of Ministers c) the President, the Council of Ministers and the Federal Assembly 4. There are ... Houses in the Federal Assembly, a) two b) three c) four 5. The lower House of the Federal Assembly is .... a) the State Duma b) the Council of Ministers c) the Federal Council ’ the Council ['kaunslj of Ministers — Совет министров ® the Federal Council — Совет Федерации the Federal Assembly [a'sembli] — Федеральное собрание 6 6. The population of Russia is about .... a) 145 000 000 b) 48 000 000 c) 548 000 000 7. The Head of the Russian Federation is .... a) the President b) the Prime Minister c) the Speaker of the State Duma 8. The original name of the city founded on the Neva banks by Peter the Great was ... . a) Petrograd b) St Petersburg c) Leningrad 9. The eight ancient Russian towns which are known as Zolotoe Koltso (the Golden Ring) include Sergiyev Posad, Pereslavl-Zalesskiy, Rostov Veliky, Suzdal, Vladimir, Kostroma, Ivanovo and ... . a) Tver b) Smolensk c) Yaroslavl 10. Russia is a land of over ... nationalities, a) 10 b) 200 c) 1000 4. A. We talked to a group of British teenagers and asked them what they would like to know about Russia. This is what they asked. Answer their questions. 1. What are the most popular activities carried out by young people? 2. Is it cold all the year round? 3. What is the nmst fashionable make of shoes? 4. What kind of music do you listen to? 5. Who are the most popular musicians? 6. Do you like living in Russia? 7. What sports do you do at your school? 8. Would you like to come to Britain? 9. What types of cars are popular in Russia? 10. What foreign languages do you learn at school? B. Make a list of questions you would like to ask these children. 5. Perhaps the most difficult question the British children asked was this; “How does Russia compare with what you know of Britain?” Try to answer the question comparing Russia and Great Britain in: 1) geography 5) peoples and languages 9) capitals 2) size 6) natural world 10) housing 3) climate 7) hobbies 11) schools 4) popidation 8) food and drink 12) pets 6. The British children asked us more questions. Read the answers and guess what the questions were. 1. The ecological situation in Russia is not very safe. Pollution in some industrial towns is high. Some parts of western Russia were badly influenced by radiation from Chernobyl in 1986. In many places wildlife is in danger. Anyhow, more and more people are beginning to realize that a clean environment is extremely important. Ecological education has found its way into schools. We all hope that the situation will soon become better. 2. Perhaps the greatest love of Russians is for tea. It’s drunk without milk and is often served with homemade varenye (jam), baranki (circles of dry pastry^) and pirozhki (baked pastry with some filling). Russian-style tea is a special ceremony when people sit around a table with a^ samovar [' sasmava:] (tea-urn) placed in the middle and drink hot strong tea with a slice of lemon either from cups or from glasses in glassholders. 3. Usually tourists buy traditional Russian souvenirs such as Matryoshka dolls, beautifully painted mugs, plates and spoons from the village of Khokhloma and Palekh boxes. Richer people buy amber,^ furs, art books and caviar. Some tourists are more interested in badges, T-shirts and Russian fur hats {ushankas). 4. The main dishes of the traditional menu are blini (pancakes) with honey, caviar or sour cream, different soups (like shchi and borshch), pirozhki, pelmyeni (boiled pastry with a meat filling) served with mustard, butter, vinegar or sour cream. Russian people eat brown bread with nearly every meal. 5. Many Russians are religious people. The main church is the Russian Orthodox Church.® It has survived the hard times and now people speak about a rebirth of religion in the country. New churches and cathedrals are built every year, old ones are restored.* But not ' pastry ['peistn] — тесто ^ amber ['sembs] — янтарь “ the Russian Orthodox [oiGodoks] Church to restore [n'slo:] — реставрировать — Русская православная церковь all people in Russia belong to the Orthodox Church. There are other religions too and there are a lot of people who are non-believers, 7. To know a country means to know its people. These are the portraits of some famous people of Russia. Imagine that your foreign guests have asked you about them. Use the information below and tell your guests about these people. Alexander Pushkin (1799—1837), the greatest poet I'paud] and writer — born in Moscow into a family belonging to the ‘cream’ of Moscow society; — received his early education at home; — at the age of eight composed his first poem; — published his first poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” in 1820 and became famous; — created literary Russian, wrote a lot of poems; — had political views close to the “Decembrists”; — died after a duel [’djuiolj; — buried in Svyatogorsk Monastery ['mnnsstori] near his family estate^ Mikhailovskoye; — the best known work is “Eugene Onegin”^ (1823—1831). Peter Tchaikovsky (1840—1893), a Russian composer — was born in a village near modern Izhevsk; — composed a lot of symphonies, created beautiful music for operas and ballets; — his most famous operas — “Eugene Onegin” (1878), “Iolanta” (1891), “The Queen of Spades”^ (1890); his famous ballets — “Swan Lake”, “Sleeping Beauty”, “The Nutcracker”*', — the Tchaikovsky House Museum in Klin was opened in 1894; — the International Tchaikovsky Music Competition started in 1958 in Moscow. ' a family estate [isteitl — фамильное поместье “Eugene Onegin” [Juitfeln o'njeigin] / [jiv'genji a'njegrn] ® “The Queen of Spades” — «Пиковая дама» В ' “The Nutcracker” — «Щелкунчик» Isaac ['aizak] Levitan (1860—1900), a Russian artist — was born in August; had two sisters and a brother; — spent his childhood in the small village of Kibarty; — in 1873 began learning to paint; — had to earn his living after the death of his parents (mother — 1875, father — 1877); — showed the poetic beauty of Russian nature in his paintings; — used the best traditions of Russian artists; — studied the countryside, the fields, the woodlands, the meadows; — one of his famous works is “Autumn Day. Sokolniki Park" (1879); — A, Chekhov called him “Russia’s best landscape^ painter”, Georgy Zhukov (1896—1974), a famous Russian army officer, marshal ['та:Д] of the USSR — was born into the family of a poor shoemaker; — at the age of 11 went to Moscow to find a job; — took part in World War I; — in 1940 became a general in the Soviet Army; — took part in many battles during World War II; — was at the head of the armies in the battles of Moscow, Stalingrad, Leningrad, Kursk; — in 1969 wrote a book about his life; — was made Hero of the Soviet Union four times. Yuri Gagarin (1934—1968), the first Russian cosmonaut — was born in a village near Smolensk; — spent his childhood in a big family, had a sister and two brothers; — in 1951 finished a vocational school,^ then a school of aviation and an Airforce Academy in Moscow; ‘ a landscape ['l®ndskeip] — пейзаж ® a vocational [vau'keijonl] school — зд. ремесленное училиш;е 9 — 12.04.1961 made a space flight on board the spaceship “Vostok”; — made a flight around the Earth that lasted 1 hour 48 minutes; — was the first man on Earth to fly into space. Heading for Information 8. Read the text in this leaflet.’ You’ll see that the text falls into two parts. Say what they are about. Give them titles. SWAN LAKE Music by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky "Swan Lake" is one of the best-loved ballets the world over, and it is very difficult to imagine that its first performance in 1877 was not a success. Since that time, however, the ballet has won the hearts of ballet lovers. "Swan Lake” is a powerful story of the love of Prince for the beautiful Odette, transformed by a wicked magician^ into a swan. Set to Tchaikovsky's immortal ^ music, "Swan Lake" offers an evening of passion and beauty, leaving an unforgettable impression. The St Petersburg Ballet Theatre now makes its first appearances in Scotland visiting Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen, The beautiful Russian city of St Petersburg is the place where Russian Classical Ballet was born. The city has produced some of the world's greatest ballet dancers. Continuing that unbroken tradition, the St Petersburg Ballet Theatre was founded in October 1994 by Konstantin Tatchkin. Many members of this young company came to the Theatre from the Ballet Academy of Vaganova and other leading Russian ballet companies. Now this Theatre includes over eighty dancers, musicians and technicians."^ 9. A. Read the text “Swan Lake” again. Say true, false or not stated. 1. The first performance of “Swan Lake” impressed the public greatly. 10 ' a leaflet |'li:(lUl — :id. рекламный проспект ® a magician [тя'фУ’эп] — колдун, волшебник "immortal |i'ino:tl| — бессмертный technicians llek'[iij'n/.| — зд. технический персонал театра 2. Tchaikovsky was a young man when he wrote the music for this ballet. 3. The Prince’s name was Odette. 4. In this story a girl was turned into a swan. 5. The St Petersburg Ballet Theatre had been to Scotland before. 6. St Petersburg is the birthplace of Russian Classical Ballet. 7. Konstantin Tatchkin is a composer. 8. Many members of the young company came from other cities. 9. The Ballet Academy of Vaganova is well-known in Russia. 10. The St Petersburg Ballet Theatre includes eighty dancers. B. These are answers to some questions on the text. Make up the questions. 1. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. 2. No, it’s famous the world over. 3. In 1877. 4, A wicked magician. 5. Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen. 6. St Petersburg. 7. In 1994. 8. By Konstantin Tatchkin. 9. Eighty dancers, musicians and technicians. Heading for Discussion 10. Elizabeth, a teacher from Britain, has just visited Moscow. This is a page from her diary. Read it, then listen to the text, 1, and say if she liked the capital of Russia. A Page from a Diary When I first arrived in Moscow, everything appeared to be rather grey and dark, but as I came to the city centre, there was a dra-matic^ change. There were so many fantastic buildings with very interesting architecture. I found Red Square and the Kremlin very impressive and was surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals in and around Moscow. I got the impression that religion is still at the heart of the Russian culture. Although a large number of churches are not used for services, they are beautifully kept. The frescoes ['freskouz] and icons ['aikunz] are brilliant.^ My first journey by Metro was unforgettable. Some of the stations are beautifully decorated. At one of the stations I thought I was in ' dramatic — зд, значительный ^ brilliant — восхитительный 11 а palace. There were huge chandeliers^ and wonderful artwork all around. I felt important. Moscow is definitely a city of contrasts. So rich in many ways, yet in other ways, quite poor. There is so much history here, you can feel it everywhere you go. Everything tells a story: demonstrators marching^ through Red Square, people reading books, magazines and newspapers in the Metro, modern buildings, shops and the things they sell, street markets ... the list is endless! The dramatic changes over recent years are quite evident.^ Russia has produced a great number of very creative* and talented people. Theatrical performances, museums and picture galleries in fact all aspects of Russian life prove that. Moscow is one of the cities of the world that must be seen, I think, and this is what ITl tell my friends when I come back home. 11. Explain why: 1) Elizabeth’s impression of Moscow was “rather grey and dark” at first; 2) her idea of Moscow changed when she saw the city centre; 3) Elizabeth got the impression that religion is still at the heart of the Russian culture; 4) Elizabeth thought she was in a palace when she was having her first journey by Metro; 5) she calls Moscow a city of contrasts; 6) Elizabeth says there is much history in Moscow; 7) Elizabeth thinks that Moscow is the city that must be seen. 12. Say if you agree with Elizabeth on these statements and explain why. 1. Moscow is definitely a city of contrasts. 2. Religion is still at the heart of the Russian culture. 3. There are many fantastic buildings in Moscow. 4. A large number of churches not used for services are beautifully kept. 5. The Moscow Metro looks like a palace. 6. People read a lot in the Metro. 7. The dramatic changes over recent years are easy to notice. 8. Russia has produced a lot of very creative and talented people. 9. Moscow is the city that must be seen. 13. In her diary Elizabeth has mentioned only a few things about Moscow. What else can you add? Imagine you are giving your impressions of Moscow. What places will you describe and what will you say about them? What other things will you mention? ' a fihandeUer |,|'.епс]з1|э| — люстра “ to march — маршировать “ evident I'cvidantl — очевидный 12 ■* creative |kri'eiliv| — творческий, созидательный speaking 14. “Moscow is a city where a lot can be seen and much can be done.” Develop this idea and say what people can see and do in the capital of Russia. 15. Imagine that a group of teenagers has come to Moscow or your native city. You have met them at the airport and are taking them to the place where they will stay. What will you tell them about Moscow or the place where you live? 16. Look at this plan of Red Square. Use the information below or any information that you have and imagine that you’re taking a group of tourists around Red Square. Tell them about the places they can see around. Answer their questions. Work in small groups. St Basil’s / Pokrovsky Cathedral built in 1551—1561 after the victory over the Kazan Kingdom; architects — Barma and Postnik; unusual architecture: eight churches placed around the tallest ninth church; nine beautifully painted cupolas [‘kjuipalsz]; thick walls; could be used as a fort.' The Monument to Minin and Pozharsky built in 1818; the first statue put up in Moscow; the words on the monument: “To Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky — from a grateful^ Russia”. Minin and Pozharsky were heroes of the people’s struggle in the war against Poland in 1612. ’ fort [fo:t] — форт, крепость ^ grateful [greitfgl] — благодарный 13 mi Lobnoye Mesto — a platform of white stone constructed in the 16th century; the tsar’s [zq:z] orders were read from it; also used as a place for execution.^ The Spasskaya Tower — the tallest tower of the Kremlin: 67.3 metres tall; one of the symbols of Moscow; the Kremlin clock made in the 16th century strikes on the hour, the half hour and the quarter; the minute hand is 3.28 metres long. The Lenin Mausoleum [,mo:s3'lram] (Mavzoley Lenina) — in the centre of Red Square by the Kremlin wall; built in 1924; the architect — Alexey Viktorovich Shchusev; rebuilt in 1930; at first was made of wood; now built of stone, brick, marble ['ma:bl] and granite {'grasnit]. The State History Museum opened in 1883; a rich collection of documents, drawings, pictures, maps showing the country’s past; materials about Russia’s great people. The State Department Store (GUM) — in the 16th century this place was occupied by the first stone shops; one of the largest department stores in the country; an impressive building with a glass roof; hundreds of small shops inside; just about any things to buy. 17. Match these important dates in the history of Russia with the events. 1147 • Napoleon tries to conquer Russia 1237 • the USSR enters World War II 1613 • Alexander II writes the decree abolishing serfdom® 1703 * Khan [ka:n] Batyi of the Golden Horde [ho:d] conquers 1812 Moscow, the Tartar yoke"^, which lasted until the 16th cen- 1861 tury, begins 1917 • Peter the Great founds St Petersburg on 16 May 1941 • the USSR breaks up 1980 • Moscow hosts the XX Olympic Games 1991 • Mikhail Romanov is elected Tsar of all Russia, the Romanov dynasty begins • the October Revolution takes place • Yuri Dolgoruky founds Moscow 18. The question “How can you describe your nation?” is difficuit. Let’s think of the answer together. ' execution [|eksi'kju:Jn] — казнь ® just about anything — практически всё * the decree abolishing serfdom ['s3:fd3m] — декрет, отменяющий крепостное право 14 ’ the Tartar yoke ['toita jouk] — татарское иго Ideas; 1. One nationality or more? 2. Good characteristics (hospitable, friendly, open, ...)? 3. Bad characteristics (sometimes careless, often unsmiling, having poor manners, ...)? 4. A high cultural level? 5. A reading nation? 6. A nation of sport lovers? 7. Keeping traditions? 8. A nation who takes good care of children, old people and invalids? 9. National hobbies? 10. A nation that has done a lot for world civilization [iSmlai'zeiJn] ? 19. There are some of the things that people from abroad often say about us. Do you think they are true? Support what you say. 1. The memory of World War II is deeply felt in Russia. 2. The Russians are much interested in the rest of the world. 3. Russian people are very hospitable. 4. The key symbol of Russia is the troika. 5. The Russians love to sit down for a nice long chat. 6. The Russians have a habit of lying. 7. Religion is important to most Russians. 8. Pollution is high in Russia. 9. Childhood is the best time in a Russian’s life. 10. The Russians love animals, especially horses and dogs. 11. At table the Russians help themselves without asking. 12. The Russians never do anything by halves.^ 13. Before leaving on a journey, Russians sit down together for a few moments. 14. The Russians talk non-stop. 20. A. Listen to the talk, 2, and say: a) where Bob, Ann and Alice spent their summer holidays, b) what country Alice comes from, c) how many children there are in Alice’s family. Back from Holiday fA group of students at the International School of English in London on their first day after the summer holidays.) Alice: Had a good holiday? Bob: All right, thank you. We went to Spain actually.^ Ann: Oh? What was it like? Bob: We enjoyed ourselves very much. The weather was fine and we just lay on the beach all day. It felt really wonderful to be lazy for a change. ‘ by halves — наполовину ^ actually ['aktfuali] — на самом деле, в сущноети 15 vMifM Alice: Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: Bob: Alice: Bob: Alice: Ann: Alice: What was the weather like there? Excellent. The brilliant sunshine and the warm blue sea, sometimes a bit too hot in the afternoon, but on the whole very pleasant. Well, you are certainly looking brown. And we went touring round St Petersburg. What was it like? Not bad. The weather was not as hot as in Spain, and we didn’t enjoy long sandy beaches, but I think the trip was pretty good. We visited Pavlovsk, Peterhof, Tsarskoe Selo with its two royal palaces. The Great Palace in Peterhof is just wonderful. Picturesque countryside. Pd never realized how beautiful it was. Yes, I’ve always wanted to go there. What about you, Alice? Where did you go? Oh, I stayed at home and helped my mother. That doesn’t sound much of a holiday, does it? No, but with four Uttle brothers and sisters it’s a bit of a problem going away. So my family decided to stay at home and just go out for the day. That sounds sensible.^ It’s surprising how little one knows of one’s own country. You won’t believe I’d never been to the Tower of London before! B. Act out the talk. C. Make up your own dialogue (talk) about your summer holidays. 21. A. In the group of British students we met in summer there were some who wanted to know more about Russian schools. Try to answer some of their questions. 1) How big is a typical f'tipikol] Russian school? 2) Do you wear a uniform at your school? 3) How many school holidays do you have each year? 4) How long is your school day? 5) Must all the pupils learn a foreign language? 6) What are the teachers like in Russia? Are they strict?^ B. Think of what you can say to a British teenager about your class and your school. You can use these ideas: 1) you and your classmates; if you are good friends, what you like to do together; 2) what your school building is like; what you have ' sensible ['sensibll — разумный 16 ^ strict [strikt] — строгий 0МГЙ in your school; 3) what subjects you do at school; which of them you like and why; 4) what your typical day at school is like; 5) whether you like your school and what makes you like or dislike it. 22. A. Make sure that you know the Russian national holidays and festivals^ and match the names of the holidays, the dates and their descriptions. 1 January 7 January February/March 23 February 8 March March/April 1 May 9 May 12 June 4 November 1) Russia Day 2) Orthodox Christmas 3) Maslenitsa 4) New Year Holiday 5) Victory Day 6) Day of People’s Unity^ 7) Easter (Paskha) 8) International W^omen’s Day 9) Day of Spring and Labour 10) The Motherland Defender’s Day a) It celebrates the end of the Soviet Union’s participation in World War II in Europe. Parades and processions of veterans are held in big cities. People lay flowers in Moscow’s Park Pobedy and at the Tomb^ of the Unknown Soldier. b) This day is celebrated with all-night services in church. c) This is a day off. Probably the busiest people on this day are flower sellers. Men and young boys try to please their mothers, ’ a festival [’festavlj — is a special holiday often held in memory of a religious event marked by public enjoyment ^ Day of People’s Unity — День народного единства ® a tomb [tu:mj — могила 17 sisters and friends by giving them presents, flowers and chocolates. d) We celebrate the day when Russia became an independent country, the Russian Federation, after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. This is an official holiday. e) It is the main Orthodox festival. People colour eggs and enjoy traditional Russian dishes. Churches hold special services on this day. f) This is a new holiday in Russia to celebrate the unity of the nation. Now this day is marked by marches and demonstrations in central parts of Russian cities and towns. For many people it’s just another day off. This day was chosen as four centuries ago at the beginning of November the Polish invadors were driven out of Moscow by Russian troops under Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky. g) This is the day when gifts are given by Ded Moroz {Father Frost), decorating New Year trees and joyful parties. h) This festival marks the end of winter and the beginning of spring and Lent.^ During this festival people make pancakes, sing traditional songs and dance traditional dances or go visiting each other. i) This holiday is devoted to soldiers and officers and everyone else who ever defended the country or is in the Army. These people are sent special cards and given presents. Concerts are also given in their honour. j) On this spring day people prefer to go out into the streets and take part in all kinds of outdoor activities. B. Speak about one of the holidays in greater detail. Ask your parents for more information, if necessary. To make your story more logical write its outline first. m rtttn^ 23. Write 3—5 sentences to answer these questions of British students. 1. What is the most popular TV programme in Russia? 2. What are the main sports played in Russia? 3. What kind of things do you do in your free time? 4. What are your hobbies? 5. What is your town like? 6. Do you celebrate Christmas? 7. Do many people have pets? What kinds of pets? 8. Is it easy to travel in and out of Russia? 18 ‘ Lent — Великий пост 9. What are the most common forms of transport in Russia? 10. What does it feel like to live in one of the biggest countries of the world? 24. One of the British students wanted to know what Russian apartments (flats) are like. Write a paragraph to describe your flat. Draw a plan of your flat. 25. This is a postcard that Elizabeth sent from Moscow to her friend in London. Read it and write a postcard to your friend who lives in some other town about the place where you spent your summer holidays. Ьелг AuK'^ time'itvMoscow-, amlthe'weather is^ootC, 30 %! t went to Ssjuare- ajut ike KremUfo yesterday. St BasU/s Catkedral is as beoMti^ inside as it is outsidje. 1 also went otta> boat trip'aion^ die Moshow Biotr. It wasgreatfusv! TomorrowZpla*c to go to Sergiyetr Posad where I wUl see many more - beoMtSpsl churches and cathedrals. ~ Seeyowsootv. Tahecare. Loue, Liz, . Mrs A. Brown/_ Z4 EUSTON K.OAD LOHDON________ ENCiLASV______ NW 1767f 26. Imagine that you are having a holiday in Britain (or any other English-speaking country). Write a postcard to your parents or to your friend from that place. 27. Imagine that your friend Roger came back from the holiday he spent in Scotland. You want to know what kind of holiday he had. Write Roger’s part to complete the dialogue. The words can help you. had a coach^ tour; the coach was old, the weather was nasty; the passengers were too noisy; third-rate hotels; my money was stolen; the police were most unhelpful ^ a coach [kautj] — междугородный автобус 19 WMi You: What was your holiday like? ^^oё'eг: Terrible, quite, quite terrible ... (1) You: What exactly was the matter? Roger: ... (2) You: I see! Roger:... (3) You: So you are not pleased with your holiday at all, are you? Roger:... (4) 28. A. Make a Graup Journal.' Devote 1—2 pages to each student. Decorate the cover together. Use photos, pictures, etc. Write answers to these Journal questions: 1) Where were you born? 2) Where have you lived during your life? 3) Do you like the town where you live now? 4) Where would you like to live if you had a choice?^ 5) What is your family like? 6) What do you expect of this school year? 7) What are your three greatest wishes? B. Let every student read his/her page aloud. Keep the Journal till the end of the school year. SUMMING UP THE TOPIC Think of it and say: — what new things about your country you’ve learned; — what else you would like to know; — if you’ve changed your view on any problems while working on the topic; — why a dialogue of different cultures is so important nowadays; — what is tolerance and if you consider yourself to be a tolerant person; — what makes people love their home countries; — what makes you proud of Russia. ' a journal ['cfesinl] = зд. a diary-20 “ if you had a choice — если бы у тебя был выбор м iscellaneous 29. Match the pictures with their descriptions. Say who the monuments are to. 1) the work of the sculptor Alexander Mikhailovich Opekushin is situated in front of the “Rossia” cinema and “Pushkinsky” concert hall, there are fountains behind it 2) the work of Nikolai Andreevich Andreev, Russian sculptor and painter, is situated in front of the Maly Theatre 3) the work of Nikolai Vasilievich Tomsky is situated in front of the Moscow University on the Vorobyev Hills 4) the work of Sergei Vladimirovich Orlov and several other sculptors, the bronze statue is 14 metres high, is situated opposite the Mossovet building 5) the work of the sculptor Sergei Mikhailovich Volnukhin, a member and lecturer of the Petersburg Academy of Arts; a bronze statue on a black stone pedestaP with the words “The Printer^ of books till then unknown” ’ a pedestal [ pedtstl] — пьедестал ‘ printer [ pnnta] — податник 21 30. Listen to the song, 3, and sing it aiong. Moscow Suburb^ Nights (Music by Soloviov Sedoy) Not a rustling^ leaf, not a bird in flight In the sleepy grove® until dawn. How I love these nights, Moscow suburb nights, The caress^ of the waking sun. The calm rilling® stream seems to ebb and flow® Like a silver web’^ of moonlight, In my heart I hear singing come and go On this wonderful summer night. Why this downcast® look? Does the rising day Bring us near the hour when we part? It’s as hard to keep as to give away All that presses* upon my heart. twice twice twice twice Dawn is nigh,^* and pale grow the amber lights. Let me hope, my dear, that you too Will remember these Moscow suburb nights And our love that has been so true. 31. Did you know that ... ... Moscow, the capital of Russia, was named after the River Moskva on which it stands? The name of the river has many possible origins. For example a) from Slavonic moskva = “wet, swampy”; b) from Slavonic most-kva = “bridge water”; c) from Finno-Ugrian” mosca = “river, water”. ... St Isaac’s Cathedral in St Petersburg is decorated with 112 granite columns? About half a million people from different parts of Russia took part in its building. ‘ suburb [SAbarb] ® rustling [ rASltql “ grove [grauvl — 22 пригородный шуршащий — роща ■* caress [ka'res] — ласка ‘ rilling — струящийся “ ebb and flow — движется и не движется ’ web — паутинка “ downcast — печальный '■* presses — тревожит nigh [nai] — близкий “ Finno-Ugrian [,йпэи jii:gri9n] — фиипо-угорский {группа языков) ... there are 93 rivers and streams, 20 canals [ks'n^lz] and more than 100 lakes in St Petersburg? ... the State Museum of the Revolution in Moscow used to be the famous English Club which rich people visited? ... Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II visited Russia in October 1994? It was the first visit to Russia by a reigning British monarch. She visited Moscow and St Petersburg. ... the Romanov tsars are blood relatives of the Windsors? Tsar Nicholas II was a cousin of the Queen’s grandfather. His wife, Alexandra, grew up at the court of her grandmother Queen Victoria. ... the Bolshoi Theatre is the oldest theatre in Moscow? It was founded on 28 March, 1776. But the theatre got its beautiful building so familiar to any Muscovite only in 1915. ... Russian people say “Neither fur nor feather” before beginning something important? But English-speaking people (mostly actors) say “Break a leg”. 32. For further information on the topic “Russia, My Homeland’’ see the Internet sites: http://www.rogerdarlington. co.uk/Russianpoliticalsystem.html оЭ http://www.123independenceday.com/russian http://www.infopiease.com/country/RUSSiA.html Home Reading lesson i Project Work 1 (see p. 315) SMGUSH - А lAMGUAGS OF THE WO»lD SOME FACTS FROM THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH THE LANGUAGE WE ARE LEARNING WHY WE LEARN IT WHERE WE USE IT WHERE AND BY WHOM SPOKEN IT IS R, ,eviswn 1. Answer these questions. 1. How long have you been learning English? 2. Do you learn English only at school? 3. Where else is it possible to learn a foreign language? 4. Have you ever tried to learn English on your own (reading books, watching educational programmes on TV, videos and films in English, listening to radio programmes)? 5. Which of these ways of learning a language do you find most' effective? Why? 6. How much time do you think a person should learn a foreign language to be able to say: a) “I can speak English”, b) “My English is fluent”? 7. Do you think it is possible to know a second language as well as native speakers do? 8. Why are you learning English? Do you find it interesting? Hard? Useful? How can it be useful? 9. Why do you think people learn foreign languages? 10. Do you think language learning has become less popular or more popular recently? Try and prove it. 2. Say true, false or don’t know. Correct the false statements. 1. The English spoken in the USA and Australia doesn’t differ from 24 the English spoken in Great Britain. 2. There are many borrowed words in English. 3. People cut down long words to get new ones. 4. There are three English-speaking countries in the world. 5. Some words came to English from Russian. 6. There are 450 words in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. 7. All dictionaries are always made in two languages. 8. You can learn English only if you live in an English-speaking country. 9. English is the most popular foreign language in Russia. 10, There are thirty-two letters in the English alphabet. 3. Look at the map and see how many countries of the English-speaking world you can name. In some of these countries English is a native language (say in which) and in others it is another official language. You can use the box for help. ш 1. Great Britain 19. (the) Bahamas [ba'haimaz] 2. The USA 20. Barbados [bai'beidns] 3. Canada 21. Swaziland 4. Australia [e'streiljs] 22. Lesotho 5. New Zealand [,nju: 'ztland] 23. Liberia [lai'biana] 6. India 24. Cameroon [kaema'ru:n] 7. Pakistan [,po;ki'sta:n] 25. Uganda [jir'gsenda] 8. Bangladesh [,Ьэег)д1э'6еЛ 26. Eritrea [,en'treia] 9. Sri Lanka [,sri: 'lEcpks] 27. Kenya ['kenja] 10. Ireland ['aialsnd] 28. Zambia ['zsembia] 11. Papua New Guinea 29. Zimbabwe [zim'ba;bwi] [’pa:pu:3j ['gmi] 30. Malawi [ma'laiwi] 12. South Africa [,sau6 'sefrika] 31. Namibia [na'mibia] 13. Nigeria [nai'i^icns] 32. Botswana [bnt'swama] 14. Ghana ['да:пэ] 33. Malta I'malta] 15. Sierra Leone [si,era h'aun] 34. The Philippines [5a 'fili,pi:nz] 16. Gambia ['ggembia] 35. Singapore [.sigga'po:] 17. Tanzania [|tasnz3'ni:a] 36. South Sudan [sau9 su:'da:n] 18. Guyana [gai'aena] 37. Brunei [bm:'nai] 4:. Complete the tag questions and let your classmates answer them. 1. You know everything about English grammar, ...? 2. You can tell an American from' an Englishman when you talk to them, ...? 3. English is taught in all schools of Russia, ...? 4. Students don’t like to do tests in foreign languages, ...? 5. Nowadays all educated people should know English, ...? 5. Look at the table to remember how to form simple tenses. Give examples of your own to illustrate each formula. The Simple (Indefinite) Tenses Present Past Future usually, often, always, seldom, hardly ever, occasionally yesterday, ago, last .... the other day, in 1998 ... When? Where? some time in the future, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, soon 26 ‘to tell sb from sb else — отличить кого-то от кого-либо другого Present Past Future -b ?/- -f- ?/- -t- ?/- I we - V you they do/don’t -1- V Ved (V,) did/didn’t + V will (shall) -l-V’ will (shall)/ won’t (shan’t) -t-V he she Ps it does/doesn’t + V will -H V will/won’t -I- V 6. А. Study the Reference Grammar material (p. 324—327) to find out how to use simple tenses. B. Look at the examples and say which of the rules they illustrate. 1. The year has four seasons. 2. Thank you very much, I won’t forget your kindness. 3. We occasionally go to the seaside in summer. 4. Peter drove straight on for ten minutes and then turned off the road. 5. Dinner will be ready when mother comes back from work. 6. Sorry, I don’t understand him, he is talking so fast. 7. I’m afraid I forget her telephone number. 8. It rained for the whole day yesterday and we had to stay indoors. 7. A, Match the two parts of these proverbs and sayings. 1) Honesty is 2) Bad news 3) It never rains 4) Rome was not built 5) If you run after two hares. a) travels fast. b) in a day. c) you’ll catch none. d) but it pours. e) the best policy. B. Choose one phrase and say how you understand it. Give an example or examples to illustrate it. Think of a Russian proverb or saying which expresses the same idea. 8. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue in which one of you will be an interviewer and the other — a famous scientist who can say what is to be expected in the future. Use future simple. These ideas can help you. 1) how the population of the world will change; 2) if people will have enough food, water, oil, etc.; 3) how people will travel; where 27 they will live; 4) if the climate will change and how; 5) if there will be any forests and wild animals left; 6) if there will be any separate countries and languages; 7) if people will go into space and/or live under water; 8) if people will be happy. 9. Complete these sentences. Example: We’ll go to the cinema when you do your lessons. We’ll go to the cinema if you do your lessons well. 1. I’ll call you later if ... . 2. He’ll never be happy if ... , 3. The plants will grow better if ... . 4. I’ll write a poem when ... . 5. We’ll go skiing when ... . 6. Jane will learn French if ... . 7. I won’t speak to you if ... . 8. They’ll work on the computer as soon as ... . 9. Our group will visit Sydney when ... . 10. I’ll feed the dog and walk him as soon as ... . 10. Express the same in English. 1. — Я звонил тебе вчера, но ты не ответил. — Да, я вчера гулял в это время. Я гулял два часа перед сном. 2. Когда бы Лиза ни готовила, она всегда готовит прекрасно. 3. Ты сыграешь на гитаре, если я буду петь? 4. Металлы плавятся при высоких температурах. 5. — Где ты купила эту ручку? — Я не помню. — А зачем ты её купила? — Я слышала, что такие ручки хорошо пишут. 6. Джон почти никогда не ходит на стадион. 7. Вчера у меня был удивительный день: что бы я ни делала, у меня всё прекрасно получалось. Я закончила сочинение, купила маме подарок и сама сделала открытку к её дню рождения. 8. Когда мы жили у бабушки, мы обычно ели овсянку на завтрак. 9. Мне сказали, что он предпочитает французский итальянскому. 10. Когда ты ходила в библиотеку в последний раз? . 11. Look at the table to remember how to form continuous tenses. Give examples of your own to Illustrate each formula. The Continuous (Progressive) Tenses Present Past Future now, at the moment at ... o’clock, when while ... at ... o’clock, in the future, tomorrow 28 Present Past Future +/— I am/’m not -M/ing was/wasn’t -I- Ping will (shall) be/ won’t (shan’t) be + Ping we are/aren’t -b ying were/weren’t -bPing you, they are/aren’t + Ping were/weren’t -b Ping will be/won’t be + Ping he, she, it is/isn’t + Ping was/wasn’t + Ping am I Ping was I Ping will I, we be + (shall) Ping are we, you, they Ping were we, you, they Ping is he, she, it Ping was he, she, it Ping he she will it be -1- Ping you they 12. А. study the Reference Grammar material (p. 327—328) to find out how to use continuous tenses. B. Look at the examples and say which of the rules they illustrate. 1. Lucy is coming to see us on Sunday morning. 2. Tom was only 20 when the Second World War began. He was living with his mother at that time. 3. He is always borrowing money! 4. [In a restau rant) — What would you like to drink, sir? — Nothing, thank you. I’m driving. 5. At this time tomorrow I will be lying on the beach. 6. As I was walking down the road I saw Irene. 7. I can’t take the phone: I am washing up. 8. While I was reading John was playing the guitar. 9. It was raining all night. 13. Choose the correct tense: present simple or present continuous. 1. Do you know that water (freezes/is freezing) at -4 2. Sue (looks/is looking) very smart today: she (wears/is wearing) her new black evening dress. 3. Robert (plays/is playing) football best of all in the team. 4, I (don’t eat/am not eating) honey: it always (makes/is making) me sick. 5. What beautiful swans! Look! One (swims/is swimming) towards us. 6. — What (do you look/are you looking) at? — This book. It hasn’t been here before. 7. — Can you explain the rule again? I (don’t understand/am not understanding) it, I am afraid. 8. My father usually (has/is having) coffee in the morning, but today he (has/is having) tea. 9. Where (do you go/are you going)? May I go with you? 10. Fewer and fewer people (smoke/are smoking) tobacco nowadays. 14. Match the questions and answers. 1) What languages does he speak? 2) Is he speaking German to us? 3) Do you buy any periodicals? 4) Why are you buying this funny hat? 5) Do you go to the opera at all? 6) Are you going with us? 7) (At) what time do you usually get your mail? 8) Are we going home already? 9) Who is solving the mystery of the lost notebook? 10) Does Holmes solve all the mysteries easily? a) I like it. I think I can wear it at the Halloween party. b) Between seven and eight in the morning. c) Yes, dear. It is getting dark. d) Yes, he does. He is a great detective. e) I’d like to. f) Just one — his native. g) Sherlock Holmes is. He is a great detective. h) Yes, I do, but not many. i) I don’t think so. I think he is speaking Spanish. j) I do, but not very often. 15. Compare the pictures. Say what is different in picture B. (There are ten differences.) Example: The bird in picture В is singing. It is not singing in picture A. 30 в 16. Put the verbs in the correct tenses. 1. — What you (do) at about 9 o’clock tonight? — I don’t know yet. Probably I (watch) television. 2. — What you (think) about? — My brother. I often (think) about him these days. 3. When I (be) younger, I (prefer) bananas to all fruits, but now I (eat) only citrous fruits. 4. Yesterday evening, when my sister and I (do) our homework, the telephone (ring). I (answer) it and (hear) a strange voice. 5. — Could you give me a lift? — Not today, I (not drive) I (go) by bus. Sorry. 6. Tomorrow after classes John (work) in the library. He usually (go) to the library after classes. He (prepare) for his exams. 7. — You (fly) to the sea or (go) by train? — I (fly); my flight is tomorrow morning. 8 — Whom you (talk) to when I (meet) you in the shop? — To my friend. We (do) shopping together. 9. — How can I get to the station? — I (take) you in my car. I (go) to the sta- 31 32 tion myself. 10. Usually Mary (not make) mistakes in her spelling, but yesterday she (do) the spelling test rather badly. I hope she (learn) the new words now. 11. They (walk) in silence for a long time and then Ben (turn) to Johnny and (smile), “Why you never (tell) me about your family?” he (ask). 12. If someone (call), tell them I (be) free after seven. 17. Express the same in two different ways. (See Reference Grammar, p. 326.) Example: Some time ago we often went to the cinema together. We don’t do it any longer. a) Some time ago we used to go to the cinema together. b) Some time ago we would go to the cinema together. 1, In summer we lay in the sun and swam in the river. Now we don’t do it. 2. When I was seven, I went to the toy shop and looked at the toys there. I don’t do it now. 3. My father played the piano when he was younger. He doesn’t do it any longer: he has no time. 4. When the Smiths came to Moscow, they always stayed with us. Now they stay at the hotel. 5. In older times people often wrote letters to each other. Not many people do it now. 6. When my granny was young, she and her friends danced a lot. But now she says she is too old for dancing. 18. Compiete these phrases to express stronger feeiings. Example; They are never coming ...! They are never coming on time! 1. Jim is always laughing ,.,! 2. Granny is always buying ...I 3. My elder brother is constantly giving 4. Jane is always making jokes ...! 5. Why are you constantly .,.? 6. Why is he always ...? 7. They are never ...! 19. Express the same in English. 1. — Почему ты плачешь? — Я не плачу. Я никогда не плачу. 2. Дождь шёл всю ночь, а теперь дождь не идёт. На улице ярко светит солнце, но дует холодный ветер. 3. Оливер обычно катался верхом, когда жил в деревне. Теперь он живёт в городе, но часто вспоминает о тех днях. 4. — Что ты будешь делать завтра в четыре часа дня? — Не знаю. Думаю, что я буду в .это время плавать в бассейне, а может быть, буду играть в баскетбол. 5. — Мама приезжает завтра. — Я знаю. Я вчера весь день убирал квартиру. 6. ^— Где ты купила этот диск? — Не помню. Но я слышала, что они продаются повсюду. 7. Никола никогда не ест мясо, она вегетарианка (vegetarian). 8. Если ты придёшь вовремя, мы будем в это время обедать и ты сможешь присоединиться к нам. 9. Мэри завтра будет шестнадцать лет. У неё будет вечерицка. Ты придёшь? Complex Object want(s) would like expect(s) you US let(s) them make(s) him her hear(s) me see(s) the girl feel(s) Nina watch(es) notice(s) somebody to do something do something do (doing) something My mother expects us to arrive early. I will make him do what he must do. She has never seen Galina Ulanova dance. I can hear Mary playing the piano next door. 20. A. Use to where necessary to complete the sentences. 1. Have you ever seen fish ... jump? 2. How can you make a child ... learn to be polite? 3. We all want you ... be very happy. 4. Yesterday I heard someone ... say that the weather was going to change. 5. I’ll let you ... go to the cinema if you are good. 6. Sara didn’t expect her mother ... give her a pet as a birthday present. 7. I didn’t notice him ... leave the room. 8. The children were made ... learn a long poem by heart. 9. In the dark the boy felt his father ... take him by the hand. 10. Margo would like her teacher not ... be so strict. B. Express the same in English. 1. Bee мы слышали, как Миша говорил но-английски с американцами. 2. Кто ожидал, что Джейн выиграет соревнование? 3. Меня заставили сделать всю работу снова и не ра.зрешили идти гулять. 4. Позволь мне объяснить тебе, почему я опоздала. 5. Нина почувствовала, что кто-то дотронулся до ее руки. 6. Маленькая де- 33 Еочка с интересом наблюдала, как лебеди и утки плавали в пруду. 7. Я не ожидала, что он так изменится. 8. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы нашим гостям понравился наш город. 21. А. Read the words in transcription and find the countries on the map (P. 25). [tj'streiljo] [,pa:ki'sta:nj [ma'leizia] ['да:пэ] [ba:'beidris] [,nju: 'zi;l9nd] [.bsepgla'dej] [itaenz9'ni;9] [gai'sena] ['mdio] B. Listen to the recording, [,sri: 'laegks] [па1'ф|эпэ] [ЬэЪа:тэг] 4, and check your reading. 22. A. Look at the phrasal verbs, remember what they mean and give examples to show how to use them. (Student’s Book VI, Units 14, 18, 20, 21 can help you.) up out < ClQWn- >afterij^ away , out give ^away^ 34 .back'^ 4,^ up B. Complete the sentences by putting the right verb in. 1. James was carefully ... down what the teacher was saying. 2. — I’d like a cheese pizza, please. — To eat here, or to ... away? 3. Who is going to ... after your cat when you are away? 4. The coat I bought is too small for me, do you think I should ... it back to the shop? 5. I have no time to read the book, but I’d like to ... it through. 6. I won’t ... off my jacket; I’m not staying long. 7. Is it a true story or have you ... it up? 8. Unfortunately she didn’t ... after her mother, she is a lazybones. 9. I know the task is difficult, but don’t ... up. 0Mi ш ASSESS YOUR RESULTS Tasks No. No. No. No. No. No. No. Total Results 7 10 13 14 16 20A 22B Maximum result 5 10 10 10 12 10 9 66 Your result J^eaiing for Information 23. A. Read the text once carefufly and say why English is taught and learnt in almost' all the countries of the world. An English-speaking World Language belongs to each of us. Everyone uses words. What is it about language that makes people so curious?^ The answer is that there is almost nothing in our lives that is not touched by language. We live in and by language. We all speak and we all listen: so we are all interested in the origin of words, in how they appear and die. The rise of English is a story of wonderful success. When Julius Caesar ['si:ze] landed in Britain nearly two thousand years ago, English did not exist. Five hundred years later, in the 5th century, English was already spoken by the people who inhabited Great Britain, but they were not many, and their English was not the language we know today. Nearly a thousand years later, at the end of the 16th century, when William Shakespeare created his works, English was the native language of about 6 million Englishmen. At that time English was not used anywhere else except Great Britain. Nowadays, four hundred years later, 750 million people all over the world use English, and half of those speak it as a mother tongue.® Of all the 2700 world languages English is one of the richest. For example, compare English, German and French: English has a vocabulary of about 500 000 words, German — 185 000 and French — fewer than 100 000. At the beginning of the 21st century English is more widely spoken and written than any other language has ever been. It has become the language of the planet, the first truly global language. Three quarters of the world’s mail and its telexes and telegrammes are in English. More than half of the world’s scientific almost ['oJmoust] — почти curious I'kjuanas] — любопытный a mother tongue [,тлЗэ 'uq] — родной язык 35 periodicals and eighty per cent of the information in the world’s computers are also in English, English is the main language of business. It is the language of sports: the official language of the Olympics. The English language surrounds us like a sea, and like the waters of a deep sea it is full of mysteries. English is and has always been constantly changing. Some words die, some change their meanings and all the time new words appear in the language. There are several ways to add new words to the language. One of them is by borrowing words from other languages. In modern English there are many words that were borrowed from Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch^ and other languages. When Columbus came back from South America, he brought home to Spain new plants — potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco. With the plants he brought their names. This is how these words appeared in Spanish and later were borrowed from it by the English language. The words that are borrowed tell us about the countries they have come from. Many Italian words that are now part of English {opera, operetta, piano) have to do with music — Italian musicians have always been among the most famous in the world. Many of the words that people borrow from other languages are names of food. Ш B. Complete the sentences with the appropriate^ variants. 1. At the beginning of the 21st century ______________. a) 750 million people use English as their native language b) one can’t underestimate® the use of English c) English is regarded as the richest language of the world d) it is easier to send mail in English than in other languages 2. Ail borrowed words _____________. a) are names of food b) are continuously changing c) reflect the cultures of the countries they come from d) reflect the interest of Italian people in music 24. Read the text again for more detailed information and answer these questions. 1. Is there anything about the language that makes you curious? What is it? 2. Are you interested in the origin of words? What words? 3. Who spoke English two thousand years ago when Julius ' Dutch IdAtJ] — голландский “ appropriate [a'praupnat] — соответствующий 36 ® to underestimate [|And3‘estimeit] — недооценивать Caesar landed in Britain? 4. Was the 5th-century English like English today? 5- How many people spoke English in Shakespeare’s times? 6. How many people speak English nowadays? 7. Which of the three languages has the most words — English, French or German? Which one has the least words? 8. Do you think it’s good to have an international, global language? Why? 9. Why can English be called the language of business and the language of sports? 10. From what languages did English borrow a lot of words? 11. How did the words “potato”, “tomato” and “tobacco” find their way into English? 12. What words came into English from other languages? 13. What else about the history of English would you like to know? N ew language Grammar Section 25. Look at the table and compare different classes of nouns. See Reference Grammar, p. 318. Noun Countables Uncountables f Исчисляемые ) ( Неисчисляемые ) Concrete Collective Material Abstract ( Конкрет- { Собира- (Вещест- ( Абстракт- ные ) тельные ) венные ) ные ) а chair a group snow love а stone a crowd water friendship а lamp a govern- bread beauty а tree ment lemonade politics а human a family sand pleasure а cat ... a team ... meat ... poverty ... Personal Geographical names names Andrew Australia Dickens Moscow Swift the Urals the Browns the Baikal Pussy the Volga Rex Tower Bridge . • • Bagheera ... S3 о s fi о о Ч) 3 S л «и S' 3 g’ V р. о ё о о а 37 26. Divide these nouns into proper (8) and common (24). Find in the iist of common nouns 9 abstract, 7 concrete, 4 materiai and 4 coiiective nouns. Celt, agriculture, anorak, cloud, ice, carelessness, buffalo, Berlin, team, audience, Robin Hood, bravery, California, cream, Chicago, citizen, cockatoo, comfort, company, eucalyptus, ecology, John, energy, horror, influence, knowledge, legend, Mary, McDonald’s, caviar, cheese, family. 27. A. Remember and say how most of the nouns form the plurai in Engiish and how we pronounce and speii nouns in the piural. Read the words. Places, marks, meadows, lungs, mysteries, leaves, watches, oceans, ostriches, insects, churches, ladies, intervals, ghosts, messages, hopes, hundreds, hedges, peaches, graves, fields, giants, wolves, countries. B. Listen to the recording, 5, and check your reading. 2S. Give the piurai of these nouns: university sky party way leaf thief ski key tragedy comedy day taxi story language knife’^ 29. A. The nouns ending in о have a tricky speiiing in the piurai. Look at the tabie and iearn. -s -s/-es -es radios studios dodo(e)s tomatoes pianos stereos dingo(e)s potatoes photos cockatoos buffalo(e)s Negroes kilos kangaroos zero(e)s heroes videos zoos mosquito(e)s [ma'skirtao'z] echoes ['ekooz] discos volcano(e)s (vnl'keinauzj B. Find six mistakes in Robin’s speiiing test. ^ m f ^ ' pototos, kiloes, ‘ The nouns roof, chief, handkerchief, belief, safe do not change -f for -ve in the plu-38 ral: roofs, chiefs, handkerchiefs, beliefs, safes. 30. Some nouns form the plural differently. Read and remember. a man — men a tooth — teeth a sheep — sheep a woman — women a foot ~ - feet a deer — deer a child — children a goose — geese a fish - - fish an ox — oxen a mouse — mice a swine — swine 31. Express the same in English. Прошлым летом я жил в Шотландии на ферме у моего дедушки. Там было очень интересно, потому что у дедушки много животных. Там я впервые в жизни увидел коров и быков. Свиньи мне не понравились, зато я подружился с тремя дедушкиными овечками и иногда кормил их хлебом. Недалеко от фермы было озеро с холодной чистой водой. В озере было много рыбы. Однажды мы с дедушкой ходили на рыбалку и я поймал только одну рыбу, а дедушка — шесть. Когда мы пришли к озеру, там пили воду олени. Один из них был совсем маленький. Каждое утро я кормил гусей, кур и цыплят. Это была моя обязанность. Недалеко от дедушкиной фермы стояла ещё одна большая ферма, где работали много мужчин и женщин. У фермера — нашего соседа — большая семья. У него три сына и две дочери. Маленький Питер очень славный. Когда я уезжал, он принёс мне в подарок двух белых мышей. Теперь они живут у меня дома. Следующим летом я снова хочу поехать в Шотландию. Fruit or fruits'? А fruit/fruits (countable) — фрукт/фрукты (разные виды), разнообразные фрукты. ■ Many fruits taste sweet: pears, peaches, melons. This drink is made from four tropical fruits. A lot of tropical fruits grow on this island: bananas, apples, oranges. Fruit (uncountable) — фрукты (вид питания, в отличие от овощей, ягод и т. д.). We need to buy fruit and vegetables. Do you prefer fresh or tinned fruit? 39 32. Complete the sentences with the right words. 1. There were a lot of (fruit/fruits) on the plate: apples, grapes and oranges. 2. We often have (fruit/fruits) for dessert, 3. Such (fruit/fruits) as bananas and oranges do not grow in our climate. 4. Let’s make (fruit/fruits) salad for the party. 5. Do you prefer fresh or dried (fruit/fruits)? 6. Would you like (fruit/fruits) or coffee to finish your meal with? 7. Are tomatoes (fruit/fruits) or vegetables? 8. What (fruit/fruits) do you put in your salad? 9. What tropical (fruit/fruits) do you know? 10. We always buy fresh (fruit/fruits) at the market. 33. Express the same in English. 1. — Как называются эти странные фрукты? — Это не фрукты, а овощи. 2. Мама часто кладёт в пирог сушёные фрукты. 3. На этом дереве всегда много фруктов? 4, На этом острове растут различные цитрусовые фрукты. 5. Пойди в магазин и купи овощей и фруктов, б. Я люблю, когда на столе разные фрукты. 7. Тебе нужны фрукты, чтобы приготовить торт? 8. Мой братишка очень любит фрукты, особенно бананы. 9. Мы выращиваем в саду много разных фруктов. 10. Я никогда в жизни не видел таких фруктов. 34. А. Look at the table and compare the use of the articles in English. See Reference Grammar, p. 318. one ^ a/an ,, . [бэ] the lesson that - thaC^ 1. a) There is a pen on the 1. Close the window, please! desk. b) A parrot is a bird. 2. Mr Brown is a driver. 2. Jack bought a radio and a CD player, but the CD play- er didn’t work. 3. I haven’t got a dog, I’ve got 3. It’s the film Carmen advised a cat. me to see. 4, Let’s have a break. We are 4. Is it the right number? tired. 40 ш one ^ a/an that - thecrrSi’ ‘“7" [oi] the apple 5. What a pleasant voice! What a strange bag! Zero article^ with the plural: He hasn’t got pets at home. 5. The moon moves round the earth. 6. The squirrel eats nuts. 7. We often spend our holidays in the country. в. Complete the sentences, use a (ал), the or zero article. 1. We knew he was ... foreigner because he spoke with a strange accent. 2. There was ... old Lady of France who taught ... little ducklings to dance. 3. He has not worked hard so there is not much hope that he will pass ... exam. 4. ... hotel is ... place where ... students or ... travellers can get ... meals and ... rooms. 5. “Never lend ... books, for no one ever returns them; ... only books I have in my library are ... books that other people have lent me.” (Anatole France) 6. I’d like ... glass of water. 7. Who’s ... boy standing by ... piano? 8. Today is ... last day when we can give them ... papers. 9. What ... thick dictionaries! 10. The Browns have got ... boy and ... girl. ... girl is three years older than ... boy. Vocabulary Section щшШаШШШ 35. It’s important that you should use good English at your lessons. These phrases can be helpful in class. Listen to them and repeat them after the announcer, [^6. I’m sorry I’m late. How do you call this thing in I’m afraid I’ve left my book at English? home. Can I say it like that? Can I have a copy, please? Sorry, I didn’t get this. Could Shall I read the text? you say it again. please? Shall I do this exercise on the Could you repeat the last sen- blackboard? tence? ’ zero article — нулевой артикль, отсутствие артикля 41 How do you spell this word? Could you explain it again, How do you pronounce this please? word? Could you write it up on the I’m not sure how to put/say it board? in English. Is it my turn? (Am I next?) What’s a better way of saying this? 36. Think of what you should say if: 1. you don’t know how to spell a word; 2. you don’t understand what your teacher has just said; 3. you want to get a copy of something; 4. you want to find out how to say something in English; 5. you are late for your English class; 6. you want the teacher to write a word up on the blackboard; 7. you don’t know how to pronounce a word; 8. you want to know the English word for «землетрясение»; 9. you want to know if it’s your turn to read the text; 10. you’ve left your book at home and want to say you’re sorry; 11. you want to know how to say something in a better English; 12. you don’t know how to say something in English and want your teacher to help you. 1. to get on a) сесть на велосипед, поезд, автобус и т. д. The boy got on his bike and rode away. b) делать успехи, двигаться вперёд How is he getting on with his English? 42 2. to get off — сойти c поезда, автобуса и m. д. We got off the train in London. Compare: to get on/off the bus but to get into/out of the car 0М 3, to get along — уживаться, ладить с кем-то Му dog and my cat get along with each other. 4. to get out — выйти наружу Get out of the room now. 5. to get up — подниматься (c постели) What time do you get up? 6. to get away — удрать, исчезнуть, сбежать The thieves got away with our money. 7. to get over — справиться c чем-то, преодолеть He can’t get over his illness yet. 8. to get down to work/business — приняться за работу/за дело “It’s 11 o’clock. It’s time to get down to work.” 37. Complete the sentences using the missing words: over, to, on, out, off, along, up, away. 1. Jack always gets ... early: he is a farmer and has a lot of work to do. 2. Ladies and gentlemen, I think it’s time to get down ... business. 3. I’m afraid that our secret can get ... . 4. Does she get ... well with her classmates? 5. If you’re going to the Tower, you should get ... at the next stop. 6. Hello! How are you getting ...? 7. Don’t let him get ... with my bike! 8. The old lady got ... of the car with difficulty. 9. That news was a real shock, and we still can’t get ... it. 10. Get ... the bus near London Bridge and go as far as Trafalgar Square. 38. Express the same in English. 1. Я надеюсь, они смогут преодолеть все трудности. 2. К сожалению, она не ладит со своим сводным братом. 3. Убирайтесь отсюда и не шумите (to make а noise)! Вы разбудите ребёнка. 4. Уже полдень, принимайтесь за работу как можно скорее. 5. Сядьте в ав- 43 тобус здесь и выйдите на второй остановке. 6. Завтра мы едем на рыбалку и мне придётся встать в шесть часов утра. 7. Стой! Не уйдёшь! 8. Как у вас дела с концертом? Всё уже готово? 9. Садитесь в машину, мы уезжаем. 10. На какой остановке ты обычно выходишь из автобуса? NEW W0RVS ТО 1ЕЛт 44 39. А. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. The foundations [faun'deijnz] {usually in the plural) of a building are usually below the ground; they are made to support the building. He lived in complete isolation [.aisa'leijn] in the country; no one ever came to see him and he never saw or spoke to anyone. His memory was fantastic; he could read a whole page and memorize [’memoraiz] it in three minutes. An idiom ['idiom] is a group of words with a special meaning. For example a “mystery tour" is an idiom but has little mystery about it. It means a pleasure trip in which the travellers do not know where they will be taken. “To get into hot water” doesn’t mean getting into any water. It is an English idiom that means to be in trouble because of bad behaviour. “A white elephant” is not an animal, it is an idiom which means something very expensive but useless. In English general questions are spoken with a rising intonation [jinto'neijn] and special questions are spoken with a falling intonation. We had dinner and afterwards ['adtawgdz] we all helped with the washing-up. Jack is always so helpful: he does a lot of things about the house. It was very helpful of you to clean the windows. — What’s his mother tongue? — I’m not sure, French, perhaps. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 40. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. a drill [dril] (n): a grammar drill, a spelling drill. A drill is a way of teaching something with the help of repetition or special exercises. an interpreter [тЪ:рп1э] (п): a good interpreter, to talk through an interpreter. I couldn’t speak Italian so Maria was my interpreter in the shop. Natasha knows English well and often works as an interpreter for tourist groups. He spoke very little French so I talked to him through an interpreter. to interpret (v): 1. To interpret is to translate immediately into another language what someone is saying. We didn’t know Italian and Paul had to interpret for us. 2. to interpret a novel, to interpret a dream, to interpret someone’s words. I am not quite sure how to interpret his question. Can you interpret the meaning of the word “isolation”? to practise ['prasktisj (o): You’ll never learn to speak English fluently if you don’t practise. He had to practise playing the piano for hours before the concert. practice (n): a lot of practice, to be out of practice, it takes a lot of practice to do something. It takes practice to become a good teacher. Max is not a very good driver yet: he hasn’t had enough practice. Practice makes perfect. related [n'leitid] (adj): unrelated, related words, to be related to sb or sth. This problem is related to the economic situation in the country. They are related by marriage. up-to-date {adj): an up-to-date car, up-to-date information, up-to-date ideas. We should use up-to-date methods in teaching. old-fashioned [,эоШТее/пё] {adj): old-fashioned clothes, old-fashioned glasses. What a funny old-fashioned radio! I’m afraid such ideas are quite old-fashioned. average ['sevridj] (adj): an average temperature, an average person, above average, below average. An average thirteen-year-old child should be able to understand it. His knowledge of the language is above average. rude [ru:dj {adj): a rude manner, a rude person, to be rude to sb. Don’t be rude to your mother! It’s rude to leave without saying goodbye, I don’t like him: he is always rude to me. to realize ['nslaiz] (u): 1. I didn’t realize that Mark was your friend. Do you realize your mistake? All people should realize that we live on a small and fragile planet. 2. to realize a plan, to realize one’s wish/dream. I hope she will realize her dream to be an actress. 45 to disappoint [.disa'pomt] (y): to disappoint sb, to disappoint sb’s hopes. I’m sorry I have disappointed you. disappointed {adj): to be disappointed at/about sth, to be disappointed with/in sb. I must say I’m disappointed in you. We were disappointed to hear that our friends were not coming. Mary is so disappointed about her new house. almost ['odmoust] {adv): « nearly. Don’t go away because dinner is almost ready. It’s almost lunchtime. I almost think you are right. 41. A. Use the words from Ex. 39, 40 and give the opposite to these: polite, modern, firstly, useless, happy, to forget, unrelated. B. Make up your own sentences with these words. 42. A. Name three things that can be: — up-to-date — helpful — old-fashioned — average — rude B. Name three things that you can: — memorize — practise — realize 43. Give it a name. 1. not fashionable any longer; 2. to translate sb’s speech into another language; 3. willing to help, useful; 4. to know and to understand the importance of something; 5. later, after that; 6. to understand; 7. a group of words used together as a word combination with a special meaning; 8. the part of a building that supports it; 9. rise and fall of the voice; 10. ordinary, not special or the middle member of a group; 11. training someone by doing an exercise again and again; 12. connected; 13. fashionable, modern or new; 14. sad or unhappy because the things you hoped for do not happen; 15. to do something often so that you will do it well; 16. taking or acting in a way that makes other people sad or angry 44. Complete these sentences using the words from Ex. 39, 40. 1. Our team is ...ing for the match on Saturday. 2. It’s important to say things with the right ... . 3. Clothes of 20 years ago look very ... today. 4. What’s an ... temperature in Moscow in winter? 5. — Are those two boys ...? — Yes, they are cousins. 6. It’s ... to turn your back when someone is talking to you. 7. It takes a lot of ... to play the piano well. 8. Thank you very much, you’ve been very ... with washing-up. 9. As soon as I opened the door I ... that there was no one at home. 10. Norman was very ... because his team had lost the final match, 11. My teacher thinks that grammar ... are very important. 12. I didn’t know Spanish, and Maria ... for me. Read and compare! -.....— interpreter translator interpreter [in'taipnta] (n) is a person who repeats what someone else is saying by translating it into another language so that other people can understand it translator [trsens'leita] (n) is a person whose job is translating from one language into another, especially in writing Which of the two — an interpreter or a translator — usually does translations in writing? Orally? vocabulary dictionary vocabulary [vau'kaebjulan] (n) (pi, vocabularies) 1. all the words in a language; 2. a list of words in a lesson or a book; 3. all the words that one person knows A young child has a small vocabulary. dictionary ['dikjann] (n) (pi. dictionaries) a book that gives words in alphabetical order and explains what each word means This book is a dictionary. 4:5. Express the same in English. 1. В шире существует огромное количество словарей. 2. Учителя обычно просят своих учеников вести (keep) словари, чтобы записывать в них новые слова. 3. Дай мне, пожалуйста, вот тот большой словарь с полки. 4. Каждый, кто учит иностранный язык, должен 47 стремиться расширить (enlarge) свой словарь. 5. В конце нашего учебника есть словарь. 6. Открыв словарь, вы можете многое узнать о языке. 7. Словарь Пушкина отличается от словаря Гоголя. 8. Сколько слов содержит словарь английского языка? Read and compare! ^ to be + Adj to get -1- Adj (быть ...) (стать ..., превратиться, перейти в другое качество) 1 sick, tired, lost, 1 sick, tired, lost. 1 hungry, thirsty, dark. hungry, thirsty, dark, to be ( late, dirty, married, to get / late, dirty, married. i 1 cold, warm, dry, wet. 1 cold, warm, dry, wet. 1 sunny, windy, cloudy 1 sunny, windy, cloudy In June it is never dark in It is getting dark. Let’s go St Petersburg, into the house. If you are hungry, have a sand- When we get hungry, we’ll wich. have pizza. How long have you been mar- She says she is getting mar- ried? ried next June. 48 46. А. Complete the sentences using the right adjective from the table above. 1. Please come home before it gets ... . 2. If you are ..., get some juice out of the fridge. 3. My parents got ... 15 years ago. 4. — Can you help me, please? — Fm afraid I’m ... . Where is the metro station? 5. Why are your hands so ... ? Have you been watering the flowers? 6. It had got so ... that we had to stay at home, 7. I know you’re ... . Go to bed and have a good sleep. B. Complete the sentences using be or get in the right form. 1, — ... your sister married? — No, she isn’t. She is going to ... married next summer. 2. It has already ... dark. Why don’t we turn back and walk home? 3. — Yesterday I ... so tired that I couldn’t even wash up after dinner. — How did you ... so tired? 4. It’s very unpleasant when it suddenly ... windy and cloudy. 5. Don’t ... late for school, please, 6. ... you hungry again? We’ve just had breakfast! 7. If you ... sick, we’ll call the doctor. Heading for Discussion 47. Read the dialogue, listen to it carefully, ['гепэ] finds most difficult in learning English. 7, and say what Anna Are You Happy with the Way You Are Taught English? Interviewer: Anna, I know you have been learning English for almost five years and you are planning to become an interpreter. What do you feel about learning grammar? Do you think your teacher spends too much or too little time on it? Anna: Of course, you must learn grammar in any language. After all, you can’t build a house without foundations. But that’s all we do at school — grammar, grammar and more grammar, for half an hour four times a week! We have too many drills. Int.: So grammar is important, but not too much of it. But should it be taught in isolation? Anna: No. You need to practise grammar together with vocabulary. It’s not good when you learn new words but don’t have much practice using them with the grammar you’ve learnt. Int.: With vocabulary — is it better to learn a few words at a time and practise them, rather than a lot of words by heart? Anna: Practice helps you to memorize the words. Also I remember words better if they are related to my interests. I have no problem learning words connected with my hobby which is animals and wildlife. Int.: One of the problems for learners of English is phrasal verbs — to get on, to get along with and so on, and, of course, idioms. Is it a problem for you? Have you learnt enough to cope with idioms? Anna: They’re very difficult. And you have to keep yourself up-to-date with them too. For example, when I first came to England, I used the idiom “It’s raining cats and dogs” very proudly, and everyone laughed at me because it’s so old-fashioned and the average English person doesn’t use that expression. Int.: So, make sure the idioms you learnt are up-to-date. Now, how about pronunciation? A lot of students find that hard. Anna: English intonation is awful! I mean, I think it’s the most difficult part of pronunciation because if you get it wrong, people think you’re rude. Intonation is far more difficult than learning to pronounce words correctly. It’s important to learn both formal and informal English ^— how to ask for information, how to be 49 polite. Let me give you an example. My English teacher phoned me yesterday asking about something he wanted to know, and I just said “no”. Then, when I thought about it afterwards, I realized that I had sounded rude. I should have said^ “I’m afraid I don’t know” or something like that. Learning social English is very useful, take writing letters in English for example. Int.: What advice would you give to people who are just beginning to learn English? Anna: I find reading very helpful —^ I read books, newspapers, magazines and other periodicals. I try to guess the meaning of words I don’t know from their context. This helps me to read more quickly. But I also look up words in the dictionary and make a note of the most useful ones. Int.: How about listening to pop music? Anna: Yes — that can be useful. I was a bit disappointed actually, because some songs have such silly words, though the music is lovely. Listening to the radio and watching videos and educational TV programmes in English help me too. Especially listening to the news. I was very proud when I realized that I could easily get the idea of what I was listening to. Int.: As I can see, learning a language isn’t as simple as all that. You can learn rules for grammar and pronunciation and also for vocabulary, but the most difficult feature of any language is perhaps learning the elements for which there are no written rules — for example “social English”. This means learning about expected ways of behaviour, knowing what sort of English to use in different situations, formal or informal, and how to understand what is said, all that is so easy and natural in your mother tongue. 48. Imagine that you are Anna and answer these questions; 1. Is it necessary to learn grammar? 2. Should one practise grammar and vocabulary together or in isolation? 3. Which is better: to practise using new words or learn them by heart? 4. Are idioms easy to learn? 5. Why is it important to keep yourself up-to-date with idioms? 6. Why is it important to use the right intonation when you talk to people? 7, Why is it useful to try to guess the meaning of words from the context? 8. What can one do to learn to understand spoken English? 9. What is the most difficult feature of learning a language? 10. What does “social English” mean? 50 Ч should have said — мне следовало бы сказать Зю 49. А. Match the phrases in English and Russian, find and read out the sentences with them in the dialogue. 1. what do you feel about ...? 2. to get (have) an/the idea of sth (how to do sth) 3. to find sth hard 4. I’m afraid, I don’t know 5. far more difficult 6. I have no problem learning words 7. to make a note of sth 8. to do/to get sth wrong 9. to keep yourself up-to-date with idioms 10. to ask for information 11. a few words at a time 12. to make sure 13. to cope with a) допустить ошибку b) выяснить что-то, получить сведения c) несколько слов за один раз d) боюсь, что я не знаю e) испытывать трудности в чём-либо f) гораздо труднее g) я без труда заучиваю слова h) понять что-либо i) стараться не использовать устаревшие выражения j) что ты думаешь по поводу...? k) записывать что-то l) справиться с чем-то т) удостовериться, убедиться В. Express the same idea using the phrases above. 1, What does Anna think about learning grammar? 2. Anna thinks that learning idioms is not easy. 3. Anna finds learning idioms much more difficult than learning words. 4. Anna knows the way how to learn grammar. 5. Anna finds it easy to learn words connected with her interests. 6. It is important not to use old-fashioned idioms. 7. If you make a mistake in intonation, people may think you’re rude. 8. It’s important to know how to find things out. 9. It’s much more polite to say “I’m sorry, I don’t know” than just “I don’t know”. 10. Some people find it useful to write down words to memorize them. 11. It’s good to know that you can easily understand what you are listening to. 12. Be sure to do your homework before five o’clock. 13. I am sure he can do the job well. 50. Look through the text again and say what Anna thinks about: 1) learning grammar; 2) learning vocabulary (words and idioms); 3) learning pronunciation; 4) reading; 5) learning social English; 6) listening to pop music, the radio, watching videos and educational TV programmes 51. Imagine that Anna’s interviewer is asking you the same questions about learning English. Answer them and explain your points of view. 51 52. А. Listen to the text “Laugh, Please”, 8, and say which of the two is right. 1. The writer found giving lectures (more difficult/easier) than writing books. 2. Last year he was invited to give a lecture to (Chinese/Japanese) students. 3. Most of his listeners (could/couldn’t) understand spoken English. 4. The writer spoke to the students through (an interpreter/another lecturer). 5. The writer told the listeners a (sad/amusing) story. 6. The interpreter made his story very (long/short). 7. The students (laughed/didn’t laugh) afterwards. 8. The interpreter (told/didn’t tell) the writer’s story in Japanese. B. Answer the questions below. 1. Why did the writer ask the interpreter to translate his lecture for him? 2. Why was the writer surprised? 3. Why did the students laugh? C. Tell the story to your friends. Sjfeakin^ Discussing the Text 53. Develop these ideas from the text “Are You Happy with the Way You Are Taught English?” and say what you think about them. 1. You must learn the grammar in any language. 2. You need to practise the grammar together with the vocabulary. 3. Practice helps to memorize words. 4. I remember words better if they are related to my interests. 5. One of the problems for learners of English is phrasal verbs. 6. You have to keep yourself up-to-date with idioms. 7. Intonation is the most difficult part of pronunciation. 8. It’s important to learn both formal and informal English. 9. Learning social English is very useful. 10. Reading is very useful. 11. Listening to the radio, watching videos and TV programmes in English are helpful too. 12. Learning a language isn’t simple. 54. A. Complete the dialogue with the interviewer’s words. Interviewer: (1) ... Val:^ I’ve been learning it for five years, and I like it very much. short for Valery mtrM Int.: (2) ... Val: I think that most of all I like speaking English, but I enjoy reading too. Int.: (3) ... Val: We do a lot of exercises at home, but sometimes our teacher asks us to do them in class too. Int.: (4) ... Val: Yes, we do. We watched a part of the animated cartoon “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”^ in English last week. We loved it so much that everyone stayed behind after classes to see the end of the film. Int.: (5) ... Val: For me the most difficult thing is listening. When our English teacher plays recordings and we have to listen to them and answer the teacher’s questions, I sometimes can’t get the idea of what I hear and so I can’t give the right answer. Int.: (6) ... Val: Yes, I know. Everybody says that it takes a lot of practice. Int.: (7) ... Val: Thank you. You are very kind. But I’d like to practise my English more to make it more fluent and correct. B. Act out the dialogue with your partner. Discussing the Topic j One of the reasons why a lot of people all over the world learn English is that English has taken the position of the world language. It means that: • 750 million people all over the world use it, • it has become the language of the planet, • it’s the first truly global language, • it’s the main language of business, sports, science, • it’s one of the richest languages, • there are many borrowings from English in other languages, • three quarters of the world’s mail are in English, • English is the world’s computer language. a dwarf [dwo:f] — гном, карлик 53 Everyone can easily think of more reasons to give if asked why he or she wants to know English. Some of such reasons are below; • It’s fun. • My parents want me to do it. • I like reading English. • I want to use English in my future job. • I want to use computer programmes in English. • I like English songs. • My friends are learning English. • I want to go to Britain or the USA or Australia some day. • I want to travel and meet a lot of people. Then ITl talk to them in English. • I would like to read English and American books in the original. There are many ways of learning a foreign language. But most people begin learning it at school. This is what they do to master the language and then keep it up and brush it up: • Have grammar and vocabulary drills. • Read texts, poems, etc. • Write tests, dictations, etc. • Sing songs and play games in English. • Speak about different things. • Make up and act out dialogues. • Watch videos and educational programmes. • Translate texts and poems into Russian. • Learn things by heart. • Learn words in isolation/in context. • Learn a certain number words at a time. 54 Many people learn foreign languages outside school or after classes. These are the things that they usually do; • Borrow English books from the library and read them. • Watch English films, cartoons and educational programmes at home. • Put on/stage plays in English. • Have a student exchange with a foreign school and receive guests from abroad. • Have a pen friend (pen pal) and write letters to him/her. • Take an English course outside school. • Have private lessons at home. • Go to an international summer camp. • Use educational computer programmes. • Go to an English-speaking country. • Make wall newspapers in English. • Have concerts and parties in English. 55. Explain why: 1) English has become a world language; 2) people who speak English have better job opportunities; 3) we use dictionaries to learn a foreign language; 4) it’s important to talk to native speakers whose language you are learning; 5) so many people in Russia are learning English now; 6) learning a foreign language can be fun; 7) it’s not possible to have only amusing^ lessons of English at school. 56. Talk about the way English is taught and learnt in your school. Here are some of the ideas: 1. textbooks and other materials you use while learning English; 2. most effective activities (singing songs, playing language games, reading texts, etc.); 3. the easiest way to learn new words; 4. important things in language learning: grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation; 5. television, computers, videos in English classes; 6. some of the things you do to better your English after classes; 7. meeting English-speaking people. 57. Talk about the way you are learning English. Answers to these questions will help you. 1. Where and when did you begin learning English? 2. Who was your first English teacher? What can you remember about your first English classes? 3. What do you find most interesting (most useful and effective; most amusing) about learning English? 4. Do you read anything in English? Have you read any English books up to the end? What were the books? Did you find them difficult? 5. Do you think reading in English is useful? In what way? Do you use dictionaries to look up words you don’t know? What do you prefer: to read stories in easy English or to have difficult texts for reading? Why? 6. What is the easiest way for you to learn new words? How many new words can you learn at a time? Do you learn new words in iso- amusing [s'mjuizio] — развлекательный 55 lation or in context? 7. Do you like grammar drills? Do you find them important? easy? difficult? useless? boring? Do you think you have too many grammar drills at school? Do you agree that you must learn grammar in any language? 8. Do you think correct pronunciation and intonation are important in learning English? How can wrong pronunciation and intonation lead you to misunderstanding? Do you think the same is true about learning Russian? 9. While learning a language you learn to listen and understand what you hear, you learn to write, to ... and to ... . How can you complete this sentence? 10. What do you and your friends find most difficult about learning English? What are your strong and weak points?^ 11. How are you planning to use English in future? 58. A. Describe your English room. Say what you like and/or don’t like about it. B. Describe an ideal English room as you see it. To make your story more logical write its outline first. Decide whose dialogue is the best. 59. Make up dialogues and act them out. 1. Two students from different schools are talking about the way they are taught English. One of them is very happy about his/her English classes, the other is not, 2. A grandmother (grandfather) and her/his granddaughter (grandson) are talking about the way English was taught fifty years ago and the way it is taught now. 3. A student from Britain and a student from Russia are talking about their foreign language classes; the British student is learning Russian and the Russian student is learning English. 4. An older student, who has been learning English for five years, is talking to his/her younger brother or sister who is just beginning to learn English and finds it rather difficult and sometimes even boring. The older boy (girl) is talking about the pleasures of learning a foreign language, 60. Say how you understand it. 1. “There is almost nothing in our lives that is not touched by language.” 2. “The rise of English is a story of wonderful success.” 3. “Of all the 2700 world languages English is one of the richest.” 4. “English has become the language of the planet, the first truly world language.” 5. “English is and always has been constantly changing,” 56 ' strong and weak points — сильные и слабые стороны 6. “There are several ways to add new words to the language. One of them is by borrowing words from other languages.” 7. “The words that are borrowed tell us about the countries they have come from,” 61. Imagine that your little brother or sister doesn’t want to learn English. What will you say to him or her to encourage’ their learning English? Ask your parents for advice if necessary. 62. Discuss what you would like to do at your English lessons next year and what you would like to learn. 63. Comment on this: When you look at language under a microscope, you can see it changing almost as you watch it: words and phrases, pronunciations and rhythms change at astonishing® speed. “The Story of English” SUMMING UP THE TOPIC Think of it and — what new thin — what other thi — why having a world; — how you are p say: gs you have learned about Enj ngs you would like to know a global language is important i lanning to use English in the ^lish; bout it; n the modern future. Wf 'rttin^ 64. Do these exercises in writing: 9, 10, 16, 18, 19, 20B, 28, 31, 33, 38, 45. 65. Put in prepositions where necessary. 1. Please help Michael, he is not coping ... the translation. 2. Can I ask you a question? What do you feel ... learning two or three foreign languages at school? 3. Tanya always makes notes ... new useful words that she finds in books. 4. How many new words can you learn ... a time? 5. If you don’t know what book to choose in the library, you can always ask ... information. 6. When we talk to Englishmen or Americans, we practise ... our English. 7. I never have a problem ... memorizing poems, but I know that a lot ... students find it hard. ’ to encourage [ш'клгкЬ] — поощрять ^ astonishing [s'stnmfiri] — изумительный, потрясающий 57 8. Are you happy ... the way you are taught English? 9. The text was so difficult that I couldn’t get the idea ... it, though I read it three times. 10. You can use an old idiom and sound funny if you don’t keep yourself ... up-to'date. 11. I must say I was quite disappointed ... the film we saw yesterday. 12. My parents will be disappointed ... me if I am late. 6в. Complete the sentences. 1. What do you feel about going ... ? playing . .. ? 2. I’m afraid doing ... ? I have a changing using ... ... ? ? problem learning ... understanding reading ... memorizing ... finding ... with ... 3. He tries to keep himself up-to-date busy ... happy ... helpful ... healthy ... 4. A lot of students find it hard to ... easy ... helpful ... interesting boring ... 5. English is more ... than ... far more ... than . a lot more ... than a good deal more ... than ... 6. Excuse me, can I ask for 7. I tried hard, but couldn’t get an idea of 8. Make sure that to .. 67. Express the same in English. 1. Ha уроках мы практикуемся в чтении, говорении и письме. 2. — Ты можешь справиться со всеми новыми словами? — Конечно. Я могу запомнить двадцать новых слов за один раз. 3. Не пользуйся этими старыми книгами, тебе нужна современная информация о компьютерах. 4. Слово “memorize” родственно слову “memory”. 5. Прежде чем идти на урок, убедись в том, что ты положил в портфель всё необходимое. 6. — Что вы думаете по поводу этого нового учебника? — Я нахожу его очень полезным. 7. По-моему, очень трудно заучивать отдельные слова, гораздо прош,е учить их в тМ контексте. 8. Средний (обычный) ученик может прочесть и понять этот текст. 9. Какое старомодное выражение! Не пользуйся им. 10. Ты разочарован результатами контрольной? Мне очень жаль. Но я думаю, что тебе надо больше практиковаться в письме. 68. spell the words. fm'tTprita] [,тлбэ 'tvol f'memaraiz] [|int3‘neijn] [’гепз] [ru;d] I'praektis] [dril] ['aiftawadz] [.disa'pomt] ['rialaizj ['odmoust] 69. Test your spelling. Listen to the recording, 9, and write down the sentences. A/lisceUaneous 70. See if you can guess the real meanings of these idioms and match the idioms with the phrases explaining them. 1) A fat cat. 2) To let the cat out of the bag. 3) Like cat and dog. 4) Like a cat on hot bricks (on a hot tin roof) 5) Like the cat that got the cream. 6) Put the cat among the pigeons. 7) While the cat is away, the mice will play. 8) Has the cat got your tongue? a) Very pleased about something. b) To do something that makes people angry. c) Lost your tongue? d) When their boss is away, people often behave badly. e) In a nervous or excited way. f) Fighting badly. g) Somebody rich and powerful. h) To tell people a secret. 59 71. Listen to the song, 10, and sing it along. It’s a Small World It’s a world of laughter, a world of tears,^ It’s a world of hopes and a world of fears^ There’s so much that we share® That it’s time we’re aware^ — It’s a small world after all. There’s just one moon and one golden sun And a smile means friendship to everyone. Though the mountains divide and the oceans are wide. It’s a small world after all. It’s a small world after all. {twice) It’s a small. It’s a small. It’s a small world after all. 72. A. A limerick is a humorous short poem with five lines, three long and two short ones. Find out where the word limerick came from. B. Read these limericks, listen to them, 11, and then draw a picture to illustrate the limerick you like most. I. There was a Young Lady whose nose Was so long that it reached to her toes; So she hired® an old lady, Whose conduct® was steady To carry that wonderful nose. II. There was an Old Man with a poker, Who painted his face with red ochre® When they said, “You’re a Guy!”® He made no reply, But knocked them all down with his poker. 60 tears — слёзы ^ fears — страхи ^ There’s so much tliat we share — У нас так много общего * it’s time we’re aware — нам пора понять * hired — наняла ® conduct ['knndAkt] — поведение ' poker — кочерга ® ochre [аикэ] — охра, бурая краска ® guy |gai| — парень mr^ III. There was an Old Man of the North, Who fell into a basin of broth But a laudable^ cook Fished him out with a hook,® Which saved that Old Man of the North. IV. There was an Old Man of the East, Who gave all his children a feast;® But they all ate so much, And their conduct was such That it killed that Old Man of the East. 73. Did you know that ... ... the shortest sentence in English containing all the 26 letters of the alphabet is “Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs”? ... there is no word in the English language rhyming with “orange”? ... a polyglot is a person speaking or using many languages? One of the famous polyglots was Cardinal Giuseppe Mezzofanti (1774—1849), who used 58 languages, and was familiar with a total of 114 languages and dialects. ... we do not usually know when a new word comes into a language? But we can say that about the word “sputnik”. On the third of October 1957 the word was unknown. By the evening of the 4th of October, it had entered hundreds of langiiages. 74. For further information on the topic “English — a Language of the World” see the Internet sites: http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/society/english-language.html http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-9274183/English-language http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engiish_ianguage Лоте Reading lessons 2,3 Project Work 2 (see p. 315) ' basin of broth — большая миека/таз бульона ^ laudable [’Ь:ЬэЫ] — достойный ® hook — крюк feast [fi:st] — пир 61 ME AND MY WORLD FAMILY FRIENDS HOBBIES AND PASTIMES TRADITIONS LIKES AND DISLIKES BIOGRAPHY R EVlSlOn 1, Answer these questions. 1. What can you tell a stranger^ about yourself? 2. What three things do you think are the most important about you? 3. How big is your family? Are you good friends? What do you like doing together? Have you got any family traditions? What are they? 4. How many friends have you got? Have you got any really close^ friends? Are they your classmates? Do you share® any interests? Do you spend much time together? Where do you go and what do you do? 5. What are the three things that you enjoy doing most of all and the three things that you hate doing? 2. A. Turn the notes into questions and interview one of your classmates. 1. what / your / full name? 2. where / you / born? 3. when / you / born? 4. where / you / live? 5. how long / you / live there? 6. you / have / brothers / sisters? 7. they / younger / older? 8. what / you / do / free time? 9. you / be / other towns / countries? 10. you / have / holidays / in summer? 62 ‘ a stranger ['stremckaj — незнакомец ^ close [kleus] — близкий ® to share — разделять, делить 11. how long / you / study English? 12. you / speak / other languages? 13. what / you / enjoy doing in English? 14. what / you / want to do after you leave school? 15. what / be / your dream? B. Tell the class what you have found out about each other. 3. Look at the phrases in the boxes and make up short dialogues to discuss: a) weather, b) clothes, c) food, d) sports, e) films, f) TV programmes, g) books, h) school subjects. Model dialogue: A: Do you like sunny hot weather? B: No, I don’t. I hate it when it’s hot outdoors. A: Why don’t you like it? Most people enjoy such weather. B: Not me. I can’t stand it when my T-shirt gets wet, when it’s hard to breathe. Yesterday I couldn’t even bring an ice cream home from the shop. It melted on the way. How do you like it I like it a lot (I’m afraid) I don’t (when) ...? (very much) ... like it How do you want I like it when ... I don’t like it a bit your ...? I like it how ... I don’t like it at What do you prefer ...? I love it ... all Do you really like it ...? I prefer ... to ... I hate it Is this OK (all right) ...? I would like ... I can’t stand it What do you feel about I enjoy ... I feel/don’t feel ... (doing something)? (doing something) like ... (doing something) 4, There are so many things to do. Say which of the activities you a) enjoy, b) hate and expiain why. 1. working on the computer 2. doing the sights of a city 3. playing musical instruments 4. roller skating/skateboarding 5. going out with friends 6. going to the museums 7. shopping 8. gardening 9. cooking 10. fishing 63 11. travelling 12. keeping pets 13. reading books 14. camping out in a tent 15. practising sports 16. doing crosswords 17. taking photographs 18. going to a disco 19. watching videos 20. writing poems, etc. 5. Say which of the activities in Ex. 4 are: a) more popular/less popular d) more suitable for young peo- b) more exciting/less exciting ple/for older people c) more expensive/less expensive e) the most interesting/the least interesting f) old-fashioned/up-to-date 6. Look at the tabie to remember how to form and use perfect tenses. Give exampies of your own to iiiustrate each formula. See Reference Grammar, p. 328-331. The Present Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense 64 just, yet, already, ever, never, lately, recently, today, this week, this month, etc. 1) by ... o’clock, by the summer, by that time 2) after ... , ... before ... , ... when ... +/- I, we, you, they have/haven’t +V3 had/hadn’t + V3 he, she, it has/hasn’t + 1^3 He has already come. They have not done it yet. He had finished it by three. We hadn’t cleaned the room before Daddy came. 9 have I, we, you, they V3 (yet) had V she, it ^ has he, she, it (yet) Have you seen it yet? Had she left when you came? 7. Open the brackets to make the sentences complete. A. Past indefinite or present perfect? 1. Nancy (travel) a lot. She (be) to many countries. Last year she (visit) Greece. 2. Hello, Pat! I’m glad to see you in Oxford again. How long you (be) here? When you (arrive)? 3. When you first (meet) your teacher? How old you (be) then? How many years you (know) him already? 4. You ever (taste) any tropical fruit? Where you (eat) it? You (like) it? 5. — Helen (write) the letter yet? — No, she .... She (begin) doing it only ten minutes ago. 6. She says she always (want) to come to Australia. Now she is happy, she (be) here since Thursday. 7. Kate (not, type) all the letters. She (type) three of them yesterday. But she (not, do) anything today. B. Present perfect or past perfect? 1. a) I phoned Mr Williams to find out if Pat (go) away. He was not sure, b) Wait, I’ll go and see if she (go) out. 2. a) Look at this house. I (live) here for 12 years and I am moving to another one next week, b) I (live) in a smali cottage for 12 years before my family moved to town. 3. a) Jack (play) tennis three times this week, b) He said he (not, play) tennis a week before. 4. Alan (see) a lot of Alexandra recently. 5. I often (wonder) how he earns his living. 6. She told me she (work) in England before. 7. When I arrived at the country house, I realized I (lose) the keys. 8. Join the beginnings and ends to get the sentences that make sense: 1. After William had read four a) he felt he could take no more. b) he decided to give his picture to the school museum. c) he understood he would never pass the driving test. d) he started to learn them. e) he thought he could solve any mystery himself. detective stories, 2. When Bill had learnt the last idiom, 3. When Charlie had finished painting, 4. After John had practised driving the car, 5. After he had written out all the unknown words, 9. Make one sentence instead of two using when or after. 1. Joe did all the shopping. Then he went to the cafe for a cup of coffee. 2. Max looked through the three dictionaries he had. Then he found the word he was looking for. 3. Ron wrote three letters. Then he posted them. 4. Jane told her granny about everything. Then 65 66 she felt much happier. 5. Bill finished learning the sonnet by heart. Then he watched television for an hour or so. 6. Edward bought Christmas presents for everyone in his family. Then he bought a camera for himself as well. 10. Express the same in English. 1. Мой новый друг спросил, откуда я родом. 2. Мы не знали, где родилась наша бабушка. 3. Что ты выяснил о его семье? Когда они переехали в наш город? 4. Где ты был всё это время? 5. Джейн спросила своего младшего брата, где он был. 6. Когда мы жили за городом, мы с удовольствием (to enjoy) удили рыбу. 7. Я не знала, что Ник любит спать на открытом воздухе. 8. — Где Питер? — Он ушёл погулять с собакой. 9. К тому моменту, когда мама вернулась, мы уже выучили все новые слова. 10. Он сказал, что не справится с этим заданием. 11. Look through the diaiogue. Change it into the reported speech and then read it aioud. Tolya: We had a grammar class yesterday. We discussed the use of articles in English. Vera: No wonder. They are the shortest and yet the most difficult words in English. Tolya: I don’t think all English people understand how they should use articles. Vera: Neither do I. In many cases they are a complete mystery. Do you think one can realize the difference between the articles? Is it possible to learn how to use them? Tolya: I am not quite sure. Our teacher says it is. We should simply have more grammar drills. Vera: Will they really help? And then they are so boring! Tolya: Don’t lose hope. Let’s hope for the best. 12. Remember the new ianguage of Unit 2 and do these tasks. A. Find the words and word combinations which mean aimost the same as; 1. a vocabulary, 2. a translator, 3. a native language, 4. nearly, 5. to go out of the room, 6. to run away, 7. to start work, 8. to drill, 9. to understand B. Ask for more information. 1. He memorized it. 2. They disappointed him. 3. She practised it. C. Think of the correct way to express the same in Russian. to live in complete isolation, the foundations of the town, the boy was helpful, reading is helpful, a grammar drill, to be out of prac- »м1гМ tice, practice makes perfect, to be related to the problem, a man of average height [hart], to realize one’s dream 13. Look at the pairs of words. In each pair there is a word you know. Read the sentences below and guess what the other word in each pair means. tasty — to taste doubt — to doubt tasty — taste education — educated dirty — dirt childhood — boyhood wood — woody comfortable — comfort 1. Will you taste the soup to see if it has enough salt? I can taste onions in it. 2. I like the taste of chocolate. 3. The farmer came back from the fields with dirt on his boots. 4. There was a woody valley not far from the cottage where we lived. 5. I have never doubted his honesty. 6. John has deep knowledge. He is a well-educated man. 7. He had a happy boyhood in the country. 8. Comforts are things which are not necessary but which make your life easier and more pleasant. Fiona [й'эипэ] didn’t earn enough money to get the comforts she needed. 9. Sugar tastes sweet and lemon tastes sour. 14. A. Read the words in transcription, [mo'leizio] ['kasnsdsj [bo'hamoz] ['да:пэ] [,nju: ’ziibnd] [,pQ:ki'sta:n] [ba:'beidns] [,sau0 'aefrika] [,greit 'bntn] B. Listen to the recording, 12, and check your reading. 15. Fiona doesn’t know how to spell the plural of these words. Can you help her? 1) a video; 2) a zoo; 3) a tooth; 4) a deer; 5) a potato; 6) a fish; 7) a woman; 8) a mouse; 9) a roof; 10) a hero; 11) a dodo; 12) a leaf; 13) a ski; 14) a comedy 67 Treading for Information SFA 16. Read the text once very attentively and complete the sentences after it with the appropriate variants. Great Britain: a Country of Traditions Just like families have their own traditions so do countries. It's common knowledge that the British are lovers of traditions. In a whole year, each season in Britain is connected with various colourful traditions, customs and festivals. Spring St David’s Day. March 1st is a very important day for Welsh people. It’s St David’s Day. He is the “patron” or national saint of Wales. On March 1st the Welsh celebrate St David’s Day and wear daffodils in the buttonholes ['bAtnhoulz] of their coats or jackets. May Day. May 1st was an important day in the Middle Ages, the celebration of summer’s beginning, For that day people decorated houses and streets with branches of trees and flowers. In the very early morning young girls went to the fields and washed their faces with dew [dju;]. They believed this made them beautiful for a year after that. Also on May Day the young men of each village tried to win prizes with their bows and arrows. People put a striped maypole decorated with flowers and danced round it. Some English villages still have maypole dancing on May 1st. Summer The Trooping of the Colour. The Queen is the only person in Britain with two birthdays. Her real birthday is on April 21st, but she has an “official” birthday too. That’s on the second Saturday in June. And on the Queen’s official birthday, there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping of the Colour. It’s a big parade [pa'reid] with brass [brers] bands and hundreds of sol-68 diers at Horse Guards’ Parade in London. The Queen’s soldiers, the &MIW0' Guards, accompany her. At the front of the parade is the flag or “colour”. The Guards are trooping the colour. Thousands of Londoners and visitors watch Horse Guards’ Parade. And millions of people at home watch it on television. Swan Upping. Here’s a very different royal tradition. On the River Thames there are hundreds of swans. A lot of these beautiful white birds belong, traditionally, to the King or Queen. In July the young swans on the Thames are about two months old. Then the Queen’s swan keeper goes in a boat from London Bridge to Henley.^ He looks at all the young swans and marks the royal ones. The name of this custom is Swan Upping. Highland Games. In summer Scottish people traditionally meet together for competitions called Highland Games. After Queen Victoria visited the games at Braemar [brei’ma:] in 1848, the Braemar games became the most famous tradition in Scotland. Today thousands of visitors come to see sports like tossing the caber^ (when a tall pole is thrown into the air as a test of strength) or throwing the hammer. The games always include Scottish dancing and bagpipe music. Autumn The State Opening of Parliament. Parliament controls modern Britain. But traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. She travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage the Irish State Coach. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a throne in the House of Lords. Then she reads the Queen’s Speech. At the State Opening of Par liament the Queen wears a crown and the crown jewels. Henley — a town on the Thames to toss the caber — бросать бревно {спортивное состязание) 69 Guy Fawkes Day. November 5th is Guy Fawkes Day (Night) in Britain. All over the country people build wood fires, or “bonfires”, in their gardens. On top of each bonfire is a guy.^ That is a figure of Guy Fawkes. He was one of a band of conspirators [ksn'spiratazj who wanted to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I and his ministers. However, the plot failed, Fawkes was caught on the 5th of November 1605. The conspirators were executed and Britain has celebrated Guy Fawkes Night since then. Before November 5th, children use their guys to make money. They stand in the street and shout “Penny for the guy”. Then they spend the money on fireworks. Winter Up-Helly-Aa. The Shetland Islands are north of Scotland. In the ninth century the Vikings [Vaikipz] from Norway came to the Shetlands. They came to Britain in ships and took away gold, animals and sometimes people. Now, 1000 years later, people in the Shetlands remember the Vikings with the festival which they call “Up-Helly-Aa”. Every winter people of Zerwick, the capital of the Shetland Islands, make a model of a Viking longship with the head of a dragon at the front. Then, on Up-Helly-Aa night in January, the Shetlanders dress in Viking costumes and carry the ship through the town to the sea and burn it there. The festival is a party for the people of the Shetland Islands. Carol Singing. Originally, carols were songs performed with dancing at Christmas and other festivals. They were often sung outside houses by fantastically-dressed actors called Mummers. Many of today’s carols have been written since the 19th century as Christmas hymns celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ [,ct5i:z3s 'kraisl]. 1. On the 1st of May ______________. a) the British have their most favourite celebration b) young girls usually wash their faces with dew c) Londoners still decorate their flats and cottages d) in some English villages people still dance round maypoles 70 a guy [gai] —■ зд. чучело 0шжЖ 2. Shetlanders a) come to Zerwick in a Viking longship b) destroy a copy of a Viking longship in the sea c) dress in traditional Scottish clothes d) celebrate Up-Helly-Aa all over the country Winter Spring Summer Autumn St David’s Day Swan Upping Carol Singing Up-Helly-Aa 17. Now that you’ve read the text once, match the names of the traditions with the season of the year. Guy Fawkes Day The State Opening of Parliament The Trooping of the Colour Highland Games May Day 18. Read the text again for more detaiied information and say which of the two is right. 1. The Shetlanders build a ... a Viking longship and then burn it. a) real b) model of 2. St David’s Day is an important day for ... people, a) Welsh b) Scottish 3. In the past on May Day young ... went to the fields and washed their faces with dew. a) men b) girls 4. On the day of Trooping the Colour the Queen’s soldiers, ..., march in front of her. a) the Guards b) the troopers 5. On the day of Swan Upping the Queen’s swan keeper marks ... swans, a) young b) old 6. At Highland Games you can see .... a) only sports competitions b) sports competitions and dancing 7. During the State Opening of Parliament the Queen sits on a throne in .... a) the House of Commons b) the House of Lords 8. Guy Fawkes was ... of King James I. a) a minister b) an enemy 9. Carols are often sung ... houses. a) outside b) inside 71 л/ ew language Grammar Section The Future Perfect Tense by this time +/- I, we will (won’t) / shall (shan’t) have + he, she, it, you, they will (won’t) have +1^3 7 will / shall I, we have +1^3 will he, she, it you, they have + Ug When we see you next week, we’ll have bought a new car, I am sure John won’t have read “War and Peace” by the end of the year. Will Nick have finished this work before you leave? 19. Open the brackets to make the sentences complete. Use the future perfect tense. See Reference Grammar, p. 331—332. 1. By half past eight they (not, have) supper yet. 2. The birds (fly) away before winter comes. 3. In five years’ time we (finish) school. 4. By this time next week Jack (take) his exam. 5. I hope it (stop) raining before we have to go. 6. I don’t think my parents (buy) a computer by the end of the week. 7. George (not, memorize) all the idioms by Friday. 8. The Rogers (finish) building their new cottage before summer. 9. The party (not, start) before we get there. 10. He 72 (not, come) back by supper time. 20. А. Look at this page from Tony’s personal organizer and say what he will have done by the end of the week. B. Name 3—5 things that you will have done by the end of this week. 21. Complete the sentences, use the future perfect tense. Example: Don’t worry, we... j Don’t worry, we will have finished the work by Friday. 1. When we meet on Saturday, they ... 2. By this time next week ... 3. By seven o’clock we’ll already ... 4. When the class is over, the pupils ... 5. By the end of the month everyone ... 6. If you give us a chance, we ... 7. I promise that by the end of the day I ... 8. The book is not so long, I think I ... 22. Look at the picture on p. 74 and say what these people will have done by six o’clock when the working day is over. Use the verbs from the box. clean, sell, buy, open, shut, drink, eat, post, bring, come 73 I 23. Study the table. See Reference Grammar, p. 320—321. The Definite Article 0М/Г0 1. The noun is clear from the context or situation. Close the books. Take the plate off the table. 2. The noun has already been used. Nick has a dog. The dog is very nice. 4. The nouns describe unique^ objects. Look at the sky! Save the world! the moon the world the sun the north the sky the south the earth the east the sea the west 5. The noun stands for^ the whole class of objects. The dodo was a big bird that couldn’t fly. 3. The noun has got a limiting attribute.’ The man near the window is my brother. all (the), the whole, the same, the right, the left, the wrong, the very, the only, the best, the main, the last, the next, the 1st, the 2nd, etc. the following, the opposite_________ 6. The noun de- scribes the ad- verbial modifier of place'* (where ...?). Father is in garden. the a limiting attribute [limitiQ setnbjiut] — уточняющее определение unique |ju:'ni:k] — уникальный, единственный в своём роде to stand for — употребляться вместо an adverbial [adVsrbral] modifier ['nindifara] of place — обстоятельство места 75 24, А. Match the rules (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) from the table on p. 75 with these sentences to explain the use of the article. a) The anteater is a primitive animal. b) Henry went to the library. c) Robin couldn’t cope with the last text. d) They bought a new English-Russian dictionary. The dictionary is very expensive. e) The idiom was not easy to memorize. f) They live in the north of England. B. Put in articles where necessary. 1. What is ... difference between ... opera and ... operetta? 2. English is ... global language nowadays. 3. What ... interesting periodicals! 4. ... Indian elephant is ... endangered animal. 5. Will ... mystery of Loch Ness Monster be ever discovered? 6. Each child got ... sweet. 7. Put on ... clean shirt, Alec! 8. ... sun is shining so brightly, but there are ... clouds in ... sky. 9. — Where are ... potatoes I bought yesterday? — I put them in ... fridge. 10. Have you done ... exercises yet, Mary? 25. Read and remember. See Reference Grammar, p. 321—322. Articles with the nouns school, college, hospital, bed .. 1. Zero article. Here these words mean an activity. To In At to go to prison to be in prison to be at school to go to school to be in church to be at church to go to church to be in hospital to be at college to go to college to be in bed to be at university to go to hospital to go to university to go to bed to go to work to go to space to be in space to be at work Also! to start/finish work, to watch television 76 2. The/А (An). Неге these words mean buildings, specific objects or places. We need a home for this little dog. Yesterday my mother went to the school to talk to my teacher. There’s going to be a big party in the college (university). Nancy works in a hospital. There were a lot of police at the prison. Tourists often come to look at the church. Lie down on the bed and let the doctor examine you. Thank you for the work you have done. Turn on the television, please, I’d like to see my favourite film. We planted some trees in the space between the houses. Also! 1) to watch the telly 2) to listen to the radio 3) to hear something on the radio 26. open the brackets and complete the sentences. 1. If the patient doesn’t get better, he’ll have to go to {—/the) hospital. 2. What’s on (—/the) television tonight? 3. Would you like to go to (—/the) university with me to listen to Mr Robertson’s lecture? 4. I’ve just heard on (—/the) radio that Russian cosmonauts are in {—/the) space. 5. My father started learning English when he was at (—/the) school. 6. The king’s orders were to take the young man to (—/the) prison. 7. Mother was very angry when she found our cat Milly sleeping on (—/the) bed. 8. {—/The) space between the wall and the table is not enough for this big grandfather’ clock. 9. Dr Clark works in (—/the) hospital where I spent three weeks last year. 10. We thought it would be nice to take our English friends to (—/the) new Church of Christ the Saviour.^ 27. Some of these sentences are not grammatically correct because they have no articles. Use the right articies in the right piaces to get correct sentences. 1. What big college! It has thousand students. Ben is planning to go to college as soon as he finishes school. College that my brother goes to trains managers. ‘ the Church of Christ the Saviour ['kraist 5э 'seiyja] — храм Христа Спасителя 77 2. On Sundays we often watch television together. We have just bought new television, it’s biggest television I’ve ever seen. Turn off television: it’s past your bedtime. 3. Poor man, he hasn’t got home and he hasn’t got family. Come at any time, I’ll be at home. This house is best home for them, I’m sure they’ll be very happy here. 4. Look at hospital! Can you see man at window on ground floor? After his third day at hospital Victor felt much better. I’d like to be nurse and work in big hospital. 5. At what age do English children go to school? School I go to is not far from my house. — What’s this red brick building? — It’s school. Vocabulary Section 28. A. Learn to give your opinion and discuss things. Listen to them and repeat them after the announcer, 13 A. I think (that) ... As I see it ... If you ask me ... I guess (that) ... My view [yju:] is that ... I’d say that ... I suppose (that) ... My opinion is that ... In my view ... I feel (that) ... The point is that ... In my opinion ... I’d rather not say anything about it. B. When you agree or disagree with somebody (or something), you may find these phrases helpful. Repeat them after the announcer, 13 B. You agree You’re not sure You disagree Just so. Yes, but ... . On the contrary!^ I quite agree On the other hand ... . Certainly not. here. I’m afraid Don’t be so silly! Certainly. I don’t agree. Just the other way Sure. I don’t think round. ^ Exactly. you are right. ^ on the contrary ['knntran] — наоборот 78 ® just the other way round — как раз напротив I should think so. I can’t agree That’s just what with you there. I was thinking. I’m not so sure. 29. Change the sentences and use other ways of saying У think. Example: I think English is the most popular foreign language in schools at the moment. My view is that English is the most popular foreign language in schools at the moment. 1. I think shopping for food is boring. 2. I think there are few good shows on television. 3. I think the climate is changing very quickly. 4. I think reading books is enjoyable. 5. I think stories with a happy ending are better than stories with a bad ending. 6. I think all people should be friends. 7. I think translating from Russian into English is difficult. 8. I think ice hockey is not a good sport for girls. 9. I think pollution is one of the greatest problems today. 10. I think pupils should be given a chance to choose the school subjects they want to do. 30. Here are some opinions. Say what you feei about them {agree or disagree). 1. The New Year is the very best holiday. 2. English is a very easy language to learn. 3. Every pupil should learn Latin or Greek at school. 4. I would like to have a computer in every classroom. 5. I believe that having ten lessons a day is just right for students. 6. School holidays should be far longer than they are. 7. All pupils should get free meals at school. 8. Every student should wear a uniform. PHRASAL VERBS to turn 1. to turn around — повернуться, обернуться Walk along the road and don’t turn around. 2. to turn out — оказаться It turned out that all the children liked the idea of going on a trip. The comedy turned out to be very funny. 3. to turn over — перевернутъ(ся) Turn the pancake over, please: I smell it burning. 4. to turn up — появиться, очутиться Soon after the hell he turned up in the doorway of our classroom. 5. to turn into — превратиться (в ...) In the winter, the water turned into ice. 6. to turn inside out — вывернуть наизнанку He turned his sweater inside out to show me the labels. 7. to turn upside down — перевернуть вверх тормашками (вверх ногами ) She turned her room upside down looking for her watch. 8. to turn up — сделать громче to turn on — включить to turn down — сделать тише to turn off — выключить Please turn off the radio or at least turn it down: I’m trying to sleep. Turn up the television, I can’t hear anything. Turn off the light. 31. Complete the sentences, be sure that they make sense. 1. Give him his letter if he turns ... . 2. I turned ... and saw Mary’s face in a window. 3. “I’ll turn you ... a frog!” said the Witch to the Prince. 4. He turned the whole house ... trying to find some 80 up-to-date information on computers. 5. He couldn’t sleep but just turned ... in his bed till 6 o’clock in the morning. 6. Charles turned ... to be a very good friend; he was really very helpful when I was in trouble. 7. The wind was so strong that it turned our umbrellas .... 8. Will you turn the television ... : I have a problem hearing what mother is saying. 9. In a few seconds six white mice turned ... six beautiful horses. 10. Elizabeth was turning ... the pages of her book without reading. 32. Express the same in English. 1. Оказалось, что Джон был весьма грубым мальчиком, 2. Во многих сказках злые ведьмы превращают людей в животных. 3. Переверни три страницы, и ты увидишь картинку, которую ты ищешь. 4. Том вывернул карманы наизнанку, но не нашёл ни одного цента. 5. Он появился в самом конце вечеринки и сразу попросил чашку чая и кусок пирога. 6. А теперь выключите CD-проигрыватели и запишите то, что вы слышали. 7. Оказалось, что практиковаться в игре на фортепьяно не всегда интересно. 8. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты сделал звук телевизора потише. 9. Мы обернулись и были очень разочарованы, когда увидели, что наши друзья не вышли из дома, чтобы попрощаться. 10. Оказывается, что английский язык позаимствовал гораздо больше слов из других языков, чем немецкий и французский. mw WORDS ТО TURN 33. А. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. The child opened his eyes and said sleepily “Good morning”. Let’s put our best tablecloth on the table today: it’s mother’s birthday. The new plates looked nice when we put them on the white tablecloth. A plateful of food is the food that is on a plate and fills it. There was a plateful of sandwiches on the table. This novel was turned into a TV serial [‘sianal], B. Look the words up and make sure that you have guessed right. 34. Read the words, look them up and study the word combinations and sentences to show how to use them. a candle ['ksendl] (n): a tall candle, a beautiful candle, to blow out a candle. When do you use candles? Try to blow out all the candles on your birthday cake. The game is not worth the candle. 82 а candlestick ['k£endl,stik] (n): unusual candlesticks. On the table there were three candles in tall candlesticks. light [lait] (n, uncount.): daylight, sunlight, moonlight, candlelight, in the light of. The sun gives us heat and light. I could see very little in the light of my candles. a light/lights: a burning light, the lights of the city, to turn on/off the light. She went into her daughter’s room and turned on the light. There was a bright light in the middle of the ceiling. light (adj): 1. (not heavy) She wore only a light dress and sandals. Stone is heavy, but paper is light. 2. (not dark) Wake up! It’s light already. What a nice and light classroom! Do you prefer light colours for your summer clothes? to light (lit, lit/lighted, lighted) (u): Let’s light a candle and put it in the middle of the table. Suddenly all the lights on the New Year tree lit up. cheerful ['tjiofol] (adj): a cheerful smile, a cheerful look, a cheerful place, cheerful colours. ‘Cheerful’ means happy and joyful. cheerfully ['tjiofgli] (adv): to say sth cheerfully, to laugh cheerfully. She smiled cheerfully at everybody. He greeted us cheerfully. to pull fpul] (u): to pull hard, to pull the door, to pull out a tooth, to pull sb’s hair, to pull sth out of the river. The horse was pulling the heavy sledge along the road. The little boy pulled the toy train along behind her. to push [poj] (u): to push a button, to push the door, to push the doorbell, to push one’s way through. I pushed the button that locked the door. The children were pushing each other into the water. I pushed my way through the crowd of people. to struggle ['strAgl] (u): to struggle with sb, to struggle for independence, to struggle to do sth. I’m afraid I’m not ready yet, I’m still struggling with the last sentence. Are the people on the screen struggling for the revolver? a struggle (n); in the struggle, the struggle for life. What do you know about the struggle of Russian people during the Second World War? Reading is a struggle for some children. to wind [wamd] (wound [waund], wound) (v): to wind a toy, to wind a clock/a watch. The river winds through the town. Does the road wind through the wood? It was cold so she wound a scarf round her neck. Don’t forget to wind the alarm clock before you go to bed. To unwind. winding (od/): a winding river. It was fun to walk together along the winding path among the trees. to share [[еэ] (и): to share sth with sb. Do you share your bedroom with your sister? Share this bag of sweets with your friends. to regret [ri'gret] (regretted) (o): ‘To regret’ means to feel sorry. Does John regret that he was rude to Jane? regretful [n'gretfsl] {adj): a regretful look, a regretful smile, to be regretful about sth. I’m very regretful about what happened. regretfully [n'gretfoli] (adv): He looked at me regretfully and shook his head. to bounce [bauns] (u): to bounce a ball, to bounce from one thing to another. The ball bounced to my right and I couldn’t catch it. He bounced the ball before throwing it into the basket. He bounced from one film to another trying to see all he could. bouncy ['baunsi] (adj): A person or animal that is bouncy has lots of energy and is very lively and enthusiastic. The puppies looked healthy and bouncy. to knock [nnkj (u): to knock on/at a door or a window. In the middle of the night somebody knocked on the window. a bowl [haul] (n): a big bowl, a salad bowl, a cereal bowl, a bowl of fruit. I need a big bowl to mix the salad. His breakfast consisted of a bowl of cornflakes and a cheese sandwich. close [klaus] (adj): 1. a close friend, a close relative, to be close by, to be close to sth. She did not have many close friends. The church is close to the shop. The shop was quite close by so it didn’t take us long to get there. 2. Why don’t you keep this dictionary close at hand? You may find it helpful. to repair [п'реэ] (u): to repair a house, to repair a car, to repair a radio. Can you repair my watch? firm [f3:m] (adj): a firm bed, a firm decision, firm views. I don’t think that chair is firm enough to stand on. Do you prefer to sleep on a firm bed or on a soft one? Is it your firm decision to leave tonight? Their views on politics are firm. 83 firmly (adu): Could you close the door firmly? Hold me firmly by the hand. 35. Match the words with their definitions. 1. to light 2. to knock 3. to pull 4. to push 5. to struggle 6. to wind 7. to bounce a) to move something strongly towards yourself b) to go round c) to make a noise by striking something d) to move something strongly away from yourself e) to jump like a ball f) to fight g) to make something start to burn or shine 36. Name 3—5 things that can be: close, firm, light (2 meanings), bouncy, regretful, cheerful, sleepy. 37. Add as many nouns as you can to each iine: 1. to repair a washing machine, 3. to pull a toy train, ... 5. to struggle with a thief, ... 7. to wind through the field, ... 2. to push a sledge, 4. to share a flat, ... 6. to wind a toy car, 8. to light a fire, ... 38. Complete these sentences with the missing words where necessary. 1. On his desert island Robinson Crusoe had to struggle ... his life. 2. The wind blew ... the candle, and we found ourselves in the dark. 3. Sam smiled ... us so cheerfully, that we all smiled back. 4. Just push ... the door and it will open. 5. Americans had to struggle ... their independence ... Britain. 6. This river winds ... the forest. 7. Hold me firmly ... the hand: you can get lost in the crowd. 8. Can you hear a noise? I think someone is knocking ... the window. 9. Is there a bank close ... your house? 10. I’m so hungry I could eat a whole bowl ... porridge. 39. Express the same in English. белая скатерть, тянуть за собой санки, взглянуть на кого-то с сожалением, свеча в красивом высоком подсвечнике, жёсткая постель, полные энергии ребятишки, миска супа, зажечь свечи, твёрдые взгляды, яркий свет, вести мяч (в баскетболе), нажать на кнопку дверного звонка, выключить свет, весёлые расцветки, метаться от одного к другому, таскать кого-то за волосы, мучиться с заданием, 34 извилистая тропка, бороться за свободу, завести будильник »мжЖ Read and compare! home house Home is the place where you A house is a building in which live and feel that you belong people live. because that is where your fam- ily is. 1. These children are in need 1. It takes only 35 minutes of a normal home. from my house. 2. Here we are (at) home at 2. John has a house in Florida. last. 3. How many rooms are there 3. I want to go home. in your house? 40. Choose the right word: home or house. 1. Do you live in a ... or a flat? 2. Is he ... yet? 3. He went into the ... and closed the door. 4. A young lady came out of the ... and walked along the street. 5. Nelly is on her way ... . 6. (At) what time do you leave the ... in the morning? 7. I got ... at 5.30 and started to cook at once. 8. We returned ... rather late that night. 41. Express the same in English. 1. Они живут в огромном доме в конце этой улицы. 2. Когда ты обычно приходишь домой? 3. «Кто-нибудь есть дома?» — спросила девочка, когда она вошла в дом. 4. По обеим сторонам улицы тянулись (to be lined with) необычные дома. 5. Пора идти домой. Уже поздно. 6. Это их дом? Read and compare! to go to sleep to fall asleep 1. He went to bed and tried to 1. He went to bed but didn’t go to sleep. fall asleep. 2. I usually go to sleep at about 2. I was so tired that I fell 10.30. asleep in the armchair. 3. “Go to sleep now,” said the 3. She usually reads magazines mother to the child. before she falls asleep. We can’t make ourselves fall asleep but we can make ourselves go to sleep. 85 42. Say which of the two word combinations or both you would use in these sentences. 1. I’m tired, I’m going to bed. I think I’ll ... at once. 2. I said to myself, “... ! ... ! ... !” but I couldn’t. 3. I usually ... at ten o’clock. 43. A. If a plateful means «полная тарелка», what can these words mean? a handful, a cupful, a glassful, a spoonful, a teaspoonful, a mouthful B. Choose the right word from the box above to complete the sentences. 1, — How much sugar do you want? — Two ..., please. 2. One ... of soup is just enough for me, thanks. 3. “Look, what I have,” said the child and showed me a ... of beautiful stones. 4. You need two ... of flour to make this cake. 5. “Take a ... of this mixture three times a day,” said the doctor. 44. A. Read the word combinations and translate them into Russian. Say what structural difference you see between English and Russian phrases. Say what other verbs in English are used in the same structures (see Student’s Book V, Reference Grammar, § 16). to sound sad to sound happy to sound serious to look sad to look serious to sound fine to look happy to look fine B. Express the same in Engiish. чувствовать (себя) плохо, звучать громко, пахнуть сладко, выглядеть печально, звучать серьёзно, быть горьким на вкус, выглядеть забавно, звучать весело C. Маке up your own sentences with these combinations. 45. A. Make sure that you know these words. Listen to the text “The Story Bag”, 14. poisonous ['poiz(o)n3s] — ядовитый delicious [di'lijos] — вкусный couple ['клр1] — пара (e m. ч. муж и жена) sword [so:d] — меч spiteful ['spaitfsl] — злой, злобный шйгЖ в. Answer the questions. 1. What did the boy like to do in his childhood? 2. What did the devoted servant discover while listening to a strange murmuring sound coming from the bag? 3. What did the voices from the story bag speak about? 4. How did the servant save his master? 5. What can happen to stories when they are put away? C. Explain why; 1) the voices from the story bag discussed the boy’s behaviour; 2) the old servant didn’t stop the horse and didn’t go to pick red berries for the young man; 3) the old servant took a sword and walked into the room in front of his master; 4) stories should be shared. D. Tell the story to your friends. Treading for Visfussion 4t6. A. Before you read the text, say if you know anything about Roald Dahl and his books. Does the name “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” say anything to you? B. Look at the title of the text, the pictures and the key phrases and try to guess what the text is going to be about. Key phrases: • to spend boyhood with one’s father • to live in a gypsy caravan • to repair engines in a workshop • to be cheerful and full of fun • to be an excellent storyteller C. Read the text. Listen to it carefully, 15, and say if your guess was right. Danny’s Story (After Roald Dahl) When I was four months old, my mother died suddenly and my father was left to look after me all by himself. I had no brothers or sisters with whom I could share toys or play together. So all my boyhood, from the age of four months on, there were just us two, my father and me. We lived in an old gypsy car-avan^ behind a filling station.^ My father owned the filling station and the caravan and a small meadow behind, that was about all he owned in the world and my father struggled to make both ends meet. ' a gypsy caravan ['^ipsi 'кжгэузеп] — цыганский фургон, ва1’ончик, кибитка ^ а filling station — автозаправочная станция 87 а pram It was a very small filling station on a small country road with fields and woody hills around it. While I was still a baby, my father washed me and fed me, changed my diapers,' pushed me in my pram to the doctor and did all the millions of other things a mother normally does for her child. That is not an easy task for a man, especially when he has to earn his living at the same time. But my father didn’t mind. He was a cheerful man. I think that he gave me all the love he had felt for my mother when she was alive. We were very close. During my early years, I never had a moment’s unhappiness, and here I am on my fifth birthday. I was now a bouncy little boy as you can see, with dirt and oil all over me, but that was because I spent all day in the workshop'' helping my father with the cars. The workshop was a stone building. My father built that himself with loving care. “We are engineers, you and I,” he used to say firmly to me. “We earn our living by repairing engines'* and we can’t do good work in a bad workshop.” It was a fine workshop, big enough to take one car comfortably. The caravan was our house and our home. My father said it was at least one hundred and fifty years old. Many gypsy children, he said, had been born in it and had grown up within its wooden walls. In old times it had been pulled by a horse along winding country roads of England. Different people had knocked at its doors, different people had lived in it. But now its best years were over. There was only one room in the caravan, and it wasn’t much bigger than a modern bathroom. Although we had electric lights in the workshop, we were not allowed to have them in the caravan as it was dangerous. So we got our heat and light in the same way as the gypsies had done years ago. There was a wood-burning stove* that kept us warm in winter and there were candles in candlesticks. I think that the stew® cooked by my father is the best thing I’ve ever tasted. One plateful was never enough. ’ diapers ['daiapsz] AmE (nappies BrE) — пелёнки ^ a workshop ['w3;kjr)p] — мастерская ® an engine [епфт] — моч'Ор, двигатель ■* a stove Istouvl — печь (a) stew [stju;] — рагу For furniture, we had two narrow beds, two chairs and a small table covered with a tablecloth and some bowls, plates, cups, forks and spoons on it. Those were all the home comforts we had. They were all we needed and we never regretted that our caravan was far from a perfect home. I really loved living in that gypsy caravan. I loved it particularly in the evenings when I was tucked up in my bed and my father was telling stories. I was happy because I was sure that when I went to sleep, my father would still be there, very close to me, sitting in his chair by the fire. My father, without any doubt, was the most wonderful and exciting father any boy ever had. Here is a picture of him. You may tliiiik, if you don’t know him well, that he was a stern and serious man. He wasn’t. He was actually full of fun. What made him look so serious and sometimes gloomy^ was the fact that he never smiled with his mouth. He did it all with his eyes. He had bright blue eyes, and when he thought of something funny, you could see a golden light dancing in the middle of each eye. But the mouth never moved. My father was not what you would call an educated man. I doubt he had read many books in his life. But he was an excellent storyteller. He promised to make up a bedtime story for me every time I asked him. He always kept his promise. The best stories were turned into serials and went on many nights running.^ 47. Imagine that you are Danny and answer these questions. 1. Where did you spend your early years? 2. How big is your family? 3. Did you have many friends in your boyhood? 4. What is your house like? 5. What is your father like? 6. Where does your father work? 7. It is not comfortable to live in a gypsy caravan, is it? 8. Why is your father so gloomy and serious sometimes? 48. Decide which of the adjectives you can use to describe a) Danny; b) his father. helpful, active, bouncy, serious, gloomy, cheerful, devoted, loving, caring,® wonderful, exciting, happy, friendly, quick ’ gloomy — угрюмый ^ running — зд. подряд ® caring Е'кеэпо] — заботливый 89 49. А. Match the phrases in English and Russian, find and read out the sentences with them in the text. 1) to go to sleep 2) all by himself 3) to make both ends meet 4) with loving care 5) not to mind something 6) to tuck somebody (up) in 7) without any doubt a) сам, без чьей-либо помощи b) сводить концы с концами c) без сомнения d) не возражать против чего-либо e) заботливо укрыть кого-либо одеялом (подоткнуть одеяло) f) заснуть g) с любовью и заботой 90 в. Express the same idea using the phrases above. 1. Ann never asked anybody to help her. 2. The family didn’t have enough money. 3. It is very difficult to make little Tom go to bed. 4. When I was a little girl, my mother always covered me carefully with my blanket. 5. Jane gave the right answer very quickly. She was sure of it. 6. My mother has nothing against my friends. We always play together in our flat. 7. My parents have always spoken to me in such a way that I was sure they loved me and cared for me. 50. Find in the text and read out the sentences describing the following: a) the workshop b) the caravan and its history c) the furniture and other things they had in the caravan d) the father’s duties when Danny was a baby e) Danny’s early years f) the way the father looked g) Danny’s evenings in the caravan with his father 51. Say who in the story: 1) lived in the caravan; 2) loved living there; 3) had lived in the caravan before; 4) cooked the stew in Danny’s family; 5) never was unhappy in his early years; 6) repaired cars in the workshop. SFA, 52. Say true, false or not stated in the text. 1. Danny’s mother died when he was four years old. 2. There were two deep lakes near the caravan. 3. Danny’s father was a cheerful man. 4. Danny’s father looked serious. 5. Danny was very unhappy in his early years. 6. Danny helped his father to build the workshop. 7. The gypsy caravan was about fifty years old. 8. The caravan was made of stone. 9, Danny’s father never smiled. Syeaking Discussing the Text | 53. These are answers to several questions on the text. Make up the questions. 1. When Danny was four months old. 2. No, he looked after Danny all by himself. 3. No, Danny was an only child in the family. 4. In an old gypsy caravan. 5. He was a cheerful man. 6. One hundred and fifty years old. 7. Particularly in the evenings. 8. They had electric light in the workshop. 54. Explain why: 1) there were just two people in Danny’s family; 2) Danny’s father struggled to make both ends meet; 3) the life of Danny’s father was not easy; 4) Danny’s father thought they should have a fine workshop; 5) Danny had dirt and oil all over him; 6) Danny’s father often looked serious and gloomy; 7) Danny loved his caravan particularly in the evenings; 8) Danny called his father “the most wonderful and exciting father any boy ever had”; 9) they didn’t have electric lights in the caravan. 55. Imagine that you are: a) Danny and tell the story of his life; b) Danny’s father and speak about Danny’s early years and his life in the caravan. Decide whose story is the best. 56. Say how you understand Danny’s words “The caravan was our house and our home” and comment on them. Discussing the Topic | Your family are probably the most important people in your life. Families consist of parents and children. But we can also say that a family is a group of people consisting of a parent or parents, children and their close relations [nieifnz]; 91 • grandparents • great-grandparents • grandchildren (grandsons ['grsnsAnz] and granddaughters) • cousins • aunts • uncles • nieces • nephews • stepbrothers • stepsisters and all in-laws ['mlaizj: • a mother-in-law ['тл5эпп1э;] • a father-in-law • a son-in-law • a daughter-in-law • a sister-in-law • a brother-in-law Every person goes through different stages in his/her life: • a new-born baby ['beibij • a baby (an infant) • a toddler ['tadla] • a little boy/girl • a child coming up to school age • a teenager • a person coming of age (= is going to be 21 soon) • a person in his/her mid-twenties/-thirties, etc. • an adult ['aedAlt] (a grown-up) • a middle-aged person • a person getting on in years • a person advanced in years • an elderly person • an old age pensioner • an old man/woman • a person who is as old as the hills 92 No matter how old you are your family and your friends support you, encourage [in'kAUCls] you in what you do and brighten your life. Good friends are: helpful, supportive, close, devoted, loyal ['biDl] and reliable [ri'laiablj. We often ask each other: “What is he or she like?” and “What does he or she look like?” To the first question you are likely to say/ “He is a very kind man” and to the second question you will probably say, “He is a tall man with black hair and large brown eyes.” You, your family and friends usually do certain things together, you share likes and dislikes and have much in common. These can be your hobbies and pastimes: fishing watching TV cooking gardening travelling going in for sport playing games taking photos • collecting things • keeping pets • going to a disco (discotheque) • drawing and painting • listening to music • playing musical instruments • going to the cinema or theatre • visiting museums 57. A. Say what the English for these Russian words are. свекровь {мать мужа) свёкор {отец мужа) тесть {отец жены) тёща {мать жены) шурин {брат жены) деверь {брат мужа) сноха {жена сына по отношению к его отцу) золовка {сестра мужа) невестка {жена брата или жена сына или замужняя женщина по отношению к родным её. мужа) B. Name all the relatives that your mother and your father have. Say how you can describe their age. C. Describe one of your relatives. Say what he/she is like and what he/she looks like. 58. Say how people can describe your age when you are: three months old two years old four years old ‘ you are likely to say — ты, вероятно, ответишь 93 thirteen years old thirty-five years old forty-seven years old ninety-eight years old 59. Think of the qualities" that make a good parent and a good child. Compare your lists. Decide which of these qualities are more important and less important. a) A good parent is someone who: — thinks about the child’s safety^ — talks to the child b) A good child (son or daughter) is someone who: — has good manners — helps about the house 60. Answer the questions about yourselves, your families and friends. 1. What is better: to have a small family or a big family with a lot of children and other relations? Why? 2. What is your family like? Have you got any brothers or sisters? Are you good friends with them? 3. Have you got baby brothers and sisters? Do you help your mother to take care of them? What do you do? 4. What is an ideal family as you see it? 5. What are your family’s favourite pastimes? What do you like to do together? 6. Do your parents know your friends and do you know theirs? Is it important that you should know each other’s friends? Why? 7. Do you have any good friends? What are they like? What do they look like? 8. Why is it good to have friends? 9. Do friends always have much in common? Is it important in friendship? 10. Can girls and boys be good friends? Why? Why not? 11. Are you a good friend? What do you do to be a good friend? ’ a quality ['kwuliti] — зд. черта характера 94 ‘ safety [seifti] — безопасность шМ 61. Look at these pictures and describe these peopie’s age in other words. 1) about one year old 6) about thirty 4) between 16 and 18 7) about seventy 62. Speak about your early years. Ask your parents about their early years and compare them with yours. 95 —^—i- Щ 63. Look at the picture and make up a story based on it. To make your story more logical write its outline first. 64, Look at these pictures of Jane’s and Mark’s rooms and say how Jane and Mark spend their free time. 96 65. The words in the word boxes describe different activities. Say what activities they describe. Now choose the activity that you like or dislike most of all and describe it in as much detail as you can. 1. 4* to unlock the door to nature’s to read about great artists of secrets the past to enjoy picturesque places to collect books on art to watch birds and animals to learn to draw or paint to examine mysteries of plants to take lessons of drawing j to watch the countryside change to buy paper, brushes, etc. to spend a lot of time in the to draw portraits, landscapes I open air to make sketches outdoors to enjoy a landscape to the full to go to picture galleries to climb mountains to sleep out 2. 5. I best friends the best way to relax^ 1 to keep/not to keep in cages to enjoy the beauty of sth to feed regularly to spend a weekend in the gar- to admire sth den to take for a walk to plant flowers, bushes to show to a vet to look after to train pets to water the plants to teach tricks a large collection of flowers to be one of life’s greatest pleasures 3. 6. to read books about theatre to be fond of music to visit regularly/occasionally to collect records and CDs to watch performances/films to go to concerts favourite actors/actresses to play a musical instrument a comedy to take musical lessons a musical show to go in for dancing a puppet film to train regularly to go to the cinema with sb ' expensive/cheap seats 8. to collect badges (stamps, post- to learn to cook cards, pictures, books, etc.) to make new dishes famous collections and exhibi- to boil/fry meat (fish, chicken) tions to cook for the family (for different collections your friends) to get some knowledge of to make soups (sauces, des- history serts) to exchange things to be good at cooking sth to spend a lot of money and to use spices (vinegar, oil, pep- time on sth per, etc.) to ask for advice to ask for advice to join clubs to set/lay the table beautifully to present the food nicely 66. А. Look at the list of hobbies and pastimes (Ex. 65) and say which of them are: 1) active/non-active, 2) outdoor/indoor, 3) noisy/quiet, 4) expen-sive/cheap, 5) more intellectual/less intellectual. B. Say how you feel about all these different kinds of activities (Ex. 65), use: 1) can’t stand/hate, 2) don’t mind, 3) fond of, 4) really love/like very much, 5) don’t like. SUMMING UP THE TOPIC Think of it and say: — if you have traditions in your family and v important; — what are your family’s favourite pastimes a would like to do together; — how many friends you have and why you fi friends; — why friendship is important in your life. rhy they are nd what else you nd them true 98 l/l/ritin0 67. Just or just now? Put them in the proper places to complete the sentences. 1. Eric has blown out the candle. 2. Elizabeth turned on the light. 3. Jake sounded sad. 4. Little Philip has fallen asleep. 5. Andrew pushed the door and came in. 6. Tom knocked at the door. 7. Rex pulled the tablecloth off the table. 8. The two friends have solved the mystery. 68. Open the brackets to write a complete story. My father was a fine mechanic. He (1. love) engines. And certainly I too should (2. fall) in love with engines and automobiles. (3. Not, forget) that even before I could (4. walk), the workshop (5. be) my playroom. My father (6. put) me there so that he could (7. keep) an eye on me all day long. My toys were springs and pistons that (8. lie) around all over the place, and these, I can (9. promise) you, (10. be) far more fun (11. play) with than most of the plastic toys most children (12. give) nowadays. When I (13. grow) older and (14. be) five years old, my father (15. talk) to me about school. He (16. lay) a hand on my shoulder. “I (17. want) you (18. become) a great mechanic. You (19. learn) a lot already. But when you (20. grow) up, I (21. hope) you (22. become) a great engineer, a man who (23. make) better engines for automobiles and airplanes. For that you (24. need) a really good education.” 69. Express the same in English. A. 1. Джон задул свечу минуту назад и сказал, что он почти всё сделал. 2. — Как он выглядит? — Он небольшого роста, у него голубые глаза и светлые волосы. 3. — Что он за человек? — Он добрый и всегда всем помогает. 4. Ник только что завёл часы, но они не идут (not work). 5. Мой маленький брат никогда не слышал о Роалде Дале, 6. Ты сидишь вместе с кем-нибудь за партой? (Ты делишь с кем-нибудь парту?) 7. Она всегда была жизнерадостным ребёнком. 8. Маленькая Сара только что набрала полный рот конфет. Она их съест? 9. Я никогда ничего не говорил с сожалением. 10. Ты когда-нибудь зажигал свечи? Когда ты это делал в последний раз? Где это было? 11, Минуту назад Хелена обмотала шарф вокруг горла, а затем размотала его снова. B. 1. Когда мама вернётся, мы уже заснём. 2. Думаю, я приготовлю ужин к тому времени, как ты вернёшься. 3. Ты накроешь на стол к 6 часам? 4. К этому времени завтра мы уже прилетим в Вашингтон. 5. К тому времени, как это письмо придёт, он уже будет знать обо всём. 6. Фильм уже закончится к этому времени. 7. Ты уже позавтракаешь к 10 часам? 8. Приходи в семь. Я уже закончу делать уроки. 99 с. 1. Ты видел, как он сам толкал санки? 2. Без сомнения, Аня — самый жизнерадостный (весёлый) ребёнок в классе. Вчера я наблюдала за тем, как она прыгала. 3. Ты слышала, что кто-то стучит в дверь? 4. Я не ожидала, что Джордж будет выращивать цветы с такой любовью и заботой. 5. Эндрю заметил, что Алиса подоткнула одеяльце маленькому Филиппу. 6. Я слышал, что Джейн сказала, что она едва может свести концы с концами. 7. Мы не ожидали, что они будут возражать против нашего плана. 70. spell the words. [‘sisnalj Lfea] [ri'gretfair] ['teiblklD0] ['kEendl|Stik] ['waindip] ['tjisfoli] fstFAgl] f'baunsi] 71. Test your spelling. Listen to the recording, sentences. 16, and write down the M 100 iscellaneous 72. A. Read the idioms and study them. To Push and to Pull Idioms to pull 1. to pull somebody’s leg — дурачить кого-либо, морочить голову 2. to pull a face/faces — гримасничать, корчить рожи, изобра- жать недовольство 3. to pull to pieces — разорвать на куски 4. to pull oneself together — взять себя в руки, собраться с духом to push 1. to push one’s luck — искушать судьбу 2. to push one’s way — протискиваться через толпу, проклады- вать дорогу 3. to push someone to the wall — припереть к стенке, довести до крайности В. Complete the sentences using the missing idioms. 1. Luke! I know that the situation is quite serious. But it’s not the end of the world.......You will get over all the difficulties. 2. There were so many people in the square that they had to ... to reach the entrance. 3. John told me he had seen an alien. I almost believed him but looked at him to see if he was ... . 4. Polly took a risk and hid the golden pen. Then she brought it home. She was not caught that time. But she was .... 5. Though Boris said he hadn’t ridden his elder brother’s hike, Allan ... , and Boris had to explain where he had been and how he had broken his brother’s bike. 6. Ben didn’t like the idea of going to the library instead of watching a football match and ... . 73. Listen to the song, 17, and sing it along. You Are My Sunshine (By Jimmie Davis and Charles Mitchel) You are my sunshine, my only sunshine; You make me happy when skies are grey. You’ll never know, dear, how much I love you; Please don’t take my sunshine away. The other night, dear, as I lay sleeping, I dreamed I held you in my arms. When I awoke, dear, I was mistaken, So I hung my head and I cried. You are my sunshine, my only sunshine; You make me happy when skies are grey. You’ll never know, dear, how much I love you; Please don’t take my sunshine away. 74. For further information on the topic “Me and My World” see the Internet site: http://www.russian.net/index.htm Hifme Reading Lessons 4, 5 Project Work 3 (see p. 315—316) 0MiW i t TA\K5S mamy kimds TO i»/\AiCE Ti-IE WORLD BEHAVIOUR AND MANNERS APPEARANCE PERSONALITY LIKES AND DISLIKES BELIEFS AND OPINIONS WHY IS IT GOOD TO BE DIFFERENT? WE ARE DIFFERENT, WE ARE ALIKE K.evtswn 1. A. Look around you and name the colours of the things you see. B. Look at the pictures and say which of the objects are: a) dark/iight 102 biue; b) dark/iight green; c) dark/iight brown; d) dark/light yeiiow. 2. Ask your friend: 1) what his favourite colour is; 2) what colour most of the houses in his/her street are; 3) what colour the sky in the spring is; 4) what colour the first spring flowers are; 5) what colour his/her favourite sweater is; 6) what colour the planet Mars [ma:zl is; 7) what colour his/her best friend’s eyes are. 3. A. The Robinsons have got an oid car. They want to paint their car to make it iook more attractive. Unfortunately they cannot agree upon the coiour for their car. Say what colour each of them chose. The words can help you. Example: Norman wants to paint the car emerald green. Jack — blue Mary — yellow John — black Norman — green Duncan — white Peter — grey Jenny — red Ann ^— green B. Imagine that you have a car. What colour would you like to paint it? What’s your second choice? 4. We often have to describe objects from different points of view. To do it accurately we need certain words. A. Remember all the adjectives that describe: a) the size of an object; b) the shape of an object; c) what an object is made of. B. Listen to the recording, 18, and check yourselves. с. Memorize some new words to continue these lists: Size: tiny [ taini] — крошечный bulky [ЪлИа] — громоздкий broad [bro:dJ — широкий narrow ['пэггэи] — узкий Feel: smooth [smu:6] — гладкий rough [rAf| — шершавый sharp Lfa:p] — острый blunt IbUnt] — тупой pointed ['pointid] — заострённый fluffy f'flAft] — пушистый Weight: heavy ['hevi] — тяжёлый light — лёгкий Shape: straight [streit] — прямой regular in shape — правильной формы irregular in shape — неправильной формы shaped like a ball (star, heart ...) — в форме шара (звезды, сердца...) Temperature: cool [kii;l] — прохладный stone-cold — холодный как лёд ice-cold ^^ очень холодный, ледяной pleasantly warm — приятно тёплый piping hot — обжигающе горячий 5. Express the same in a different way. Example: Boots made of rubber are rubber boots. 1) A bag made of paper is ... 2) A bowl made of plastic is ... 3) A key made of metal ... 4) A ring made of silver ... 5) A watch made of gold ... 6) A chimney made of iron ... 7) A dish made of glass ... 8) A belt made of leather ... 6. These are some adjectives that describe taste and smell. Name at least ]^04 ^ objects for which such tastes and smells are typical. Example: Mustard is usually bitter (in taste). bitter, salty, sweet, sour, pleasant, nice, terrible 7. A. Read this description and guess what object is described here. This object is not very large, it’s as big as a tennis ball, sometimes a little bigger or a little smaller. It is usually round and quite regular in shape. When you touch it, it feels smooth and firm. It is usually cool and smells fresh. You can eat it and it tastes sweet or sweet and sour. It can be red, yellow or green. What is it? B. Describe these objects: a knife, a bed, a stone, a pencil, a wardrobe. C. Think of an object and describe it. Let your classmates guess what object you mean. 8. Continue the lists with more nouns, see whose list is the longest. 1) (a) tiny bell, ... 2) (a) bulky suitcase, . 3) (a) sharp axe [teks], 4) (a) narrow door, ... 5) (a) broad river, ... 6) (a) fluffy cat, ... 7) (a) smooth cheek, 8) (a) rough sheet, ., 9) (a) blunt pencil, . 10) (a) pointed pen, .. 11) (a) heavy bag, ... 12) (a) straight path. 9. Look at the list of adjectives and divide them into 3 categories: a) adjectives describing a person’s appearance; b) adjectives describing a person’s character; c) adjectives describing other qualities. attractive boring educated fragile independent famous noble greedy bouncy lonely modest em я rf slim tall poor attentive serious stern stupid ugly pleasant short gloomy shy progressive clever careless cheerful polite lazy mysterious brave free strong honest dull fat great lovely curious wise slow young thin tidy ЛХ71 firm 10. Describe these people and think of what kind of peopie they are. 11. These are some popuiar characters from chiidren’s books. Choose one of them or any other character you remember weli and describe him or her. 106 a) Robin Hood b) Robinson Crusoe c) Tom Sawyer d) Oliver Twist e) Alice (from “Alice in Wonderland”) f) Cinderella g) .............. 12, Look at the tabie to remember how to form the degrees of comparison of adjectives. Give 3 exampies of your own to iliustrate their usage. See Reference Grammar, p. 322—324. Adjectives. Degrees of Comparison Absolute (Positive) Comparative Superlative A. — -er -est 1. Односложные low lower lowest при Л агател ьн ые nice nicer nicest hot hotter hottest 2. Двусложные прилагательные на: 1) -у pretty prettier prettiest wealthy wealthier wealthiest 2) -OW narrow narrower narrowest shallow shallower shallowest 3) -1е simple simpler simplest gentle gentler gentlest 4) -ег clever cleverer cleverest tender tenderer tenderest 3. Двусложные severe severer severest прилагательные [siVic] с ударением на втором слоге 4. Трёхсложные unhappy unhappier unhappiest прилагательные untidy untidier untidiest с приставкой Ш1- В. — more ... most ... 1. Все остальные modern more modern most modem двусложные useful more useful most useful прилагательные 2, Многосложные terrible more terrible most terrible прилагательные comfortable more comfort- most com- (три и более слогов) able fortable 107 13. А. Read the poem, 19, and say to whom it can be addressed and who, in your opinion, the speaker is. Just for You I picked^ the reddest apple from the tree. It was the finest one that I could see. I saved^ it all except a bite or two Just for you. I carried home the groceries from the store. I wanted to be helpful with a chore,^ I put them all away except a few Just for you. Some day I’ll be grown-up too. And if I can. I’ll grow up just like you. I ate up all my lunch just like you said. But I think there was a little too much bread And so I left the crust'* when I was through Just for you. B. Compiete the chart with the missing forms of these adjectives from the poem. — — (the) reddest — — (the) finest helpful — — C. Make up a simiiar poem of your own under the titie “Just for You". 14. A. Ask your classmates questions beginning with “Which is ... ?” and iet them answer these questions. Use the ideas beiow and your own ideas. Example: Russia, China, Canada — Which of these countries is the largest? — Russia (is). 1. a kangaroo, a horse, a cheetah (fast) 2. English, French, Chinese (widely spoken) 3. the Nile, the Volga, the Mississippi (long) 4. the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean (big) 5. the Tower of London, St Paul’s Cathedral, the National Gallery (old) 6. a Volga, a Ford, a Rolls-Royce (expensive) 7. English grammar, English pronunciation, English spelling (diffi- cult for you) ^ to pick — ad. сорвать “ to save — сохранить, оберечь a chore [tfa:] — работа (ao дому) 108 ^ a crust [krASt] — корочка # 8, Italy, Norway, Germany (cold/warm) 9. Moscow, St Petersburg, Tula (populated) 10. a hot climate, a cold climate, a mild climate (healthy) B. Use the same ideas and make up more questions on the models that follow. Ask your classmates to answer these questions. Model 1: Is China as large as Canada? Model 2: Is China larger or smaller than Canada? Model 3: Is English less popular than Chinese? 15. Work in groups of 4—6 students and find out these things about each other: 1. who can eat more chocolate bars than the others; 2. who sleeps the longest hours; 3. who has ever tasted the most exotic food; 4. who finds English the most difficult school subject of all; 5. who spends the most time outdoors; 6, who is the tallest; 7. whose home is the farthest from/the closest to the school; 8. whose grandparents are the oldest/the youngest; 9. who spends their holidays in the most interesting way; 10. who has the most unusual pet/pets. 16. Look at the table to remember how to form the present perfect continuous tense. See Reference Grammar, p. 332—333. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense since 1980, since the time you came back, all day, all my life, for 10 years, for a long time, for years, during the 20th century, recently +/- I, we, you, they have/haven’t he, she, it has/hasn’t been + ying Nick has been working non-stop all day. Jane and Pete haven’t been working very well recently. have I, we, you, they has he, she, it been + ying Have you been writing this book all these years? What has John been doing since he left for Paris? 109 Read and compare! The Present Perfect Процесс не завершён. Действие длилось какое-то время в прошлом и продолжается в момент речи. 1. Nick has been writing his exercises for 2 hours. (Ник пишет.) 2. Olga has been painting her “Autumn Landscape” since 2 o’clock. (Ольга рисует.) 3. Mother is in the kitchen. She has been cooking all morning. (Mama готовит.) Continuous Tense Процесс завершён. Действие только что закончилось. Есть видимое свидетельство того, что действие или процесс имели место. 1. Nick’s hands are covered in ink. He has been writing. (HuK писал.) 2. There is paint on Olga’s dress. She has been painting. (Ольга рисовала.) 3. Mother looks tired. She has been cooking all morning. (Мама готовила.) 17. Look at the picture on p. 111 and say what the people have been doing and for how long. 18. Little Alec doesn’t understand some things about his friends and relatives. Try and explain these things to him. Use the verbs in brackets in present perfect continuous. 1. Why are my sister’s eyes red? (cry) 2. Why are my brother’s hands dirty? (work in the garden) 3. Why are Jane’s hands covered in flour? (make a pie) 4. Why is the room in such a mess? (pack) 5. Why does my cousin look so hot? (run) 6. Why does Granny look sleepy? (sleep) 7. Why are Philip’s clothes torn? (fight) 8. Why is Uncle Roger’s face red? (lie in the sun) 110 Read and compare! Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect 1. I have been writing since 10 o’clock, (пишу, процесс не завершён) 2. The man has already been standing near the bank for 3 hours. Isn’t that strange? 1. I have written six letters. (написал, действие закончено) 2. Edinburgh castle has stood above the city for centuries. now 111 Read and compute! Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect 3. I have been reading detective stories with much interest lately. 4. What have you been doing here for so long? 3. I have lately read two detective stories. Both of them were rather boring. 4. What have you done since last Friday? 19. Read the sentences below and translate them Into Russian. 1. a) We’ve been learning English for 6 years, b) John has learnt two sonnets by Shakespeare this month. 2. a) Sorry about the mess: I’ve been painting the house since lunchtime, b) My brother has painted Granny’s room. 3. a) Margaret has been lying in bed all day. b) For centuries the pirates’ gold has lain under that tree. 4. a) Jane hasn’t been working very well recently, b) My Granny hasn’t worked for years. 5. a) Mr Brown has been waiting for half an hour, b) He has never waited for anybody. 20. Complete the sentences. Use the verbs in brackets either in present perfect or present perfect continuous. 1. Patricia can’t go on holiday. She (break) her leg. 2. I can’t listen to him any more. He (lecture) us for an hour and a half. 3, Boris never (speak) Chinese. 4. We (phone) Mrs James for half an hour but can’t get through. 5. — You (phone) Mrs James? — Sorry, not yet. I’ll do it in a minute. 6. Irene (live) in Sally’s flat over the last month. 7. — Jane’s voice sounds strange. She (cry)? — Oh no. She (laugh). 8. How long you (live) here? 9. Eliza (work) as a teacher here since she left London. 10. What you (cook) all morning, dear? 21. Express the same in English. 1. Мы знаем друг друга 20 лет. 2. Мои друзья изучают английский язык четыре года. 3. Ты выучил эти глаголы? 4. Мы никогда не были в Японии, но всегда хотели побывать там (посетить эту страну). 5. Он катается на велосипеде целый вечер! 6. Анна неважно работает в последнее время. 7. Она не пишет стихи уже 3 года, но она написала много стихотворений за свою жизнь. 8. — Почему ты такой грязный? — Я играл с Рексом в саду. 9. Как давно ты 112 ждёшь Машу? 22. А. See if you remember words from Units 1—3 and give these in Engiish: полная чашка молока, толкнуть дверь, извилистая тропка, заводить часы, чистая скатерть, с сожалением, твёрдое решение, подоткнуть одеяло, близкий друг, ваза с фруктами, с трудом сводить концы с концами, стучать в окно, говорить с сожалением, полная столовая ложка лекарства, лёгкая коробка, свеча в подсвечнике, борьба с врагами, скакать как мячик по комнате. В. Маке up sentences with word combinations above. ASSESS YOUR RESULTS Tasks No. No. No. No. No. No. No. Total Res ul ts 13B 14A 18 19 20 21 22A Maximum result 6 10 8 10 10 9 18 71 Your result T^eadin^ for Information 23. A. Read the text once carefutiy and say how Christopher Miine is related to A. A. Milne. A. A. Milne (1882—1956) Alan Alexander Milne [inilnj was born in London on January 18th, 1882. His father was the headmaster of a small preparatory school.^ One of the teachers at the school was the famous writer H. G. Wells. Milne, the youngest of the family's three sons, went to Westminster School at the age of 11 and then went on to Cambridge to become a mathematician [,тзевэтэ'йф1]. But he never did. Instead he became editor ['editsj of the university’s journal f'd^snill “Granta” in which he published some of his light humorous poems. Then he went to London hoping to earn his living as a writer. By and by London magazines began to publish his witty works, and in 1905 he published his first ' preparatory (prep) school — a private school in Britain for children between ages of 8 and 13, where they are made ready to go to a school lor older pupils 113 book, a shilling paperback collection of humorous essays ['eseiz]. Aged only 24 he was given a post of assistant editor of the famous magazine “Punch”at the salary of 5 pounds a week — a lot of money at that time. In 1913 he married Dorothy De Selincourt (Daphne ['dEcfni] to her friends) and the following year, when the war broke out, he joined the Army. At the front line he got ill and had to return home, to London. The Milnes’ only child was born on August 21st, 1920. Mrs Milne had hoped for a girl, to be called Rosemary ... instead she presented her husband with a lovely, fair-haired and adorable son, Christopher Robin. The Milnes bought him a teddy bear for his first birthday. The teddy bear was soon named Winnie, after a real-life bear that lived at London Zoo. A. A. Milne wrote a lot of poems for Christopher Robin and about him. Some of the poems became very popular songs. One rainy summer Milne rented a house in the country. He took with him a pencil and an exercise book, and in eleven days wrote so many children’s poems that they filled a book. It was published in 1924 under the name “When We Were Very Young” and sold half a million copies! In 1925 the Milnes bought a farm in Sussex, which they used for weekends away from London. From this old house it was a short walk over a bridge into the Ashdown ['gejdaun] Forest where Christopher Robin and his teddy, now known by the name of Winnie-the-Pooh or Pooh-bear, used to play. Each daily adventure in the Forest gave A. A. Milne more material for his now famous book “Winnie-the-Pooh” published in 1926. The illustrations to it were done by Ernest Shepard, who visited the Milne family in their farmhouse and drew quite a few sketches of Christopher Robin with his bear, the bridge nearby where the two played “Poohsticks”,^ and all the well-loved Pooh characters and places. 114 “Punch" — a British weekly magazine (1841—1992) known for its humorous articles and ita literary criticism “Poohsticks” — a game played by characters in which sticks are thrown into a stream above a bridge, after which the players watch to see which stick appears at the other side of the bridge first (from the stories of Winnie-the-Pooh) Ш!ГФ А. А. Milne’s secret for success was that he could get inside the mind of a child. He used his story-telling talents to describe how one little boy so loved his teddy bear that — for him at least — the toy animal came alive. After the book ‘'Winnie-the Pooh" A. A. Milne wrote another books of children’s verses [Vaisiz] — “Now We Are Six” and “The House at Pooh Corner” which sold to a waiting public in millions of copies. The four Pooh books and Milne’s enjoyable play “Toad of Toad Hall” are still as popular today as they were many years ago when they were written. Christopher Milne (he no longer uses the name Robin) spent six years in the army during the war. Then he ran a bookshop in Dartmouth [’dohmaG] until he retired to live in the countryside. What happened to Winnie-the-Pooh? Well, the bear was put into a glass case with all the other toy animals like Eeyore ['i:o:] the donkey and little Piglet ['piglst], at the Milnes’ house in London when Christopher went off to school in 1930. Then, when the war came, the toys were ‘evacuated’ to America. Now they belong to some American publishing houses. SFAi B. Complete the sentences with the appropriate variants. 1. Alan Alexander Milne ____________. a) bought a teddy bear when he learned that he had a son b) began writing poems in the army c) created a lot of verses when his son was little d) began his career as a mathematician 2. A, A. Milne became a popular writer because _____________. a) he could see the world through the eyes of a child b) his little son gave him a lot of material for writing c) Ernest Shepard illustrated his books very well d) he had a talent for writing poetry 24. Now that you’ve read the text once say: A. Who is who in the text? Alan Alexander Milne H. G. Wells Daphne Christopher Robin Ernest Shepard is Winnie-the-Pooh Eeyore the donkey a famous writer Alan Milne’s son the man who did illustrations for the book a teddy bear the author of “Winnie-the-Pooh" a toy animal Alan Milne’s wife Ц5 »шгФ SF® в. Say true, false or not stated. 1, Alan Alexander Milne’s father was a doctor. 2, Milne became a mathematician. 3. In London Milne worked for a famous magazine. 4. Milne’s wife didn’t want him to join the Army. 5. Christopher Robin is the name of a bear. 6, Milne wrote a lot of poems for Christopher Robin. 7. Milne wrote a book about Pooh’s adventures in the Forest. 8. Milne drew illustrations for his book himself. 9. All the Pooh books became very popular. 10. Now Christopher Robin’s old toys are in Australia. 25. Read the text again for more detailed information and find in it the words and word combinations which mean: 1. директор небольшой подго-товительиой школы 2. математик 3. редактор университетского журнала 4. он опубликовал 5. незамысловатые юмористические стихи 6. остроумные произведения 7. (книга) в мягкой обложке 8. юмористические очерки 9. помощник редактора 10. зарплата 11. подарила своему мужу 12. обожаемый сын 13. плюшевый/игрушечный медведь 14. снял/арендовал дом 16. иллюстрации 16. наброски/скетчи 17. (игрушка) ожила 18. книга детских стихов 19. он был управляющим (менеджером) в книжном магазине 20. игрушки были «эвакуированы* 26. Answer the questions. 1. Where was A. A. Milne born? In what century was he born? 2. When did he publish his first book? Where did he publish it? 3. How much did Milne’s first book cost? 4. What famous magazine did Milne work for? 5. Why did A. A. Milne have to return home from the front line? 6. Whose teddy bear was Winnie-the-Pooh? 7. What was the first book A. A. Milne wrote for children? 8. What did Milne write about in his book “Winnie the Pooh" 1 9. Why did Ernest Shepard draw sketches of Christopher Robin with a bear? 10. What was A. A. Milne’s secret for success? 11. How much do you know about Christopher Milne? 12. What happened to Winnie-the-Pooh and other toy animals when Christopher Robin went 116 off to school? tf#r# л/ ew language Grammar Section The Past Perfect Continuous Tense for some time, for an hour, since 3 o’clock, when he came +/- I, we, you, they, he, she, it had/hadn’t been + Ving The class had been discussing the article for some time when Henry came in. John said he had not been phoning his mother for a month. had I, we, you, they, he, she, it been + ying For how long had the children been playing on the computer when father arrived? 27. Use past perfect continuous to complete the sentences. See Reference Grammar, p. 333. 1. Her eyes were red. It was clear she (cry). 2. Mrs Thompson (wait) for 3 quarters of an hour before the secretary came. 3. Jane was very tired. She (do) her room since afternoon. 4. Alec said he (stand) there since 6 o’clock. 5. Jill (study) English for 5 years before she visited the USA. 28. Choose the right tense: past perfect or past perfect continuous. 1. You were out of breath when you came in this morning. You (run)? 2. When mother got home, she found that little Kitty (paint) her room. She (paint) two walls red and one wall yellow. 3. It (rain) for several days before the wind changed. 4. Jane told me she (write) Ц7 regularly to her Granny, but (not, receive) any answer. 5. We (cook) all day for the party that evening, but by 8 o’clock in the evening Jane (not, finish) laying the table yet. Read and compare! ^ later (более поздний) — latest (последний на данный момент) late^ latter (последний из двух упомянутых) — last (самый последний, больше не будет) 1. Let’s take а later train. 2. Computers are one of the latest discoveries of the 20th century. 1. Pete and his friend entered the room. The former’ was short. The latter was very tall. 2. Sorry I’m late — am I the last? 29. Translate these sentences into Russian. 1. She always dresses in the latest fashion. 2. What time does the last bus leave? 3. December is the last month of the year. 4. The teacher told us about the latest elections in this country. 5. We’ve read two books this month — “Alice in Wonderland” and “Matilda”. As for me the latter was more interesting. 6. This poem belongs to his later works. Read and compare! — the last (последний, больше не будет) the latest (последний на данный момент ) the last page in a book the last day of November the last summer show the last novel she wrote before she died the latest fashion the latest news the latest movie (film) the latest book 118 ’ former [Тэ:тэ] — первый из двух упомянутых 30. Choose the right word to complete the sentences. 1. I bought the (latest/last) edition^ of Webster Dictionary. 2. I bought the (latest/last) copy of today’s paper. 3. His (last/latest) words were: “The end.” 4. What is the (last/latest) news? 5. What do you think of John’s (last/latest) play? 6. What is the (last/latest) day of the week? Read and compare! ========== last (прошлый no времени) the last (последний по порядку) last year — в прошлом году the last house on the left — last month — в прошлом ме- последний дом слева сяце the last question in the exam last week — на прошлой неде- paper — последний вопрос в ле экзаменационном билете last summer — прошлым ле- the last month of the year — том последний месяц года the last bus — последний автобус 31. Express the same in English. 1. Ты слышал последние новости? Анна приехала. 2. Страница 359 — последняя страница в этой книге. 3. — Где ты провёл свой прошлый отпуск? — В прошлом году мы ездили в Санкт-Петербург. 4. Его последняя книга очень популярна. А что он пишет сейчас? 5. У меня нет последнего издания этой книги. 6. «Приключения Тома Сойера» (“The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”) — это не последний роман Марка Твена. 7. Мой брат мало что понимает в последней моде. 8. — Какой последний фильм ты смотрел? — В прошлом месяце я не ходил в кино. edition — издание 119 »мгФ 32. Match the columns to complete the comparisons. 1) as poor as a) nails 2) as cold as b) a lion 3) as hard as c) a church mouse 4) as cool as d) ice 5) as brave as e) a daisy 6) as old as f) a lark 7) as happy as g) the hills 8) as fresh as h) a cucumber older (старший no возрасту) — oldest (старейший, самый у' старый) old ^ elder (старший по рождению: о детях, братьях, сёстрах — eldest (самый старший, старшенький) 1. Jane is 2 years older than Jack./Jane is older than Jack by two years. 2. Granny is the oldest member of the family. There are 4 children in our family. My elder sister is Florence. My elder brother is Nick. John is the eldest child. 120 В сравнительных конструкциях с than elder не употребляется. Му elder brother is 5 years older than me. Jill is the eldest daughter. (Она раньше всех родилась.) Jill is the oldest child. (Ей больше всего лет.) 0ШгФ 33. Choose the right form to complete the sentences. 1. Mary’s (older/elder) sister has been staying' in the USA for seven years now. 2. Whose grandfather is (older/elder) — yours or Ivan’s? 3. Colin is the (oldest/eldest) student in our class. 4. Is Steve your (older/elder) or your younger brother? 5. My uncle is the (oldest/eldest) member of my family. 6. My friend William is a year and a half (older/elder) than me. 7. The building of our school is (older/elder) than all the other buildings in this area. 8. Do you know that Mr Richardson’s (older/elder) daughter is a ballet dancer? кеаа ana compare: —^ ^farther — farthest far::^ ^^further — furthest Указание на расстояние Указание на дополнение 1. Vladivostok is farther/fur- 1. For further information, see ther away from Moscow. p. 2. 2. My house is the far- 2. Any further questions? thest/furthest from the sta- 3. That’s a further reason to tion. do it. further improvement — дальнейшее улучшение further education — дальнейшее образование further notice — дальнейшее уведомление 34. Choose the right form to complete the sentences. In some sentences both forms can be used. 1. What do you think of your (further/farther) education? 2. He lives four miles (further/farther) away from the cinema than I do. 3. We have no (further/farther) information. Call us later, please. 4. The post office is (further/farther) from the school than the park. 5. They agreed to meet in the (farthest/furthest) corner of the park. 6. I wonder what her (farther/further) explanation is going to be. 7. The hunter’s house is on the (further/farther) shore of the lake. 8. Have you any (further/farther) questions? 121 35. Express the same in English. дальнейшее образование, самый дальний магазин, более удалённая деревня, самый дальний район, дальнейшие детали, дальнейшие сведения, самый удалённый город от столицы, самый дальний угол сада, дальнейшие извинения, более удалённая площадь от центра пеаг' ,пеагег — nearest (ближайший, самый близкий) next (следующий по порядку, соседний) nearest 1. Where is the nearest post office? 2. The nearest house to ours is 2 miles away. next 1. The next train to London is at 10.00. 2. The telephone was ringing in the next room. But: in the near future — в ближайшем будуш;ем next door — HO соседству, рядом next-door — соседний 36. Choose the right form to complete the sentences. 1. Two passengers talking on the bus: “What's the (nearest/next) stop?” 2. We’ll have to walk to the (nearest/next) shop, Гш afraid. 3. How do you usually get to the (nearest/next) underground station? 4. Do you know the name of your (nearest/next) door neighbour? 5. Excuse me, where is the (nearest/next) telephone box? 6. What is your (nearest/next) question? 7. Peter lives (nearest/next) to the school of all of us. 8. We have to hurry if we want to catch the (nearest/next) bus to Liverpool. 3T. Remember the word combinations where the indefinite article is used. 122 jA a few a lot (of) in a hurry to be at a loss C / a little a great deal in a whisper to tell a lie (of) in a low/loud to go for a walk ▼(an) a great voice to have a good number (of) for a while time ф to have a swim — поплавать to have a smoke — покурить to have a talk — поболтать to have a look — посмотреть, взглянуть to have a break — передохнуть What a pityl — Какая жалость! What a shame! — Какая досада! 38. Match the columns. 1) шёпотом 2) солгать 3) в спешке 4) пойти погулять 5) хорошо провести время 6) громко, громким голосом 7) быть в растерянности (растеряться) 8) какое-то время, недолго 9) тихо, тихим голосом a) to have а good time b) to go for a walk c) in a low voice d) for a while e) in a hurry f) to be at a loss g) in a loud voice h) to tell a lie i) in a whisper 39. Ask your friend when he/she last: a) spoke in a whisper, spoke in a low/loud voice; b) ivenf for a walk; c) had a swim; d) had a talk with your headmaster; e) said “What a pity!”; f) told a lie; g) had a good time; h) was in a hurry; i) said “What a shame!”; j) felt unhappy for a while. 40. Use the right form of the verb in brackets or one of the word combinations with the verb have from the table, complete the sentences. Example: My younger brother often ... his toys. I’m tired, let’s ... (break). My younger brother often breaks his toys. I’m tired, let’s have a break. 1. When he was younger, he used to ... every morning. Can you ... from here to that rock? (swim) 2. Can you come in for a moment? I’d like to ... to you. Can I ask you not to ... at the lessons? (talk) 3. My father doesn’t ... . But my grandfather likes to ... after every meal, (smoke) 4. ... at the picture carefully and answer my questions. Let me ... at the photos, I haven’t seen them yet. (look) 5. When would you like to ... now or a bit later? Don’t play football here, kids: you can ... the window, (break) 123 Vocabulary Section 41. Learn the proper way of asking and answering questions. Listen to them and repeat them after the announcer, 20. Questions Excuse me, where ...? Excuse me, do you happen to know who ...? Would you mind telling me why ...? This may sound a stupid question, but I’d like to know . Something else I’d like to know is ... What do you think of ...? Can you help me? I wonder when ... Answers Certainly. (Sure) I can’t tell you exactly, but ... I can’t tell you offhand, I’m afraid, ... Let me think for a moment ... Well, let me see ... I’m not very sure. I’ll have to find out. That’s a very interesting question. I’m not really sure. I have no idea, I’m afraid. I’d rather not answer that. Sorry. (If you don’t mind.) 42. Imagine that you are talking to a boy or a girl from Great Britain. These are the things you want to find out. Ask questions politely and let your partner answer them in a proper manner. 1. Which is the most unusual British tradition? 2. What is Up-Helly-Aa? 3. Who were the Vikings? 4. Where are the Shetlands situated? What is their capital? 5. When is St Valentine’s Day celebrated? 6. For whom — the Welsh, the Scottish or the English — is 1st March a very important day? 7. Who in Great Britain has two birthdays? 8. Is the Queen’s birthday in April or in June? 9. Does the Queen open Parliament every spring? 10. Why is the 5th of 124 November a special day in Britain? 11. What is a carol? тшгФ PHRASAL VERBS to rush .. 1. to rush at — наброситься, накинуться на кого-либо (что-либо) As soon as he came to the office, he rushed at his work: he knew there was no time to lose. Mel is afraid of bulls because when he was a child, a big bull rushed at him. 2. to rush in/into — торопливо войти, ворваться Please don’t rush in without knocking. The firemen rushed into the burning building to save the child. 3. to rush out/off —^ торопливо выйти/уйти прочь Why did he rush out of the room without saying goodbye? The children rushed off as soon as the bell went. 4. to rush to — броситься, спешно отправить(ся) We all rushed to the door when the postman arrived. I’m afraid we’ll have to rush the baby to the doctor, his temperature is too high. to rush to conclusions — торопиться c выводами 43. A. Complete the sentences using the missing prepositions. 1. Don’t rush ... conclusions. Everything can change soon. 2. Doctors were rushed ... the place of the accident. 3. They rushed John ... the hunter’s house. 4. Please don’t rush ..., we still have something to discuss. 5. I rushed ... my lunch. 6. He rushed ... the concert hall but there was nobody there. 7. Nick had to be rushed ... hospital when the snake bit^ him, 8. The dog rushed ... him. ’ to bite (bit, bitten) — кусать 125 в. Express the same in English. 1. Большой гусь набросился на маленького мальчика. 2. Не торопись с выводами. Он починит всё сам. 3. Маленький Джонни ворвался в комнату и закричал: «Мы выиграли!» 4. Ученики бросились к двери, чтобы поприветствовать старого учителя. 5. Нам нужно спешно отправиться на вокзал. mw WORDS ТО 1ЕАШ 126 4:4. А. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. Rachel has a new stripy blouse. The stripes on her blouse are black and white. Condensed milk is sweet milk which is thickened by taking away some of the water. It is usually sold in tins. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 45. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. gloomy ['glu:mij {adj): gloomy weather, a gloomy day, a gloomy sky. A gloomy person, a gloomy face. Nobody wanted to leave the house on a gloomy day like that. If you say that the sky is gloomy, you mean that the sky is covered with clouds. On that day John looked gloomier than usual. particular [pa'tikjolo] (adj): a particular thing, a particular person, a particular place; in particular, nothing in particular, nobody in particular. This particular story is very difficult to read. Let me ask you about one particular student in your class. Are you looking for anything in particular? kindly ['kaindlij (ady): a kindly woman, a kindly smile. Someone who is kindly is kind and caring. She smiled at us with a kindly smile. The kindly old woman let the boy stay in her house, anxious ['sepkjas] {adj): an anxious face, an anxious look, an anxious person, to be anxious about sth. Let’s go home: Mother will be anxious. Why do you look so anxious? Is anything wrong? Do you know that Martin is very anxious about his job? fussy [Tasi] (adj): a fussy woman, a fussy parent, to be fussy about sth. Fussy people are difficult to please. I hope the little girl is not fussy about her food. — Tea or coffee? — I’m not fussy. to promise ['promis] (y): to promise sb a present, to promise to come home early. Did father promise to take us to the circus on Sunday? The child promised to behave well. — Say that you promise. — OK, I promise. a promise (n): to make a promise, to break a promise, to keep a promise. He is always making promises and then breaking them. — Are we going to the stadium to watch a football match on Friday? — Yes, it’s a promise. solemn [‘snbm] (adj): solemn words, a solemn speech, solemn music, a solemn promise. His words sounded so solemn, that I believed him. I give you a solemn promise that I’ll come back and help you. solemnly (adv): to speak solemnly, to nod solemnly, to move solemnly tremendous [m'mendss] (adj): a tremendous idea, a tremendous scene, a tremendous party. We walked through the forest of tremendous old trees. What tremendous news! Have you ever seen such a tremendous view before? to wave [werv] (y): to wave one’s hand, to wave to/at sb, to wave in the wind. We waved at our friends from the train. Mother waved goodbye to us from the window. to seem [si:m] (u): to seem nice, to seem important, to seem like a good idea. The temperature seems lower than it is. The medicine seems to be very helpful. The story seems interesting, doesn’t it? to murmur [’тз:тз] (и): to murmur sth. If you murmur something, you say it very quietly, so that not many people can hear what you are saying. The frightened boy could only murmur his name to the teacher. to mumble ['numbl] (u): to mumble sth. If you mumble, you speak very quietly and in such a way that your words are difficult to understand. Stop mumbling, please. He mumbled something in answer to my question. to bend [bend] (bent [bent], bent) (u): to bend down, to bend over sth, to bend one’s head. She tried to warm her hands bending over the fire. The boy bent his head, but said nothing. The strong wind made the flowers bend to the ground, a paw [po:] (n): a cat’s paw, the paw of a dog. They called their cat Socks because it was a black cat with white paws. Tigers have paws, weight fweit] (n): the weight of the roof, 20 kg in weight, to be of the same weight. I’d like to know the weight of the vegetables. Bananas are usually sold by weight. To put on weight, to lose weight. If you want to lose weight, you should eat less. 127 to weigh [wei] (v): How much do you weigh? Do you weigh 60 kilos? He weighed the stone in his hand. 46. A. Form the adverbs from these adjectives and give their Russian equivalents. gloomy — gloomily anxious — ? tremendous — ? particular — ? solemn — ? fussy — ? B. Use these word combinations in sentences or situations of your own. to look at someone gloomily; to say something gloomily; particularly good; particularly difficult; to wait anxiously for someone; to look for something anxiously; to speak solemnly; to promise solemnly; to miss someone tremendously; to work tremendously hard; to check the luggage fussily; to speak fussily 47. A. Ail the words on the blackboard describe speaking. Put in the missing letters and get the list of “speaking” verbs. Check yourselves with the help of the recording, f®) 21. Say, wh--r, scr—m, s—--k, | m---r. a-k, t—I, ans—, sh—t, c-y, mu—e, reply © B. Below you can read the conversation between a schoolboy, Nigel {'naict^slj, and a terrible schoolteacher, Miss Trunchbull.' The dialogue comes 128 ‘ the Trunchbull ['trAntJbal) — прозвище учительницы from the book “Matilda” by Roald Dahl. Fill in the blanks with the verbs from task A. Use every verb at least once. The Trunchbull, who never (1)... quietly to children, began to walk slowly along the rows of desks inspecting the hands. All went well until she came to a small boy in the second row. “What’s your name?” she (2).., “Nigel,” the boy (3)... “Nigel what?” “Nigel Hicks,” the boy (4)... “Nigel Hicks what?” the Trunchbull (5)... at him. She (6)... so loudly that she nearly blew the little boy out of the window. “That’s it,” Nigel (7)... “Or shall I give you my middle names?” She (8)... “What is my name?” “Miss Trunchbull,” Nigel (9)... “Then use it when you address mel Now then let’s try again. What is your name?” “Nigel Hicks, Miss Trunchbull,” Nigel (10)... “That’s better,” the Trunchbull (11)... him. “Your hands are dirty, Nigel! When did you last wash them?” “Well, let me think,” Nigel (12)... . “That’s rather difficult to remember exactly. I think it was yesterday or the day before.” “You are hateful!” the Trunchbull (13)... “I don’t wish to see any more of you today! Go and stand in the corner on one leg with your face to the wall!” She (14)... at the top of her voice. “But Miss Trunchbull...” the boy (15)... “Don’t argue with me, boy, or I’ll make you stand on your head! Now do as you’re told!” Nigel went. Read and compare! - i . 1 to murmur to mumble ! 1 to murmur — to speak or say I in a low voice i i II to mumble — to say something very quietly and indistinctly (not in a clear voice) 129 48. Use the words from the vocabulary section instead of the words in bold type. 1. Jane is always nervous and excited about her clothes. 2. What are you so sad about? Cheer up! 3. Jack is especially interested in children’s books. 4. The Brown brothers are very shy; they never speak loudly, but say things so, that you can’t hear them properly. 5. There was a huge box in the dark corner of the old pirate’s room. 6. Auntie Catherine was always worried about her little son. 7. John said he would be back before eight. 8. “That was a great success,” the famous actress said. 9. It’s difficult to understand people when they murmur. Read and compare! 49. Which of these animats have paws (3), which of them have hooves (1) and which of them have feet (2)? 50. Learn to read these names. Translate them. Winnie-the-Pooh [,wini бэ ’pu:], Tigger ['tigs]. Piglet ['piglst], Eeyore Kanga ['кэеодэ], Roo [ru:], Christopher Robin ['knstafs 'robin]. 51. A. Make sure that you know these words and word combinations. Listen to the text “Christopher’s Toys”, (®) 22. to hum [hAin] — мурлыкать, бурчать под нос “tight place” ['tait 'pleisj — «узкое место», затруднительные обстоятельства squeaky ]'skwi:ki] — визгливый, плаксивый т , в. Choose the right way to complete the sentences. 1. Pooh was only ... younger than Christopher Robin. a) a year b) two years c) three years 2. Eeyore looked gloomy because his ... hung down. a) tail b) ears c) neck 3. Piglet was a present from ... . a) a friend b) a neighbour c) Christopher's father 4. Rabbit was ... . a) a toy b) an animal c) an invented character 5. Pooh couldn’t climb out of Rabbit’s hole because ... . a) he had eaten a lot b) he didn’t try hard enough c) Rabbit didn’t want him to go 6. Staying in the hole Pooh ... . a) had a bowl of honey every day b) had some condensed milk every day c) had no meals at all 7. Tigger arrived ... Pooh, Eeyore and Piglet. a) at the same time as b) earlier than c) later than 8. Pooh’s house was ... an old walnut tree.^ a) on b) inside c) under C. Say how much you can remember about the history of Christopher Milne’s toys. ‘ a walnut lw3:lnAt] tree ^— грецкий орех (дерево) 131 52. Express the same in English. 1. Принц дал торжественную клятву, что отыщет Золушку. 2. Кейт кажется такой взволнованной сегодня. Ты знаешь, в чём дело? 3, — Сколько весят эти фрукты? — Продавец назовёт нам вес через минуту. 4. Британский флаг развевался на ветру: .это означало, что королева, была во дворце. 5. Взгляни на это огромное дерево, склонившееся над водой. 6. Дядя Джек никогда не казался счастливым человеком, но в тот день он был особенно мрачен. 7. Если ты будешь бормотать себе под нос, класс тебя не услышит. Обещай мне, что будешь говорить громко. 8. Не суетись, я всё сделаю сам. 9. У тигров, кошек, гепардов и львов — лапы, а у быков, коров, овец и свиней — копыта. I^eading for Vis£ussion 53. Read the text, listen to the first part of the text carefully, 23, and say what Tiggers like and what they don’t like. Tigger Comes to the Forest and Has Breakfast (After A. A. Milne) This story began when Winnie-the-Pooh woke up in the iriiddle of the night because of a strange noise. The noise went on so Pooh decided to find out who it was. This is how he met Tigger. Tigger was a stranger in the forest, but he was friendiy and cheerful. In the morning Pooh offered Tigger honey for breakfast. Tigger tasted honey and said he didn’t like it. Piglet’s haycorns' were not to his taste either. That’s why Pooh and Piglet decided to take Tigger to Eeyore’s place. @ “Hallo, Eeyore!” said Pooh. “This is Tigger,” “What is Tigger?” said Eeyore. “This,” explained Pooh and Piglet together, and Tigger smiled the happiest smile and said nothing. “He’s just come,” explained Piglet. Eeyore thought for a long time and then said, “When is he going?” Pooh explained to Eeyore that Tigger was a great friend of Christopher Robin, and Piglet explained to Tigger that he mustn’t 132 ’ haycorns ['herka:nzj; искажённое aoorns I'eikTiiz] — жёлуди {авторское употребление) mind what Eeyore said because he was always gloomy; and Eeyore explained to Piglet that, on the contrary, he was feeling particularly cheerful this morning; and Tigger explained to anybody who was listening that he hadn’t had any breakfast yet. “Tiggers always eat thistles,said Pooh. “So that was why we came to see you, Eeyore.” “Don’t mention it. Pooh.” “Oh, Eeyore, I didn’t mean that I didn’t want to see you.” “Quite-quite. But your new stripy friend — naturally, he wants his breakfast. What did you say his name was?” “Tigger.” “Then come this way, Tigger.” Eeyore led the way to the most thistly-looking patch^ of thistles that ever was and waved a hoof at it. “A little patch I was keeping for my birthday,” he said, “but, after all, what are birthdays? Here today and gone tomorrow. Help yourself, Tigger.” thistles ['0tsl(a)sj — чертополох a patch [p$tf| — небольшой участок земли 133 Tigger thanked him and looked a little anxiously at Pooh. “Are these really thistles?” he whispered. “Yes,” said Pooh. “What Tiggers like best?” “That’s right,” said Pooh. “I see,” said Tigger. So he took a large mouthful. “Oh!” said Tigger. He sat down and he put his paw in his mouth. “What’s the matter?” asked Pooh. “Hot!” mumbled Tigger. “Your friend,” murmured Eeyore, “appears to have bitten on a bee.”^ Pooh’s friend stopped shaking his head and explained that Tiggers didn’t like thistles. “Then why spoil a perfectly good one?” asked Eeyore, “But you said,” began Pooh, “you said that Tiggers liked everything except honey and haycorns.” “And thistles,” said Tigger, who was now running round in circles, With his tongue hanging out. Pooh looked at him sadly. “What are we going to do?” he asked Piglet. Piglet knew the answer to that, and he said at once that they must go and see Christopher Robin. “You’ll find him with Kanga,” said Eeyore. He came close to Pooh and said in a loud whisper, “Could you ask your friend to do his exercises somewhere else? I shall be having lunch soon and don’t want it bounced on just before I begin. Fussy of me, but we all have our little ways.” Pooh nodded solemnly and called to Tigger, “Come along and we’ll go and see Kanga. She’s sure to have lots of breakfast for you.” Tigger finished his last circle and came up to Pooh and Piglet. “Hot!” he explained with a large and friendly smile. “Come on!” and he rushed off. Pooh and Piglet walked slowly after him. As they walked Piglet said nothing because he couldn’t think of anything, and Pooh said ’ appears to have bitten on a bee — зд. кажется, ему попала в рот пчела и ужали- 134 ла его nothing because he was thinking of a poem. Tigger had been bouncing in front of them all this time, turning round every now and then to ask, “Is this the way?” (®) And now at last they came in sight of Kanga’s house, and there was Christopher Robin. In the house they told Kanga what they wanted, and Kanga said very kindly, “Well, look in my cupboard, Tigger, dear, and see what you’d like.” Because she knew at once that however big Tigger seemed to be, he wanted as much kindness as Roo. “Shall I look, too?” said Pooh, who was beginning to feel a little eleven o’clockish.^ And he found a small tin of condensed milk, and something seemed to tell him that Tiggers didn’t like this, so he took it into a corner by itself where nobody would stop him. But the more Tigger put his nose into this and his paw into that, the more things he found that Tiggers didn’t like. And when he had found everything in the cupboard and couldn’t eat any of it, he said to Kanga, “What happens now?” But Kanga and Christopher Robin and Piglet were all standing round Roo watching him have his Extract of Malt.^ And Roo was saying, “Must I?” and Kanga was saying, “Now, Roo, dear, you remember what you promised.” “What is it?” whispered Tigger to Piglet. “His Strengthening Medicine,” said Piglet. “It helps him to put on weight, but he hates it.” So Tigger came closer, and he leant over the back of Roo’s chair, and suddenly he put out his tongue, and the Extract of Malt was gone. Kanga said “Oh!” and pulled the spoon safely back out of Tigger’s mouth just as it was disappearing in it. “Tigger, dear!” said Kanga. “He’s taken my medicine, he’s taken my medicine, he’s taken my medicine!” sang Roo happily, thinking it was a tremendous joke. Then Tigger looked up at the ceiling and closed his eyes, and his tongue went round and round his chops,® in case he had left any outside, and a peaceful smile came over his face as he said, “So that’s what Tiggers like!” ‘ In some British families a light meal, tea or coffee is often taken at about 11 o’clock in the morning. “ Extract of Malt ['ekstriekt ov — рыбий жир chops [tjbps] — пасть 135 54. А. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out. 1) on the contrary 2) anyhow 3) every now and then 4) to come in sight 5) help yourself 6) condensed milk a) TO и дело, время от времени b) сгущённое молоко c) во всяком случае, как бы то ни было d) напротив, наоборот e) появиться (попасть в поле зрения) f) угощайтесь В. Use the suitable phrases from task A in the dialogues. 1. — What would you like in your coffee — sugar or ... ? — ... , please. 2. — Bob is such a shy boy, isn’t he? — Not at all. ... he only seems to be quiet. In fact, he is never afraid of anything. 3. — Shall I walk to the station or shaii I take a bus? — It doesn’t matter. You won’t be late .... 4. — Do you often visit your Granny? — No, but I call her .... 55. A. Try to explain how you understand these: a) a stripy friend; b) the most thistly-looking patch of thistles that ever was. B. Draw these things as you see them. 56. A. Who said it? 1. “When is he going?” 2. “Don’t mention it. Pooh.” 3. “... I didn’t mean that I didn’t want to see you ... .” 4. “Then come this way, Tigger.” 5. “Hot!” 6. “Well. Look in my cupboard, Tigger, dear, and see what you’d iike.” 7. “He’s taken my medicine, he’s taken my medicine!” 8. “So that’s what Tiggers like!” B. Who in the text; 1. gave Tigger a lot of wonderful thistles; 2. went to look for Christopher Robin; 3. was thinking of a poem; 4. found a small tin of condensed milk in the cupboard; 5. took Roo’s medicine. Sjfeakin^ Discussing the Text | 57. Explain why: 1) Pooh began to apologize saying: “Oh, Eeyore, I didn’t mean that I didn’t want to see you”; 2) Eeyore kept the patch of thistles for his birthday; 3) Tigger looked anxiously at Pooh when he saw thistles; 4) Tigger began running round in circles with his tongue hanging out; 5) Eeyore said, we all have our little ways,” when he asked Tigger to stop running about; 6) Tigger rushed out of the house where Eeyore lived; 7) Eeyore thought that Tigger had bitten on a bee; 8) Pooh and Piglet didn’t speak on their way to Kanga; 9} the author mentioned that Pooh began feeling 11 o’clockish. 58. Say all you can about these events. Use past tenses. a) Tigger meets Eeyore. b) Eeyore gives Tigger his breakfast. c) Tigger doesn’t like thistles. d) Pooh and Piglet take Tigger to Kanga’s place. e) Roo doesn’t want to take his medicine. f) Tigger finds something that he really likes. 59. Use the reported speech and tell the story of Tigger coming to a) Eeyore; b) Kanga on the parts of: e) Piglet, f) Kanga, g) Christopher Robin. a) the storyteller, b) Pooh, c) Tigger, d) Eeyore, eO. Work in small groups and act out the two parts of the text: a) at Eeyore’s place; b) at Kanga’s place. One of the students should read the storyteller’s part. Discussing the Topic People say “It takes many kinds to make the world” meaning that all people are different. People can be different in; 137 I. • appearance • personality • beliefs and opinions • behaviour and manners • skills and experience education tastes language and culture dreams and plans for the future Some people are nice and loveable, others are unpleasant and difficult to socialize with. These lists include words that can help you to describe people; II. Good qualities • considerate [kon'sidorot] • well-mannered • caring • having a good sense of humour • reliable • intellectual [,int3iektju3l] • independent • cheerful • patient Bad qualities • spiteful • ill-mannered • strict • gloomy • moody • nasty • fussy • curious • greedy 138 People’s appearances and their taste in clothes can also be different: III. • We wear our hair long, short, shoulder-length, close-cropped, in a (pony) tail, in a plait [pleet] (in plaits) or in a braid (braids), loose over our shoulders. • Our hair can be straight, curly, wavy, thick, thin, smooth [smu:6], fair (light), dark, red, etc. People who have no hair are bald [bold]. • Our noses can be short, long, straight, turned-up, pointed. • Our eyebrows are thick or thin or sometimes bushy. • Our eyes can be narrow, round, with long or short eyelashes, big and small, bright, shiny, expressive. • Our mouths can be small and big, with thin or full lips. • Our teeth can be white, even, uneven, big or small. • Our chins can be round, square, pointed and have a dimple. • Our figures can be bulky, stout, thin, slim, skinny, slender. • Some people wear a beard [bisdj and a moustache [mo'sta:]]. 61. A. A group of British schooichiidren was asked to write on the topic “What Makes People Different”. These are some of their ideas. Match the lines from their works with the categories from vocabulary, p. 138 (e.g. appearance, personality, etc.). 1. “No one in the world looks exactly alike, even identical^ twins. People are different colours and sizes ...” 2. “People are brought up^ differently: some can be kind, considerate and well-mannered, others are selfish, unhelpful and very ill-mannered. Some are happy and caring, others are sad, spiteful and strict.” 3. “There are people with a nice sense of humour. Some people laugh at things, others don’t. Different people find different things funny. Some people are moody and take things too seriously.” 4. “People have different tastes in clothes and friends, they like different styles and fashions and different kind of music. Some people like dresses and some like jeans.” 5. “People behave differently and act differently. Not everybody knows how to socialize with others. Some people think that they are better than other people and there are people who are very good but don’t talk about it. Some are better on the inside than on the outside, others are better on the outside than on the inside.” 6. “We also have different dialects and languages and different cultures.” 7. “Things you believe in can be quite different. Some people might be Christian, some people might not have a religion at all.” 8. “Some people want to work in an office or to be a doctor, some want to be a lifeguard, but other people want to be a lazy lump of cheese.” 9. “The main thing that makes people different is how they look. Some have blond and some have brown hair. People also have different eyes colour. Some people are taller than others. People have faces of different shapes and hair of different length. Some people are fat and some are hairier than others ...” ' identical [ai'dentikl] — зд. однояйцовый ’ to be brought up — воспитываться 139 10. “Some people are big-headed, clever and smart. And everybody has a different level of education.” 11. “Some people have a bad temper and don’t get along with others. There are nasty people and nice people. Most people are loving, but some are not.” 12. “We all have different views and opinions.” 13. “Some people are good at practical things, others sit for hours with their noses in the books, but everyone has a special talent for some particular activity.” B. Work in small groups and decide what else you can add to what the children wrote on each point: appearance, personality, etc. 62. Remember the conversational formulas to express agreement and disagreement (Unit 3, Ex. 28) and agree or disagree with these. 1. People are both — different and alike. 2. Living in the same place, reading the same books make us alike. 3. Good-looking people are always kind and friendly. 4. Our personalities, tastes, likes and dislikes change with years. 5. Personality mostly comes from the inside not the outside, 6. Teachers and parents are never good friends to children. 7. It doesn’t matter what people think of you. The only person who matters is you. 8. Only people who like and dislike the same things can understand each other. 63. A. Describe the characters of the text “Tigger Comes to the Forest and Has Breakfast”. Say what they were like and what they looked like. B. Look at these well-known Disney characters. Each of them is a personality. What are they like? What do they look like? 64. A. Make a list of qualities that you believe to be important. Put them 140 ih tbe order of importance. »штФ в. Маке а similar list of qualities that you dislike in people. Discuss your lists. 65. Comment on these: 1. Everyone is special by being different. 2. Everybody is different, but we are all equal. 3. Different people often get on well. 4. It takes many kinds to make the world. 66. Work in small groups and continue the lists of good and bad qualities from vocabulary (p. 138). See which group has made the longest list. 67. Speak about someone you admire (a real person or a film/book character) and explain why you admire him or her. To make your story more logical write its outline first. 68. Look at these portraits of famous people and describe their appearances. Example: The man in this picture is as old as the hills. He is bald but he wears a beard and a moustache. His eyes are small but expressive. They are light blue or probably light green. He has a long nose and a big mouth. He is smiling in the picture. I think he is a kindly old man with a good sense of humour. Mark Twain Mother Teresa Irina Rodnina (you can use a Pavel Bure 69. A. Describe yourself when you were much younger photo to illustrate your story or ask your parents). B. Say what you think you will look like and be like in the future. 70. Practically every child in this country knows Winnie-the-Pooh and other wonderful characters from A. A. Milne’s book, but not many people know anything about Milne himself. Imagine that your teacher has asked you to tell younger pupils about the author of “Winnie-the-Pooh”. How will you do it? (See Ex. 23 of this Unit.) 141 Я 1 SUMMING UP THE TOPIC 1 Think of it and say: - what kind(s) of people mostly attract you anc - how important one’s appearance is for one’s - if you are tolerant enough to people who are in tastes, appearance and behaviour; - if it is possible to become a better person an 1 why; success in life; not like you d how. Wi 142 Шхщ 71. Do these exercises in writing: 5, 8, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 43, 52. 72. Fill in the gaps with articles where necessary to complete the sentences. 1. ... young woman in ... picture has ... long wavy hair and ... big mouth with ... white even teeth. 2. Paul has never worn ... beard, but now he is wearing ... moustache. 3. Margo is ... tall stout girl, she is ... teenager. 4. The baby was loveable. It had ... round blue eyes, ... button nose and ... mouth that was always smiling. 5. Who is ... short dark-haired man standing at ... door? 6. ... best friend of mine is ... very intellectual boy. And his manners are ... most polite in our class. 7. — Does Alice always wear her hair in ... ponytail? — No, sometimes she makes ... braid. 73. Express the same in English. A. 1. Ты видел, как Виктор зажёг свечи? Они в подсвечниках? 2. Алиса наблюдала за тем, как её старшая сестра стелила (to spread) скатерть на стол. 3. Не думаю, что в комнате достаточно света. Включи свет, пожалуйста. 4. Я почувствовал, что кто-то толкнул меня. 5. Позволь мне везти (тащ,ить) санки самому. 6. Ты слышишь, что кто-то стучит в дверь? 7. Мама всегда хочет, чтобы я говорил с маленькой сестрой с любовью и заботой. 8. Ты жалеешь о том, что ты сказал? 9. Кто заставил тебя завести эти старые часы? 10. «Как она выглядит?» — спросила Кейт. 11. Моя бабушка пожилая женщина. У неё седые волосы и бледно-голубые глаза. т/гФ Она невысокого роста. У неё доброе, весёлое лицо. 12. Мы заметили, что мама унесла вазу с фруктами на кухню. 13. Моя тётя сказала, что она не имеет ничего против громкой музыки. В, 1. Я считаю, что внешность человека не так важна, как его характер, поведение, манеры и вкусы. 2. Никогда не видел таких зловредных людей. К тому же он часто бывает в мрачном настроении. Не хочу видеть его снова. 3. Какой очаровательный ребёнок! Только посмотри на эти светлые кудрявые волосы и длинные чёрные ресницы. 4. Мой друг очень самостоятелен и надёжен. Я очень люблю его, хотя иногда он поднимает шум по пустякам. 5. Больше всего в моей маме мне нравится то, что она так заботлива и терпелива. А ещё то, что она всегда жизнерадостна. 6. Моя подруга очень хорошенькая. Она носит волосы до плеч, у неё выразительные голубые глаза, она высокая и стройная. Но, главное, она добродушна и обладает потрясающим чувством юмора. 7. Преступник в этом фильме выглядел ужасно: у него была чёрная борода, длинный нос и маленькие сверкающие глазки. 74. Маке the story complete. Use the appropriate forms of the words on the right. One day when Pooh Bear already 1) some of his friends and had nothing else to do, he 2) he 3) ___________________ round to Piglet’s house 4) __________ what Piglet 5) _______ . It 6) __________ since early morning. Pooh expected 7) __________ Piglet 8) ________ his toes in front of his fire, but to his surprise he 9) __________ that the door was open, and the more he 10) _______________ inside the more Piglet was not there. “So what I 11) .,” said Pooh, “is this. I 12) 13) _ ___ home first and see what the time ., and perhaps I 14) ____________ a scarf visit think, go see, do snow find, warm see look do go he, put 143 round my neck, and then I 15) and see Eeyore and sing my new hum^ to him.” Pooh 16) __________back to his own house. When he 17)__________ his door, he suddenly 18) ________ Piglet 19) could only 20) in his best armchair. Pooh __there 21) __________ whose go hurry open, see sit stand, wonder house he 22) in. be “Hallo. Piglet.” said Pooh. “I think vou 231 be out.” “No,” said Pielet. “it’s vou who 241 be out. 1 251 here for an hour already.” sit Pooh 26) up at his clock which look 271 at five minutes to eleven some weeks stop before. 75. Spell these words. [Ust] [weit] [ps'tikjuls] [tn'mendos] [Wmbl] [kan'denst] ['glu:mil Гтз:тэ] [‘straipi] [жок/эз] [рэ:] [bend] ['snlamlij ['promis] [weiv] 76. Test your spelling. Listen to the recording, 24, and write sentences. A/liscellaneous 77. Look at the picture of a tiger and match the number with the words describing parts of its body. Listen to the recording, 25, and check yourselves. 144 ‘ a hum — зд. «пыхтелка neck whiskers breast back nose shoulder paw nostril throat tooth (teeth) claw 78. Listen to the poem, 26, and read it. Waiting at the Window (By A. A. Milne) There are my two drops of rain Waiting on the window pane.^ I am waiting here to see Which the winning one will be. Both of them have different names. One is John and one is James. All the best and all the worst Comes from which of them is first. James had just begun to ooze.^ He’s the one I want to lose. John is waiting to begin. He’s the one I want to win. James is going slowly on. Something sorts of sticks^ to John. John is moving off* at last. ’ window pane — оконное стекло “ to ooze — медленно течь ® ... sorts of sticks ... — ...похоже, что-то прилипло... '* is moving off — сдвигается c места 145 James is going pretty fast. John is rushing' down the pane. James is going slow again. James has met a sort of smear.^ John is getting very near. Is he going fast enough? (James has found a piece of fluff.®) John has hurried quickly by. James was talking to a fly. John is there, and John has won! Look! I told you! Here’s the sun! 79. The poem “Waiting at the Window” describes the game Christopher Robin invented on a rainy morning looking through the window. Have you ever played a game like this? Have you ever invented games of your own? Describe them. 80. These are six English idioms in which colours are mentioned. Read the idioms and then say which of them you can use in the sentences below. Colour Idioms 1. to give a black look — гневно взглянуть 2. once in a blue moon — очень редко, почти никогда 3. to be (feel) blue — грустить, быть в плохом настроении 4. to be like a red rag to a bull — действовать на кого-либо, как красная тряпка на быка, раздражать кого-либо, приводить в ярость 5. а white elephant — дорогой, но бесполезный подарок 6. to be yellow — струсить, быть трусом 1. Му daddy has а саг, but he doesn’t drive and he has no garage. 2. Jack is not brave at all, he always runs away when we fight. 3. My aunt Polly can’t stand long hair and platform shoes. 4. I think he hates me. He always looks at me angrily. 5. What has happened? Why are you so sad? 6. Call me more often. You hardly ever call me these days. ^ is rushing — торопится a sort of smear [smia] — что-то липкое 146 “ fluff — пушинка »мгф 81. Read the jokes and match them with the pictures. 1. A small boy with a camera in his hands ran up to a man in the street. “HelpI Help!” he shouted. “A big dog is running after my father!” “How can I help you?” asked the man. “Put a film in my camera. I don’t know how to do it,” explained the boy. 2. Someone asked Will, “Do you know why our language is called our mother tongue?” “That question is easy to answer,” replied Will. “It’s mothers who use it most. You should just hear my mother talking to our neighbour.” 3. A grateful student who was leaving school came to say goodbye to his teacher. “Thank you very much,” he said. “I owe you everything I know.” “Don’t mention it,” answered the teacher. “That is nothing much.” 82. For further information on the topic “It Takes Many Kinds to Make the World” see the Internet sites; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clothes http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Russian_culture#National_costume Home Reading Lessons 6,7 Project Work 4 (see p. 316) 147 CrlRIST/V\AS R. .enswn 1. A. Read the text “Christmas” and say what else you know about this festival. (Student’s Book VI, Lesson 12 can help you.) B. Look through the text again and find out what people call a special church service on Christmas Eve in Britain and America. Christmas is the main public holiday in Britain and the US. This Christian holy day is held on December 25th (in Russia on January 7th) in honour of the birth of Christ. People often see it as a time of merry-making and present-giving. They usually spend time with their families, eat spe-148 cial food and drink a lot. On Christmas Eve Christian [kristfan] holy ['hauli] day — святой для христиан день in honour — в честь merry-making — веселье some people go to a special church service called Midnight Mass or Christmas Eve Service at 12 o’clock at night. Others may have a drink with their friends. mifm Midnight Mass — месса (рождественская) Heading for Information 2. A. Match the pictures with the proper parts of the text “Before Christmas Day” and their titles. B. Read the text again and find out: • what the expression “go carol singing” means • where Santa Claus is thought to live • how Santa Claus is thought to travel c) 149 Before Christmas Day Titles: 1. Shopping before Christmas. 2. Christmas cards. 3. Carol singing. 4. Christmas tree. 5. Santa Claus ['saents kb:z]: what he looks like. 6. Santa Claus: the way he travels. 7. Santa Claus: where he lives. 8. Christmas stockings. 9. Christmas presents. I. People sometimes go carol singing, which means singing carols in the street, outside people’s houses. Some carols, for example “O, Come All Ye Faithful” and “Silent Night”, are very well-known. II. Santa Claus is thought to live at the North Pole where he spends most of the year in his workshop making toys for children with the help of elves often called “brownies” in America. People think of him as a happy man, who says, “Ho [hsu], ho, ho.” III. There is a tradition that children should put a long sock called a Christmas stocking at the end of their bed or by the chimney or hang it by the fireplace so that Santa Claus will fill it with presents. A tangerine or a nut are often put into the stockings. Santa Claus is supposed to visit each house on Christmas Eve by climbing down the chimney. IV. Young children are told that Santa Claus will bring them presents if they are good. Children sometimes write a letter to Santa Claus telling him what presents they would like for Christmas. On Christmas Eve (December 24th, the day before Christmas Day), they often leave out something for him to eat or drink. V. People also buy and send Christmas cards to their friends usually contain- 150 ing the message “Merry Christmas”. ye = you workshop — мастерская elves — эльфы, гномы tangerine — мандарин supposed — предполагается, что The cards often show pictures of “the nativity [na'tivati] (the birth of Christ), Santa Claus, a Christmas tree, robins” or scenes of old-fashioned Christmases. VI. Because people give each other presents, in the days and weeks before Christmas the shops become very busy. Newspapers and television, etc. say how many shopping days there are left and people often spend a lot of money. But many people feel that Christmas has become too much of business and so has lost its meaning. VII. Santa Claus, also called Santa, Father Christmas (in Britain), or Kriss Kringle (in America) is an imaginary old man in red clothes and with a long white beard. VIII. He is supposed to fly about the sky in a sleigh [slei], pulled by reindeer. IX. People usually decorate their houses and many people have a Christmas tree with coloured balls or lights on it in their house which they also decorate. K.eadin^ for Vtsmssion imaginary — воображаемый 3. Read the text, divide it into logical parts and give them titles. Christmas Day Christmas Day is a public holiday. Families usually spend the day opening their presents which are often piled around the Christmas tree decorated with tinsel, baubles, fairy lights, etc. They eat and drink togeth- er. The most important meal is Christmas dinner. At the start of the meal, British people often pull a cracker, which contains a small toy, a paper bat and a joke. The typical meal nowadays consists of turkey with piled around — складываются под tinsel ['tinsl] — гирлянды baubles [boiblz] — бусы, шарики fairy lights — ёлочные огни cracker — хлопушка 151 0лигЖ sprouts [sprauts] — брюссельская капуста covering of icing — корочка из глазури mince pie — пирожок с начинкой из изюма, миндаля, корицы и сахара bake — пекут potatoes and other vegetables such as carrots and sprouts. In Britain this is followed by Christmas pudding — a sweet pudding containing a lot of dried fruit and often covered with burning brandy. Other traditional foods in Britain include Christmas cake — a cake containing a lot of dried fruit and usually having a covering of icing (hard sugar) made to be eaten at Christmas, and mince pies. Americans bake special biscuits called Christmas cookies which they eat over the Christmas season (the time when people prepare for and celebrate Christmas, from mid-December to the end of the year). In Britain, the day after Christmas is called Boxing Day and is also a public holiday. A lot of sports take place on Boxing Day and many people now spend time watching sport on television. In the US many stores hold special sales, where things can be bought cheaply, on the day after Christmas. Twelve days after Christmas is the time when people are supposed to take down their decorations and remove their Christmas trees. 4. Put together all the information about Christmas and sum it up in a short talk about X-mas' celebrations. Let each student add something to the story. Don’t repeat each other. 5. Follow your teacher reading the poem or listen to the recording, f® and say what made King John happy. 27, King John’s Christmas (After A. A. Milne) King John was not a good man — He had his little ways. And sometimes no one spoke to him For days and days and days. ways привычки King John was not a good man, And no good friends had he. He stayed in every afternoon ... But no one came to tea. And, round about December, The cards upon his shelf Which wished him lots of Christmas cheer, And fortune in the coming year. Were never from his near and dear. But only from himself. King John was not a good man. Yet had his hopes and fears. They’d given him no present now For years and years and years. But every year at Christmas, While minstrels stood about. He stole away upstairs and hung A hopeful stocking out. King John was not a good man. He lived his life aloof. Alone he thought a message out While climbing to the roof. He wrote it down and propped it Against the chimney stack: “To all and sundry — near and far F. CHRISTMAS IN PARTICULAR.’ And signed it not “Johannes R.” But very humbly, “Jack.” “I want some crackers. And I want some candy; I think a box of chocolates Would come in handy; I don’t mind oranges, I do like nuts! And I should like a pocket knife That really cuts. And, oh! Father Christmas, cards = greetings cards fortune — удача near and dear — родные и близкие fears — страхи, опасения minstrel — менестрель, певец stole away upstairs — тайком пробираться наверх aloof — в одиночестве thought а message out — придумал послание propped — прислонил chimney stack — дымовая труба to all and sundry — всем и каждому F. = Father R. {lat. rex) = king would come in handy пригодилась бы 153 If you love me at all, Bring me a big, red india-rubber ball!” King John was not a good man — He wrote this message out. And got him to his room again, Descending by the spout. And all that night he lay there, A prey for hopes and fears. “I think that’s him a-coming now,” (Anxiety bedewed his brow.)^ “He’ll bring one present, anyhow — The first I’ve had for years.” “Forget about the crackers. And forget about the candy; I’m sure a box of chocolates Would never come in handy; I don’t like oranges, I don’t want nuts. And I have got a pocket knife That almost cuts. But, oh! Father Christmas, If you love me at all. Bring me a big, red india-rubber ball!” King John was not a good man — Next morning when the sun Rose up to tell a waiting world That Christmas had begun. And people took their stockings. And opened them with glee. And crackers, toys and games appeared. And lips with sticky sweets were smeared. King John said grimly, “As I feared, Nothing again for me!” King John stood by the window, And frowned to see below The happy bands of boys and girls india-rubber ВЫЙ резино- him = himself descending by the spout — спустившись no трубе prey for hopes and fears — терзаемый надеждами и страхами glee — радость перепачкан- smeared ные grimly — мрачно frowned — хмурился bands — стайки 154 ’ Anxiety bedewed his brow — C беспокойством на лице w All playing with the snow. A while he stood there watching, And envying them all. ® When through the window big and red There hurtled by his royal head Fell and bounced upon the bed, An india-rubber ball! AND, OH, FATHER CHRISTMAS, MY BLESSINGS ON YOU FALL FOR BRINGING HIM A BIG, RED, INDIA-RUBBER BALL! envying — завидуя hurtle ['h3:tl] — нестись, мчаться blessings — благословение, благодарность Sj/edking 6. Act the poem out: distribute the lines of the poem between the pupils of your group. Let one pupil do the part of King John and say the final words together. Use greetings cards, a ball, costumes, etc. to make it look like a real performance. 7. A. Look at the picture and make up a Christmas Story. To make your story more logical write its outline first. B. Ask your parents how they celebrated Christmas and the New Year when they were young children. Tell the class about it. M iscellaneous 8. Learn the words of this popular carol and sing it along, О Christmas Tree о Christmas tree, О Christmas tree. With faithfuL leaves unchanging. Not only green in summer’s heat; 4 28. faithful — верный, преданный, постоянный 155 »мтЖ But also winter’s snow and sleet. О Christmas tree, О Christmas tree, With faithful leaves unchanging. 9. Read X-mas Alphabet. Write each letter of X-mas Alphabet on coloured paper and decorate the classroom with your alphabet tinsels. Look up the words that you don’t know in a dictionary. A is for Apple that hangs on the tree. В is for Bells that chime out in glee. C is for Candy to please boys and girls. D is for Dolly with long flaxen curls. ■ E is for Evergreen decking the room. F is for Flowers of sweetest perfume. G is for Gifts that bring us delight. 9>- H is for Holly with red berries bright. I is for Ice, so shining and clear. J is for Jingle of bells far and near. К is Kriss Kringle with fur cap and coat. ^ . L is for Letters children all wrote. M is for Mistletoe shining like wax. N is for Nuts which grandpapa cracks. О is for Oranges, yellow and sweet. P is Plum Pudding, a holiday treat. Q is the Quadrille in which each one must dance. R is for Reindeer that gallop and prance. fS imfor Snow that falls silently down. T is for Turkey so tender and brown. U is for Uproar that goes on all day. V is for Voices that carol this day. W is for Wreaths hung up on the wall. ^ . X is for X-mas with pleasures for all. Y is for Yule log that burns clear and bright. Z is for Zest shown from morning till night. 10. Make up more X-mas decorations. Decide whose decoration is: a) the most beautiful; b) the most original; c) the most traditional; d) using English in the best way. 11. For further information on the topic “Christmas” see the Internet sites: http ://www.christmas4kids. org/ /ПЧ http://www.allthingschristmas.com/traditions.html http://www.creativekidsathome.com/activities/Christmas_History.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_worldwide Project Work 5 (see p. 316) 156 Ш PLEASURE OF READING mm. HOW TO SPEAK ABOUT BOOKS AND AUTHORS mm KINDS OF BOOKS CHOOSING A BOOK TO READ mm LIBRARIES HISTORY OF BOOKS M FAMOUS WRITERS AND THEIR WORKS ^ READERS OF BOOKS К evision 1. Answer these questions to find out what reading habits you and your classmates have got. 1. How much time do you spend on reading? 2. What kind of reading do you prefer: do you like reading books? newspapers? magazines? What kind of books, newspapers and magazines? 3. When and where do you usually read? 4. Do you read books only for your Russian Literature classes or do you do any extra reading? 5. Have you got any favourite books, favourite authors ['o;03z] or favourite characters? 6. How old were you when you began reading? Do you remember what book was the first that you read? What book did you especially like when you were a young child? Did your parents or grandparents read to you when you were very young? Have you heard of the tradition of reading aloud in the family circle? What do you think of it? Have you ever read books to your younger brother or sister? Do you like doing it? Why? 7. Do you collect books? How many books have you got at home? Are they mostly your books or your parents’ books? Where do you keep them? 8. How do grown-up books differ from children’s books? Do you read grown-up books? Do your parents or teachers help you to choose books that you read? 157 9. Do you use any libraries? What libraries? What are they like? Do you find them helpful? In what way? 10. What does reading do for you? Is it an important part of your life? In what way can reading be useful to people? 2, These are extracts from very famous books. Match them with the covers of the books. Say if you’ve read them. 1. “The prince began to take off his fine clothes, and Tom took off his old clothes and put on the clothes of the prince. Tom looked at the prince as he stood there dressed in Tom’s clothes. He had seen someone very like him before. Where had he seen him? ‘Come and look at us in the glass!’ cried the prince. They were just like each other.” “I had slept for many hours. When I awoke, it was just daylight. I tried to get up from the ground, but I could not move! My arms and feet were held down to the ground with strings.^ I heard some noise around me, but I could see nothing. In a little time I felt something alive 158 'a string — верёвка moving on my foot, then it came over my body and up to my face. Turning my eyes down as much as I could, I saw a man. He was less than 15 centimetres high.” “Alice and her big sister were sitting on the grass. Her sister was reading a book, but Alice had nothing to read ... She was too sleepy ... Just then, a white rabbit ran by, very near to her. That does not happen every day, but Alice did not wonder about it. But she did wonder when the rabbit took a watch out of its pocket and looked at it.” 4. “At seven o’clock on a hot evening in the Seeonee hills. Father Wolf woke up. There was a little animal at the mouth of the cave.’ It was Tabaqui [tabseki], the jackal. The wolves of India don’t like Tabaqui. He makes trouble, Father Wolf could see from Tabaqui’s eyes that he wanted to make trouble now. ‘Shere Khan ['Jia 'ka:n], the Big One, has changed his hunting grounds,’ Tabaqui said.” 5. “There were 150 places at the table. Each knight^ had his name written in his place. There were one hundred and twenty-eight knights at the table. As time went on other brave and good knights came, and King Arthur gave them places. One place was not filled for a long time. That place was for a knight who had never done any bad thing to anyone. It was called the ‘Seat Perilous ['perolas]’: if a bad man sat in it, he would die. After many years Sir Galahad ['gEebhsed] came and was given that place.” 3. Certain words and word combinations heip us to teli a story. List A has words that show you how events foliow each other. List В has words that show you how facts are connected with each other. Look through both lists and remember the words. . a cave — пещера a knight [nait] — рыцарь 159 List A Narration' beginning the story continuation going back parallel action(s) finishing the story first first of all next then after that afterwards previously just then meanwhile (тем временем) = in the meantime eventually (e конце концов) finally In the end List В Connectors^ so — таким образом, поэтому as — поскольку however, anyhow — как бы то ни было nevertheless — тем не менее because — потому что although — хотя on the contrary — напротив actually — на самом деле that’s why — вот почему 4. A. Look at the pictures showing the beginning and the end of the day of Pauline Bailey. Describe her day using List A. ' narration — повествование 160 ' connectors — коннекторы, соединительные слова, т. е. слова, соединяющие смысло- вые части предложения 0Mi ф в. Fill in the gaps with the words of List В to complete the story. The story of King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table has been popular in Europe for more than a thousand years. Once the knights of England decided to choose a new king. They knew how to choose their king ... (1) previously they had found a huge stone with a sword which said, “The man who can pull the sword out of the stone will be king.” ... (2) all the knights tried to pull the sword out of the stone, ... (3) it seemed none of them could do it. ... (4) England eventually got a king: Arthur was a young boy at the time, but ... (5) he pulled the sword from the stone. ... (6) Arthur became king. 5. A. Look at the pictures and tell the story. 161 в. Try to guess what the people in the pictures are saying. 6. Study the table. t, a (an) == one Give me a book. There is a table here. I would like an apple. 2. a (an) every any some A squirrel has a tail. A girl came into the room. I saw a man in the library. 3. a (an) = serves to classify or name objects Nick is a boy. It is a bowl. I am a student. 4. a (an) + a descriptive attribute' It happened in a small town in England. We met on a wonderful spring morning. Mr Collins went on a very unusual journey. T. Say what their jobs are. Example: Vickie makes photos. She is a photographer. 1. George teaches children at school. 2. Nataly performs on the stage. 3. Walter writes articles to newspapers. 162 'a descriptive attribute [di'sknptrv '®tnbju:t] — описательное определение 4. Andrew drives a taxi. 5. Simon drives a bus. 6. Robert plays football professionally. 7. Bob flies planes. 8. Paul plays tennis professionally. 9. Emily can cure you if you are ill. 10. Betsy paints pictures. 8. Give equivalents to the indefinite articles in these sentences: one, some, any, certain, every. 1. A tiger has paws, a sheep has hooves. 2. Fiona bought a candlestick yesterday. 3. There was a knock at the door. 4. It happened in a small village in the South of France. 5. Have you got a map of Europe? 6. When I was walking home, I met a boy who was carrying a basket with a small puppy in it. 7. Even a child knows where the sun rises, and you don’t. 8. I must send an e-mail. 9 — Where’s John? — He has gone to the theatre to listen to an opera. 10. A detective helps to find criminals. 9. Use the indefinite article where necessary. 1. I have ... brother. I have no ... sisters. My brother is ... student. He is ... first-year student. He is ... very good student. Yesterday he got ... excellent mark for his paper and ... good marks for his two tests. My brother doesn’t live in ... flat, he lives in ... small cottage. 2. Yesterday I bought ... book. This book is ... dictionary. It’s ... Russian-English dictionary. It is ... dark green book, rather thick. There is ... special page where all the symbols are explained. It is ... page 8. 3. I have ... very good job. It is not ... difficult job, but very interesting. I work in ... library. Our library is situated in ... tall building. It is ... ten-storeyed building. There is ... reading hall in the library. It is on ... floor 5. 163 1. Jack lives in a small village. 2. Jane works at an office, not at a pub. 3. You can rarely find an apple tree or a cherry tree in a park. They usually grow in gardens, (just giving a name to this or that place) 1. Nick lives in the city centre. 2. John is at the office. 3. The children went for a walk. They are in the park. (the exact place) 10. In these sentences there are no articles. Add a/an or the to make them correct. 1. This is house. It is house made of wood. 2. This is house that Jack built. 3. Your blouse is in washing machine. It will be ready for tomorrow’s party. 4. What lovely dress! Are you going to wear it? 5. In good library there are always lots of children’s books. 6. Story was so exciting that children could hardly believe their ears. 7. — Book looks very unusual. I haven’t seen book like this before. — I’m not surprised. It’s very old and expensive book. 8. I know man who lives in house. 11. Miss A. has only one student. Miss B. has three students. Miss A. and Miss B. are very much alike, they tell their students the same things. The only difference will be in how they do it. What are Miss B.’s words? Example: Miss A.: “Buy a thick red pencil.’ Miss B.: “Buy thick red pencils.” 1. Take a pen and write down the new words. 2. Draw a black cat with a bushy tail. 3. You need a brush and some black paint to do this. 4. You must be hungry, have a sandwich. 5. I was very touched ]^64 when you gave me a flower on my birthday. 6. Please bring a chair from the room next door. 7. I want you to choose a good book and read it during your holidays. 8. Don’t forget to write a greetings card to your grandparents and post it well before the event. 12. Put these nouns into the right category: countables or uncountables. Write the countable nouns in the plural. mystery, knock, bread, hoof, murmur, information, mosquito, weather, carrot, candle, milk, toast (хлеб), housework, mother tongue, practice, idiom, tomato, vocabulary, play, advice, money, butter, coin, hair (волосы), paper (бумага), potato. Countables: .......... Uncountables: ................................ Tenses and Forms That Are Used to Describe the Future 1. We express some action in the future, we cannot change anything. Future Simple a) John will be ten in May. b) We shall have snow in winter. 2. We predict’ things. Future Simple a) I think it will rain tomorrow. b) I am sure we won’t get the answer. to be going to (we can see that something is on the way to happen) Look at the clouds. It is going to rain. 3. We decide to do something at the time of speaking. Future Simple — There are no potatoes left. — OK. I’ll buy some. 4. We express intentions, promises, invitations, hopes, expectations, threats. Future Simple a) I promise I’ll buy you a ring. b) I hope he will come on time. c) He will punish you. ' to predict [pri'dikt] — предсказывать 165 т 5. We talk about timetables. Present Simple a) My train leaves at 3.20. b) When does the film start? 6. We mention conditions. Present Simple (clauses of time and condition) Future Simple (main clause) When Mother gets some money, she will buy me a new bike. 7. We talk about planned actions, near future. . Present Continuous to be going to We are having a party tomorrow. I have written all the invitations. We are going to have a party on Saturday. 8. We talk about a certain time in the future. Future Continuous Boris will be flying to Vladivostok at 3 o’clock tomorrow. 9. We speak about an action completed by a certain moment in the future. Future Perfect Nataly will have finished her article by 3. 166 13. Complete the sentences with the right verbs. 1. Next year he (will be/is) five. 2. Tomorrow it (will be/is) warm with a few showers. 3. Who do you think (will win/wins)? 4. It (doesn’t rain/won’t rain) next week. 5. Clothes (are/will be) very different in the year 2030. 6. If you (come/will come) there first, keep a seat for me. 7. When you (find/will find) some material related to the topic, let me know. 8. When it (will get/gets) dark, we (will light/light) the candles. 9. He (will be/is) anxious if you (will come/come) late. 10. — There is a doorbell. — I (will go/go) and open the door. 14. Andrew has just passed his English examination. Nina is taking the same exam tomorrow. She is asking Andrew for advice. Complete the dialogue using suitable future forms. (In some cases more than one form is possible.) Nina: I vous. (1. take) this exam tomorrow and I’m awfully ner- Andrew: Don’t be nervous, you (2. be) fine. You (3. please) the examiners with your English, I’m sure. Nina: You are kidding, aren’t you? They ____________ (4. ask) me many questions? Andrew: No, I don’t think so: just two or three. Nina: Oh! And I ____________ (5. have to read) a text and then trans- late it? Andrew: Yes, that’s one of the things everybody does. Nina: And I ___________ (6. write) anything? Andrew: I think they ___________ (7. tell) you to write some questions on the text. Nina: I see. I hope I _________ questions. (8. have) enough time to write the ____ (9. give) you at least half an Andrew: Don’t worry, they ___________ hour to get ready. Nina: I __________ (10. look) through my grammar books this afternoon and __________ (11. practise) reading aloud. Andrew: I hope you (12. not, stay) up late. You should rest well before the exam. Nina: I _________ (13. try) to. Thanks for your time, Andy. See you. Andrew: See you and the best of luck. Nina: Thanks. 15. A. Irene is going to Laura’s birthday party at 5 p.m. on Saturday. Find out: 1) time / she / to get up 2) dress / she / to wear 3) the way / she / to travel to Laura’s 4) things / she / to take to the party 5) time / she / to come back 167 в. Find out what Irene plans to do at 10 a.m., 11 a.m., 3 p.m., 4 p.m., 5 p.m. ^ to cut the sermon short — сократить проповедь 168 ^ greens — овощной гарнир {слово, характерное для детей) т с. Work in pairs. Imagine that your friend is going to somebody’s birthday party. Ask him/her questions about his/her plans. Let your friend answer them. 16. All these captions'' describe future actions. Explain the choice of grammar forms. Match the captions with the pictures. 17. A. In these situations you offer people your help. What will you say? Example: It’s hot and stuffy in the room. You say: Shall I open the window? 1. It’s got too dark in the room. 2. Your mother is very tired after work and your family are hungry. 3. Your dad’s car is very dirty and he is too busy to wash it. 4. Your little brother can’t read and wants to know the end of the story that Granny began reading to him the day before. 5. It’s hot and the plants in the garden are dying. 6. Your teacher is carrying a lot of books and can’t open the door of the teachers’ room. 7. There’s no bread in the house. 8, There are a lot of dirty plates left after dinner. B. In these situations you ask for advice or instruction. What will you say? Example: You don’t know what to buy for tea. You say: Shall I buy a cake or some biscuits? 1. You’re driving a car but you don’t know the way. There’s a turn to the left and a turn to the right. 2. You are in the library and you want advice as to what book to choose. 3. You are not sure what to give your friend as a birthday present. 4. You want your mother’s advice about laying the table. 5. You’d like to know what programme on television your family are going to watch. 6. You’re on the bus. You’re not sure where to get off. 7. You need your grandmother’s advice: you’re not sure if it’s the right time to pick strawberries in the garden. 8. You are talking to your friend about the best way to finish your story. ASSESS YOUR RESULTS Tasks No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. Total Results^"^-..^.^^^ 2 7 9(1) 9(2) 9(3) 10 12 13 Maximum result 5 10 9 6 7 13 26 12 88 Your result ' a caption |'kffipj'n| ПОДПИСЬ под картинкой 169 Heading for Information SFA^ 18. Read the text once very attentively and complete the sentences after it with the appropriate variants. The Printed Word The earliest books were written on tablets of wood or pieces of bark. In Greece and Rome the tablets of wood were covered with wax [w^ks], and writing was impressed upon them with a small stick called “stylus”. These tablets were held together on one side with thin strips of leather or metal rings. In Assyria [o'sins] and Babylonia [,b£ebi'l3um3] clay tablets were used for writing, and the words were drawn with a piece of wood. After baking the tablets were kept on shelves just like books are kept today. Although the clay tablets didn’t look very beautiful, they were long-lasting and some of them survived until the present day. The earliest books of the ancient world were written on papyrus [pa'pairss] and skins of young animals. These books took the form of a long strip rolled from one cylinder to another. These writings were known to the Romans as volumen from which comes the word volume. Though paper has been known in China since the first century, the secret of papermaking came to Europe much later. Books were quite common in ancient Rome: we know that there were many booksellers and the first public library was founded there about 39 B.C.^ Only the rich could buy books or make their slaves copy books from important libraries. By the time of the Middle Ages all books were handwritten and often beautifully decorated. Libraries used to chain books to the shelves so that they could not be removed from the building. But very few people could read them. The invention of printing was a really great event in history. The first people to invent printing were the Chinese. In Europe there were several people who can be called inventors of printing. The best-known is Johann Gutenberg [cfeou'sen 'gu:tonb3:g] from Germany. Printing spread quickly over Europe and by the end of the 15th century there were more than 200 presses. The early printers were not only craftsmen, but also editors, publishers and booksellers. The first printing press in England was set up by William Caxton ['kiekstan] at Westminster in 1476, and the first printing press in Russia — by Ivan Fedorov in Moscow in 1564. Printed books soon reached a very 170 ' B.C. — Before Christ — до нашей эры (A.D. шей эры) Anno Domini [,вепэи 'dnminai] — на- »шгФ high standard and the craftsmen were rightfully proud of their work. Eventually there were more and more people in Europe who could read and they wanted more and more hooks. That led to opening more libraries. Early libraries were used only by scientists and were few. By and by they grew in number and began to be used by the public. The 19th century saw the appearance of a proper system of public libraries. Now most countries have their own national libraries. Many old university libraries have rich collections of books: Oxford and Cambridge in England, Harvard and Yale Oeil] in the United States. Among the great libraries of the world we can name the British Museum Library (the British Library) in London, the Library of Congress in the United States, the Beijing^ Library in China, the State Public Library in Moscow, Bibliotheque [biblro'tek] Nationale [nasjo:'nal] in France. The world’s largest is the US Library of Congress. It holds about 90 million items — books and manuscripts ['msenjuskripts]. The library was founded in 1800 in Washington, DC for the use of Congress and later became a public library. Bibliotheque Nationale dates back to the 17th century and The British Museum Library The Library of Congress The Beijing Library Beijing [,beic}5ii3l — г. Пекин 171 The State Public Library Bibliotheque Nationale the British Museum Library was set in the 18th century. The State Public Library in Moscow was founded in 1862 and has unique [ju:'ni:k] collections of books. Modern libraries do their best to help people get information as quickly as possible. They use computers and electronic catalogues ['kcCtoIogz]. Probably the most difficult problem for any library is to keep their books, journals ['d53:nlzj and films. How they do it is a new story. 1. In ancient Rome . 172 a) people used to sell books b) rich people founded public libraries c) a lot of people were able to read books in the libraries d) slaves were not allowed to touch books 2. The US Library of Congress _____________. a) has only printed editions b) is as big as the British Museum Library c) is the oldest of all famous public libraries d) is used not only by American congressmen 19. Look through the text again and find out: 1) what materials were used to make ancient books; 2) in what places of the world people had books in ancient times; 3) where and when printing was invented; 4) by whom early libraries were used; 5) when many public libraries appeared; 6) what old universities have good libraries; 7) what cities of the world have great libraries. 20. Read the text again for more detailed information and find in the text words and word combinations which mean: 1. деревянные дощечки 4. полоски кожи 2. куски коры 5. глиняные таблички 3. воск 6. обжигание -----------------------------------------------------0ШжФ 7. они могли долго храниться 16. распространилось по Европе 8. сохранились до сегодняшнего 17. ремесленники дня 18. редакторы, издатели и кни- 9. папирус готоргоЕцы 10. полоска, которая перематыва- 19. появление настояш,ей систе- лась с одного цилиндра на другой мы публичных библиотек 11. книжный том 20. девяносто миллионов еди- 12. Средние века ниц хранения 13. книги были довольно широ- 21. книги и рукописи ко распространены 22. уникальные коллекции 14. приковывать цепями 23. сохранить 15. изобретение книгопечатания 21. Say what new things you’ve learned from the text. 22. The text “The Printed Word” has got a lot of international words. Guess what they are. ta____t _ ecr__ ____lie cy______r m______m jo_______ c_______ss __^„PU-___ c_ll______________ i_____m_____o_ f____ manu_________ c_t_____g P_P u_ ele______ic m_t st_____d 23. These sentences are answers to certain questions on the text “The Printed Word”. Say what the questions are. 1. On tablets of wood or pieces 5. About 39 B.C. of bark, 6. The Chinese. 2. With thin stripes of leather 7. About 200. or metal rings. 8. His name was William Caxton. 3. In Assyria and Babylonia. 9. In Moscow in 1564. 4. They bake them. 10. The US Library of Congress. 24. Give each paragraph of the text “The Printed Word” a name to make a general outline of the whole text. /Vew language Grammar Section j 25. Collective nouns are names of a group of people, animals or collections of things — a crowd, a class, a family, a government, a club. 173 А. Learn some new collective nouns. 1. a flock a) a flock of sheep b) a flock of birds a) a pack of wolves 2. a pack b) a pack of dogs a) a swarm of flies ^ 3. a swarm b) a swarm of bees 4. a herd a) a herd of cows ■--b) a herd of deer c) a herd of elephants 5. a school^ a) a school of fish b) a school of whales^ 174 “a whale [well] — кит в. a pride of lions 8, a committee 10. a crew 12. the police [pa'liis] 14. a bundle 7. an audience 9. a team 11. an army a) a bunch of keys 13. a bunch b) a bunch of flowers B. Say what these collective nouns mean in Russian. 26. Use one of the collective nouns from the word box to express the same. 175 army, audience, bunch, bundle, class, committee, crew, crowd, family, flock, government, herd(2), pack, pride, swarm, school, team 1. A number of cows or bulls is a .... 2. A large number of people is a .... 3. All the people working on a ship or plane are a .... 4. A nximber of sticks is a .... 5. A number of sheep is a .... 6. A group of people who play, act or work together is a .... 7. A number of flies or other insects is a .... 8. A group of people chosen to direct some work is a .... 9. A group of relatives is a ... . 10. People listening to or watching a performance are an ... . 11. A number of flowers is a ... . 12. A big number of soldiers is an .... 13. A group of elephants is a .... 14. A group of lions is a ... . 15. A number of dogs or wolves is a ... , 16. A group of statesmen or rulers of a country is a .... 17. A group of pupils is a .... 18. A group of whales is a .... Read and compare! . A whole group Individuals that make up a group 1. The new government is bet- 1. All the government agree ter than the old. It has that the situation is diffi- much more success. cult. They are making new plans for the year. 2. Class 7 “A” is responsible 2. Our class have decided to for the job. hold our ski races next Saturday. 3. The average Russian family 3. My family are angry with has 3—4 members. It is me. They don’t like my idea smaller than at the begin- of going to Siberia alone. ning of the last century. 4. A football team is made up 4. Our team are going to lose of 11 players. It is smaller the game. They are useless. than a rugby team. BuL: The police have arrived. The police are looking for Mr N. Are the police here? 176 Read and compare! Substances I Single Items (Вещества ) (Отдельные предметы) 1. Can I have some paper to 1, My father buys two or write on? three papers every morning. 2, What is glass made of? 2. I’d like a glass of water, please. 3. Stone is often used to build 3. Look what pretty stones houses. I’ve found on the beach. 4. There’s egg on your face. 4. Today I had two boiled eggs for breakfast. 5. This new bridge is made of 5. I need a new iron. My old iron. one doesn’t work. 6. Don’t eat too much cake, it 6. I want to make a birthday isn’t good for you. cake for you. 7. I don’t like meat but I like 7. Little chickens are so love- chicken. ly- 8. I need more apple for the 8. Cut up 3 apples and use pie. them for the pie. Substances II Sorts and Kinds 1. How many days can a man 1. Narzan is a mineral water. live without water? 2, The table is made of metal. 2, Silver is a metal. 3. Eat more salad. It is 3. There are so many salads healthy. on the menu. Food and Drinks III A Portion of Food or Drink 1. Don’t drink so much coffee. 1. Can I have another coffee, please? 2. All children like ice cream. 2. Would you like an ice cream? 3. Soup is traditionally eaten 3. We would like two soups. at the beginning of a meal. please. 4, I love chocolate! 4. A box of chocolates can make a good present. 177 27. А. Use а or zero article to complete the story. Last Sunday was mother’s birthday and we decided to eat out. Dad took us to ... (1) new restaurant, that his friend had recommended to him. The restaurant was ... (2) tall building made of ... (3) glass and ... (4) stone. Inside it was as beautiful as outside. Every table was covered with ... (5) red-and-white tablecloth. In front of each of us the waiter put ... (6) glass, ... (7) plate, ... (8) spoon, ... (9) knife and ... (10) fork. On the menu there were ... (11) lot of things that we liked: ... (12) meat, ... (13) fish, ... (14) chicken, ... (15) vegetables and ... (16) fruit. My brother and I had ... (17) green salad with ... (18) egg in it (just the way we like it). Then we had ... (19) fish and ... (20) chips with ... (21) greens. For dessert each of us had ... (22) fruit salad with ... (23) ice cream on top of it. We drank ... (24) coke and ... (25) tea, and mum and dad had ... (26) glass of wine each. It was ... (27) lovely meall B. Speak about a nice meal that you once had. 28. Express the same in English, use articles a/an, the or zero article, some or any. Example: Передай мне кофе, пожалуйста. Pass те the coffee, please. Кофе растёт в жарких странах. Coffee is grown in hot countries. Два кофе, будьте добры. Two coffees, please. Чашку кофе, пожалуйста. А сир of coffee, please. Кофе остался? Is there any coffee left? a) 1. Я люблю чай с лимоном. 2. Лимон на столе. Порежь его. 3, Сходи в магазин и купи яблок и лимон. 4. Для пирога мне нужны лимоны. Купи лимонов, пожалуйста. b) 1. Дай мне стакан молока. 2. Масло делают из молока. 3. Молоко холодное. 4. В холодильнике есть молоко? 5. Я не люблю молоко, но сейчас я хочу выпить молока. c) 1. Масло свежее. Оно тебе понравится. 2. Где масло? 3. Положи масло в холодильник. 4. Дай мне немного масла, кусочка масла хватит. 5. Дома есть масло? 6. Масло — это молочный продукт. d) 1. Три чая, пожалуйста. 2. — Вам чай или кофе? — Мне стакан чая. 3. Англичане любят пить чай с молоком, а русские предпочитают чай с лимоном. 4. В коробке для чая (tea caddy) нет чая. ]^73 Купи чая, пожалуйста. шпФ 29. А. Read and remember. See Reference Grammar, p. 321. Articles with the Names of Meals breakfast brunch^ lunch dinner supper a/an a cold beakfast (etc.) a light lunch a hot supper a nice/tasty brunch tea food itself I’ll go to the kitchen and have a look at the dinner. some particular meal The dinner we had at the restaurant was really good. zero article to have breakfast to take brunch to go to dinner after/before tea for supper at/during lunch to serve/to make tea Dinner is ready/laid/served. Supper is at 7 p.m. B. In some of these sentences articles are missing. Put in the articies to make the sentences grammaticaiiy correct. 1. (At) what time do you usually have breakfast? 2. I advise you to have light supper; that’ll help you to lose weight. 3. Dinner they gave us yesterday was very good. 4. Supper is in fridge. Warm it up. 5. Wash your hands, dinner is ready. 6. What huge breakfasti 7. Thanks very much for supper. 8. I always have lunch at school. 9. Lunch consisted of two sandwiches and cup of coffee. 10. What do you want me to cook for dinner? ' ft brunch (brAntfj — a meal taken in the middle of the morning {a combination of a late breakfast and early lunch) 179 Ш!ТФ The Future Perfect Continuous Tense for 5 years, next year, by this time, next week, by the end of the year +/- I, we shall, will/shan’t, won’t have been + Ving you, they, he, she, it will/won’t have been + Ving We will have been flying non-stop for four hours before we get to Rome. Мы будем лететь без доберёмся до Рима. перерыва в течение 4 часов, прежде чем 30. Translate these sentences into Russian. 1. Mr Finch will have been living in Rome for 3 years next May. 2. By this time next week Dr Johnson will have been working on this project for a year. 3. By the end of the year they will have been constructing this swimming pool. 4. Miss Honey will have been teaching for 10 years this summer. 5. By 6 o’clock John will have been working on the computer for 5 hours! кеаа апа compare: — —^ Clauses of time and condition Object clauses 1. We shall discuss it when 1. I don’t know when Alice Alice comes. will come. 2. If you send the letter 2. We are not sure if they will 1 today, they will get it on send the letter on time. time. 3. Call me when he arrives. 3. He never says when he will arrive. 4. You won’t be tired if you 4. Tell Mother if you will stay don’t stay up late. up late. 180 31. Complete the sentences using the ideas in brackets. 1. Ask the teacher (когда вы пойдёте в музей). 2. I want to know (когда Эндрю пошлёт нам письмо по электронной почте). 3. (Когда урок закончится), we shall go home. 4. I won’t be able to do the exercise (если ты мне не поможешь). 5. Don’t tell them (когда начнётся собрание). 6. Bob wonders (придём ли мы к нему на вечеринку). 7. Will you find out (когда у нас последнее занятие по географии)? 8. (Если вы не откроете окно), it will be hot in the room soon. 9. I don’t know (останется ли он в Москве надолго). 10. We are not sure (придут ли они), but (если они придут), explain everything to them. Vocabulary Section f f f If f f f f Ilf f 32. Very often in a certain situation people expect us to say some particular thing. It is important to know how to react to people’s words. Check yourselves and match the phrases in these columns, 29. 1, How’s your father keeping? a) Thank you. Do you really like 2. How do you do? it? 3. Thank you very much. b) No, thank you. I’ve had a 4. What a nice blouse! lot. 5. I’m awfully sorry, I’ve bro- c) Thanks, you too. ken a cup. d) It’s nice to see you too. 6. Thank you for a wonderful e) Oh, that doesn’t matter. meal. f) Thank you, I will. Goodbye. 7. Have a nice weekend. g) He’s fine. Thank you. 8. Goodbye, give my love to h) Hold the line, please. your son. i) You’re welcome. 9. How nice to see you again. j) Pleased to meet you. 10. Hallo. John here. Can I k) Thanks. The same to you. speak to Rob, please? 1) How do you do? 11. How about a nice cup of tea m) Congratulations! before you go? n) Yes, I’d love one. 12. You must have some more chicken. 13. Meet my sister Jane. 14. Happy Easter! 15. I’ve just passed my exam. o) I’m glad you enjoyed it. 181 т 33. Choose the suitable reply and check yourselves with the help of the recording, 30. 1. — How do you do? 5. a) — I'm fine, thanks. b) — Not at all. c) — How do you do? 2. — Meet my friend Alec. 6. a) — Glad to meet you. b) — You look wonderful. c) — Thank you. 3. — Have a nice holiday. 7. a) — You are welcome. b) — Thank you. c) — Yes, I’d love to. 4. — How’s your mum? 8. a) — She’s fine, thank you. b) — Thanks, you too. c) — And how are you? — I’ve won in a lottery! a) — My best wishes. b) — Congratulations! c) — Take my warmest greetings. — Goodbye and thanks for everything. a) — Nice to hear that. b) — Oh! That doesn’t matter. c) — You’re welcome. — I’m sorry, I’m late. a) — You’re right. b) — That doesn’t matter. c) — The same to you. — Can I speak to Kate, please? a) — No problem. b) ^— Do you really want to speak to her? c) — Hold on, please. i PHRASAL VERBS to run 1. to run away/off — убежать, удрать Don’t run away and leave me alone, news, he ran off at once. When I gave him the 2. to run down — a) остановиться (о механизмах, часах) The clock has run down and will stop if not wound. b) говорить c пренебрежением He is always running down his sister. to run in/into — быстро войти, вбежать Run in the house and bring my other coat, please. 4. to run out — a) выбежать The cage was open and the monkey ran out. b) кончаться, иссякать The money is running out. My patience has run out. 5. to run over — a) переехать, задавить Be careful! Don’t run over the dog! A small kitten was run over by the train. b) перелиться через край, убежать I forgot to turn off the tap, and the water ran over (the sink) 34. Complete the sentences using the missing prepositions. 1. The old gentleman was run ... by the car. 2. Your time has run .... Hand in your papers. 3. The girl’s mother called her from the garden, and the child ran ... . 4. Give me a pencil, please. I have run ... of them. 5. Mother asks me to go shopping as we have run ... of vegetables. 6. Cross the street carefully. There is always a danger to be run .... 7. Don’t run .... I want to talk to you. 8. There’s no need to run ... my plans and ideas all the time. 9. I opened the door, and the cat ran .... 10. The sink is running .... nmwowsTO 1ЫШ 35. A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. There are four people in our household ['haushguld]. Washing the plates is one of my household duties. What’s on the telly today? It’s bad for your eyes to watch the telly too much. Charles Dickens was one of the best storytellers in the history of literature. My friend Michael is a very good storyteller. Someone who is watchful is careful to notice everything that is happening. The child spent his days under the watchful eyes of several old women. 183 They transport [trien'spatj fresh vegetables to Moscow and other big cities. They transported the bricks in a boat. Someone who works in a library is a librarian [lai'brearianj. Her speech is very good though she is very young. John is good at public speaking. Let’s ask him to make a speech at the conference. Notice the difference in spelling: speak but speech. B. Look the words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 184 36. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. to pop (popped) (o): 1. to pop to some place, to pop one’s head into the room. Little John popped a sweet into his mouth. 2. about eyes: His eyes popped when he saw a brown bear riding on a bike. pop-eyed {adj'): pop-eyed children, pop-eyed tourists. We listened to the story pop-eyed and couldn’t believe our ears. to spoil (spoiled/spoilt) (v): to spoil sth, to spoil a child, to spoil easily. I spoiled the soup by putting too much salt in it. This fish has spoilt. It would be a pity to spoil the surprise. to manage ['maenick] (o): to manage to do sth (often something that is difficult), to manage sth (a job, a book, a translation). Did you manage to talk to him before he left? I couldn’t manage the lock and rang the doorbell. I am so full that I can’t manage another sandwich. cosy [kauzi] (adj): a cosy house, a cosy room; to be/feel cosy. The room was wonderfully warm and cosy. She felt warm and cosy in the armchair near the fire. a cosy (n): a soft cover which you put over sth to keep it warm. A tea cosy. An egg cosy. to devour [diVauaJ (u): to devour food, to devour a book, to devour a magazine. He devoured a plateful of cakes. When I was a boy, I devoured Russian fairy tales. a search [s3:tj] («): a long search, a dangerous search; a search for knowledge, a search for the lost child, in search of sth. After a long search she found the key. They spent a lot of time in search of a cheap hotel. to search (o): to search (for) sth. I searched for this book in all the shops but never found it. to pick [pik] (i>): 1. to pick sb, to pick the best, to pick a book. Bob couldn’t interpret what Michelle was talking about. Next time let’s pick somebody who speaks French better. What books have you picked in the library? 2. to pick flowers, to pick fruit, to pick mushrooms. Do you like to pick flowers in the field? 3. to pick up = to lift up. Could you pick up the newspaper for me? fascination [,f8esi'nerfn] (n): in fascination, with fascination. He watched the play with great fascination. This kind of literature has some strange fascination for me. fascinating [fsesmeitip] (adj): fascinating music, a fascinating idea, an adventure fod'ventfo] (n): a dangerous adventure, a strange adventure. Will he ever be able to forget his jungle adventure? an edition [I’dijn] (n): a new edition of the book, an old edition of the novel. I’m trying to find a particular edition of “Romeo and Juliet”. to contain [kan'teinj (u): to contain food, to contain information, to contain paper, etc. This book contains all the information you need. This little box contains only old letters, a container (n): a small container. Boxes and bottles are containers, a chatterbox (n): My sister Lizzy is a real chatterbox: she talks from morning till night. Could you, two chatterboxes, keep silent for a moment? tiny ['tami] (adj): a tiny baby, a tiny room, a tiny shoe, etc. The seven dwarfs [dwo:fs] lived in a tiny house on the shore of a forest lake. When we found Tommy, he was only a tiny hungry kitten, a spell [spel] (n): to say a spell, to whisper a spell, to put a spell on sb, to break a spell, to be under the spell. A spell is magic words. The .spell of the wicked witch was broken, contents ['knntentsj (n): (usually plural) the contents of the book, the contents of the letter, the contents of the bag. The contents of English books are always at the beginning. Why were the contents of her letter so sad? The contents of this fairy tale are very unusual. to impress [im'pres] (o): to impress people, to impress greatly. Diana’s singing impressed Bob so much that he asked her to sing on the radio. an impression (n): my first impression, the impressions of London. What was your first impression of Australia? to make an impression on sb: Frank made a good impression on Mary’s parents. 185 impressive (adj)’. an impressive palace, an impressive view, to introduce [|intr3'dju:s] (t>): to introduce sb to sb, to introduce oneself, to be introduced to sb. I want to introduce you to my parents. I don’t think we’ve been introduced. Our teacher usually introduces new words in class. 37. Answer the questions to practise the new words. 1. When can people be pop-eyed? 2. Is it a compliment to be called a ‘chatterbox’? 3. Can you name the usual containers for milk, lemonade, jam, sugar, cream and flour? 4. What word is missing here: ... — small — regular in size — big — huge? 5. What is the title of Mark Twain’s book about Tom Sawyer? 6. What usually makes a room cosy? 7. Have you ever spoiled a dish? How did it happen? 8, Who are the members of your household? 9. Who do the police usually search for? 10. Why do you have to keep a watchful eye on the milk when you boil it? 11. What do we call young boys and girls who are under twenty? 12. Who is the best storyteller in your class? 13. What happened to Cinderella when the magic spell was broken? 14. How are goods transported from Europe to America? 15. When do people pick fruit and vegetables in the place where you live? 16. Which is better: to devour books or to read them slowly and carefully? Does it depend on the book? 38. Name 3—5 things that can be: a) tiny; b) cosy; c) fascinating; d) impressive; e) amazing. Read and compare! 186 to introduce oneself 1. Let me introduce myself. 2. John introduced himself and began to speak about his life. 3. Caroline couldn’t wait. She introduced herself at once as she entered the room. to introduce sb to sb 1. I introduced Bob to Jim. 2. Nobody in the village knew Patrick, and John introduced him to his neighbours. 3. “Nicola came from Paris yesterday,” said Caroline. “Let me introduce her to you.” 39. Choose the right pronoun to complete the sentences. 1. Bob introduced ... new friend to ... mother. 2. I don’t know Polly. Can you introduce ... to ... ? 3. Гш not sure we have met before. Let me introduce .... 4, I forget you know John. When were you introduced to ... ? 5. Last year I introduced John to Mary and now ... are married. 6. “Bob, introduce ... !” I cried. “They know nothing about ... !” 7. Well, young lady, will you introduce ... to your parents? I haven’t met them before. 8. Don’t introduce ... , wait till somebody does it for .... 40. Change the underlined part of the sentences. Use your new vocabulary. 1. Old Tom is always careful and notices everything that is happening. 2. Gulliver couldn’t believe his eyes when he saw very little people around him. 3. Little Robin couldn’t cope with the huge plateful of soup. 4. My granny used to tell me fairy tales and was very good at it. 5. He looked around trying to find a place to sit. 6. Do all your family watch television before going to bed? 7. I looked at the strange box and couldn’t guess what it held. 8. These two little girls talk so much. 9. The princess was turned into a frog with the help of magic words. 10. I don’t know what the book is about. 11. Tell me what things you found most interesting in London. 12. This book was published seven times. 13. She is fond of reading and reads a lot and very fast. 14. Lora had never cooked that’s why her first meal was ruined. 15. He was in such a hurry that he ran into the room to say goodbye. to impress sb to make an impression on sb 1. Diana’s singing impressed him very much. 2. He impressed the manager and got a good job. 3. Margaret’s poems did not impress the audience. 1. Diana’s singing made a great impression on him. 2. He made a good impression and the manager gave him a good job. 3. Margaret’s poems made a poor impression on the audience. 187 41. Express the same in English. Example: Dolly’s painting impressed Bob. Dolly’s painting made a great impression on Bob. 1. Jane’s words didn’t impress Mary. 2. Charles’s photos made a deep impression on me. 3. Natasha’s poems were really interesting. They produced a good impression on the audience. 4. What impressed you most about his acting? 42. Express the same in English. 1. On побывал в стольких странах, у него было столько приключений! 2. Он узнал (learned) волшебную силу слов. 3. «Крошечный» — меньше, чем «маленький». 4. Ты справишься с этой работой? 5. Содержание рассказа было сложным, и дети его не поняли. 6. Многие ребята в нашем классе читают запоем (глотают книги), 7. У Мэри была обворожительная улыбка. 8. Злая волшебница заколдовала. юного принца, но чары рассеялись, когда его поцеловала принцесса, 9. Джимми дал сестрёнке шоколадную конфету, и она тут же запихнула её в рот. 10. Я где-то потерял свой дневник. Мы с друзьями игдем его повсюду. 11. Здание Московского университета выглядит очень впечатляюш;е. 12. Когда Нина сказала, что пингвины не живут на Северном полюсе, все в классе сидели, вытаращив от удивления глаза. 13. Какой поразительный ребёнок! Он читает по книге в день, он просто глотает книги. 14. ^1то содержится в этой бутылке? 15. Молоко стоит на столе с утра, я думаю, что оно испортилось. 188 Read and compare! содержание (оно) contents (they) 1. Содержание фильма было интересным. 2. Ты знаешь содержание этого рассказа? Оно очень необычно. 3. Каково содержание этой пьесы? 1. The contents of the film were interesting. 2. Do you know the contents of this story? They are very unusual. 3. What are the contents of this play? 43. Choose the right form of the verb. 1. On what page ... (is/are) the contents of the book? 2. Your clothes ... (is/are) wet again. 3. The police ... (is/are) near. 4. What ... (is/are) the news? 5. Where ... (is/are) the contents in Russian books? 6. Your advice ... (is/are) always useful. 44. Make up sentences with the help of this table. takes me 10 minutes has taken her an hour to wash the car took him « < » to win the game It will take my friend Vickie to clean the doesn’t take classroom Ben hasn’t taken the Browns to make breakfast didn’t take . . . to run around won’t take the school Does take to read a long novel Has it Did taken ... Will 45. A. Make up sentences as in the example. Example: It takes Andrew at least two hours to do his homework. 1. Polly/to draw the picture 2. Roger/to feed the chickens 3. Agnes/to make a dress for her doll 4. Maria/to paint the walls of her bedroom 5. Vera/to cook dinner 6. Alice/to do the shopping 7. Victor/to swim 200 metres 8. Diana/to do the translation 9. Fiona/to clean the window 10. Rob/to study the map B. Ask your classmates how long certain activities took them. Example: How long did it take you to read the text? C. Ask your classmates how long they think certain activities will take them. Example: How long do you think it will take you to prepare for the match? 189 46. Look at the pictures and say what these people would like to do instead of doing what they have to. Example: James would like to read a book instead of working in the garden. Jane and Mary Laura 190 Nick and Peter Mr Robertson Mrs Smith Irene the children the dog 47. A. Make sure that you know these words. Listen to the text “Aladdin and the Magic Lamp”, 31. Morocco [тэ'гокэи] — Марокко (государство на севере Африки) certain ['s3:tn] — некий, какой-то jewels ['d5u:olz] — драгоценности lastly ['la:sth] — наконец В. Answer these questions. 1. Where did Aladdin and his mother live? 2. Where did their relative come from? 3. What presents did he bring to Aladdin's household? 4. What did Aladdin’s “uncle” ask the boy to do? 5. The journey was going to be long, wasn’t it? Do you think it was a boring journey? Why? 6. Where did they stop? 7. How did the hole appear in front of them? 8. What did the “uncle” ask Aladdin to search for in the garden? 191 0МгФ с. Explain why: 1) Aladdin’s relative had to introduce himself; 2) Aladdin and his mother looked at their relative in fascination; 3) Aladdin was taken aback when his “uncle” asked him to go to the mountains; 4) the “uncle” was telling the boy many interesting things during their journey; 5) the “uncle” asked the boy to keep a watchful eye on all the trees in the garden; 6) the uncle asked Aladdin not to push or rub the lamp. D. Remember the end of the story. Tell it to your friends. If you have never heard it, ask your friends to tell you the end. R eaiing for Disfussion 48. A. Look at the title of the text, the picture and the key phrases and try to guess what the text is going to be about. Key phrases: • to read books from cover to cover • to know as many words as most grown-ups • to be noisy chatterbox » to teach oneself to read by studying newspapers • to walk to the public library • to travel all over the world while sitting in the armchair B. Read the text. Listen to the first part of it carefully, 32, and say if your guess was right. The Reader of Books (After Roald Dahl) (V) Matilda’s brother Michael was a perfectly normal boy, but his sister was something to make your eyes pop. By the age of one and a half her speech was perfect, and she knew as many words as most grown-ups. The parents, instead of applauding her, called her a noisy chatterbox and told her angrily that small girls should be seen and not heard.* By the time she was three, Matilda had taught herself to read by studying newspapers and magazines that lay around the house. At the age of ‘ should be seen and not heard — word often said to young children in Victorian times (the time Queen Victoria ruled Britain, 1837—1901), meaning that children should 192 keep silent in the presence of the grown-ups four, she could read fast and well. The only book in the whole of this “educated” household was something called Easy Cooking' belonging to her mother, and when she had read this from cover to cover and had learned all the recipes^ by heart, she decided she wanted something more interesting. “Daddy,” she said, “do you think you could buy me a book?” “A book?” he said. “What’s wrong with the telly, for heaven’s sake?’’ We’ve got a lovely telly and now you come asking for a book! You’re getting spoiled, my girl!” Nearly every weekday afternoon Matilda was left alone in the house. So on the afternoon of the day when her father had refused to buy her a book, Matilda decided to walk to the public library in the village all by herself. When she arrived, she introduced herself to the librarian, Mrs Phelps [felps]. She asked if she could sit for a while and read a book. Mrs Phelps was taken aback when she saw that such a tiny girl had arrived at the library without a parent, but told her she was very welcome. “Where are the children’s books, please?” Matilda asked. “They’re over there on those lower shelves,” Mrs Phelps told her. “Would you like me to help you find a nice one with lots of pictures in it?” “No, thank you,” Matilda said. “I’m sure I can manage.” From then on, every afternoon, Matilda came to the library. The walk took her only ten minutes and this allowed her two wonderful hours in the library where she sat quietly by herself in a cosy corner devouring one book after another. When she had read all children’s books in the place, she started searching for something else. Mrs Phelps, who had been watching her with fascination for the past few weeks, now got up from her desk and went over to her. “Can I help you, Matilda?” she asked. “I’m wondering what to read next,” Matilda said. “I’ve finished all the children’s books.” “You mean you’ve looked at the pictures?” “Yes, but I’ve read the books as well. I thought some were very poor,” Matilda said, “but others were lovely. I liked the Secret Garden best of all. It was full of mystery. The mystery of the room behind the closed door and the mystery of the garden behind the big wall.” ' Easy Cooking — кулинарная книга «Простые рецепты* ^ а recipe ['resipi] — рецепт приготовления пищи ® for heaven’s [’hcvnz] sake — ради всего святого Ml Mrs Phelps was taken aback, but she did not show it- “What sort of a book would you like to read next?” she asked. Matilda said, “I would like a really good one that grown-ups read. A famous one, I don’t know any names.” Mrs Phelps looked along the shelves, taking her time. She didn’t quite know what to bring out. How, she asked herself, does one choose a famous grown-up book for a four-year-old girl? Her first thought was to pick a young teenager’s romance^ of the kind that is written for fifteen-year-old schoolgirls, but for some reason she walked past that particular shelf. “Try this,” she said at last. “It’s very famous and very good. If it is too long for you, just let me know and I’ll find something shorter and a bit easier.” “Great Expectations ” Matilda read, “by Charles Dickens. I’d love to try it.” Over the next few afternoons Matilda sat reading in the big armchair at the far end of the room with a book on her lap. She was totally absorbed in the wonderful adventures of Pip and old Miss Havisham in her house and the spell of magic that Dickens, the great storyteller, had created with his words. Within a week, Matilda had finished Great Expectations which in that edition contained four hundred and eleven pages. “I loved it,” she said to Mrs Phelps. “Has Mr Dickens written any others?” “A great number,” said Mrs Phelps. “Shall I choose you another?” Over the next six months under Mrs Phelps’s watchful eye, Matilda read the following books: Nicholas Nickleby by Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens, Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontё, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Tess of the D’Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy, Kim by Rudyard Kipling, The Invisible Man by H. G. Wells, The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway, The Good Companions by J. B. Priestley, Brighton Rock by Graham Greene, Animal Farm by George Orwell. It was an impressive list. Once Mrs Phelps said, “Did you know that public libraries like this allow you to borrow books and take them home?” “I didn’t know that,” Matilda said. “Could I do it?” “Of course,” Mrs Phelps said. 194 ^ a romance (rou'mfens] — роман или повесть романтического и любовного содержания “When you have chosen the book you want, bring it to me so I can make a note of it and it’s yours for two weeks. You can take more than one if you wish.” From then on, Matilda would visit the library only once a week in order to take out new books and return the old ones. Her own small bedroom now became her reading room and there she sat reading most afternoons, often with a mug^ of hot chocolate beside her. It was pleasant to take a hot drink up to her room and have it beside her as she sat in her silent room reading in the empty house in the afternoon. The books transported her into new worlds and introduced her to wonderful people who lived exciting lives. She went on old sailing ships with Joseph Conrad.^ She went to Africa with Ernest Hemingway and to India with Rudyard Kipling. She travelled all over the world while sitting in her little room in an English village. 49. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out. 1. spell of magic 2. from then on 3. to take one’s time 4. for some reason 5. let me know 6. in (on) one’s lap 7. totally absorbed a) на коленях b) дай мне знать c) полностью поглощённый d) волшебные чары, колдовство e) медлить, не спешить f) по какой-то причине g) с тех пор 50. Look through the text again and find out: A. Who said it? 1. “What’s wrong with the telly?” 2. “Would you like me to help you find a nice one with lots of pictures in it?” 3. “I’ve finished all the children’s books.” 4. “If it’s too long for you, just let me know.” 5. “Did you know that public libraries allow you to borrow books and take them home?” B. Who did it? 1. Could read fast and well at the age of four. 2. Was left alone in the house nearly every weekday afternoon. 3. Gave Matilda advice a mug — кружка ^ Joseph Conrad, a British novelist of Polish origin. His books, which include “Heart of Darkness”, “Lord Jim” and “Nostromo”, are about foreign setting, sea life and how it feels to be an outsider, 195 about choosing books. 4, Asked Matilda about her impression of the books. 5. Began to borrow books from the library. 6. Travelled all over the world with the help of reading. C. Choose the right item. 1. Matilda had an elder ... . a) brother b) sister 2. The only book Matilda’s parents had was a ... . a) travel book b) cookbook 3. Mrs Phelps was a ... . a) teacher b) librarian 4. At first Matilda read ... books, a) children’s b) popular 5. Matilda liked ... the books she read, a) some of b) all 6. Mrs Phelps thought that Dickens was ... for Matilda, a) too difficult b) just right 7. The first book by Dickens that Matilda read was ... . a) Oliver Twist b) Great Expectations 8. When Matilda began to borrow books from the library she turned her ... into a reading room. a) living room b) bedroom 9. She liked to drink ... when she was reading, a) tea b) chocolate Speaking 196 Discussing the Text | 51. Answer the questions on the text “The Reader of Books”. 1. What was Matilda’s progress in reading? 2. What did Matilda’s father think she should do instead of reading books? 3. What way out did Matilda find? 4. Why was the librarian, Mrs Phelps, taken aback when she saw Matilda? 5. How did Matilda describe her impression of children’s books to Mrs Phelps? 6. What problem did Mrs Phelps have when Matilda asked her for a book that grown-ups read? 7. Did she recommend the little girl anything? What book did she recommend? 8. What impression did Great Expectations by Charles Dickens make on Matilda? 9. How did it happen that Matilda started to read library books at home? 10. What did reading books allow Matilda to do? 11. Do you feel the same when you read books? 12. Do you think Matilda’s parents were right when they didn’t help the girl to find books for reading? Why (not)? 13. Do you think watching television is enough to become a well-informed and well-educated person? Why (not)? 14. What do you feel about children reading books written for grown-ups? Have you ever read books meant for grown-ups? What was your impression? Which books? 15. Which of the books from Matilda’s list have you read? What other books by these authors can you name? 32. A. Develop each item of this outline. 1. Matilda as a child prodigy.^ 2. Matilda’s parents and what they thought about Matilda’s abilities, 3. Matilda finds her way to the public library. 4. Mrs Phelps helps Matilda with books. 5. Matilda begins reading at home. B. Speak about the events described in the text on the part of: a) Matilda, b) Mrs Phelps, c) Matilda’s father. C. Make up and act out these talks: a) Mrs Phelps and Matilda, b) Matilda’s parents. Discussing the Topic People often speak about the books they are reading or have read. Here are the most popular types of books: • a classic ['klsesik] a novel ['naval] a historical novel a war novel an adventure novel a romance a fairy tale a science fiction f'fikjn] book a biography fbai'ngrafi] an autobiography [|0:tobaT'»gmfi] • a detective [dr'tektrv] story • a love story • an adventure story • a folktale • a (short) story • a humorous story • a horror story • a travel book ‘ a child prodigy l'prodicf3ij — ребёнок-вундеркинд 197 Speaking about people who wrote books you may need these words and word combinations: • a poet/a poetess • a humorist • a children's writer • a book by Chekhov • a book/play after Chekhov • an author ['о:вэ] • a short story writer • a writer • a dramatist ['drsemotist] • a novelist You can characterize an author as: • good • well-known • ancient • interesting • talented • modern • great • medieval • classical • famous * eighteenth-century A novel or a story has a plot (what happens in the book) and characters — main characters and secondary ['sekandn] characters. Good characters can be also called heroes. Speaking about books we often want to characterize them. This is how you can do it. Good books can be: • interesting ■ • enjoyable ' • entertaining ' • original ' • amusing > • funny I • witty ' exciting fascinating moving powerful true-to-life well-written easy to read Bad books can be: • boring • badly-written • slow-moving • unoriginal • heavy-going • depressing • shallow 198 If you want to speak about a book as an edition, you may need these: • (a) hardback (hardcover) • (a) paperback • a cheap (expensive) edition • a rare edition • a pocket edition • an abridged (adapted) edition • an unabridged (not adapted) edition • a book with an interesting design and coloured illustrations Wi • a colourful book • a collection of plays (stories/poems) • a book in the original • a book in translation • a book in one (two) volumes, etc. 53. A. Say to what types these books belong: Oliver Twist Kashtanka Life of Leo Tolstoy Frankenstein Gulliver’s Travels Little Mermaid Three Musketeers The Time Machine Ivanhoe f'aivonhau] Little Red Riding Hood Around the World in Eighty Days Hound of the Baskervilles Robin Hood and the Sheriff Three Men in a Boat B. Name three books that you like and say to what types of books they belong. C. Remember the names of the main and secondary characters in one of them. Tell your friends what its plot is like. 54. Interview your classmates to find out what types of books are the most and the least popular with them. 55. Give brief information about these writers: a) when they worked; b) what books they wrote; c) what kind of writers they are/were: 1) William Shakespeare 4) A. A. Milne 7) I. Turgenev 2) Agatha Christie 5) A. Pushkin 8) S. Marshak 3) Charles Dickens 6) N. Nosov 9) M. Tsvetayeva 56. Match these Russian words and word combinations with the English adjectives from the vocabulary list (p. 198). Книга: 1) увлекательная, 2) оставляюгцая сильное впечатление, 3) легко читающаяся, 4) остроумная, 5) забавная, 6) волнующая, 7) достоверная, 8) трогательная, 9) трудно читающаяся, 10) производящая мрачное впечатление, 11) затянутая, 12) плохо написанная, 13) скучная, 14) неоригинальная. 57. Bring to the class one of your favourite editions and speak about it. To make your story more logical write its outline first. 199 м 58. А. Read the dialogue, listen to it, 33, and say what kind of books Alex likes most and think of other books you can advise him to read. A Book to Read on Holidays Alex: Jane. Jane: Yes? Alex: Can you help me? ‘ Jane: Certainly. What’s the problem? Alex: I need your advice. I’ve read all the books we have at home. Now I’m going to the local library because I want to borrow two or three books that I can read during our school holidays. Can you think of any good books? I want some really good stuff. Jane: What kind of books do you prefer? Do you read adventure novels or detective stories? Alex: No, in fact, I enjoy historical novels a lot more. Jane: Have you read Alexandre Dumas [’djuima;]? Alex: Of course, I have. I have only just finished “The Count of Monte Cristo” ['mnnti 'kristsu]. Jane: I see. Let me think ... And do you like Walter Scott? Alex: I do. I read “Ivanhoe" some years ago and ... Well, that’s it. Scott sounds like a good idea. What novels by Scott are the best? Jane: I personally like “Quentin Durward" [‘kwentin 'd3:w3d]. It’s set in France in the fifteenth century. You are sure to like it. Alex: Good. I’ve put it down. What else? One book isn’t enough. Jane: If you like Walter Scott, why don’t you take something else by him? “Rob Roy”, for example. Rob Roy was known as the “Robin Hood of Scotland”, and the book describes him and his adventures. Alex: Great. Are you reading anything interesting now? Jane: I’m reading another English classic — “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens and I love it. Alex: I don’t think that I like Dickens as much as you do ... but ... well, he’s not bad. Thanks for your help, Jane. I knew you would give me good advice. B. Act out the dialogue. Then make up your own dialogues and discuss the books you would like to read on holiday. 59. A. Speak about the books you’ve read recently and your tastes in reading. B. Ask your parents what books they read at school. Compare your 200 reading list with theirs. Mi 60. Interview your classmates to find out: 1) how many students read books regularly; 2) how many read them from time to time; 3) how many don’t read books; 4) what kinds of books they prefer; 5) what authors they like; 6) who advises them what books to read; 7) if they borrow books from a school library/local library/friends or relatives; 8) if they think that reading books is important and why. 61. Describe: a) your school library, b) a public library in your city, c) an ideal library, d) your home library, 62. Use the beginning of one of the fairy taies and teil it with the heip of the words from Ex. 3, Unit 6. Decide whose fairy tale is the best. 1. Once upon a time there lived a nice and kindly lady. She had only one wish: she wanted to have a child. ... 2. Once upon a time there was a girl called Little Red Riding Hood who lived with her mother. ... 3. Once there lived a poor boy who had neither a mother nor a father. The boy’s name was Dick Whittington. ... 4. Once there lived a little girl with golden hair. Everybody called her Goldilocks. One day Goldilocks went for a walk in the forest. ... 5. Once upon a time there lived an old man who had three sons. When the man died, he left his house to his eldest son, his mill — to his second son, and his cat — to the youngest boy. ... SUMMING UP THE TOPIC Think of it and — if you find re cess ary and why — what way of — what in your say: ading books and magazines in or why not; getting new information you i opinion the future of books i aportant and ne- )refer and why; s. Wr Anting 63. Do these exercises In writing: 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 (A, B), 23 , 24, 29 (B), 31, 41, 43. 201 64. Choose the best or the only possible tense to complete the sentences. 1. When (do/will) our classes start tomorrow? 2. The train from Liverpool (arrives/will arrive) at 7.30. 3. I don’t think the train (arrives/will arrive) on time. There’s a heavy snowfall in Glasgow area. 4. I (will apologize/apologize) if you (will explain/explain) to me why I should. 5. I (play/am playing) football tomorrow. 6. I (will promise/promise) I (will phone/phone) my granny. 7. We (go/are going) to St Petersburg some time soon. 8. What time (does/will) the bus arrive in Cardiff? 9. Alec (is going to write/is writing) a letter to his parents in the evening. 10. We are having a party on Saturday night, (will you come/are you coming)? 65. Write 5--8 sentences about your plans tor the coming week. 66. This is Sophia’s letter to her family who are in Italy. Sophia is taking an English course in Great Britain and is planning to visit her relatives at home. Open the brackets to complete the letter. Sophia Writes a Letter Home Dear Mother and Pother, I (1. feel) very excited at the thought that in another week 1 (2. be) with you again on holiday. I (3, enjoy) my stay in England very much indeed. My teachers and my fellow students (4. be) dl very nice to me, but as they (5. say) in England, "There (6. be) no place like home". I (7. leave) here early on Saturday, 24th, and so I (8. be) at home somewhere about lunchtime. The train (9, start) from Calais I'kaslei] at 10.30 p.m,, so I (10. think) Г (11. sleep) on the train dl through the night and by 5 o'clock on Sunday I (12. finish) my train Journey. The train (13. arrive) in Rome at 4.55 a.m. I (14. be) very excited, and when I (15. see) you at the platform, I (16. think) I (17. cry). How you all (18. be) at home? I (19. hope) you all (20. keep) well. I can't (21. say) how much I (22. want) (23. see) you all again. Can you (24. meet) me at the station, as I have a lot of luggage? Enrico and Marchello (25. meet) me? Or the whole family (26. be) there? Saturday can't (27. come) too soon! I I wishes. I 202 Love and all good 67. Express the same in English. A. 1. Bee выбежали из горящего здания. 2. Бедного котёнка переехала машина. 3. Наше время истекает. 4. У нас кончились яблоки, Купи килограмм по дороге домой. 5, Бабушка открыла дверь, и щенок вбежал в прихожую. 6. Давай заглянем к твоим родственникам сегодня (заглянем, чтобы повидать). 7. В часах кончился завод. 8. Этот парень всегда говорит обо мне с пренебрежением. B. 1. Эмили говорит, что будет расстроена, если никто не придёт к ней на вечеринку. 2. Не уверена, что он справится с этой работой, но, если он справится с ней, он нам очень поможет. 3. Когда Гэри вернёт в библиотеку книги, которые он взял, чтобы почитать? 4. Боюсь, я не знаю, пойдёт ли он слушать оперу. 5, Если девочка толкнёт дверь, та откроется. 6. Наташа не уверена, сможет ли она съесть полную тарелку супа. 7. Если не будет идти снег, завтра мы поедем за город кататься на лыжах. C. 1. — Мне нужно только пять минут, чтобы дочитать этот увлекательный приключенческий роман. Он произвёл на меня огромное впечатление. — Не спеши. Дай мне знать, когда закончишь. 2. Я хочу справиться с этим переводом сама, хотя он содержит много незнакомых слов. 3. Мне нравится, когда мой любимый крошечный котёнок сидит у меня на коленях. 4. Мы купили компьютер. С этого момента маленький брат играет на нём, вместо того чтобы читать книги или смотреть телевизор. 5, «Внимательно приглядывай за этими мальчиками, — сказал библиотекарь. — Я боюсь, что они могут испортить книги». 6. Она сидела в удобном кресле в уютной комнате и была полностью поглощена историческим романом, который она читала. 7. Он бегло и правильно говорит по-английски, но его речь не содержит идиом. 8. Позвольте представиться, меня зовут Лора Браун. Я библиотекарь и работаю в публичной библиотеке на севере Англии. У нас есть редкие издания известных романов. Они обычно производят большое впечатление на читателей. 6S. Add more details to turn this skeleton story into a real one. The princess went for a walk and saw a frog. The frog was in a pond. The frog talked to the princess. The princess got interested and came to the pond every day. Once the frog asked the princess to 203 0МгФ kiss him. The princess was in love with the frog so she kissed him. The frog turned into a prince. A wicked witch had put a spell on the prince. The prince and princess got married and lived happily ever after. 69. Spelt the words. [lai'breorion] fi'dijn] [5з:1Л [ksn'tem] [di'va'0'э] [,mtr3'dju:s] fim'presl [trasn'spof] ['ti:neul53] [ifsesi'neijn] ['taini] ['ттшф] 70. Test your spelling. Listen to the recording, sentences. 34, and write down the ЛЛ(5сеИапеои5 71. Listen to the poem, 35, and try to read it in the same manner. Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf (By R. Dahl) As soon as Wolf began to feel That he would like a decent* meal, He went and knocked at Grandma’s door. When Grandma opened it, she saw The sharps white teeth, the horrid grin,® And Wolfie said, “May I come in?” Poor Grandmamma was terrified,* “He’s going to eat me up!” she cried. And she was absolutely right. He ate her up in one big bite.® But Grandmamma was small and tough,® And Wolfie wailed,* “That’s not enough!” “I haven’t yet begun to feel That I have had a decent meal!” He ran around the kitchen yelping® ‘ decent — приличный ® sharp — острый ^ grin — ухмылка 204 * was terrified — испугалась, в ужасе ’’ in one big bite — одним глотком ° tough — жёсткая ’ wailed — простонал “ yelping — скуля Hi “I’ve got to have another helpingl”^ Then added with a frightful leer,^ “I’m therefore"'* going to wait right here Till Little Miss Red Riding Hood Comes home from walking in the wood.” He quickly put on Grandma’s clothes, (Of course he hadn’t eaten those.) He dressed himself in coat and hat. He put on shoes and after that He even brushed and curled* his hair. Then sat himself in Grandma’s chair. In came the little girl in red. She stopped. She started.® And then she said, “What great big ears you have, Grandma.” “All the better to hear you with,” the Wolf replied.® “What great big eyes you have, Grandma,” Said Little Red Riding Hood. “All the better to see you with,” the Wolf replied. He sat there watching her and smiled. He thought, I’m going to eat this child. Compared with her old Grandmamma She’s going to taste like caviare. Then Little Red Riding Hood said, “But, Grandma, What a lovely great big furry’' coat you have on.” “That’s wrong!” cried Wolf. “Have you forgot To tell me what BIG TEETH I’ve got? Ah well, no matter what you say,® I’m going to eat you anyway.” The small girl smiles. One eyelid flickers.® She whips*® a pistol from her knickers." ’ helping — порция ^ frightful leer — .члобный взгляд therefore — поэтому curled — завил “ started — вздрогнула ® replied — ответил ’ furry — пушистый ** no matter what you say — что бы ты ни сказала ^ eyelid flickers — веко подмигивает whips — выхватывает knickers — спортивные брюки 205 She aims^ it at the creature’s head And bang, bang, bang,^ she shoots him dead A few weeks later, in the wood, I came across® Miss Riding Hood. But what a change! No cloak'‘ of red, No silly hood^’ upon her head. She said, “Hello, and do please note® My lovely furry WOLFSKIN COAT.” 72. Guess which of these imaginary authors wrote which books Authors 1) C. A. Nurse 2) Val N. Tyne 3) Will E. Winn 4) Ken O. Meet 5) Polly Ester and A. 6) Ern A. Lott 7) Chris P. Bacon 8) L. O. Darling 73. Listen to the song, Books a) Feeding a Dog b) Greetings c) In Hospital d) In the Money Nylon e) It’s Breakfast Time f) Materials g) Sweethearts h) The Final ) 36, and sing it aiong. Clementine In a cavern,in a canyon Excavating for a mine® Lived a miner forty-niner® And his daughter Clementine. Chorus: Oh my darling, oh my darling. Oh my darling, Clementine, 206 aims — целится ^ bang — зд. паф-паф ® came across — встретил * cloak — накидка “ hood — капюшон ® note — заметьте, обратите внимание ’ a cavern — пещера ^ excavating for a mine — роя шахту ® miner forty-niner — золотоискатель, отправившийся в Калифорнию в 1849 г. во времена золотой лихорадки You were lost and gone forever Dreadful sorry,^ Clementine. Light she was and like a feather. And her shoes were number nine. Herring boxes without topses Sandals were^ for Clementine. Chorus Drove she ducklings® to the water Every morning just at nine. Hit her foot against a splinter,^ Fell into the foaming brine.® Chorus Ruby® lips above the water. Blowing bubbles^ soft and fine. But alas® I was no swimmer. So I lost my Clementine. Chorus 74. Match the objects in the picture on p. 208 with their names. &шгФ a) a fork b) a spoon c) a knife d) a glass e) a cup and a saucer f) a mug g) a butter dish h) a teapot i) a tea cosy j) a coffeepot k) a milk jug l) a bowl m) a sugar bowl n) a bread bin o) an egg cup p) an egg cosy q) a plate r) a table mat s) a napkin/serviette [,S3:vi'et] t) a salt cellar u) a kettle ' dreadful sorry — очень извиняюсь “ herring boxes without topses sandals were — коробки из-под селёдки служили босоножками ® drove she ducklings — гнала утят ■* splinter — щепка ® foaming brine — пенящийся поток ® ruby ['ruhi] — рубиновые, алые '' blowing bubbles — пуская пузыри ® alas [olffis] — увы 207 Mi 75. For further information on the topic “The Pleasure of Reading” see the Internet sites: http: //en. wiki pedia. org/wi ki/Lib rary http://www.ukchildrensbooks.co.uk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_children’s_literature_authors Home Reading lessons 8,9 Project Work 6 (see p. 316—317) 208 POPULAR ARTS FAMOUS PEOPLE IN THE ARTS KINDS OF ARTS DANCING MUSIC THEATRE CINEMA R evtswn 1, Here is a list of the arts. Look at it and say which of them you prefer and which of them you understand better than the others. 'Arts - Literature Dancing Music Painting and Drawing Sculpture ['skAlptfa] Architecture ['o;kitektf9] Theatre (Drama) Cinema 2. Answer these questions about arts. 1. Which of the arts from the list above can you call visual arts...?‘ 2. What role do arts play in people’s lives? In your life? 3. When did art begin? What periods in history are famous for great works of art? 4. What countries are famous for great literature, visual arts, theatre, cinema? 5. What places all over the world are connected with particular arts? 6. What do we usually mean when we speak about prehistoric art, ancient art, Renaissance [ra'neisansj art, classical art, modern art? 7. Where do you go if you want to enjoy the arts? Do you like to go to these places alone? With your parents? With your friends? Why? 8. Can you do anything in the way of the arts yourself? What can you do? What art would you like to be really good at? Why? visual ('vi^csl) arts — виды изобразительного искусства 209 9. What arts are the most popular nowadays? Do you think some of the arts will eventually die? What makes you think that? 10. Which of the two is more popular nowadays — theatre or cinema? Which of them do you prefer? 11. Do you think radio and television are arts? 3. A. Make sure that you can name these people’s jobs correctly and match the arts with the names of people’s activities. a) a poet b) a dramatist or a playwright^ c) a ballet dancer d) a musician [mju:'zijn] e) a singer f) an architect ['a:kitekt] g) an actor or an actress h) a composer [кэт'рэигэ] i) a sculptor ['skAlpta] j) an artist 1) Someone who writes music or plays a musical instrument is ... 2) Someone who acts in plays or films is ... 3) Someone who paints pictures is ... 4) Someone who makes up songs and music is ... 5) Someone who writes plays is ... 6) Someone who plans buildings is ... 7) Someone who makes statues or other shapes from metal, wood, stone, etc. is ... 8) Someone who dances in ballet is ... 9) Someone who writes poems is ... 10) Someone who sings is ... B. Match the names of these people with the fields in which they worked. 1) Francisco Goya 2) Elvis Presley 3) Maya Plisetskaya 4) Friedrich Schiller 5) Sergei Rakhmaninov 6) Pablo Picasso 7) Luciano Pavarotti 8) Michelangelo 9) Vasily Bazhenov 10) Rembrandt a) theatre b) architecture c) music d) sculpture e) painting f) ballet g) literature 210 'a playwright Cpleirait] — драматург 4. The words and word combinations below help us to speak about certain arts. Organize them according to the arts that they describe. (Certain words can belong to more than one category.) 1. Theatre 2. Cinema 3. Music 4. Sculpture 5. Painting 6. Literature drama applause gallery character flute ballet sound statue sculpture to draw comedy to applaud success operetta to act seat classical concert work of art dress circle stage box colour film museum violin screen monument stalls balcony audience horror movie performer fiction opera cinemagoer to paint piano scenery feature film bronze tragedy to compose 5. Look at the picture of a theatre hall and match the number words. a) the curtain b) a box c) the stalls d) the stage e) tf f) a balcony g) the dress circle h) orchestra pit Passive Voice be -b Vs Present Simple Passive Past Simple Passive Future Simple Passive am/is/are -f was/were + Uj shall/will be + V^ English is spoken here. Grapes are not grown in the North. Is this food easily cooked? What is made from milk? The door was closed. The letters were not posted yesterday. Were the keys found? Why was the window left open in the rain? The story will be finished soon. The information won’t be received next week. Will the letter be answered? When will the guests be met? We use passive forms (passives) when: a) we don’t know WHO did it; b) we are interested in WHAT happens, not WHO it is done by; c) the situation is rather formal. 6. Look at the text, find and read out the sentences where verbs are used in the passive voice. See Reference Grammar p. 334—335. Jazz Have you ever heard anything about jazz [djaez]? We are sure you have. Jazz is a type of music and the only art form that was created in the United States. Jazz was created by black Americans. Many blacks were brought from Africa to America as slaves. Different native songs were sung by the black slaves and the music of their homeland was played in America. Jazz is a mixture of many different kinds of music. It is made up of the music of West Africa, the work songs of the slaves and religious music. The first jazz bands^ were formed at the end of the 19th century. They played in bars and clubs in many towns and cities of the South, especially New Orleans [nju;' oilianz]. Nowadays New Orleans is an international seaport, and people from all over the world come to New Orleans to hear jazz. Improvisation [,improvai'zeiJn] is an important part of jazz. This means that jazz 212 ‘a band — группа {музыкальная) music is made up or created on the spot/ This is why a jazz song can sound a little different each time it is played. With time jazz became more and more popular. By the 1920s,^ jazz was popular all over the United States. By the 1940s,® you could not only hear jazz in clubs and bars, but in concert halls too. Today jazz is played all over the world. On every continent special festivals are held where jazz musicians from the United States, Asia, Africa, South America and Europe meet and share their music. In this way jazz continues to grow and change. Let’s hope that no matter what hap- pens in music jazz will always be performed and listened to, 7. Choose the best way to continue the situation. 1. My sister is a writer. a) A nice children’s book was written by her. b) She wrote a nice children’s book. 2. Many people in Russia eat potatoes. a) Someone brought them to Russia from South America. b) They were brought to Russia from South America. 3. Christopher Columbus discovered America. a) He discovered it in 1492. b) It was discovered in 1492. 4. The Browns live in a huge castle. a) People built it in the 16th century. b) It was built in the 16th century. 5. How many people learn English nowadays! a) It is spoken all over the world. b) People speak it all over the world. Modal Verbs + Passive Voice Passive forms are often used with modal verbs (can, must, should, have to, ought to) Modal Verb -1 be 4- 1Л Difficult rules must be explained. Can such poems be easily memorized? People in hospitals ought to be visited. These words don’t have to be learnt by heart. Should this door be pulled or pushed to open it? ‘ on the spot — спонтанно, бе.э предварительной подготовки ^ 1920s = nineteen-twenties [,na!n'ti:n'twentiz] — двадцатые годы XX столетия ® 1940s “ nineteen-forties [,nain'ti:n'fo:tizl — сороковые годы XX столетия 213 8. Express the same using passive. A. 1. We must discuss the contents of the novel. 2. The actors ought to impress the audience. 3. You should stop these chatterbox- es. 4. We must introduce the members of the team to each other. 5, You can’t devour such books. 6. People have to transport these boxes. 7. They must translate the speech when the time comes. B. 1. English borrowed a lot of words. 2. The postman brings them a lot of periodicals. 3. Mr William’s secretary will send this telex tomorrow. 4. They didn’t find the origin of the adjective “big”. 5. People easily memorize such idioms. 6. Somebody bought a bronze candlestick and three candles. 7. People push the door to open it. 9. Use the prepositions and adverbs where necessary and complete the sentences to remember the new vocabulary of Unit 6. A. 1. Jimmy ran ... of the room without saying a word. 2. There is too much water in the bath. It is running ... . 3. I opened the door and my little puppy ran ... . 4. It’s raining! Let’s run ... the house. 5. The thief ran ... with the money. 6. The poor boy has been nearly run ... by the bus. 7. Why are you running ... my words? 8. Don’t run ... I want to talk to you. B. 1. Some old magazines are ... the floor. Can’t you pick them ...? 2. Lora is fond ... devouring ... books. When she reads she is totally absorbed ... what she is reading. 3. Whenever she comes to visit my Granny, she always tries to make a good impression ... her. 4. Let me introduce Mr Brian ... all of you. 5. I am tired ... some reason. 6. She popped a sweet ... her mouth and smiled happily ... us. 7. Irene was sitting near the window with tiny Kitty ... her lap. 8. The box contained ... seven pounds ... rice. 9. How long had the Sleeping Beauty been ... the spell before the Prince woke her up? 10. Express the same in English. A. 1. c вытаращенными глазами; 2. удивительный рассказчик; 3. очарование; 4. забавное приключение; 5. уютный дом; 6. содержание книги; 7. короткая речь; 8. впечатляющий пейзаж; 9. справиться с работой; 10. последнее издание; 11. наблюдательный мальчик; 12. подвижный подросток; 13. на коленях; 14. дай мне знать; 15. вместо учителя; 16. произвести впечатление на друзей; 17. глотать книги; 18. восхитительный библиотекарь; 19. быть поглощённым романом; 20. опасное приключение; 21. серьёзное содержание; 22. крошечная болтушка; 23. с этого самого времени; 24. не сне-214 шить; 25. разрушить чары; 26. редкое издание книги. vmtW в. 1. я не могу справиться с этой книгой сама. У неё сложное содержание. 2. Речь директора произвела большое впечатление на учеников. 3. «Позвольте представиться, я Матильда», — сказала крошечная девчушка библиотекарю. 4. Давай поищем какой-нибудь роман на этих полках. Дай мне знать, если найдёшь что-нибудь интересное. 5. Сколько времени тебе требуется, чтобы добраться до театра? 6. Моя кошка любит сидеть у меня на коленях. 7. Боб был озадачен, когда понял, что его пластиковая сумка должна была стать контейнером для воды. 8. Болтушки, вы разговариваете уже целый час! 9. По какой-то причине он не смог присоединиться к нашей группе. 10. Алиса ворвалась в класс с громким криком «Ура!». ASSESS YOUR RESULTS Tasks No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. Total Results ЗА 7 8A 8B 9A 9B lOA lOB Maximum result 10 5 7 7 8 14 26 10 87 Your result Heading far Information 11. Read the text once very carefully and complete the sentences after it with the appropriate variants. Theatre and Cinema: How It All Began Theatrical drama, as we understand it today, is based on three things. First, there must be an actor or actors speaking or singing. Second, there must be some dramatic conflict (or different relations) between actors. The two sides may be enemies, they may be friends that can’t agree with each other, or they may be divided by misunderstanding. Third, and just as important as the other two, there must be an audience following the progress of the drama. The first theatrical performances of this kind took place in ancient Greece. The Greek drama developed from hymns sung to Dionysius [|dai3'nisT3s], the god of wine and good life. But it did not become true theatre until such performances included stories of the other gods and actors to represent them. The first known actor was called Thespis ['0espis]. He was the leading singer and travelled from his birthplace to Athens in a cart that carried all his belongings and could be turned into a stage for performance. In Athens he won a prize at the new drama festival. People 215 believe that he was also the first man who separated himself from other singers to make a dialogue with them. He was the first professional performer who was brave enough to play a god. Before him this role had always belonged to priests or kings. Cinema is much younger than theatre. It was born at the end of the 19th century. The first people who showed the first movies to a paying public were the Lumiere [,lu:mi'e9] Brothers of France. They did this at the Grand Cafe, Boulevard des Capucines,^ Paris, on the 20th February 1896. This was the first cinema show and it was quickly followed by many others in all parts of the world. The first films showed moving people and transport or newsreels ['nju:zri:lzj of processions and wars, and short comedies. In 1901 France was the first country to produce a dramatic film, “The Story of a Crime”, which was followed by “The Great Train Robbery" in the United States in 1903. At first, films were shown anywhere: in music halls, clubs and shops. By 1908, special film theatres were being built to give regular programmes. At this time cinema rapidly developed in both the New and the Old World. Charlie Chaplin made his first film, “Making a Living”, in 1914 in the USA. The Russian film industry was now going its own way. It produced such great films as Protazanov’s “The Queen of Spades” (1916) and “Father Sergius” ['ssicfeiosj (1918). Both films starred Ivan Mosjoukhin, the famous actor. A little later Russia’s great achievement in cinema was connected with its directors such as Eisenstein ['aiznstamj (“The Battleship ‘Potemkin’”), Pudovkin (“Mother”), Kuleshov (“By the Law”), Dovzhenko (“Earth”) and others. Then, in 1927, Warner Brothers in Hollywood made the first film in which an actor sang and spoke. The film was called “Jazz Singer". It opened a new era in films—the era of the 'talkies’. The film mostly told its story with titles, but it had three songs and a short dialogue. There were long lines of people in front of the Warner Theatre in New York. The silent film was dead within a year. The first one hundred per cent sound film, “Lights of New York”, appeared in 1928. The first colour films were made in the 1930s, but black and white films are still made today. 1. Thespis, the first known Greek actor, ___________________. a) was born in Athens b) used to travel in a carriage c) never took part in drama festivals 216 ‘ Boulevard des Capucines ['bu:lava:da ,kDpi>'(fini] »шгЖ 2. d) was not afraid to play the roles of gods Cinema . a) is as old as theatre b) was born in Paris c) developed faster in Europe than in America at the beginning of the 20th century d) opened the era of the “talkies” in 1908 12. Look through the text again and find out: 1) in what country theatre was born; 2) why we remember Thespis; 3) when cinema was born; 4) what country produced the first dramatic film; 5) why the film ‘'Jazz Singer” is important in the history of cinema; 6) how many names of films, actors and actresses mentioned in the text you can remember; 7) into what two parts the text can be divided logically. 13. Read the text again for more detailed information and find in the text words and word combinations which mean: 1. основана на ...; 2. взаимоотношения; 3. они могут поссориться из-за того, что неправильно поняли друг друга; 4. драма развилась из (произошла от) гимна; 5. повозка, в которой он вёз всё своё жмувцестЕо; 6. он получил награду (приз); 7. первый профессиональный исполнитель; 8. эта роль всегда принадлежала свяш,енникам или королям; 9. публика, которая платит деньги; 10. хроники новостей, показывающие процессии и войны; 11. искусство кино быстро развивалось; 12. великие достижения России в области кинематографии; 13. с помощью титров; 14. длинные очереди; 15. немые фильмы; 16. полностью звуковой фильм. 14. Find in the text the names of these films: 1. «Зарабатывая на жизнь» 2. «История преступления» 3. «Пиковая дама» 4. «Огни Нью-Йорка» 5. «Броненосец «Потёмкин» 15. А. Find in the first three paragraphs of the text at least 10 international words. 6. «Отец Сергий» 7. «По закону» 8. «Большое ограбление поезда» 9. «Земля» 10. «Мать» mm п J__Z r_g___аг dia th ’ в. Guess what the international words from paragraphs 4 and 5 are. N ew language Grammar Section Continuous (Progressive) Forms of the Passive Voice 218 Present Continuous Passive Past Continuous Passive am being is being + Рз are being was being were being ^ ^ + 1. Where are the letters? They are being written at the moment. 2. A new school is being built in our street. 1. I entered the room and saw that the letters were being written. 2. When I came back home, a new school was being built in our street. __ 1. The article is not being translated. 2, The toys are not being made now. 1. When I telephoned, Vic told me that the article was not being translated. 2. The factory didn’t work. The toys were not being made at the moment. 1. Is the fax being sent? 2. Are the magazines being looked through? 1. Was the fax being sent when the director called? 2. Were the magazines being looked through when the mail arrived? 16. Choose the right form of the verb to make the sentences complete. A. 1. Such long bridges seldom (are built/are being built). 2. Excuse the mess. The house (is painted/is being painted). 3. I can’t give you the articles now. They (are translated/are being translated). 4. Room 47 is not ready yet. It (is cleaned/is being cleaned). 5. At the moment a new road (is built/is being built) round the city. 6. Such books (are not translated/are not being translated) easily. 7. We are expecting guests. Tables (are laid/are being laid). 8. Your room will be ready soon. The beds (are made/are being made). B. 1. John said they couldn’t take photos. The camera (was repaired/was being repaired). 2. When they arrived home, the walls of the dining room (were painted/were being painted). 3. We couldn’t get inside. The floors (were washed/were being washed). 4. Computer games (were not played/were not being played) when I was your age. 5. Last summer this edition of the novel (was not so Id/was not being sold). 6. When Mr Brown phoned, the article still (was translated/was being translated). 7. When I lived in Germany, newspapers (were brought/were being brought) to us early in the morning. 8. I entered the hotel at 8. Everybody was busy. Rooms (were prepared/were being prepared) for the arriving guests. Perfect Forms of the Passive Voice Present Perfect Passive Past Perfect Passive have been + 1/ had been + P, has been ® + 1. A new library has been built 1. John said a new library had in our street. been built in his street. 2. Many new schools have been 2. John added that many new constrncted this year. schools had been constructed that year. 3. The plan has been discussed 3. The plan had been discussed for two hours. for two hours when John came. 4. We have just been shown a 4. We had been shown a new new film. film before John came. 219 Present Perfect Passive Past Perfect Passive - 1. The new project has not been finished yet. 2. Our library has not been turned into a shopping centre. 1. Jack was sorry that the new project had not been finished yet. 2, We were happy that the library had not been turned into a shopping centre. ? 1. Has the problem been dis-cnssed yet? 2. Have the letters been posted? 1. Had the problem been discussed by 6? 2. Had the letters been posted by then? 17. Make these sentences passive. 1. They have published her new book recently. 2. The town council has just opened our local museum. 3. Their house looks very smart after they have painted it. 4. The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it. 5. My dress is clean. Someone has washed it. 6. Dinner is ready and hot. Someone has just cooked it. 7. They have opened a new theatre in the city. 8. There are no letters on the table. Somebody has posted them. 220 18. John had been away from his home city for ten years. When he came back to Mainfield, he saw many changes. Say what John saw using passive structures. 1) they had built a new hospital 2) they had rebuilt the old library 3) they had turned the city centre into a real shopping area 4) they had opened a new fire station 5) they had changed the names of some streets 6) they had closed the city exhibition hall Passive Voice with the Verbs That Have Two Objects Somebody gave Tom an apple. 1. Tom was given an apple. 2. An apple was given to Tom. Тому дали яблоко. Other verbs with two objects; to allow, to send, to show, to lend, to pay, to tell, to offer, to refuse, to asls,^ etc. 19. Give English equivalents of these word combinations and make up true sentences with them. Example: I was shown the new edition of William Shakespeare’s sonnets. 1) мне показали 2) нам одолжили 3) им заплатили 4) ему сказали 5) мне предложили 6) вас спросили 7) ей отказали 8) им отослали 9) ей дали 10) тебе разрешили 20. Match the two parts of the 1. Laura was told 2. Peter was shown 3. Jimmy is being paid 4. David has been sent Philip will be asked Emma was being offered 5. 6. sentences to get logical phrases. a) and he’ll be rich in a minute. b) to hospital to see his doctor. c) the new bike his parents had bought for him. d) a new job when Dr Black came in. e) where he will be on Friday. f) they were leaving tomorrow. ’ В подобных случаях структуры первого типа Tow was given ..., Boris was sent ..., I was told ..., They were paid ..., He was offered Jim was refused ... являются более употребительными. 221 21. Express the same in Russian. 1. You will be driven to the airport, Mr Gibson. 2. The other day I was informed of their arrival. 3. My parents have been paid less than they expected. 4. I was taught a lot of subjects at school. 5. Nick was sent to the baker’s to buy a loaf of brown bread. 6. They will never be shown these films. 7. Who has been told about the incident? 8. Tom is being offered an apple. Verbs with Prepositions in the Passive Voice to look after to be looked after to laugh at ^ to be laughed at to look for ^ to be looked for to send for ^ to be sent for to speak of/about ^ to be spoken of/about to speak to to be spoken to He is much spoken about. 0 нём много говорят. She was never laughed at. Над ней никогда не смеялись. Will he be spoken to? C ним поговорят? 22. Compiete the tabie to practise passive structures. Active Passive 1 1. The film is much spoken about. 2. They will look after the children. 2 3 3. The little girl was laughed at. 4. Somebody has looked for my 4 granny’s glasses. 5 5, His speech won’t be listened to. 6 6. The children will be spoken to tomorrow. 7 7. The cab was sent for. Read and compare! 1. The bridge was built by five 1. The bridge was built with workers. axes, hammers and other (They (five workers) built instruments. the bridge.) (Somebody built the bridge with the help of these instruments.) 2. Two kilos of meat that you 2. Meat is eaten with a fork had bought were eaten by and a knife. my dog yesterday! 23. Choose the right preposition with or by to make the sentences correct. 1. Fish, is cut ... a special knife. 2. What do we usually dig ... ? 3. These novels are written ... A. J. Cronin. 4. The big tree was cut down ... Jim, an old servant. 5. In ancient times people wrote on clay tablet ... special styluses. 6. Women’s dresses are sewed ... dressmakers. 7. Who is the portrait painted ... ? 8. Do you prefer to paint ... long or short brushes? 24. A. Match the two parts of these sentences to make well-known proverbs and sayings and find their Russian equivalents in the box. 1. Marriages are made a) cannot be undone. 2. Easily earned money b) than badly taught. 3. The devil is not so black c) is quickly spent. 4. Things done d) as he is painted. 5. Better untaught e) in heaven. I Браки совершаются на небесах. II Недоученный хуже неучёного. III Не так страшен чёрт, как его малюют. IV После драки кулаками не машут. V Что легко наживается, легко и проживается. В. Маке up а story to illustrate one of the proverbs or sayings 223 25. Decide which caption beiongs to which cartoon. 26. Express the same in Engiish using passive forms of the verbs. 1. Мои часы украли вчера. 2. Когда Павел вошёл в комнату, обсуждали его проект. 3. Посмотри! Новый кинотеатр построили! 4. За учителем послали? 5. Когда с ним поговорят? 6. Текст нужно будет перевести. 7. Когда папа приехал, вещи были упакованы. 8. Слова Эндрю вскоре забылись. 9. — Где статья? — Её переводят. Её переведут часа через полтора. 10. Где строят новый магазин? 11. Все упражнения сделаны. Мы можем идти в кино. 12. Пассивный залог часто используется в английском языке. 13. Джона Леннона (John Lennon) знают не только в Англии. 14. Встреча состоится в центре города. 15. Этот замок построен в 1830 году. 16. Мне разрешили пойти в кино. 224 ‘ in case [keis] — в случае 27. Name three things that during last week: a) you were asked to do; b) you were allowed to do; c) you were told to do. Example: a) Last week I was told that Lora had come. b) I was allowed to go to Nick’s party. c) I was told to take part in school competitions. 28. A. Read and remember. Articles with the Names of Seasons spring, summer, autumn, winter I. We usually don’t use any article when we speak about a season generally. Time passed, and autumn began to change into winter. Spring has come. Winter is the season between autumn and spring. II. But with the preposition in we can say in winter or in the winter, in spring or in the spring, in summer or in the summer, in autumn or in the autumn and in the fall in American English. In (the) winter the weather is usually cold. In (the) summer the weather is usually hot or warm. III. When we speak about some definite season, we use the. He left in the spring of 1997. She is spending the summer in Europe. Read and compare! a zero article any adjective + season adjectives: early, broad,’ late, high. real+ season It is a frosty winter. It is early winter. It is a warm autumn. It is real autumn. It is a cold summer. It is broad (high) summer. It is a rainy spring. It is late spring. in broad (high) summer = in the middle of summer 225 в. Put in the articles where necessary to complete the sentences. 1. We get a lot of apples from this tree in autumn. 2. It was terrible winter. 3. They are going to spend spring in the country. 4. I’d like to go to London in coming autumn. 5. Spring came early that year. 6. It was most beautiful early autumn I had ever seen. 7. When we arrived at the country house, it was real autumn. 8. I love it when it is frosty and snowy winter. 9. There are four seasons in the year; spring, summer, autumn and winter. 10. The best time to visit this island is when it is broad summer. 29, A. Read and remember. Articles with Parts of Dav thci a.^ day, night, evening, morning, noon, afternoon, midnight, dawn,’ dusk,^' twilight^ ^1^ a zero article the any adjective + parts of the day adjectives; early, broad, late, high, real + parts of the day the article is clear from the context It was a fine April morning. It was a warm night. It was broad day.^ It was high noon.® The evening was windy and cold. She woke up. The day was unusually hot. Evening came. It was morning. It is night. Night fell. 226 ‘ dawn [do:n] — рассвет ^ dusk [dASk] — сумерки, густые сумерки twilight ['twailait) — сумерки, начало сумерек ■* broad day — разгар дня “ high noon — самый полдень в. Express the same in English. I. Ночь. Утро. Сумерки. Рассвет. Раннее утро. Поздний вечер. Был разгар дня. Наступила ночь. Пришло утро. Наступил рассвет. Полночь. II. Было холодное зимнее утро. Стояла тёплая ночь. Был прохладный вечер. Сегодня ветреный вечер. Сегодня тёмная ночь. III. Утро будет морозным. День был очень жарким. Утро было прохладным. Полдень был дождливым. Read and compare! in on at — in the morning on a summer at night this morning in the evening morning at noon last night in the afternoon on a dark eve- at dawn next day in the daytime ning at dusk yesterday in the night on a sunny af- at twilight afternoon ternoon tomorrow on a cold night midnight 30. Complete situations 1, 2, 3 with proper articles where necessary, in number 4 speak about yourself. 1. Jane woke up. It was 12 o’clock. It was (1) ... high afternoon. (2) ... day was bright but rather cold. It was (3) ... unusually cold day for (4) ... summer, as in (5) ... summer the weather is usually hot or warm. “(6) ... autumn is coming nearer,” Jane thought. 2. “(1) ... winter has come!” thought Susan when she came up to the window. It was (2) ... late autumn, but the ground was covered with white soft snow. “What (3) ... day!” cried Susan’s brother running into the room. “It is (4) ... real winter. I would like to throw snowballs on (5) ... fine day like that. Let’s go.” But Jane had other things to do at (6) ... noon. She wanted to finish the job she had begun (7) ... day before but never finished. 3. It was (1) ... cold winter morning. Andrew was taking his dog Spot out. He usually did it in (2) ... morning about 8 or 9 o’clock. But that (3) ... morning he got up at (4) ... dawn. It was really (5) ... early morning. Andrew understood he could not sleep on (6) ... morning like that and walked out of the house. 4. That (1) ... evening at (2) ... dusk I ... 227 31. Say when you like to do these things. Example: I like to go for a walk on a warm spring evening (in the evening, on a sunny summer morning, etc.). 1. to go for a walk in the park 2. to pick berries and mushrooms 3. to go skiing 4. to play outdoor games with friends 5. to sing songs with friends around a campfire 6. to read a book in a comfortable armchair 7. to admire the rising sun 8. to work in the garden 9. to lie in the sun 10. to ride a bicycle 32. Look at the pictures and say what seasons they show, what people usually do in these seasons and what they are doing in the pictures. 228 ш»гЖ Vocabulary Section fffiff iffSIff 33. Learn to make offers and to reply to offers. Listen to the text and repeat it after the announcer, f®) 37. If you want to do something together with a friend, you can put it like this: — It might be an idea to go to the cinema. — Have you ever thought of travelling? — Why don’t wc play football in the gym? — (How) would you like to come to my place this afternoon? — What about going to the theatre on Sunday? — Do you feel like watching a new video film? — Let’s go ice-skating. And then your friend will probably reply: Yes — Great! — That’s a wonderful idea. — I’d love to. — I’d like that very much. — That would be very nice. Thank you. — That sounds like a good idea. No — That’s all very well, but I’m really busy tonight. — That’s quite a good idea, but I don’t think I can make it. — It’s nice of you to ask, but I’m afraid I must stay at home and help mother. — I don’t think I can/will, thanks all the same. 34. Complete these dialogues. I. Л В A В to a football match with me tonight? and do my homework, next week? Thank you. 229 II. л в А В III. А В А В IV. А В А В ... а new video after classes? ... Thank you all the same. ... tomorrow? ... I’d love to. ... ... to a party with me tonight? ... but I’m afraid I can’t make it. ... Then why don’t we ...? ... very much. ... Look, I’ve got two tickets to the theatre. That sounds ........? On Saturday. The play begins ... . ... Thank you. 35. Work in pairs. Invite your partner to some place or decide if you would like to do something together. Do it in a proper manner. PHRASAL VERBS 230 to set 1. to set about (doing) sth — приняться за что-то, то делать They set about their work at 9. He set about writing a letter to his son. I don’t know how to set about it. начать что- 2. to set sb to sth/to do sth — заставить кого-либо приняться за дело Mother set John to work. Who(m) did you set to do this? 3. to set out/off — a) помещать, выставлять The milk can was set out. They set out vegetables for sale. b) отправляться {в путешествие, экспедицию и т. д.) They set out/off on their journey late in the^ afternoon. Bob set out early the next morning. Let’s set out before it gets dark. 36. Complete the sentences using prepositions with the verb to set. 1. Let’s set the table ... and have dinner in the garden. 2. When do you think we should set ... our business? 3. It’s not easy to set some children ... homework. 4. She looked at the pile of dirty plates, thought for a while and set ... washing-up. 5. My school is far from my home so I have to set ... rather early in the morning. 6. In summer we usually set our house plants ... on the balcony. 7. Before Christmas the children were set ... making Christmas decorations; tinsel, crackers and toys. 8. How can I do the job if I don’t know even how to set ... it? mw WORDS TO 1ЕАШ 37, A. Read and guess what the words in bold type mean. They live in a quiet neighbourhood ['neibahudj with good shops. Do the three friends live in the same neighbourhood? Do your parents give you any pocket money? Children usually spend their pocket money on sweets and ice creams. How much pocket money have you got? Gerry was a handy boy and knew how to do things about the house. A handy person is good with his hands. They drove through a deserted fdi'z3:tid] village. There were no people about: they had all left the place some time before. The doors and windows of the deserted house were open. The inhabitants [in'hsebitants] of a place are people or animals who live there. The inhabitants of this town are friendly and polite. When you greet someone, you show friendliness or pleasure when you meet them. He went to the door to greet his guests. When their father arrived home from work the children ran out to greet him. The children laughed happily. Their laughter [‘1а:йэ] was so loud that it almost woke up their old grandmother. Laughter and applause came from behind the closed door of the classroom. B. Look these words up to make sure that you have guessed right. 38. Read the words, look them up and then study the word combinations and sentences to know how to use them. a fair [fes] (n): a book fair, a trade fair, a country fair, A country fair is a big market where animals, dairy products, vegetables and fruit are sold. 231 232 fortune ['fo:t[n] (n): 1. {uncount.'^ the boy’s fortune, my fortune, to seek one’s fortune. Fortune is what happens to you as life goes on. The old lady looked at my hand and told my fortune. 2. {count.) A fortune is a large sum of money. His father left him an immense fortune, fortunate ['fodjnst] {adj): a fortunate event, a fortunate person, a fortunate choice. I have always been fortunate in my friends. Is Martin fortunate enough to have a good job? unfortunate (adj): It’s unfortunate that you were ill that day. fortunately/unfortunately {adv): Fortunately no one noticed the broken cup. Fortunately for us the bus came exactly on time. Unfortunately they were late and missed the beginning of the performance. to mend [mend] (u): to mend shoes, to mend the roof of a house. Granny, could you mend these socks for me? Oliver often mended toys for his little brother. We often mend something that has a hole in it. Do you know how to mend a clock? a bargain ['ba:gin] (n): a good bargain; to be a real bargain, to make a bargain, bargain prices. Let’s shake hands on the bargain. I promise to keep my part of the bargain. Olga bought ten books instead of five: they were a bargain! noble ['пэиЫ] (adj): a noble man, a noble profession, noble behaviour, a noble action, a noble character. Someone who is noble is honest, brave and unselfish. In this book you can see the names of the noblest people in our history. sour [’saua] {adj): sour fruit, sour milk, sour cream; a sour face, a sour smile, a sour look. These apples are green and taste very sour. Put some sour cream into your soup to make it taste better. She gave me a sour look each time I passed her table. By the boy’s sour smile I understood that something was wrong, to set (set, set) (u): 1. {usually passive) to be set. The second act is set in London. Their house is set in a beautiful garden. 2. {about the sun) The sun is setting. We like to watch the sunset. 3. {about the table) He quickly set the table for three. The table was set for dinner. 4. to set a task, to set sb a problem, to set the time, to set a date, to set a clock, to set a good (bad) example, to set one’s heart upon sth. The time and date of the meeting have not yet been set. I want you to set your watch by mine. His clock was set for 5 a.m. All is set. As soon as she saw the ring in the shop she set her heart upon it. thread [Gred] (n): 1. (uncount.) gold thread, nylon thread, cotton thread. Thread can be used for sewing pieces of cloth together. Mum, can I have a needle and some thread? 2. (count.) A thread is a long, very thin piece of cotton, silk, nylon or wool. a sight [sart] (n): a familiar sight, the sight of sth, to be in sight, to be out of sight, at the sight of sth, to come into sight. Mary cried at the sight of the broken toy. There’s paint all over your face. What a sight you are! The sight of the beautiful valley made a great impression on the artist. At last the bus came into sight. As soon as the car was out of sight, we walked home. a tune [tju:n] (n): a merry tune, a sad tune, a new tune, to play a tune. What’s this tune? I can’t remember where it comes from. He walked along the road singing a tune. to tune (o): to tune a musical instrument, to tune up. Before the performance musicians always tune their instruments. The orchestra were tuning up. to spread [spied] (spread/spread) (u): to spread butter on a piece of toast, to spread bread with jam, to spread news or information, to spread one’s arms or fingers. The news of their marriage spread quickly. Children like toast spread with marmalade. Jack lay on the grass with his arms spread. to drop [drop] (o): to drop a pen, to drop a spoon, to drop a tear. Careful! Don’t drop the plates! Gordon dropped the cup and it broke. His temperature dropped. The apple dropped from the tree to the ground. She closed her eyes and dropped into a chair. 39, Name three things that can be: 1) sour; 2) sweet; 3) bitter; 4) unusual; 5) nice; 6) hot (spicy). Example: Mustard is (can be) bitter. 40. Say: 1. what public places (cinemas, hospitals, etc.) there are in your neighbourhood; 2. if it is a compliment when someone calls you handy; 3. if you would like to live on a deserted island or in a deserted village; 4. what people in Russia (men, women, children) usually do when they greet each other; 233 5. where the sun sets and rises; 6. what people do when they set the table; 7. where you can hear laughter most often, when laughter may sound impolite; 8. if you have ever been to a fair, when it was and what impression it made on you; 9. who mends and repairs things in your family; 10. if you have ever had a bargain buying something and how it happened; 11. what in your opinion fortune-tellers do; 12. when people may have sour faces or sour smiles; 13. when and how often you use thread and needles; 14. what your mother usually says when you drop a glass or a cup and break them; 15. what you can spread bread with. 41. Say what book characters or film characters that you know are noble. 42, A, Look at the pictures and say what the difference is between an American place setting and a British place setting. The words in the box can help you. An American place setting A British place setting 1) napkin/serviette; 2) fork; 3) side plate; 4) plate; 5) butter knife; 6) wine glass; 7) fish knife; 8) knife; 9) soup spoon; 10) dessertspoon в. Explain to someone who doesn’t know how to set the table “in style”. Say what things you use and where you put them. Don’t forget that the table should look beautiful, so think of the colour of the tablecloth and napkins, flowers, candles, efc. (Unit 6, Ex. 74 can also help you.) леиа and compare! to repair to mend 1. We repair something that 1. We mend something that is is torn, broken. torn, broken (often has a to repair clothes and shoes hole in it). to repair furniture to mend clothes and shoes to repair houses, roads to mend furniture to mend a roof, a fence 2. We repair something that is not working properly, to repair a clock/a watch to repair a washing machine to repair a TV set 2. — 43. Give English equivalents of these word combinations and use them in sentences of your own. Say where you can use both the verbs to mend/to repair. Заштопать носки, заделать дыру в заборе, починить сломанный стул, починить наручные часы, починить будильник, починить башмаки, заштопать старые брюки, починить радиоприёмник, починить стиральную машину, залатать рубаху, отремонтировать дом, чинить одежду. Read and compare! to throw = to make some- to drop = to fall or let fall thing move (on purpose) suddenly (without purpose) He threw a ball 100 metres. She dropped her glasses and Throw the ball to me. broke them. Someone threw a stone at him. I dropped the box on my foot. The fruit dropped down from the tree. 235 44. Complete the sentences using the necessary forms of to throw or fo drop. 1. During dinner they ... bones to the dog. 2. Betsy ... the vase and it broke. 3. The boy ... a bundle of sticks in the fire. 4. “Catch it,” Ron cried and ... a small box to me. 5. Careful! Don’t ... the box. 6. Rob ... away the broken cup. 7. Nicola ... the bottle of medicine on the floor. How careless of her! Read and compare: ■■■■ ■ golden gold 1. niade of gold (not often used) 1. made of gold a golden crown a gold watch a golden cross a gold chain a golden ring a gold ring 2. looking like gold (золотой, золотистый) golden hair golden sand golden light 2. — 45. Choose the right adjective gold or golden. In some cases both will do. ring, a ... chain, a ... field, a ... cross, ... hair, a ... watch, a ... light, crown, ., .. sand, threads corn, ... autumn, ... colours of November, a 236 46. Express the same in English. 1. Стол был накрыт к обеду. 2. Почини мою рубашку, ладно? 3. Фиона намазала хлеб маслом и вдруг уронила его. 4. Давай договоримся о дне и времени нашей встречи. 5. При виде бледного лица дочери мать всё поняла. 6. Преподавание (teaching) — это благородная профессия. 7. Не добавляй молоко в кофе. Оно кислое. 8. Ты веришь, что гадалки могут предсказывать судьбу? 9. Ты когда-нибудь бывал на книжной ярмарке? 10. Смех мальчиков звучал громко и неприятно. 11. Это выгодная сделка? 12. Почему у Тома такая кислая улыбка? С ним всё в порядке? 13. К несчастью, маленький Крис опаздывал на урок. 14. У меня на варежке дырка. Починить? 15. Было раннее утро. Мы отправлялись в путешествие. 16. По обеим сторонам дороги были поля золотистой пшеницы. 47. А. Make sure that you know this word. Listen to the text “A Family of Musicians”, 38. a music stand — пюпитр B. Say who in the Parkers family: 1) loved Mrs Parker’s cooking; 2) was handy; 3) played the bagpipes; 4) played in the bedroom; 5) could practise all through the day; 6) tried to share as many things as they could; 7) could enjoy the Parkers’ concerts; 8) was the family piano player; 9) practised downstairs in the hall. C. Imagine that the Parkers were invited to take part in the musical competition one day and think of what happened there. Treading for Viscussion 43. A. Look at the title of the text and the first picture and try to guess what the text is going to be about. B. Read the text. Listen to the first part of it carefully, 39, and say if your guess was right. The Story of Merrymind^ (After Frances Browne) Once upon a time there lived a certain man and his wife, who had two cornfields, three cows, two oxen, five sheep and thirteen children. Twelve of the children were called by names common in the country, but the thirteenth child got a strange name of Merry mind. The thirteen children grew taller and stronger every year, and they did hard work earning their living. But when the youngest was old enough to look after his father’s sheep, there happened the great fair, to which everybody in the neighbourhood went. As the fair happened only once in seven years, the man and his family couldn’t miss it.® * The names in this story are meaningful: Merrymind (merry mind) — Весельчак, Dame Dreary [Упэп] — Госпожа Тоска, Lady Littlecare (little care) — Леди Бея.эабот-ность ^ couldn’t miss it — не могли пропустить её 237 strings The father opened the bag in which he kept his money and gave everyone of the thirteen a silver penny. The boys and girls had never before owned so much pocket money and, thinking of what they should buy, they dressed themselves in their holiday clothes and set out with their father and mother to the fair. Before evening the twelve of the children had spent their money on clothes and all sorts of beautiful things, but Merrymind hadn’t bought anything. The reason was that he had set his heart upon a fiddle.' Unfortunately fiddles cost a lot more than a silver penny. The sun was getting low and red upon the hill, and Merrymind was still looking about. Suddenly he saw a little greyhaired man with just one old dirty fiddle the strings of which were broken. “Buy the fiddle, my young master,” he said as Merrymind came up to him. “You’ll have it cheap: I ask but a silver penny for it. Mend the strings and you’ll have the best fiddle in the country.” Merrymind thought this a great bargain. He was a handy boy and could mend the strings while watching his father’s sheep. Everybody laughed at Merrymind’s bargain except his mother, who was a very kindly woman. The boy began repairing the strings — he spent all his time, both night and day, upon them, but no string would hold on his fiddle. At last Merrymind decided to leave home where everyone except his mother laughed at him and go to seek his fortune. So he set out on a summer morning with the broken-stringed fiddle under his arm. Merrymind walked through the woods and found himself in the mountains. He was so tired of his journey that he fell asleep in a deserted cottage in the valley. He woke up in the middle of the night and saw that the valley was full of inhabitants, and they were all busy in houses, in fields and in mills. They were wearing fine clothes and looked rich but very unhappy. Even the birds of that valley did not sing — they were too busy building their nests. The cats did not lie by the fire — they were all on the watch for mice. The dogs went out after hares and the cows and sheep grazed^ without stopping. mill ’ a fiddle (Informal) = a violin 238 “ to graze — пастись In the middle of the valley there stood a beautiful castle. The gates stood open, and Merrymind walked in. The courtyard^ was full of people who were so busy working that they didn’t even look up at the boy. In the highest tower of that busy castle, at a window from which she could see the whole valley, there sat a noble lady. Her dress was rich, her hair was iron-grey; her look was sour and gloomy. She and her twelve maidens were spinning as hard as they could, but all the yarn they made was black. No one in or out of the castle would greet Merrymind or answer his questions. They said, “We have no time to talk!” The only person who talked to him was a soldier. He told the boy the story of the valley. “This valley belongs to the lady of the castle, whose name is Dame Dreary. She had another name in her youth — they called her Lady Littlecare; and then the valley was the happiest and the most beautiful place in the whole country. There were May games, harvest festivals and Christmas parties among them. Shepherds piped on the hillsides, people sang in the fields, and laughter was heard in every house in the evening. All that was changed, nobody knows how. Some say it was because of a magic ring which fell from the lady’s finger, and she became Dame Dreary. Hard work and hard times spread over the valley. They say it will be so till Dame Dreary lays down her distaff and dances.” The next night Merrymind came to the castle again and took his broken fiddle with him. In one of the rooms he found some golden threads to mend his 'fiddle. As soon as he put them on the old fiddle, it began to shine. This sight made Merrymind so joyful, that he tried to play, although he had never played before. When his bow touched the strings, they began playing a pleasant tune. Merrymind went out and walked along the valley with his fiddle. The music filled the air; the busy people heard it and stopped working. When he came to the castle, Dame Dreary’s distaff stood still in her hand. shepherd distaff yarn ' courtyard — внутренний двор 239 Merrymind played through the halls and up the tower stairs. As he came nearer, the lady dropped her distaff and danced with all her might.^ All her maidens did the same; and as they danced, she grew young^ again. They brought her the dress of white and cherry colour she used to wear in her youth, and she was no longer Dame Dreary, but Lady Littlecare, with golden hair and laughing eyes and cheeks like summer roses. The heavy mist disappeared; the sun shone out; a blue sky was seen; a white bird came from the east with a gold ring, and put it on the lady’s finger. Everybody praised Merrymind and his fiddle; and when news of his wonderful playing came to the king’s ears, he made Merrymind his first fiddler, which under that wise monarch was the highest post in his kingdom. 8FA 49. Read the text again and say true, false or not stated. 1. The man and his wife had thirteen children. 2. The whole neighbourhood was excited because of the great fair. 3. Merrymind was the first to spend his money. 4. He bought a fiddle from an old magician. 5. The whole family laughed at Merrymind’s bargain. 6. The inhabitants of the valley looked very unhappy. 7. The noble lady of the castle was under a spell. 8. The valley had always been an unhappy place. 9. Merrymind mended his fiddle with the help of a golden button. 10. The fiddle began playing a pleasant tune without Merrymind’s help. 11. The lady grew young again while she was dancing. 12. Soon after the spell was broken Merrymind left the country and returned home. 50. Put these sentences in the right order. 1) Merrymind finds some golden threads and mends his fiddle. 2) Merrymind falls asleep in the deserted cottage. 3) The soldier tells Merrymind the lady’s story. 4) The great fair begins in the neighbourhood. 5) Merrymind walks through the valley and comes to the castle. 6) Merrymind buys an old dirty fiddle. 7) Merrymind leaves home and goes to seek his fortune. 8) Merrymind plays the fiddle. 9) Merrymind’s music breaks the spell. ’ with all her might — изо всех сил 240 ^ to grow youiig = to get youTig 51. These are answers to several questions. Make up the questions. 1. No, it was an unusual name. 2. Each one got a silver penny. 3. They bought clothes and some beautiful things. 4. Because it cost a lot more than a silver penny. 5. Because he was a handy boy. 6. He went to seek his fortune. 7. In the midst of the valley. 8. Because they had no time to talk. 9. People had called her Lady Littlecare. 10. His broken fiddle. 11. It began to shine. 12. They stopped working. 13. She had golden hair, laughing eyes and cheeks like summer roses. 14. A white bird. 15. The king’s first fiddler. Sneaking Discussing the Text | 52. Say which of these three sentences describes the idea of the story. a) It’s better to dance and listen to music than to work. b) Art makes people’s lives brighter and happier. c) You never know where you will find your happiness. 53. Explain why: 1) the family didn’t want to miss the fair; 2) Merrymind found it difficult to buy something for himself; 3) Merrymind’s brothers and sisters laughed at his bargain; 4) the inhabitants of the valley seemed strange to the boy; 5) Merrymind wanted to talk to someone; 6) Lady Littlecare became Dame Dreary; 7) Dame Dreary dropped her distaff; 8) everybody praised Merrymind and his fiddle. 54. A. Tell the story of Merrymind. Organize your story with the help of Unit 6, Ex. 3. B. Tell the same story on the part of: a) Merrymind, d) Lady Littlecare, b) one of his sisters or brothers, e) one of her maidens, c) the soldier, f) the king of the country. 55. Imagine talks between these people and act them out: a) two of Merrymind’s brothers or sisters; b) two maidens of the court. 241 56. Say how you understand this proverb and comment on it. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Discussing the Topic I. Let’s speak about theatre in English. People go either to the theatre to see plays or to the opera house to see a ballet or to listen to an opera. There are several famous opera houses in the world: The Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow; The Mariinsky Theatre, St Petersburg; The Royal Opera House, London; La Scala, Milan, and others. Some of the popular theatres in Moscow are: The Moscow Art Theatre The Young Generation Theatre (TYuZ) The Sovremennik Theatre The Taganka Theatre The Maly Theatre The Satire Theatre The Mayakovsky Theatre Inside the theatre you can go to: • the box office • the house • the bar • the cloakrooms • the foyer [Toiei] The part of the building that is used by actors and actresses has: • a stage (with scenery on it) • wings • backstage • dressing rooms People who work for a theatre are called a theatre company. People who take part in a particular show are called a cast. Some of the members of the company are: 242 • directors [di'rektsz] • actors ['sektaz] • actresses ['eektrisiz] • stars • singers • soloists ['saulamsts] • dancers • ballet dancers • designers [di'zainaz] • costume designers • conductors • ushers ['Afaz] »штЖ Plays are written by playwrights or dramatists and can be of different kinds: • a tragedy • a comedy • a tragicomedy [.traecfei'knmidi] • a drama (or a straight play) • a musical People who work in the theatre: • stage (put on) plays • rehearse [rihars] plays (have rehearsals) • play (sing or dance) • wear make-up and costumes • perform for the audience • have curtain calls Dancers, actors, actresses, singers dance, play or sing: • the main part (role) • the leading part (role) • supporting parts (roles) People who come to the theatre (the audience): • buy tickets/seats for a play (opera or ballet) • leave their coats and hats in the cloakroom • buy a programme • take out (prepare) opera glasses • find their seats • watch the performance • applaud to the actors • call the actors Before the performance: • the lights go down • the musicians tune up • the actors and the musicians take their places • the curtain goes up/rises (the curtains draw) 243 ▼ After the performance: • the lights go up • the actors answer/take curtain calls • the curtain falls/drops/goes down (the curtains draw) 57. Say what you call them. 1. a dancer who takes part in a ballet; 2. something actors and actresses put on their faces to change their appearances; 3. the part of a theatre/cinema where the audience sits; 4. a funny or light play in the theatre; 5. a large area inside the theatre/cinema where people meet or wait and walk in the interval; 6. a sad or serious play in the theatre; 7. a person who shows people where their seats are; 8. someone who leads a group of music players or singers; 9. a person whose job is to design things by making drawings of them; 10. a very famous and popular actor/actress; 11. something that helps you to see the actor and the stage better; 12. a group of actors appearing in a particular performance; 13. a room where a performer can get dressed; 14, the sides of the stage which the audience cannot see because of the curtains and scenery; 15. everything that is on the stage to give an impression of the place where the play (ballet, opera) is happening. 58. Answer these questions. 1. How often do you go to the theatre or an opera house? 2, What is (are) your favourite theatre(s)? 3. What was the performance you liked most of all/least of all? 4. What seats in the theatre do you prefer? 5. With whom do you like to go to the theatre? Why? 6. What do you usually do during the interval? 7. Have you ever been backstage? Would you like to go? Why? 8. What makes a performance successful? 9. Is there a drama circle in your sehool? What is it like? If you haven’t got one, would you like to have one? Why? 10, Have you ever acted in a play? When? What part did you play? 59. Describe one of your visits to the theatre or an opera house. Decide whose story was the best and why. 60. Read these talks and say in what parts of the theatre they are taking place. a) A: Are there any seats left for Saturday night? 244 B: Would you like something in the front stalls? 0MW. А: Haven’t you got anything cheaper? B: Let me see ... I think you can have seats in the dress circle. b) A: Well, how did you like the first act? B: I loved it! Especially the soloists. I think it’s the best singing I’ve ever heard. A: Quite so. It was really good. B: I hope the second act will be just as excellent. c) A: It’s a little hot in here, isn’t it? Fm thirsty. I think I’ll have some lemonade. And what about you? B: I’ll have a glass of lemonade or an ice cream. A: Ice cream? I can have it too. B: Good. I hope they have my favourite strawberry ice cream. d) A: Are these seats ours? B: No, I don’t think so. These are C-14 and C-15, and we have C-16 and C-17. A: I see, they are further in the row. B: Let’s hurry up. The lights will be going down in a minute. II. Let’s speak about cinema in English. Cinema means the same as pictures and movies (AmE). So you can say that you often go to the cinema, pictures or movies. But you see or watch films. People who go to the cinema are cinemagoers. Cinemas usually have names like: The Coliseum [,knli'si:3m], the Zenith ['zeni0], the Saturn ['ssetan], the Rossia, the Odeon [hudion], the Forum. Inside a cinema has; stalls a balcony • rows of seats • a screen a foyer a box office You can sit: • at the front * at the back • at the side • in the centre/in the middle You can go to: • an evening performance • a matinee [’msetmei] • the nine o’clock performance • the two o’clock performance, etc. 245 There are different kinds of films: • a thriller a feature ['fiitjaj film a tragedy a comedy a drama a science fiction film a documentary a western • a musical • a crime film • a historical film • a war film • a horror film • a cartoon 246 People who make films are: * a film actor/actress • a scriptwriter a cameraman a designer a director a film star 61. Match the names of these films with their types. a) musical b) a western c) a comedy d) a science fiction film e) a crime film f) a horror film 1. A film about space travel or life in an imaginary future. 2. A film about criminals and detectives. 3. A film with lots of music and dance. 4. A film about cowboys and life in the Wild West. 5. A funny film with a happy ending. 6. A film in which mysterious and frightening things happen. 62. Answer the questions. 1. Is cinema a popular art nowadays? Do people often go to the cinema? What about your family and friends? 2. Where do you like to sit when you go to the cinema? 3, Do you think television and videos influence the popularity of cinema? In what way? 4, Which of the two arts, cinema or theatre is more popular? Why do you think it is so? 5. What are the most popular cinemas in the place where you live? Where are they situated? 6, What war or historical films do you know? Do you like such films? 7. What famous cartoons are made in Russia/in the USA? Can you say a few words about their characters? 8. Do you think small children should be allowed to watch horror films? Why (not)? 9, Why do you think a lot of people are interested in documentaries? 10. What are your favourite kinds of films? 63. Match the names of these actors and actresses with the information about them. Ask your parents if necessary. • Yury Nikulin • Marilyn Monroe fmeerilm mon'rau] • Charlie Chaplin • Jean Marais ['за:п mcr'rei] • Lubov Orlova • Sophia Loren [so'fro Ътэп] 1. He was born in 1889 in England and lived a long life. He was a film actor and director who worked mainly in the US in silent black-and-white comedy films. His favourite role was that of a tramp^ wearing funny clothes and walking in a funny way. During his life he was tremendously popular and is still admired. He died in 1977. 2. She is a beautiful Italian actress, born in 1934, who has become an interesting film star and has won several Academy Awards. She was most popular in the 1950s and 1960s. Her art is loved and admired in Russia. 3. This Russian actor was born in 1921. He was at the front during the Second World War. In 1950 he began to work in the circus as a clown. He became a popular film actor and is remembered for his comic and tragicomic parts. 4. She is an American film actress, born in 1926, whose real name was Norma Jean Baker. She played a number of characters in many successful films. She was a perfect example of a Hollywood studio star. She had a tragic life and died at the age of 36. Since her death she has become one of the most written-about film stars. 5. He is a popular French actor who was born in 1913 and died in 1998. He starred in a number of well-known films. Probably, he is best remembered for the parts of the count of Monte Cristo and Phantomas. 6. She was born in 1902 in Russia and died in 1975. She played in one of the Moscow theatres but was better known as a film star. Some of her parts are in the films The Spring, The Circus and Volga-Volga. 64. A. Find information about a modern actor or actress and speak about him or her. To make your story more logicai write its outline first. B. Speak about one of the fiims that you like. Say who directed the film and played in it. Explain why you like it. Decide whose story was the best and why. a tramp [trsemp] — бродяга 247 SUMMING UP THE TOPIC Think of it and say: — what new things you have learnt about cinema and theatre while doing Unit 7; — which of these (dancing, music, theatre, cinema) is the most important for you and why; — why so many young people want to become actors; — what kind of films can do more harm than good. Wr ntm^ 65. Do these exercises in writing: 4, 8, 10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 26, 28B, 29B, 43, 46, 51. 66. Choose the right form. 1. Sarah (was told/told) that all the letters (were/had been) written. 2. Benny (was greeted/greeted) the people who (have been/had been) invited to the meeting. 3. These children (are/are being) never given any pocket money. 4. The inhabitants of the village (were/were being) asked about people living in their neighbourhood when the police arrived. 5. Jane (allowed/was allowed) her brother to go to the cinema. 6. Children (are/are being) seldom allowed to see horror films. 7. I entered the house when our seats (were/were being) shown to my parents. 8. The funny scene (followed/was followed) by the laughter of the audience. 9. John (asked/was asked) by his uncle if the fairs in the village (were/had been) often visited. 10. John says the socks (have not been/had not been) mended yet. 67. A. Complete the text with the appropriate forms of the words on the right. Deep in a lonely forest there once lived a woodcutter. One day he (1) ________________ trees when he (2) ___________ a cry of a bird. He (3) ________________ what (4) _____________ and went to look at the bird. Under a big tree he (5) __________________ a nest that 248 (6) _______________ by a bird, with many eggs in it. cut hear, wonder happen see build А great snake was going (7) _ bird, who bravely (8) ________ woodcutter killed the snake (9) ____________ in the wood. _________ the mother _____ her nest. The with the stick he Some years after this, the woodcutter (10) _____ along a mountain path. It (11) _____________ dark. Suddenly he saw the light (12) __________ from the windows of a big beautiful house that (13)_________ kill defend find walk get come build in the middle of the woods by some mystical people. B. Write another paragraph to finish this tale. 68. Choose the right preposition to make the sentences complete. 1. At last the bus came ... sight. 2. As soon as his car was ......... sight, we all began laughing. 3. ... the sight of the impressive building she understood she would like to live nowhere else. 4. The ship was not ... sight yet. 5. It was rather misty, and soon the boat was ........ sight. 6. ... the sight of the children’s faces Carolyn felt happy. 69. Express the same in English. A. 1. Фрукты были выставлены на продажу. 2. Отец заставил Роберта приняться за работу. 3. Рано утром мы отправились в наше путешествие по окрестностям. 4. Дети принялись ремонтировать сломанный велосипед сразу же, как его принесли. 5. Семья отправилась в Лондон. Они взяли с собой золотые веш;и. 6. Вы уже начали собирать материалы о театрах и кинотеатрах в Великобритании? 7. Модное платье было помещено в витрине магазина (in the shop window). 8. Кого ты заставишь делать это? B. 1. Была холодная зимняя ночь. 2. Мы отправились в путешествие весенним утром. 3. Стояла настоящая осень. Листья падали с деревьев, было прохладно, но сухо. 4. Ранняя весна и поздняя весна различны. Ранняя осень и поздняя осень тоже не похожи. 5, Вторая мировая война началась весной 1939 года. 6. Дождливой осенью многие птицы улетели на юг. 7. Каковы твои планы на лето? 8. В Европе школьные занятия обычно начинаются осенью. 9. Лето было в разгаре. 10. Вчера вечером мы наблюдали, как садилось солнце. ТО. Маке up 10—15 questions for а “Theatre and Cinema Quiz”. Think of a prize you can give to the winner. 249 71. spell the words. ['ba:gm] ['пэиЫ] [fes] ['1а:йэ1 fdi'z3;tid] [0red] [tjurn] ГВД1 [iii'hcebitsnts] [spied] ['зато] [salt] 72. Test your spelling, listen to the recording, 40, and write down the text Jl/liseeUaneous 73. Look at the pictures of the musical instruments and match them with their names. a violin, a flute [flu:l], a clarinet [,klaen'net], a horn, a piano, a cello [tfebu], a grand piano, a trumpet, a harp, a trombone [trom'baun], a saxophone, bagpipes, cymbals ['simblzj, a balalaika, an organ, a guitar, an accordion [a'koidion], a drum 74. Listen to the song, 41, and sing it along. She’ll Be Coming' Round the Mountain She’ll be coming round the mountain when she comes. She’ll be coming round the mountain when she comes. She’ll be coming round the mountain, She’ll be coming round the mountain, 250 She’ll be coming round the mountain when she comes. She’ll be driving six white horses when she comes. (2 times) She’ll be driving six white horses, (2 times) She’ll be driving six white horses when she comes. Oh, we’ll all go out to meet her when she comes. (2 times) Oh, we’ll all go out to meet her, (2 times) Oh, we’ll all go out to meet her when she comes. Oh, we’ll all have chicken and dumplings^ when she comes. (2 times) Oh, we’ll all have chicken and dumplings, (2 times) Oh, we’ll all have chicken and dumplings when she comes. We’ll be singing “Hallelujah”^ when she comes. (2 times) We’ll be singing “Hallelujah”, (2 times) We’ll be singing “Hallelujah” when she comes. 75. Match the names of these famous composers with the names of the countries in which they lived. Bach [ba:kj Germany Beethoven ['beithsuvn] Russia Chopin ['/пржп] Hungary Liszt [list] Italy Mozart ['mautsad] Poland Prokofiev [pro'knfief] Austria Puccini [po'tjrni] Schubert ['Jubot] Shostakovich [Jbsto'kouvitJ] Tchaikovsky [tjai'knfski] Verdi [Vesdi:] 76. A. Listen to the poem, 42, and read it. In Two Months Now (By George Dillon) In two months now or maybe one The sun will be a different sun. And earth that stretches white as straw With stony ice will crack and thaw^ And run in whistling* stream and curve^ ’ dumplings — are like Russian “pelmeni” ^ Hallelujah [jiseli'luija] — a song or a shout, that is an expression of praise, joy and thanks to God ® crack and thaw — растрескиваться и таять ‘ whistling — насвистывающий * curve — зд. вливаться 251 In still blue-shadowed pools/ The nerve Of each pink root will quiver bare/ And orchards in the Aprii air Will show black breaking white.® Red roses in the green twilight Will glimmer ghostly blue* and swelP Upon their vines“ with such a smell As only floats^ when the breeze is loud* At dusk from roses in a crowd. I know that there will be these things, Remembering them from other springs. All these and more shall soon be seen; But not so beautiful as they Seem now to be, a month away. B. Learn the poem by heart. 77, Did you know that ... ... films are usually classified like this: a U film — a film for all age groups a A film — a film which is mostly for grown-ups an AA film — a film not for children under 14 an X film — a film not for children under 18 an XX film — a film not for young people under 21? 78. For further information on the topic “Popular Arts” see the Internet sites: http://archives.icom.museum/vlmp/ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/470196/popular-art http://www.expioringabroad.com/art/museums.htm http://www.tourism-review.com/top-10-film-destinations-news2385 H 0me Ueaiing lessons 10,11 Project Work 7 (see p. 317) ^ blue-shadowed pools — озерца в голубоватой тени “ the nerve of each pink root will quiver bare — дрожит обнажённый нерв каждого розового корпя ® orchards ... black breaking white — белые (цветы) появятся на чёрных (ветках) * glimmer ghoetly blue — мерцать загадочным голубоватым цветом * swell — набухать ® vines — стебли (плети) ^ floats — зд. уносится прочь ® loud — зд. сильный S?ORf IN OUR LIFE ш#г SPORTS AND GAMES OLYMPIC GAMES SPORT IN SCHOOLS FAMOUS ATHLETES R eviswn 1. Answer these questions. 1. What role does sport play in your life? Are you good at any sports or games? Have you ever taken part in sports competitions? Did you win? 2. Why do many people go in for sport? 3. In what way does sport help you to keep fit? 4. What are the most popular sports in Great Britain and in Russia? And what games are popular in these countries? 5. What sports and games do you prefer? Why? Do you practise them or watch them on TV? 6. Many people call themselves football fans, basketball fans or hockey fans. Can you call yourself a fan? 7. Have you ever watched competitions at the stadium? What were your impressions? 8. Do you know any big national or international competitions? What are they? 9. How many summer and winter sports and games can you name? And how many indoor and outdoor sports and games? 10. What sports or games can you call: a) the most beautiful, b) the most dangerous, c) the most useful for health, d) the most interesting to watch, e) the least interesting to watch? 2. Guess what sports and games are described here: 1. the sport of fighting with fists d 2, the sport of riding in a small boat with sails; a fist кулак 253 & 3. the sport of one who swims; 4. the sport of playing a type of football with an oval ball; 5. a game for two people who use rackets, a small soft ball and a low net;’ 6. the sport of moving through the water in a boat without sails; 7. the sport of going on horseback; 8. a game played by two teams of 6 players each that is played on an ice rink; 9- an outdoor game, popular in Britain, played in summer with a small ball by two teams of 11 players each, usually dressed in white. 3. Match the pictures with the names of sports and games in which they are used. 1. 2. 3. 5. 8. 9. 10. 1. a shuttlecock and a racket 2. a stick and a puck 3. a chessboard and chessmen 4. a basketball and a ring 5. a racket and a ball 6. a club and a ball 7. skates 8. boxing gloves 9. a yacht [jo:t] 10. a boat a) figure skating, b) golf, c) chess, d) tennis, e) badminton, f) rowing, g) boxing, h) basketball, i) ice hockey, j) sailing 4. Choose the right names of British popular sports and games to complete the sentences. Student’s Book V, Lesson 19 can help you. 1. People in England began to play ... as early as 1550. golf 2. ... is one of the oldest British sports that existed in cricket Saxon times. football 3. ... is the sport that began to develop in Scotland. boxing 4. ... was first played in England in 1872, whose first tennis championship was at Wimbledon. 5. ... is a game invented and developed in England which is nowadays played all over the world. 5. Say which of them are sports and which of them are games. skiing, skating, football, rugby, boxing, rowing, horse racing, basketball, golf, volleyball, running, high jump, cricket, ice hockey, field hockey, badminton, tennis, baseball Read and compare! to play games to play tennis to play golf to play basketball to go in for sports to go in for rowing to go in for skiing to go in for boxing to do a lot of/a bit of sport to do quite a lot of rowing to do a lot of skiing to do a bit of boxing 6. Look at the pictures and say what sports the children go in for or do. 255 7. This is a page from a Traveller’s Guidebook about sports in Moscow. Complete the text with the missing headlines from the box. Horse racing and Horse-riding Ice Hockey . Football (Soccer) Cross-country Skiing Ice-skating Tennis As one of the world’s greatest sporting nations, Russia has a lot to offer sports fans. You can enjoy first-rate football and ice-hockey matches, go skiing and skating or even hunting. 1) ... Russia is mostly a flat country, so downhill skiing is not widespread, but cross-country skiing is very popular. Go to any of the outlying parks in winter. Skis can be bought at most sports shops. 2) ... Risk a few roubles on buggy racing at the Hippodrome. And remember that it’s hard to beat the charm of riding through birch forests in springtime or taking a horse-drawn sleigh ride after a fresh snowfall. 3) ... When it’s too cold for football, people turn their attention to ice hockey played to world standard in Russia’s two big cities. International matches are advertised in the local press. Tickets at stadiums. 4) ... You can skate in the ice lanes of Moscow’s Gorky Park in winter or visit one of many covered rinks. Some places offer skates, but you must bring extra pairs of socks in case your size isn’t available. 5) ... Russians adore the game. Unfortiinately you can see acts of European-style hooliganism at stadiums. Tickets are always available for local matches on the day. The season is from March to October. 6) ... This is a boom sport in Russia and the country’s best compete against foreign stars in Moscow’s Kremlin Cup held each autumn. 256 See local press for details. Ш1Г& S. Revise clauses' of time and condition and match the two parts of the sentences. 1) If Jane has free time, 2) If Nick buys skates, 3) If Tom wins the match, 4) If Christine joins us, 5) If Rachel starts regular training, В a) we will win the game. b) she will become a good sportswoman soon. c) she will go in for swimming. d) he will become a member of the national team. e) he will skate a lot during his winter holidays. a) she will be really tired. b) they will go to the swimming pool. c) I will go in for sports. d) he will buy a Mercedes [m3:'serdi;z]. e) the students will do a bit of skating. 9. Complete the sentences using the ideas from the brackets. The words in the word box can help you. 1) When Andrew becomes rich and famous, 2) When Jane arrives, 3) When the children finish their homework, 4) When the classes are over, 5) When I am free. as soon as, after, before, in case, if, on condition that, till (until) 1. YouTl be allowed to join the group (при условии, что ты придёшь вовремя). 2. Do it (прежде, чем она представится). 3. (В случае, если Филиппа не будет дома), search for him in the garden. 4. (Как только она придёт), you’ll be under the spell of her fascination. 5. It will take you half an hour (при условии, что ты поедешь на метро). 6. I won’t go anywhere (до тех пор, пока он не позвонит). 7. (В случае, если ты пойдёшь покупать словарь Вебстера), buy the latest edition. ‘ a clause [klaiz] — зд. придаточное предложение 257 8. (Как только она увидит новую интересную книгу), she will be totally absorbed, in it, 9. (После того как придёт библиотекарь), the library will be opened. 10. (Как только чары разрушатся), the frog will become a prince. 11. (B случае если она будет дома), let me know. 12. I won’t say a word (до тех пор, пока эти болтушки не прекратят разговаривать). Read and compare! -—■—^ ■ unless if You can’t come in unless you You can come if you buy a buy a ticket. ticket. You can’t borrow my bike You can borrow my bike if you unless you return it by 5. return it by 5. Nothing will be done unless we Nothing will be done if we get the instructions. don’t get the instructions. I won’t do the house unless I will do the house if you help you help me. me. Mother won’t let you go out Mother will let you go out if unless you promise to be you promise to be back back early. early. 10, A. Use the definite article with the geographical names sary Remember the general rule of using articles with them. 1. . . Great Britain 10. ... Europe 2. . . Baltic Sea 11. ... France 3. . . Atlantic Ocean 12. ... Royal Hotel 4. . . Moskva River 13. ... Tverskaya Street 5. . . Lake Ontario 14. ... Hyde Park 6. . . Red Square 15. ... Bolshoi Theatre 7. . . USA 16. ... Rolan Cinema 8. . . Urals 17. ... Tretyakov Gallery 9. . . Madrid 18. ... History Museum В. Use the definite article where necessary to complete the text. ... (1) Moscow was built on ... (2) Moskva River in ... (3) twelfth century. Today it is ... (4) world’s sixth largest city with a popula-258 tion of almost 12 million. ... (5) St Petersburg is ... (6) most northerly place of ... (7) world’s biggest cities and has five million inhabitants. The city is situated on forty-four islands in delta of ... (8) Neva. As both Hitler and Napoleon discovered, ... (9) winter can be extremely cold with ... (10) temperature dropping as low as a record -42 °C in ... (11) Moscow. There can be nothing more Russian than the crisp frosP of ... (12) winter, ice on ... (13) Neva and snow falling upon ... (14) golden cupolas f'kjuipobz] of ... (15) Moscow’s churches. Probably ... (16) best time for a winter trip to ... (17) Russia is from ... (18) late November to ... (19) early January before the strong winds of ... (20) February and the slush® of ... (21) March. In the warmer season, ... (22) August and ... (23) July can be very hot in both ... (24) Moscow and ... (25) St Petersburg. ... (26) air is fresher around ... (27) May and ... (28) September and if ... (29) weather holds, these are perhaps ... (30) most attractive times in ... (31) year. To catch the legendary St Petersburg White Nights, when ... (32) sun never sets and ... (33) whole city celebrates, plan your trip for ... (34) end of ... (35) June or ... (36) beginning of ... (37) July. 11. Express the same in English. 1. Как только вы приедете в Лондон, покатайтесь на речном трамвайчике (boat) по Темзе. 2. В случае если ты поедешь в Санкт-Петербург в июне, ты можешь увидеть белые ночи. 3. При условии если вы пересечёте Уральские горы, вы сможете побывать в Азии. 4. Прежде чем ты будешь планировать путешествие по Канаде, почитай о её реках, Великих озерах. Ниагарском водопаде и столице страны Оттаве. 5. После того как вы прилетите в Иркутск, вы сможете увидеть озеро Байкал. 6. Если ты хочешь взглянуть на Альпы, поезжай в Центральную Европу. Горы расположены в трёх странах: Италии, Франции и Швейцарии. 7. Когда вы приедете на Британские острова, у вас будет возможность познакомиться с четырьмя странами: Англией, Уэльсом, Шотландией и Ирландией. 12. Say what these people do. Example: — What does a baker do? — He makes bread. 1. What does a dressmaker do? 2. What does a lawmaker do? 3. What does a shoemaker do? 4. What does a cook do? 5. What does ‘ crisp frost ® slush [skj] трескучий мороз хлябь, мокрый снег под ногами 259 а film director do? 6. What does a clown do? 7. What does a glove-maker do? 8. What does a clock-maker do? Read and compare! to do to make to do (morning) exercises to make a mistake to do the cooking (the cleaning, the to make dinner shopping, the ironing, the reading. to make money etc.) to make a decision to do one’s teeth (hair) to make a noise to do homework to make progress to do housework to make a fire to do a subject (Geography, P.E., etc.) to make a bed to do one’s best to make a fortune to do well to make a choice to do a translation to make an effort to do the sights of a city (a muse- to make friends/ene- um, a city) mies to do sb a favour to make a law to do sb good (harm, wrong) to make a list to do with something to make a note 13. Express the same in Russian. 1. — Who is going to do the washing-up? — I am. 2. The Americans will do London in the afternoon. They don’t like to do the sights of the city in the evening. 3. She has made great progress studying English. 4. How much money do you make a week? 5. — Have you done Shakespeare yet? — No, we are doing Chaucer at the moment. 6. Why are the children making such a noise in the corridor? 7. Can you do me a favour? Go and fetch these dictionaries from the library. 8. I’m tired. Let’s have a break and make some tea or coffee. 9. I can do with a sandwich. I’m hungry. 10. Whose turn is it to make brunch today? 11. I don’t like the way Betsy does her hair. 12. We made friends with Tom very quickly. 13. Who in your household does the housework? 14. I’ll make a bed for you on the sofa. 15. — How are you doing? — Very well, thanks. 14. Choose either do or make to complete the sentences. 1. I like the way you’ve ... your hair. 2. A long night’s sleep will 260 you a lot of good. 3. From school reports parents can see what ): to point at the girl, to point the stick (finger) at sb. “Is that the boy who did it?” she asked pointing at me. It is not polite to point. I asked where the bank was, and he pointed at a tall grey building. to beat [bi:tj (beat, beaten) (u): to beat with a stick, to beat to death. Never beat animals! The rain was beating against the window, to threaten ['Gretn] (u): to threaten sb with punishment. She threatened that she would leave home. Are you threatening me? to stare [steo] (u): to stare at people, to stare out of the window. Why did she stare at me with surprise? If you stare at something, you look at it for a long time. to despise [di'spaiz] (u): to despise people, to despise sb’s opinion, to despise one’s job. He is very stupid and unkind that’s why many people despise him. Why do you all despise Mr Williams? dust [dLvst] (n.); chalk dust, gold dust, radioactive dust, a cloud of white dust, to lie in the dust, to raise the dust. There was a lot of dust on the books before I cleaned them. The car raised a cloud of dust as it went down the road. dusty ['dASti] {adjy. dusty furniture, a dusty room. The goods in the shop window were dusty. amazing [a'meizip] {adj): an amazing film, an amazing book, an amazing player. I find it amazing that you can’t swim. It is quite amazing how short people’s memories are. willing ['will!]] {ad})-, a willing student, a willing helper, to be willing to do sth. Are you willing to help? He is always willing to play football. Teachers are so fond of willing students. 38. Say: 1. when it is necessary to sew a patch on somebody’s clothes; 2. if there is a playground near your house or school; 3. if you have ever felt desperate and when it was; 4. if there is any school subject that is beyond your understanding; 5. if you have ever seen people beat their dogs and how you reacted; 6. if it is polite to point at people or stare at them; 7. what film/book you can call amazing; 8. where sports are usually played; 9. if you are a willing student. 39. Name: a) 3—5 things that can be dusty, enormous, amazing, filthy, desperate; b) 3—5 things that are your property; c) 3 animals that can bark; d) 3—5 things that you are willing to do. 40. Put in the right prepositions: at, against, of, to, out of, up, with. 1. Jemma was staring ......... the window. 2. That small patch ... land belongs ... him and is his property. 3. Never point your finger ... people. It’s impolite. 4. Does your dog bark ... people in the street? 5. The rain was beating ... the window. 6. — I think it’s Peter who has broken the computer. — Oh no. I’m sure you are barking ... the wrong tree. 7. Sometimes animal keepers beat them ... sticks. I hate it. 8. If I were you, I wouldn’t stare ... people even if they look strange. 275 41. Give it a name: 1) a complete success; 2) a place where petrol and oil are sold; 3) people who have the same way of living; 4) all things that belong to somebody; 5) a small piece of land; 6) an area of land where sport is played; 7) a person wishing to help. 42. Use the words from the box in the right form to complete the text. to bark, to despise, to point, to beat, to stare, to threaten I want to tell you how my dog Milly came to live with us. My mother is a schoolteacher and she was taking her class to the park. Suddenly one of the boys ... (1) at the grass at the side of the road and said he had just seen something moving. Mother came closer and saw a small white-and-black dog. She ... (2) at mother with her big black eyes and then ... (3) “bow-wow” trying to ... (4) mother and the children standing around. But for mum it was love at first sight. She took Milly home. She was thin when we got her, but now she loves to eat so much, we sometimes call her Piggy. We never ... (5) Milly (I ... (6) people who ... (7) animals!) and try to be kind to her. She pays us back with her devotion. There are many dogs desperate for love and a home. If you help them, they make the best friends. Read and compare! 276 any (each of many or some) 1. There are some books on the desk. Any will do. 2. There are many pens in the box. You can take any. 3. We can stay at any hotel of the city. either (each of the two) 1. There are two books on the desk. Take either of them. 2. There is a green pen in the box and a blue one. You can take either. 3. You can land at either bank of the river. 43. Express the same in English. 1. Ты можешь взять любое яблоко из корзины. 2. В любой из двух газет ты найдёшь информацию о новостях внутри страны и за рубежом. 3. Мы можем поговорить с людьми, живущими в любом из домов на этой улице. 4. На тарелке два пирожных. Возьми любое. 5. Любой человек в нашем городе может побывать в центральном парке. 6. Любая из книг на этой полке удивительна и оригинальна. 7. Возьми верёвку за любой из её концов и потяни как можно сильнее. 8. Каждое из этих двух слов означает одно и то же. ОгЯ^ 44, А. Listen to the text “Favourite Sports and Games” choose the right item: 1. One of Sophia’s favourite sports is ... . a) skiing b) rowing c) fencing 2. Patrick’s favourite games are ... . a) football and tennis b) volleyball and basketball c) football and volleyball 3. Sophia is ... at skiing. a) very good b) rather poor c) not great 4. Sophia prefers to ski in the ... . a) forest b) mountains c) valley 5. Patrick thinks skiing is very ... . a) dangerous b) cheap c) exciting 6. Patrick plays volleyball ... . a) in the summer b) in the winter 7. Patrick plays football ... . a) in the summer b) in the winter c) all the year round 8. Patrick is ... at playing football, a) very good b) rather poor c) very bad 9. Patrick plays football ... . a) only on the beach b) only at the sports centre c) in different places 44, and c) all the year round Ш!ГФ В. Imagine that you could meet Patrick or Sophia. Think of the questions you could ask them. Find out: 1. if Sophia goes in for indoor sports and what they are; 2. if she has ever taken part in a ski race; 3. if she does skiing regularly; 4. if she trains with a coach; 5. if she could call herself a professional athlete; 6. if Patrick has ever played chess, with what result and when it was; 7. if he likes to play any other games and what they are; 8. how many cities he has visited with his football team; 9. if he has any friends among his team-mates and who they are; 10. if his team has ever lost any matches and when it was. J^eaiing for Vis£USsion 45. A. Look at the title of the text, the picture and the key phrases and try to guess what the text is going to be about. B. Read the text. Listen to it carefully, 45, and say if your guess was right. The Great Shooting Day (After Roald Dahl) Mr Victor Hazell ['heizl] was rich beyond words, and his property stretched for miles along either side of the valley. All the land around us belonged to him, everything on either side of the road, everything except the small patch of ground on which the filling station stood. That patch belonged to my father. It was a little island in the middle of the vast ocean of Mr Hazell’s property. Mr Victor Hazell was a snob and he tried desperately to get on with what he believed were the right kind of folk. He hunted with the hounds and gave shooting‘ parties. And every weekend he drove his enormous silver Rolls-Royce past our filling station on his hounds way to the factory. * In Britain they use the words shooting and hunting differently. By shooting they mean the sport of killing birds and animals with gun. By hunting they mean using 278 dogs to chase the animal (usually a fox) while riding a horse. а gasoline tank a cap “No,” my father used to say, “I do not like Mr Victor Hazell one little bit. I haven’t forgotten the way he spoke to you last year when he came in for a fill-up.” I haven’t forgotten it either. Mr Hazell had arrived in his expensive Rolls-Royce and had said to me, “Fill her^ up and look sharp about it.”^ I was eight years old at the time, he didn’t get out of the car, he just handed me the key to the cap of the gasoline ['geesalrn] tank and as he did so, he barked out, “And keep your filthy little hands to yourself, you understand?” I didn’t understand at all, so I said, “What do you mean, sir?” There was a walking stick on the seat. He picked it up and pointed it at me like a pistol. “If you spoil my car, I’ll beat you up,” he shouted. My father was out of the workshop almost before Mr Hazell had finished speaking. He came up to the window of the car and placed his hands on it. “I don’t like you speaking to my son like that,” he said. His voice was dangerously soft. “You had no reason to threaten him,” my father went on. “He has done nothing wrong. Next time you threaten someone why don’t you pick on a person your own size,” my father said. “Like me, for instance.” Mr Hazell did not look at him. He sat quite still in the seat of his Rolls-Royce, his tiny piggy eyes staring straight ahead. “Now go away, please,” my father said. “We do not wish to serve you.” He took the key from my hand and threw it through the window. The Rolls-Royce drove away fast in a cloud of dust. A silence fell between us. “I’ll tell you something interesting,” my father said at last. “The shooting season starts on Saturday. It always starts on the first of October,” he said. “And every year Mr Hazell celebrates the day by giving a big shooting party. It is a very famous event, Danny, that shooting party of Mr Hazell’s.” “Do lots of people come?” I asked. ^ her — sd. the car а pheasant “Hundreds,” he said. “They come from miles around. Dukes and lords, barons and baronets,’ rich businessmen, and all important folk in the country. They come with their guns and their dogs and their wives, and all day long the noise of shooting is heard across the valley. But they don’t come because they like Mr Hazell. Secretly they all despise him.” “Then why do they come, dad?” “Because it’s the best pheasant [Tezant] shoot in the South of England, that’s why they come. But to Mr Hazell it’s the greatest day in the year because it makes him feel important. For one day in the year he becomes a big cheese in a little world” and even the Duke of so-and-so® tries to remember his first name when he says goodbye. So he is willing to pay almost anything to make it a success. He spends a fortune on those pheasants. Each summer he buys hundreds of young birds from the pheasant farm and puts them in the wood where the keepers feed them, and it’s a deadly secret, Danny.” My father looked carefully all around him. “I would like,” he whispered, “to find a way of getting so many pheasants from HazelTs Wood that there would not be any left for the big opening-day shoot on October the first.” “Dad!” I cried. “No!” “Ssshh,” he said. “Listen. Just imagine, Danny,” he went on, “what a triumph, what a glorious victory that would be! All the dukes and lords and famous men would arrive in their big cars and then out they would all go with their guns under their arms — and they would take up their positions in the famous wood — and there wouldn’t be a single pheasant to be found anywhere! And Mr Victor HazelTs face would be redder than a boiled beetroot! Now wouldn’t that be the most amazing and beautiful thing if we could pull it off," Danny!” a beetroot ' dukes |dju:ks] (герцоги), lords, barons, baronets — these are ranks of noblemen: duke is the highest, earls (графы) barons and baronets follow. Dukes, earls and barons can be all called lords. ” a big cheese in a little world — шишка на ровном месте ^ so-and-so — такой-то ж такой-то 280 * to pull it off — to manage to do sth difficult 46. Look through the text again and find out who: 1) owned all the land around the filling station; 2) told Victor Ilazell to stop threatening the boy; 3) came to Mr Hazell’s shooting parties; 4) wanted to teach Victor Hazell a lesson; 5) owned the filling station; 6) gave shooting parties; 7) was rude to the boy once; 8) spent a fortune on pheasants. SFA 47. Choose the right item. 1. Mr Victor Hazell was a snob and tried to get on with what he believed were the ... kind of folk. a) rich b) right c) real 2. Every weekday he drove his car past the filling station on his way to the ... . a) forest b) factory c) office 3. Danny was ... years old at that time, a) eight b) nine c) ten 4. Victor Hazell said that Danny’s hands were ... . a) filthy b) clean c) dirty 5. He wanted to beat the boy up with ... . a) a pistol b) an umbrella c) a walking stick 6. The shooting season always starts on the first of ... . a) September b) October c) November 7. The important people a) liked b) hated Victor Hazell. c) despised 8. Mr Hazell bought hundreds of young pheasants from the pheasant a) house b) farm c) shop 9. Danny’s father wanted the shooting party to find the famous forest, a) no b) many c) the best pheasants in 281 Speaking Discussing the Text 48. Say why: 1. the author compares Mr Hazell’s property with an ocean and Danny’s father’s property with an island; 2. Danny’s father couldn’t forg“et how Victor Hazell had spoken to his boy a year before; 3. Danny’s father got very angry with Victor Hazell; 4. Victor Hazell gave shooting parties; 5. hundreds of dukes, lords, barons and baronets came to his parties; 6. Victor Hazell paid a lot of money to make his parties a success; 7. Danny’s father was sure that getting the pheasants from the forest was a good idea; 8. Mr Hazell’s face would be redder than a boiled beetroot. 49. Say how you would get all the pheasants from the forest if you were Danny’s father. Discuss your versions in the group and decide whose pian is a) the most interesting, b) the most effective. 50. A. Speak about Victor Hazell as if you were: a) Danny, c) a duke or a baron from his shooting party, b) Danny’s father, d) Mr Hazell himself. B. Make up a dialogue about Victor Hazell between a) Danny and his father, b) two people from the shooting party. 51. Read the definition of the word snob below and say what you think about snobbery. Think of whether you have ever met snobs and what you felt about them. A snob is 1) someone who admires the higher social class in society and despises people of a lower social class; 2) someone who is too proud of having special knowledge in a certain subject and thinks that what other people like is no good. 52. Say what you think about the so-called blood sports — shooting and hunting. Would you like to take part in shooting and/or hunting? Why? 282 Would you like to have them stopped? Why? »шжф Discussing the^opl^ Let’s talk about sport in English. We say sport when we mean this physical activity generally (for example sport is good for keeping fit) and a sport/sports when we mean a particular kind of sport (for example Athletics is an ancient sport). The Russian word «спортивный» is usually sports in English: a sports car, a sports jacket, sports news. People who go in for sport are sportsmen and sportswomen or athletes. If you go in for sport you: • train for a competition (match, game) • compete in a championship • take part in a tournament ['tuouomont] • set/break records • score points and goals • win or lose (in) the competition • win a prize/a cup • draw the game Other people who are important in sport are: • a coach • an instructor [in'strAkta] • a judge or a referee [,refa'ri:] (in games) Athletes compete either individually in teams and crews (in sailing and rowing). We can speak about: • a national team • a school team, etc. • an Olympic team Sports are practised indoors (indoor sports) and outdoors (outdoor sports). Here are some names of special places for practising sport or doing physical exercise: • a gym • a track (a racetrack) • a court • a swimming pool • a ring • a football field • a stadium • sports grounds • an ice rink • school sports grounds 283 Some of the popular sports are: • boxing • • cycling • • rowing « • swimming • • gymnastics • ice-skating • weightlifting • athletics/track and field • high/long jump • downhill skiing • cross-country skiing • aerobics feo'roubiks] • working out (in the gym) • wrestling ['reshi]] • figure skating • races: a running race a swimming race a horse race a motor race Some of the popular games are: • golf • • darts • • chess • • table tennis (ping-pong) * • tennis • • draughts [dra:fts] • • snooker • ice hockey field hockey rugby (rugger) badminton basketball volleyball football (soccer) These sports and games are less common: archery ['crtjari] fencing climbing mountaineering [,mauntini3rip] riding surfing and windsurfing sailing/yachting ['jo;tip] diving • water polo ['рэоЬо] • water-skiing • baseball • martial ['та:Д] arts: aikido [ai'kidau] karate [ka'ruti] judo ['cbu:d3o] taekwondo [^tai'kwnndsu] 53. Look through the list above and say: 1. the names of those sports you didn’t know before; 2. which of these sports in your view are a) the most dangerous; b) the least dangerous; c) the most exotic; d) the most common; 284 e) the best for keeping fit; f) the most attractive for you and why; 3. which of the sports can be practised a) both indoors and outdoors; b) only indoors or outdoors; 4. which of these sports are more popular in a) Russia; b) the USA; c) Great Britain; 5. which sports in your view are easy to practise in a) Australia; b) Switzeгland;^ c) Norway; d) Canada, and why; 6. practising which sports needs special equipment^ or doesn’t need any equipment. 54. Match these pictures of sports equipment with their names and say what sports they beiong to. a) a yacht b) a club and a ball c) a net and a ball d) a stick and a puck e) a goal and a ball f) a racing car g) a windsurfing board h) a racket and a shuttlecock ' Switzerland I'switsobnd) ^equipment [ikwipinant] - - Швейцария снаряжение, оборудование 285 »mr& i) skis, ski poles and ski boots j) swords lso:dz] k) a bow and arrows l) darts and a dartboard m) a cue [kju;J, a table and balls n) a barbell 35. A. Look through this text about athletics and say which of these sports are track and field events and which are not. swimming, horse-riding, discus throwing, boxing, running, water polo, 100-metre race, wrestling, figure skating, gymnastics, long jump, aerobics, skiing, rugby Athletics Athletics {BrE) or track and field {AmE) is the general name given to such kinds of sports as running, long jump, high jump and some others. Athletics includes both track events (= running races) and field events (= sports involving jumping, throwing things, etc., which are not races). 286 Most of track events are named according to distance, for example She’s running in the 400 metres. She is running in a race over a distance of 400 metres. The person who comes first in an event wins a gold medal, the person who comes second wins a silver medal and the person who comes third wins a bronze medal. People usually talk about somebody winning the gold, the silver or the bronze, for example He won the gold in the 100 metres. She won a bronze in the long jump. Athletes compete with their opponents [э'рэипэШз] or rivals ['rarvlzj. People who follow the competition are spectators [spek'teitaz] or sports fans. They support their team or shout for it. в. Use this outline to speak about track and field. 1) athletics — what it is; 2) the way people speak about races and field events in Britain and the US; 3) track events; 4) field events; 5) the usual way to name track events; 6) winners in athletics; 7) people supporting athletes. 56. Look at these items of sportswear, name them and say what sports they are suitable for. The words from the box can help you. swimming trunks and a swimsuit trainers (sneakers AmE) a sports jacket a waterproof jacket a tracksuit knee-length socks a ski cap and a ski suit mittens and gloves a T-shirt and shorts 57. Name as many as you can: 1) summer sports and games 2) winter sports and games 3) sports done all the year round 4) indoor sports and games 5) outdoor sports and games 6) items of sports equipment Ask your parents to help if necessary. 58. A. Say what we call it. 1. A game in which two teams of five players each try to score goals by throwing a large ball through a net fixed' to a metal ring at each end of the court. The players bounce the ball while running and pass it to each other. 2. A game in which two teams hit^ a large ball with their hands, backwards and forwards over a high net. The ball is not allowed to bounce on the ground. 3. A game played between two teams of eleven players who kick® a ball around a field trying to score a goal. 4. A game of two players who each start with sixteen different playing pieces to move on a board. The aim is to move your pieces so that your opponent’s king will be killed. 5. A game in which the players use rackets to hit a small feathered object called a shuttlecock over a high net. 6. A game in which you use long sticks called clubs to hit a small ball into holes that are spread out over a large area of grassy land. B. Describe one of these games: 1) tennis 3) table tennis 5) draughts 2) rugby 4) ice hockey 6) darts 7) field hockey 8) badminton 59. These are sports recommended for different age groups. Look through the list and say which of them you have ever done, are doing or are planning to do. What’s the best time to do these sports? 3- year-olds; skiing 4- year-olds: cycling 5- year-olds: swimming 6- year-olds: pony-riding, skateboarding, roller-skating ' to fix — закреплять * to hit — ударять 288 ’ to kick — ударить ногой Ш1жШ 7- year-olds: 8- year-olds: 9- year-olds: 10- year-olds: 11- year-olds: 12- year-olds: 13- year-olds: 14- year-olds: 15- year-olds; 16- year-olds: 17- year-olds; tennis, table tennis, badminton fencing, diving, ice hockey, football judo, archery boxing, water-skiing, athletics skating, surfing rowing volleyball, water polo, basketball martial arts, American football weightlifting sailing parachuting ['pserafutip] 60. Work in groups of 3—5 students. In each group there should be an interviewer trying to get information about sport in your school. Answer the interviewer’s questions and give your opinions. Let the interviewer put the information together and then speak about what he/she has learnt. The interviewer may want to find out: 1 what sports the students do in their P.E. lessons; what games they play; which of them are more popular with the students; what sports they would prefer to do in their school and why; 2 where they practise these sports; what sports equipment the school has got; what new equipment they would like to have; 3 if the school takes part in any competitions and what results their teams usually show; if these students take part in competitions personally; 4 why it is important to do sports at school; if the students think that they have enough physical exercise; if they manage to find time for sports and games; 5 where they can do sports outside school; if they have ever done sports elsewhere; what the result was; 61. Choose a sport or a game and describe it trying to make your story sound as attractive as possible. When you’re finished, decide whose story was the best. 289 62. These are some of the athletes who helped to make history in Russian sport. Find information about one of them and present this information. To make your story more logical write its outline first. 1. Larisa Latynina (gymnastics) 2. Lev Yashin (football) 3. Yuri Vlasov (weightlifting) 4. Evgeni Plushenko (figure skating) 5. Alina Kabaeva (rhythmic gymnastics) 6. Elena Isinbaeva (high jump) 7. Maria Sharapova (tennis) 290 Шйгф 63. А. Find out some information about the first modern Olympic Games and complete the chart with information about the Olympic Games of the 21st century. Number of the Games Year Continent Country City I 1896 Europe Greece Athens II 1900 Europe France Paris III 1904 North America the USA St Louis IV 1908 Europe Great Britain London V 1912 Europe Sweden Stockholm VI 1920 did not take place because of World War I (were meant to be held in Berlin, Germany) VII 1920 Europe Belgium Antwerp ... ... ... ... XXVII (summer) 2000 Australia Australia Sidney ... ... ... B. Choose one of the Olympic Games and get ready to speak about them in class. The outline below can help you; 1. the number and the year of the Games; 2. the place where they were held; 3. Olympic sports of these Games; 4. the number of countries that took part in the Games; 5. the number of sportsmen and sportswomen who took part in the Games; 6. the medals that were won; 7. some of the Russian (Soviet) athletes who took part in the Games, their results; 8. some of the records set during the Games; 9. the central event or the central figure of the Games. 291 64. Speak about the Olympic Games. Choose one of the items and develop it. 1. The history of the Olympic Games in ancient times. 2. The history of the modern Games. 3. Russia in the Olympic Games. 4. Winter and Summer Olympics. 5. The latest Olympic Games. 6. The role of the Olympics in modern life. 7. Some Olympic champion(s). 65. Find as much information about the Olympic symbols as you can and tell your class what you have found. БЫСТРЕЕ, ВЫШЕ, СИЛЬНЕЕ CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS SUMMING UP THE TOPIC Think of it and say: — if sport is growing in importance in the modern world and in what way; — if you think that achievements in sports are important and prestigious for our country; — what can be done to make teens fond of sport in the place where you live; — if you are a football fan and what football fans should and shouldn’t do. 292 66. Do these exercises in writing: 8, 9, 11, 24, 25, 31, 32, 43, 44B, 70. 67. Choose one of the words from the brackets to complete the sentences. A. 1. If I were an athlete, I (will/would) take part in big competitions and probably win. 2. If you tell your friends about your favourite sport, they (will/would) tell you about theirs. 3. If your team wins the cup, I (will/would) be very proud of you. 4. If Linda were your coach, she (will/would) make you practise a lot. 5. If Paul ran faster, he (will/would) be in our school team. 6. If the match lasted longer, the football players (will/would) have a chance to win. 7. If you go to the stadium to watch a basketball game, you (will/would) see how exciting it can be. B, 1. If Nina (thiuks/thought) about keeping fit, she would go in for sport and spend more time outdoors. 2. If Gary (plays/played) with us, we are sure to win. 3. If you (see/saw) the match with us, we will drive you back home. 4. If Nataly (is/were) a better athlete, she would be one of the winners. 5. If George (knows/knew) the difference between mountaineering and climbing, he would explain it to you. 6. If the game (starts/started) a little later, I would come in time for the beginning. 7. If our boys (lose/lost) the game, I will be very sorry. 68. Write about 10 sentences beginning with / wish ... and If only ... connected with sport. Example: If only I could swim fastest of all in this school. 69. Make the story complete. Use the words on the right in the appropriate forms. My Favourite Sport I love many sports, but my favourite sport always 1) skating. I first 2) ________________ ing when I was eight. We 3) then. I always 4)________________ _____ skat- in Norway ______________________________ the lights of the skating rink and my Dad who 5) _____________________ me. He 6) ______________ me what 7) _______________ and 8) me 9) _____________________________ when I 10) on the ice. be, begin live remember help explain, do make, smile fall 293 Three years later we 11) and then for many years I 12) Florida is a hot place. Now I 13) _______ Canada. I 14) ______________ since I 15) here. to Florida, ___ because ________ in move not skate live skate, come 70. Express the same in English. 1. Земля была покрыта снегом. 2. Если бы я был на твоём месте, я бы делал это тайно. 3. Обе футбольные команды хороши. Любая может выиграть, и каждой нужна победа. 4. Все эти вещи — школьное имущество. 5. Я не буду это делать. Это вне моих обязанностей. 6. Вся эта ситуация была безнадёжной. 7. Ты идёшь по ложному следу. На твоём месте я бы искал их в другом городе. 8. На что ты показываешь? Ты показываешь на башню? 9. Не угрожайте нам. 10. Не смотри так пристально на людей. Это невежливо. 11. Не желаешь ли присоединиться к нам? 71. Write а postcard to your friend describing a recent sports match, competition or game you watched. Mention where and when it took place, if you watched it at the stadium or on TV, who you went there with, what sort of match or game it was, who won, if you enjoyed it. Start like this: Dear ............ , There was a.................. match (competition) on (in, at) ......... yesterday. I saw it with ............... I found the match (competition) 294 72. Complete the words to make a list of traditional Olympic sports. Summer Olympics: Winter Olympics: bad_________ a___________________tics sk______g b________ball s_i_ing sk________ base_____ sw______ing f_______skating _ox______ di___g ice_________ wr_______ing hand_______ cy_______ sh__________________ting water_______ ar___ry VO_____ gym____ r___ing j___о horse ball ___nn fen___ _oot_ field lifting 73. Spell the words. [I'noimss] ['propsti] ['6retnJ [graund] ['traiamf] [ba:k] ['ftl0il [bijond] [dfspaiz] ['desporst] la'meizinl ['агбэ] 74. Test your spelling. Listen to the recording, sentences. ^ 46, and write down the Л/liscellanepus 73. Match the two parts of these proverbs with make and do. Expiain how you understand them. 1. Make hay' ... 2. Two wrongs don’t .. 3. One swallow doesn’t 4. Well begun ... 5. Do to others ... 76. Listen to the poem, a) make a summer. b) is half done. c) while the sun shines. d) as you would like them to do to you. e) make a right. 47, and read it. Silver (By Walter de la Mare) Slowly, silently, now the moon Walks the night in her silver shoon;^ This way, and that, she peers,® and sees Silver fruit upon silver trees, One by one the casements'' catch Her beams beneath the silvery thatch,® ' hay — сено ® shoon — башмачки {ycmap.) ''peers — смотрит “casements — окна ‘thatch — соломенная крыша 295 Couched in his kennel/ like a log/ With paws of silver sleeps the dog; From their shadowy cote® the white breasts peep"* Of doves in a silver-feathered sleep;® A harvest mouse goes scampering® by With silver claws^ and silver eye And moveless fish in the water gleam/ By silver reeds® in a silver stream. 77. Listen to the song, 48, and sing it along. Yankee Doodle Father and I went down to camp Along with Captain Doodling; There we saw the men and boys As thick as hasty’” pudding. Chorus: Yankee Doodle, keep it up,” Yankee Doodle dandy!’^ Mind the music and the step And with the girls be handy! There was Captain Washington Upon a slapping stallion/® Giving orders to his men — I guess there was a million. Chorus 296 ' couched in his kennel — лёжа в будке “log — брёвнышко “cote — голубятня ‘peep — выглядывают ® silver-feathered sleep — окутанный серебристыми перьями сон ‘scampering — вприпрыжку 'claws — коготки “gleam — сверкают “reeds — тростник, камыш '"hasty ['heistij — приготовленный наспех " keep it up — не унывай ‘“dandy — щёголь ‘“а slapping stallion ['stisljan] — скачущий жеребец Then the feathers on his hat, They looked so very fine, oh! I wanted desperately to get To give to my Jemima. Chorus 78. Did you know that ... ... the song “Yankee Doodle” became popular with American soldiers during the American Revolutionary War? The soldiers changed the words of the original British song that made fun of the Americans: Yankee Doodle went to town, Riding on a pony. Stuck a feather in his hat. And called it macaroni. During the American Civil War the word yankee meant a person born or living in the northern states. Now it mostly means a citizen of the United States of America. ... fox hunting started in Britain in the 13th century? It takes place every year between November and spring. Riders often wear red coats. People think that it is an occupation for the rich. Many people in Britain would like to see hunting stopped as they believe it is a cruel sport. Young people often form groups and go to hunting grounds where they make a noise and try to stop hunting because they think that wild animals should not be killed in this way. 79. For further information on the topic “Sport in Our Life” see the Internet sites: http://www.scribd.com/doc/2249748/QUALITIES-OF-A-GREAT-ATHLETE- http://www.thebest100lists.com/best100athletes/ http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/games/olympics.htm http://www.chevroncars.com/learn/sports/history-olympic-games http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Games Ише Reading Lessons 12,13 Project Work 8 (see p. 317) 297 EXflORIMG THE WORLD EXPLORING YOUR OWN COUNTRY LEARNING ABOUT YOURSELF AND PEOPLE ROUND YOU EXPLORING THE WORLD OF SPORT EXPLORING THE WORLD OF ARTS EXPLORING THE WORLD OF LITERATURE EXPLORING THE WORLD OF LANGUAGES Speaking 298 1. Read this text and name other ways through which we can explore the worid and iearn about peopie and their reiations. You learn tilings in many different ways. You learn by looking at the world around you. You learn by listening to others. You learn by reading books and by doing new things. Everything you do helps you learn about yourself and the world round you. 2. in your English ciass through iearning the ianguage you get to know many new things about the worid and the people in it. This year you have discussed some topics. Answer these questions to sum up what you have iearnt. 1) You and the People Round You 1. What makes people alike and what makes them different? 2. Why is it good to be different? 3. In what way is your family important for you? 4. What role do your friends play in your life? 5. Who makes a good friend? 6. What are your favourite pastimes and hobbies? 7. What would you like to do in the future? 8. What kind of family would you like to have? 9. What kind of person would you like to be? £W#r^ 2) Language Learning 1. What makes English an interesting language to learn? How much do you know about its history? 2. Why is it important to know foreign languages in the modern world? 3. Which things do you enjoy doing in English most of all? Why? 4. Which things do you find difficult? 5. What would you like to do at your English lessons next year? 6. How can you better your English outside school? 7. In what way are you planning to use English in the future? 3) The World of Literature 1. Are there many real book readers in your class? In what way are they happier than the others? 2. In what way have books been important for people throughout our history? 3. What can good books teach people? 4. What are the few books that every person must read? 5. Do you think books will ever disappear? Why (not)? What would life be like without books? 6. What kinds of books do you read? What books and characters from books can you call your favourites? Why? 7. What would you call a well-published book? Why do people prefer to buy and read good editions of books? 8. What should a modern library be like? 4) The World of Cinema and Theatre 1. What role do theatre and cinema play in your life? 2. Have you ever seen plays or films that you can call great? What were they? What makes them great? 3. How many different types of films do you know? Can you say which of your friends iike which films? 4. When you go to the cinema or to the theatre, where do you like to sit? What do you like to do before and after the play or film and in the interval? 5. What do you know about some of the world’s greatest opera houses? What do you think makes people like opera and ballet? Do you like them? Why (not)? 6. Why is art important for people? 7. Would you like to appear on the stage or on the screen? In what roles? 8. People of what professions take part in making a film or a play? Which of them could you choose? 5) The World of Sport 1. Do you like sport? Do you do sports or do you watch them? And what about your friends? 2. How is sports activity organized in your school? Is there anything that you’d like to change? 3. What are the sports which Russia has traditionally been good 299 at? Do you know the names of any famous Russian sportsmen? Are there any athletes that you admire? 4. Why is the Olympic movement so popular? What do you know about its history? 5. Why is it important that people should go in for sport? What does practising sport give us? 6. What are your best results in different sports? 7. What is your greatest wish connected with sport? 3. Choose one of the topics below and interview your classmates on these. 1. geographical position of Russia, its climate; 2. Russian history; 3. its political system and symbols; 4. its main cities; 5. Russian festivals and holidays, traditions of the country; 6. Russian schooling; 7, Russian literature; 8. theatres and cinemas in Russia; 9. famous picture galleries and museums of Russia; 10. famous people of the country; 11. relations with other countries; 12. foreign languages in Russia 4. Add to the things you have found out during the interview (Ex. 3) those which have not been mentioned and prepare a talk for the school conference “Russ/a in the 21st century”. 5. Imagine that an American school in Florida and your own school have a student exchange. You are asked to give information about yourself. Introduce yourself to your host school. Mention these things. 6. Imagine that you are taking your foreign friend to the capital of Russia. What places in Moscow would you choose? What would you tell him/her about the city? 7. Speak about traditions and customs. Express your view on these items: 1) if it’s important to keep up traditions and why; 2) which countries are famous for their traditions, describe some of the traditions; 3) if there are any old traditions in Russia, what traditions; 4) if you know any new traditions in Russia and what you think about them (for example the Day of the City in Moscow, the Day of Knowledge, Mother’s Day, Teacher’s Day, etc.)-, 5) if your school has any traditions and what they are; what you do to keep them; 6) what new tradition you would like to have in your school, city and country. grammar Revision 8. A. Match column A with column C and make correct sentences using the in column B. В c write a) Christopher Columbus compose b) Robert L. Stevenson invent c) Arthur Conan Doyle build d) Peter Tchaikovsky discover e) Gustave Eiffel create f) James Cook paint g) Alexander Popov explore h) Isaac Levitan 1) “Treasure Island” 2) “Swan Lake” 3) The radio 4) The Eiffel Tower 5) America 6) Sherlock Holmes 7) “Golden Autumn” 8) Australia B. Work in pairs and ask each other questions as in the example. Example: Who was Australia explored by? It was explored by Captain James Cook. 9. A. Mr Jones is the head of a firm. He has been away on a business trip for two weeks. Now he is back and wants to know what has been done while he was away. Imagine you are Mr Jones and find these things out. 301 9 Example: you / post / invitations? Have the invitations been posted? 6) you / copy / the documents? 7) ... ? 8) ... ? 9) ... ? 10) ... ? 1) you / pay / the bills? 2) you / type / the letters? 3) you / translate / the articles? 4) you / visit / exhibitions? 5) you / repair / the computer? B, Work in pairs. Use the questions from part A, Answer them as in the exampie. Example; — Have the invitations been posted? — No, they are being posted now. 10. Say what you wouid do if: 1) you were a) a king b) a famous actor c) a very rich person d) an explorer e) Father Christmas; 2) you had a) a talent for painting b) a toy factory c) a computer d) a camera e) a big collection of books. 11. In this table of English tenses there are no examples. Look at the sentences below and decide which of them belongs to which square. Present Past Future 1. Present Simple 2. Past Simple 3. Future Simple 4. Present Continuous 5. Past Continuous 6. Future Continuous 7. Present Perfect 8. Past Perfect 9. Future Perfect 10. Present Perfect Continuous 11. Past Perfect Continuous 12. Future Perfect Continuous 302 a) A new edition of Longman Grammar has appeared recently. b) My Granny has had this tea cosy for ages. c) It takes me five minutes to get to school. d) Bill will have been travelling for 5 months by this time next week. e) We are discussing the contents of the novel tomorrow. 9 f) The young princess could not speak. She was under the spell. g) He had been playing football for an hour before the seven o’clock meeting. h) Г11 be working in the garden then. i) Ann had left by five o’clock. j) Jane has been painting since early morning. k) Will you join us for dinner? l) Summer follows spring. m) Emily was speaking to the librarian at that time. n) Why have you been crying? o) You will have changed your mind by tomorrow. 12. Open the brackets and complete the sentences with the proper verb forms. 1. — Jane, dear, you (1. call) Emily? — Yes, I (2, call) her about an hour ago, but I (3. not, speak) to her because she (4. have) a bath. I think I (5. try) again in a few minutes. She (6. have) her bath by this time. 2. By seven o’clock yesterday evening the train (1. not, arrive) yet. The people on the platform (2. feel) cold as a strong wind (3. blow). Suddenly there (4. come) a voice from the loudspeaker which (5. say) that the train (6. arrive) a quarter of an hour later. Mark who (7. stand) on the platform for half an hour already (8. decide) that he (9. go) to the snack bar and (10. drink) a cup of hot coffee. 13. Last Sunday 7A went to Moscow and spent the whole afternoon in the city. On Monday their teacher wanted to know what her pupils were doing or had done. Report her questions. 1. What places did you visit, Kate? 2. Did you go to the Tretyakov Gallery, Nina? 3. What are your impressions of the city centre, Natasha? 4. Where were you in the afternoon, Sasha? 5. Did you see any films, Denis? 6. Why didn’t you buy any cinema tickets, Lora? 7. Did you find the way to the circus easily, Andrew? 8. Who explained the way to the city centre to you, Nick? 9. What made the greatest impression on you, Boris? 10. How long did it take you to have a tour of the Kremlin, Paul? 3Q3 14. Choose the right word. 1. Who was the (last/latest) person to leave the classroom? 2. Have you heard the (last/latest) news? 3. She is three years (old/older) than he is. 4. Little Bobbie wants to do everything as his (elder/older) brother does. 5. What’s your (next/nearest) question? 6. The (further/farther) problem for discussion is air and water pollution. 7. Linda and Nina are twins. The (latter/later) is a bit (older/elder) than her sister ^— she was born some minutes earlier. 8. (The last/Last) week we had fewer visitors. 9. When does the (last/latest) train leave? 10. Who lives (next/nearest) door to you? 15. Put in the missing articles a or the where necessary. 1. ... giraffe is ... animal that lives in Africa and has ... long neck. 2. It was ... wonderful day: ... sky was blue, ... sun was shining, ... sea looked warm and calm — ... world was ... great place to live in, 3. We have ... new history teacher. ... teacher arrived only last week. 4. — Which of the two dictionaries are you going to buy? — I like ... dictionary that has more words. 5. — Where did you pick these lovely flowers? — In ... forest. 6. — Can I speak to Olga, please? — Sorry, you’ve got ... wrong number. 7. I’m planning to go to ... college after I leave ... school. 8. How long can ... human stay and work in ... space? 9. What’s on ... television tonight? (What’s on ... telly tonight?) 10. If Robin doesn’t get better, he’ll have to be taken to ... hospital. 11. They’ve just built ... nice new school near our house. 12. Dad is at ... work till 6.30. Could you call later, please? 13. What ... shame we missed ... train! ... next one leaves only at ten. 14. George likes to have ... swim in the morning before breakfast. 15. How was ... party? Did you have ... good time? ^cabuJaiy Revision 16. Choose the right word from the brackets to complete the sentences. 1. In England men shake (hands/arms) only when they meet for the first time. 2. Excuse me, I’m afraid you’re standing on my (fin-304 gers/toes). 3. Most fast runners have long (legs/feet). 4. Bears have four (paws/hooves), and deer have four (paws/hooves). 5. Lullaby, lullaby, (go to sleep/fall asleep), little baby, 6. Please speak louder: I can’t hear you when you (mumble/murmur) like this. 7. — Where did you buy this (vocabulary/dictionary)? — In the bookshop near our school. 8. The work of a/an (interpreter/translator) is very hard: you have to think very fast and be inventive. 9. (Gold/Golden) hair always looks beautiful. 10. Look at this pretty little (house/home) on the top of the hill! 11. Are you going to (mend/repair) the watch yourself? If I were you, I wouldn’t. 12. I promise to (do/make) my best and (do/make) good progress in English. 17. A. These are the phrasal verbs you’ve studied this year. Remember their meanings and give examples to show how to use them. B. Fill in the blanks in the sentences that follow with turn, rush, do, run, get, set. 305 1. In а warm room ice soon ... into water. 2. I’m afraid we’ll have to ... with these books. These are as many as I’ve got. 3. I’m afraid the news has been a bit of a shock for Laura. She still can’t ... over it. 4. Poor Joe didn’t say anything, he got very red in the face and ... out of the room. 5. When I go somewhere with my Granny, I always help her to ... on and off the bus. 6. It’s seven o’clock, it’s time for us to ... off. Our train leaves in an hour. 7. I ... the bag inside out looking for the key, but never found it. 8. I don’t like it when people ... their friends down. 9. I think you should ... your room before your party. 10. What’s happening? Why are these children ... in and out of the classrooms? 306 18. A. Give English equivalents of these word combinations; 1. подоткнуть; 2. сводить концы с концами; 3. без сомнения; 4. с любовью и заботой; 5. заснуть; 6. выучить пять новых слов за один раз; 7. справиться с чем-то; 8. напротив, наоборот; 9. то и дело, время от времени; 10. по этой причине; 11. тем не менее; 12. быть полностью поглощённым чем-то; 13. пойти по ложному следу. В. Think of your own questions with the word combinations of part A for your classmates to answer. 19. Express the same in English. 1. — Последнее время Джим не очень жизнерадостный. Что случилось? — Ничего не случилось. Напротив, всё хорошо. 2. Он очень мрачный. И всегда был таким. 3. Медвежонок сказал, что он ест сгущёнку всю свою жизнь. 4. Во всяком случае маленький Джон съел полную тарелку каши и выпил полный стакан молока. 5. Ты всегда держишь обещания? 6. Ты видишь, Нина машет нам рукой. 7. В аэропортах багаж взвешивают. 8. Я стучу в дверь уже 10 минут, но никто не открывает. 9. «Толкни дверь, она и откроется», — сказал Серый Волк Красной Шапочке. 10. — На улице темно. Зажги свечи, пожалуйста. — Я пытаюсь это сделать уже несколько минут, но не могу, 11. «Лора разбила мамину любимую вазу для фруктов», — сказал Стив с сожалением. «Когда она это сделала?» — «Полагаю, она разбила её утром». 12, Джордж пробормотал что-то себе под нос. Мы ничего не поняли. 13. В комнате много света. 14. Почему ты торопишься? Мне бы хотелось поговорить с тобой. 15. Я в растерянности. Не знаю, что делать. Какой резвый ребёнок! 16. Не говори шёпотом, говори громко (громким голосом). l^eadin^ for Discussion 20. Read the text, listen to it carefully, agree to go away with Peter Pan. 49, and say what made Wendy Come Away, Come Away! (After J. M. Barrie) Some loud noise woke Wendy, and she sat up in bed. Then she searched for the candle and lit it. She was not frightened to see a stranger crying on the floor; she was only pleasantly interested. “Boy,” she said kindly, “why are you crying?” Peter could be extremely polite, so he rose and bowed^ to her beautifully. “What’s your name?” he asked. “Wendy Moira Angela Darling,” she replied solemnly. “What’s your name?” “Peter Pan.” “Is that all?” “Yes,” he said rather anxiously. He felt for the first time that it was a tremendously short name. She asked where he lived. “Second to the right,” said Peter, “and then straight on till morning.” “What a funny address!” “No, it isn’t,” he said firmly. “I mean,” Wendy said nicely, remembering she was hostess, “is that what they put on the letters?” ’ to bow [ban] — кланяться 307 “Don’t get any letters,” he said with regret. “But your mother gets letters?” “Don’t have a mother,” he mumbled. Not only had he no mother, but he had not the slightest wish to have one. Wendy, however, felt at once that she was in the presence of tragedy. “O Peter, no wonder you were crying,” she said and got out of bed and ran to him. “I wasn’t crying about mothers,” he said staring at her. “I was crying because I can’t get my shadow to stick on. Besides, I wasn’t crying.” “It has come off?” asked Wendy pop-eyed. “Yes.” Then Wendy saw the shadow on the floor and she was frightfully sorry for Peter and willing to help him. “How awful!” she said. Fortunately she knew at once what to do. “It must be sewn on,” she said. “I shall sew it on for you, my little man,” she said, though he was as tall as herself, and she got out her sewing basket and sewed the shadow on to Peter’s foot. Peter was so happy that he started bouncing about. He had already forgotten that it was Wendy who helped him. He thought he had sewn the shadow on himself. “How clever I am,” he shouted, “oh, the cleverness of me!” he repeated with triumph. Wendy was taken aback. “Indeed,” she exclaimed with sarcasm, “of course I did nothing!” “You did a little,” Peter said carelessly and continued to dance. “A little!” she replied angrily. “If I am no use, I can go to bed,” and she got into bed and covered her face with the blankets. Peter sat on the end of the bed, “Wendy,” he said, “don’t go to sleep.” And then he continued in a voice that no woman has ever yet been able to resist,’ “Wendy, one girl is more use than twenty boys.” “Do you really think so, Peter?” murmured Wendy. “Yes, I do. Without any doubt.” “I think it is perfectly sweet of you,” she smiled, “and Г11 get up again.” When people are introduced, it is customary for them to ask each other’s age, and so Wendy, who always liked to do the correct thing. 308 ' to resist In'zjst] — устоять asked Peter how old he was. It was not really a happy question to ask him; it was like an examination paper that asked grammar, when what you want to be asked is Kings of England. “I don’t know,” he replied gloomily, “but I am quite young.” He really knew nothing about it. “Wendy, I ran away the day I was born. It was because I heard father and mother talking about what I was to be when I became a man. I don’t want ever to be a man. On the contrary, I want always to be a little boy and to have fun. So I ran away to Kensington Gardens and lived a long, long time among the fairies.” Wendy had lived such a home life that to know fairies struck her as quite wonderful. She poured out questions about fairies and though the questions were rather a nuisance^ to him, Peter told her what he knew. Then Wendy asked him more questions, “If you don’t live in Kensington Gardens now —” “Sometimes I do still,” Peter mumbled. “But where do you live mostly now?” “With the lost boys.” “Who are they?” Wendy seemed much interested. “They are the children who fall out of their prams when the nurse is looking the other way. If they are not asked back in seven days, they are sent far away to the Neverland. I’m a captain.” “What fun it must be!” said Wendy in fascination. “Yes,” said cunning^ Peter, “but we are rather lonely. You see we have no girlfriends.” “Are there no girls?” “Oh no, girls, you know, are much too clever to fall out of their prams.” Wendy was impressed. “I think,” she said, “it is perfectly lovely the way you talk about girls; my brother John just despises us.” Wendy felt she was having a real adventure. She was just slightly disappointed when Peter said that he came to her window not to see her but to listen to stories which her mother told every evening. “You see I don’t know any stories for some reason. None of the lost boys knows any stories,” said Peter with regret. “How perfectly awful,” Wendy said. “Can you all be under the spell?” “I am not sure,” Peter answered, “O Wendy, your mother was telling you such a lovely story.” ‘ to be a nuisance ['njuisns] to sb ® cunning ['клтд] — хитрый досаждать, докучать кому-либо 309 VMirP “Which story was it?” “About the prince who couldn’t find the lady who wore the glass slippers,” “Peter,” said Wendy excitedly, “that was Cinderella, the prince was desperate to find her and he did. They lived happily ever after.” Peter was so glad that he rose from the floor, where they had been sitting, and hurried to the window. “Where are you going?” she cried. “To tell the other boys.” “Don’t go, Peter,” she asked, “I know such a lot of stories. I have devoured so many books. I’m a great storyteller.” He came back and there was a greedy look in his eyes now. “Wendy, do come with me and tell the other boys. How we should all respect you. You could tuck us in at night.” “Oo!” “None of us has ever been tucked in at night. And you could mend our clothes and make pockets for us. None of us has any pockets.” How could she resist? “Of course it’s awfially fascinating!” she cried. “But I can’t fly.” “Г11 teach you.” 21. Read the text again and find out: 1) how Peter demonstrated his politeness when he met Wendy; 2) in what way Wendy’s name differed from Peter’s; 3) what Peter’s address was; 4) what made Peter very happy: 5) when Peter ran away from home; 6) where Peter had lived before and where he was living then; 7) what story Wendy’s mother was telling the children when Peter came to listen at the window; 8) what made Peter ask Wendy to come away with him; 9) what he said she could do for them. 310 22. Here are answers to some questions on the text. Make up the questions. 1. No, she wasn’t. She was just pleasantly interested. 2. Because she was hostess, 3. She sewed it on to Peter’s foot. 4. She got into bed and covered her face with blankets. 5. He said he was quite young. 6. About fairies. 7. John. 8. To listen to her mother’s stories. 9. To tell the other boys, 10. To fly. vmv9 23. Explain why: 1) Peter’s address seemed funny to Wendy; 2) Wendy felt sorry for Peter; 3) Wendy forgave Peter’s tactless behaviour; 4) Wendy asked Peter about his age; 5) it was not a happy question to ask; 6) Peter didn’t want to grow up; 7) knowing fairies struck Wendy as quite wonderful; 8) Peter’s words about girls impressed Wendy; 9) Wendy agreed to come away with Peter; 10) the country where Peter lived was called “Neverland”. 24. Say: 1) how much you’ve learnt about Peter; 2) how much you’ve learnt about Wendy; 3) if you’ve read the book of Peter Pan or seen the film made after this book and what impression they made on you; 4) why Peter Pan has remained a favourite book character for so many years; 5) where you can see the statue of Peter Pan, 25. Act out the talk between Wendy and Peter Pan. 26. Say: 1. if you would be afraid if you saw a stranger crying on the floor of your room at night; 2. what you would do if it happened; 3. what questions you would ask this strange boy; 4, what you would feel if Peter told you that he couldn’t stick his shadow on; 5. if you would try to help him; 6. if you would want to be a little boy or a little girl and have fun or if you would like to grow up, why; 7. if you would believe cunning Peter when he said how much he needed Wendy’s help if you were Wendy; 8. if you would like to learn to fly if you could; 9. where you would fly; 10. if you would go away with Peter. Wr nting 27. Do these exercises in writing: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19. 28. Form the plural of the following nouns. Chair, mystery, negro, fish, fruit, wolf, vocabulary, piano, drill, mouse, foot, idiom, day, postman, sky, zero, watch, ski, radio, key, dictionary, roof, kangaroo, ox, woman, goose, leaf, sportsman, kilo, bench, bush. 311 mifP 29. Use the right adjectives from the box to complete the comparisons. hard cold strong old cool poor fresh happy 1, Walter is as ... as a lion. 2. Old Miss Allsop is as ... as a church mouse. 3. Little Freddie is as ... as a lark. 4. I tried to make him change his mind, but it didn’t help. He is as ... as nails. 5. My younger niece is so pretty, always as ... as a daisy. 6. Why are you trembling? And your hands are as ... as ice! 7. My great-grandfather is nearly 95. I think he is as ... as the hills. 8. He never shows his emotions. He is always as ... as a cucumber. 30. Express the same in English. Разрешите представиться. Меня зовут Лена Иванова. Я живу в России, самой большой стране мира. Москва — столица моей родины и мой родной город. Я очень её люблю. Москва изменилась за последние годы. В ней построены высокие здания, современные гостиницы, торговые центры. Москва стоит на Москве-реке. Она основана князем Юрием Долгоруким в XII веке. Москва-река не самая большая река России, и, к сожалению, она не самая чистая, но мы любим гулять по её берегам и смотреть, как прогулочные катера (pleasure boats) плывут по воде. Я учусь в 7 классе средней школы с углублённым изучением английского языка (а general secondary school specializing in English). Английский — мой самый любимый предмет. Я думаю, что люди, живуш,ие в XXI веке, должны хорошо знать иностранные языки. Это могло бы помочь нам узнать побольше о мире, в котором мы живём, о людях из других стран и о нас самих. Изучая иностранный язык, мы исследуем различные сферы (worlds) — мир искусств, мир литературы, мир языка, мир спорта и другие. Мы изучаем английский язык уже шесть лет и многое узнали. На будупций год, после летних каникул, мы снова придём в школу, чтобы научиться ещё многому. 312 31. Fill in another page in the Group Journal that you made at the beginning of the school year (Unit 1, Ex. 28). Write a) in what way the school year has been good or not very successful; b) if your three greatest wishes have come true; c) about your expectations for the summer and the new school year. 0tUf9 n/liscellaneims 32. Read the poem, listen to it, 50, and say what the author warns the students of English about. Look the new words up. Warning' When it’s English that we speak Why is steak not rhymed with weak? And couldn’t you please tell me how Cow and now can rhyme with bough"? I simply can’t imagine why High and eye sound like buy. We have food and blood and wood. And yet we rhyme should with good. Bead is different from head. But we say red, bread and said. Gone will never rhyme with one Nor home and dome with some and come. Nose and lose look much alike, So why not fight and height and bite"? Dove and dove look quite the same. But not at all like rain, rein, and reign. Shoe just doesn’t sound like toe. And all for reasons I don’t know, For all these words just prove to me That sounds and letters disagree. 33. Did you know that ... ... James Barrie wrote a number of books for grown-ups, but he is best remembered as the author of “Peter Pan”! ... J. M. Barrie was born in a poor Scottish family? His parents wanted to give their children a good education and they did it. His mother was a talented woman. She knew a lot of Scottish legends and folktales and made her children love their homeland? warning [‘w3:ntr)] — предупреждение 313 ... among other books James M. Barrie wrote comedies which were a great success with the public? ... James M. Barrie admired brave travellers and explorers? Among his friends was Captain Scott. When Scott’s body was found in the Antarctic, they also found his letter addressed to James Barrie? ... James Barrie’s will was to give all the money brought by publications of “Peter Pan” and staging the book to a children’s hospital in London? ... the statue of Peter Pan was put up in Kensington Gardens, London, in 1912? You can see it there — the statue of the boy who never grew up? 34. During your summer holidays read the book “Peter Pan” by James M. Barrie. If it is difficult for you to read the book in the original, read it in Russian. It has been translated into your mother tongue. Get to know Peter Pan and the other characters of the book better and enjoy their adventures together with them. Share your impressions with your classmates when you come back to school next year. Reading Lesson 14 314 Project Work 1 Choose a place in Russia that you love best or would like to visit. Make a 3-minute computer presentation about this place. Project Work 2 Work in small groups and make a list of foreign words borrowed by the Russian language. Try to find out what language they came from. Use dictionaries and the Internet. Compare your lists. Project Work 3 Work as a group and interview as many pupils of your school as you can. Make sure they are of different ages. Ask them about their hobbies and pastimes. Make a survey of the typical activities in your school for different ages. Such information can be used to organize clubs and circles in your school. (Remember that the number of pupils from each age group should be the same.) Fill in these charts. CHART 1. HOBBY SURVEY Place (city, town or other) School number ______________________ Total number of interviewed students 90 Age Groups Age group 1 (б-10-year-olds) Primary school Age group 2 (10-15-year-olds) Secondary school (junior students) Age group 3 (15-18-year-olds) Secondary school (senior students) Number of interviewed students 30 30 30 Activities mentioned in the order of popularity with the number of students who choose them 1. (keeping pets 2. ________________ 3. --------------- 4. _______________ 13) 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 315 CHART II. SURVEY RESULTS Age Groups Activities: Hobbies and Pastimes Most popular Less popular Least popular Asre srrouD 1 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. Aee erouu 2 1. 2. 3. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. Ase erouo 3 1. 1. 1. 2 2. 2. 3 .3, 3. Project Work 4 Playing language games can be very helpful in foreign language learning. Remember or make up a language game, write down its description. Play the game with your friends. Put all the successful games into your own Book of Games and illustrate it. Work as a group. Project Work 5 When on holiday work together and make a wall newspaper about where you went and what you did. Use photographs and pictures with captions. Write short texts. Make the paper as attractive and amusing as possible. Project Work 6 Think of 2—5 books by English and American authors you can recommend your classmates to read. Work together and make up a complete list of recommended literature in this way. English Literature American Literature 1. 1. 1. Author 1. 2. Name of the book 2. 3. Gist’ 3. ‘ The gist of something is the geiieral meaning of the most important points of 316 a long piece of writing — краткое содержание. 2. 1. 1. 2. 2. Я. Я Project Work 7 Put on a 15-minute play about your class (in any genre). Decide who is going to be: a) a director, b) a designer, c) a costume designer, d) actors, e) actresses, etc. Stage the play and perform it at your English lesson. Project Work 8 You can have a Sports Quiz in your class. Work as two teams. Prepare 20—30 questions on sports and games for your opponents and a prize for the winner. Here are some ideas; 1. In what country did skiing begin as a sport? (In Norway.) 2. How old is the sport of wrestling? (It started in ancient Egypt about 5000 years ago.) 317 Reference (grammar The Noun § 1. Имена существительные подразделяются на имена собственные (proper nouns) и имена нарицательные (common nouns). При этом имена собственные могут быть именами людей {Andrew Wood, Mark Twain), животных {Bagheera, Baloo), a также географическими названиями (Australia, New Zealand). Нарицательные имена существительные могут быть конкретными (concrete nouns: а man, а dog, а house), абстрактными (abstract nouns: anger, happiness), вещественными (material nouns: water, milk, sand) и собирательными (collective nouns: government, class, flock). § 2. Некоторые собирательные имена существительные, такие как crew, crowd, audience, class, club, committee, company, congregation, council, family, government, group, team, могут употребляться с глаголами как во множественном, так и в единственном числе. The team are celebrating their victory tonight (все члены команды). A basketball team consists of five players (команда как единое целое). The Article § 1. Артикль в английском языке является определителем имени существительного и употребляется только с именем существительным. В английском языке используются два артикля: определённый the (the definite article) и неопределённый а/an (the indefinite article). В предложении артикль произносится без ударения. § 2. Неопределённый артикль произошёл от древнеанглийского числительного один (one), поэтому он употребляется только с исчисляемыми именами существительными в единственном числе. Неопределённый артикль имеет две формы — а (перед именами су- ществительными, начинающимися с согласной буквы) и ап (перед именами существительными, начинающимися с гласной, за исключением буквы “и” — а university). В предложении неопределённый артикль употребляется обычно в тех случаях, когда имя существительное является: 1) подлежащим: а) после конструкции there is/there was: There is a plane in the sky. There was a blue cup on the table. 6) когда значение имени существительного — любой, каждый, всякий; А dictionary is а special book that is used for finding the meanings of words. A dog is an animal. A teacher is a person who helps people to learn things. 2) именной частью составного именного сказуемого (предикативом) после глаголов-связок to be, to look, to seem, to become: He is a student. She has become a real teacher. Eliza seems a happy child now. 3) дополнением (после глаголов to have, to see, to show, to give, to like, etc.) чаще всего, когда: а) имеется в виду один предмет: Maria has а dog. I would like an apple, please. Can you see a squirrel in the tree? б) описывается однократное действие: We are having a good time. Let’s have a swim! The girl gave him an angry look. Неопределённый артикль используется также в восклицательных предложениях с исчисляемыми именами существительными в единственном числе; What а picturesque valley! What а deep lake! Во всех вышеперечисленных случаях исчисляемые имена существительные во множественном числе употребляются без артикля, 319 иными словами, употребляются с нулевым артиклем (zero article), или перед ниши используются уточняющие слова типа some, any: There are {some) fish in the river. They are farmers. Would you like {some) tomatoes? There are not any vegetables at home. § 3. Определённый артикль the произошёл от древнеанглийского указательного местоимения that. Он употребляется с именами существительными как в единственном, так и во множественном числе. Перед именами существительными, начинающимися с согласной, определённый артикль произносится [бэ]: the day [бз 'dei], а перед словами, начинающимися с гласной, — [6i]: the egg [5i ‘egj. В предложении определённый артикль употребляется обычно в тех случаях, когда: 1) из ситуации или контекста становится ясно, о каком предмете или явлении идёт речь: Go to the kitchen! {Ясно, о какой кухне идёт речь.) The puppies are so funny! {Щенки находятся рядом.) Please close the door. {Надпись на двери. Ясно, какая это дверь.) 2) имя существительное уже употреблялось-. Му cat has four kittens. The kittens are grey. I’ve bought some apricots. The apricots are fresh. 3) имя существительное имеет при себе уточняющее определение (а limiting or restrictive attribute): The girl over there is my sister. Here is the book I’ve told you about. 320 В роли уточняющего определения часто используются такие слова, как а) all, whole, very, right, wrong, left, only, last, next, following, main, opposite, same: the wrong address, the same word; the very dictionary, the only way, the last moment; 6) порядковые числительные; on the first floor, in the second story; в) качественные прилагательные в превосходной степени: the best novel, the most unusual answer to get. 4) имя существительное обозначает уникальный., единственный в своём роде предмет или явление' the moon, the earth, the sun, the sky, the North Pole, the Far East, the world, the south, the north, the east, the west (исключением является слово space, которое употребляется без артикля: There are millions of stars in space). 5) имя существительное обозначает целый класс лиц или предметов: The tiger is in danger of dying out. The violin is one of the hardest instruments to play. 6) имя существительное является обстоятельством места: in the park, in the country, at the theatre, on the bank of the river, on the coast, at the seaside. § 4. Артикли c названиями трапез (meals). К этой группе имён существительных относятся breakfast, brunch, lunch, dinner, supper и tea. Чаще всего эти имена существительные описывают процесс принятия пищи и употребляются без артикля. Это относится к устойчивым сочетаниям типа to have (cook, take, serve) breakfast, etc.-, to be at lunch/dinner, etc.-, after/before lunch, etc.-, for tea, etc. Lunch (dinner) is ready. Lunch is usually at two. Однако если перед этими именами существительными используется описательное определение {hot, cold, expensive, tasty, nice, etc.), TO необходим неопределённый артикль: Can we have a hot supper here? В TOM случае, если имеется в виду сама еда (the breakfast you cooked) или ясно из контекста, какая конкретно трапеза имеется в виду (the lunch we had yesterday), употребляется определённый артикль. § 5. Артикли с именами существительными school, church, work, bed, hospital, etc. Английские слова home, school, college, university, hospital, prison, church, bed, work часто употребляются в переносном значении и называют не объект или место, а деятельность, связанную с ними: пойти в церковь (т, е. пойти помолиться Богу), пойти в школу (т. е. быть/стать учеником, учиться в школе), отправитъ- 321 322 ся в постель (т. е. лечь спать). В этих случаях все они употребляются с нулевым артиклем: to go to school, to go to bed, to go to church. Сравните также: to go to college/university — учиться в колледже/университете) to go to hospital — лечиться в больнице) to go to prison — сидеть в тюрьме. Если те же самые слова обозначают конкретные объекты, с ними употребляются определённый или неопределённый артикли в соответствии с общим правилом. Например: а school — здание школы, а church — здание церкви, а prison — здание тюрьмы, the work — конкретно выполняемая человеком работа, а bed — кровать (предмет мебели) и т. д. The Adjective § 1. И мена прилагательные обозначают качества, свойства, состояния. В предложении они обычно выступают в роли определения (а famous writer, а cold drink) или именной части составного именного сказуемого (The water is cold. The writer is famous). Обычно прилагательные подразделяются на два класса — 1) к а-чественные (qualitative) — good, deep, old и 2) относительные (relative) — woollen, wooden, Italian, English, daily. Относительные прилагательные характеризуют предметы по отношению к другим объектам, например, к материалу (wool, wood); месту (Italy, England); времени (day). Качественные прилагательные имеют степени сравнения — положительную, сравнительную и превосходную (absolute/positive — comparative — superlative). При сравнении предметов (людей) обычно используются следующие модели: as... as; not so/as... as; Adj + -er-t- than; less-f-Ad/ -f than; (the) least -b Adj) (the) most + Adj. Bob is as thin as Don. James is not so/as smart as Jill. Jill is smarter than James. James is less capable than Jane. It is the least populated area. It is the most popular song. § 2. Односложные имена прилагательные образуют сравнительную степень при помощи суффикса -ег, а превосходную — при помощи суффикса -est (thick — thicker — thickest). Важно знать изменения, которые происходят в правописании прилагательных при образовании степеней сравнения; 1) согласная, стоящая в конце прилагательного, удваивается, если предшествующая гласная находится под ударением; big — bigger — biggest; hot — hotter — hottest; sad — sadder — saddest. Заметим, что прилагательное cruel имеет два варианта правописания (второй более типичен для американского варианта английского языка): а) cruel — crueller — cruellest; б) cruel — crueler — crudest. 2) если имя прилагательное оканчивается на -у с предшествующей согласной, то в сравнительной и превосходной степенях -у заменяется на -1: busy — busier — busiest; funny — funnier — funniest; noisy — noisier — noisiest. 3) если прилагательное оканчивается на немое -е, то при прибавлении -er/-est немое -е опускается; brave — braver — bravest; safe — safer — safest. 4) прилагательные old, far, late имеют два способа образования степеней сравнения: , farther ^— farthest ,older oldest old far late elder — eldest later — latest latter — last \ further — furthest Эти формы отличаются по своим значениям: 1) old (older — oldest) — старый по возрасту; 2) old (elder — eldest) — старший 6 семье, в кругу родственников; 3) far (farther — farthest) — удалённый, дальний по расстоянию; 4) far (further — furthest) — дальний по расстоянию и дальнейший, добавочный; 5) late (later — latest) — более поздний, позднейший по времени; 6) late (latter — last) — второй из двух, последний по порядку. Прилагательное near имеет две формы превосходной степени, /nearest {ближайший) near — nearer; 'next (следующий) 323 § 3. Большинство двусложных прилагательных, а также прилагательные, состоящие из трёх и более слогов, образуют сравнительную степень при помощи слова more {более), а превосходную — при помощи слова most (самый). difficult — more difficult — most difficult The Verb § 1. The Simple (Indefinite) Tenses I. The Present Simple Tense — настоящее неопределённое время употребляется в следующих случаях: 1) для описания обычного, постоянного, повторяющегося действия в настоящем: She often stays with her granny. It never rains in this part of the desert. Does he often ask for help? We hardly ever discuss such problems. 2) для описания законов природы, общих истин, общеизвестных фактов (часто в пословицах и поговорках): Snow melts at 0°С. People wear dark glasses in strong light. He laughs best who laughs last. One swallow does not make a spring. 3) для передачи будущего действия в придаточных времени и условия (if and when clauses): I’ll tell you as soon as he comes. If the temperature goes down, you’ll have to put on your warm jacket. If they don’t come on time, we shall begin without them. When my parents buy me a computer, I will work on it. 324 Однако, если if и when вводят в предложение придаточные дополнительные (изъяснительные), после них глагол стоит в форме Future. Не has told me when he will arrive. § 3. Большинство двусложных прилагательных, а также прилагательные, состоящие из трёх и более слогов, образуют сравнительную степень при помощи слова more (более), а превосходную — при помощи слова most (самый), difficult — more difficult — most difficult The Verb 324 § 1. The Simple (Indefinite) Tenses I. The Present Simple Tense — настоящее неопределённое время употребляется в следующих случаях; 1) для описания обычного, постоянного, повторяющегося действия в настоящем: She often stays with her granny. It never rains in this part of the desert. Does he often ask for help? We hardly ever discuss such problems. 2) для описания законов природы, общих истин, общеизвестных фактов (часто в пословицах и поговорках): Snow melts at О °С. People wear dark glasses in strong light. He laughs best who laughs last. One swallow does not make a spring. 3) для передачи будущего действия в придаточных времени и условия (if and when clauses): I’ll tell you as soon as he comes. If the temperature goes down, you’ll have to put on your warm jacket. If they don’t come on time, we shall begin without them. When my parents buy me a computer, I will work on it. Однако, если if и when вводят в предложение придаточные дополнительные (изъяснительные), после них глагол стоит в форме Future. Не has told me when he will arrive. 4) для обозначения действия, происходящего в момент речи, с глагол а ш и, которые обычно не используются в продолженном времени (see, hear, know, understand, love, hate, like, prefer, remember, want, think, mean, etc.): Now do you understand it? John prefers fish to meat. The porridge smells strange, 1 don’t know what you mean. 5) для выражения следующего: Я забыл(а)! — Oh, I forget! 1 must phone my granny at once. Нам сказали ... — We are told the pupils have been there. Они слышали Sochi. They hear he has already come back from II. The Past Simple Tense — прошедшее неопределённое время употребляется в следующих случаях: 1) для выражения действия, происходившего когда-то в прошлом и не связанного с настоящим, момент совершения действия либо указывается в предложении, либо подразумевается: They travelled in Spain in August. Did you wait for John long yesterday‘s We didn’t play tennis last Friday. We met in Paris, Указателями этого времени являются слова when и where. Обычно, если известно, где и когда происходило действие, это указание на некое время в прошлом. Вот почему в вопросах, которые начинаются с When?, Where?, а иногда и Why?, употребляется это время: When did you do it? Where did you buy the tape? Why did you leave so early? 2) для описания ряда последовательных действий в прошлом: David had а horrible day yesterday. First he broke his favourite cup, then he missed his bus, as a result he came late to his office. 325 3) для описания обычного, повторяющегося действия в прошлом: When I lived in the country, I swam every morning. Очень часто в этом случае употребляются обороты used to + infinitive и would + infinitive'. There used to be a green field here — now there’s a supermarket. Didn’t you use to live in Manchester? He didn’t use to like fish, but now he does. He never used to like milk. He would come to the seashore and watch the waves. Оба оборота употребляются примерно в одинаковых контекстах, однако would + infinitive чаще в литературном стиле. Кроме того, если used to -f infinitive подчёркивает, что данное событие больше не имеет места, то, употребляя оборот would + infinitive, говорящий не столь категорично подчёркивает это: We used to work in the same office. We would often have coffee together. (Мы в одном офисе уже не работаем, однако это не обязательно означает, что мы не пьём иногда кофе вместе.) 4) для выражения действия, которое в прошлом занимало определённый период времени. Этот временной отрезок обычно указан в предложении при помощи оборота с предлогами for или during: She didn’t speak for a minute or two. The old lady sat on a bench for half an hour and then went away. Did you stay there long (for a long time)? 326 III. The Future Simple Tense — будущее неопределённое время употребляется для выражения отдельного события или нескольких действий, которые произойдут в будущем; I don’t think I will see him tonight. When will you finish these letters? Radio waves from earth will travel for some years before they reach some of the faraway planets. в современном английском языке существует тенденция употреблять will со всеми лицами, хотя с 1-м лицом возможно употребление shall: I (we) will/shall come. § 2. The Continuous (Progressive) Tenses I. The Present Continuous Tense — настоящее продолженное время употребляется в следующих случаях: 1) для описания действия, происходящего в момент речи: I’m making а саке, that’s why I’ve got flour on my hands. Are you sitting comfortably? He is not taking a bath, he is taking a shower. 2) для описания действия, происходящего не в момент речи, но в настоящий период времени: Два юноши сидят в кафе: — Are you driving? — No, not today. Ha встрече c писателем: What book are you writing now? 3) для описания запланированного действия, которое произойдёт в не слишком отдалённом будущем (особенно с глаголами движения to go, to come, to leave, to start, to move, to return и сочетаниями с глаголом to have): I am not leaving tomorrow, I am leaving on Wednesday. We are having a party next Saturday night. Will you come? When is John coming back? 4) для описания типичного действия, вызывающего раздражение, неодобрение говорящего, при характеристике того или иного человека в эмоционально окрашенных предложениях: You’re always talking in class! He is constantly telling lies! He is always inventing something! В этих случаях в предложениях почти всегда есть указатель — наречия неопределённого времени always, constantly, которые в большинстве своём переводятся на русский язык наречием вечно: Не is always playing on the computer! Oh вечно играет на компьютере! 327 II. The Past Continuous Tense — прошедшее продолженное время употребляется в следующих случаях: 1) для описания действия, которое происходило в определённый момент в прошлом, причём этот момент может уточняться обстоятельством времени или при помощи придаточных предложений времени, вводимых союзами when и while: She was driving her car at 6 yesterday. I was having a bath when the phone rang, Pete was not working when Mary returned. While Mother was vacuuming the sofa, Jane and Pete were washing up. В последнем случае действия протекали одновременно. В предложениях этого типа помимо while может использоваться as: As I was not listening I didn’t hear what he said. 2) для выражения длительного действия, которое протекало в определённый период времени в прошлом: The children were playing in the yard from five to seven yesterday. В этом случае в предложении часто встречаются обстоятельства времени типа from two to four, all day long, the whole day: The Smiths were packing all day long yesterday. Однако при наличии оборота с предлогом for Past Continuous не употребляется. Вместо него используется Past Simple: Не walked for 10 minutes in silence. III. The Future Continuous Tense — будущее продолженное время употребляется для описания длительного действия, которое будет протекать в определённый момент в будущем: Nelly will be flying over the Atlantic Ocean at five o’clock tomorrow. John won’t be at home at six. He will be working at the library. § 3. The Perfect Tenses I. The Present Perfect Tense — настоящее совершённое время как 328 соединяет в себе настоящее и прошедшее времена. Оно обычно подразделяется на два вида: 1) the Present Perfect Resultative и 2) the Present Perfect Durative. Present Perfect Resultative. Это настоящее совершённое время используется для выражения действия, законченного в прошлом, но связанного с настоящим моментом через результат. При этом информация о том, где произошло это действие и когда оно происходило, не важна для говорящего. Важен его результат, и то, как он проявляется в настоящем: I can’t walk — I have hurt my leg. You have passed your exam. Congratulations! He has come back home. Here he is. В этом значении Present Perfect часто употребляется с наречиями неопределённого времени: just, already, lately, recently, ever, never, yet. They have already finished the job. Has Lucy found her keys yeti Nora has never been to France. В этом же значении Present Perfect используется с обстоятельствами времени, описывающими период времени, который ещё не завершён, today, this week, this month, this year: 1 haven’t seen John today. We haven’t met this month. Однако, если этот период времени завершён (утро закончилось, час дня — это уже полдень), используется Past Simple: Did you read the leading article in the newspaper this morningl Необходимо отметить, что Present Perfect практически никогда не употребляется в тех случаях, если есть указание на то, когда и где действие происходило. В этих случаях используется Past Simple. Вот почему обычно в вопросах, которые начинаются с where и when, используется простое прошедшее время: When did you go to St Petersburg? Where did you buy the dictionary? Однако, когда where означает куда {Куда ты положил ключи!), нас прежде всего интересует, где предмет находится сейчас. В этих 329 330 случаях в вопросах, которые начинаются с where, используется Present Perfect: Where have you put the keys? {Где они сейчас"^) Where has he gone? {Где он сейчас!) Present Perfect Durative. Это настоящее соверпгённое время используется для описания действия, которое началось в прошлом, длилось определённый период времени в прошлом и продолжается в момент речи, и употребляется с теми глаголами, для которых не характерно использование в форме продолженного времени (to be, to have, to know). В подобных случаях отмечается наличие предлогов since и for, а на русский язык глаголы в этих предложениях переводятся формами настоящего времени: The Browns have been here since July. I have had the watch for 3 years. How long have you known John? В отрицательных предложениях со словосочетаниями for ages, for a long time также отмечается употребление этой формы: Hallo, Alan! Haven’t seen you for ages\ Present Perfect Durative также используется для обозначения действия, которое началось в прошлом, продолжалось определённый период времени в прошлом и только что закончилось: I have always wanted to visit London. She has always lived in that street. Важным моментом при сопоставлении употребления Past Simple и Present Perfect является использование наречий just и just now. Just является формальным показателем употребления Present Perfect и обычно переводится на русский язык как только что: — Where’s Eric? — He’s just gone out. I’ve just had a phone call. Однако в английском языке также употребляется сочетание just now, которое означает а minute ago и соответственно является формальным показателем употребления Past Simple: Sarah rang up just now, I felt a sudden pain just now. II. The Past Perfect Tense — прошедшее совершённое время обычно используется в повествовании для описания действий, которые были закончены к определённому моменту в прошлом; They had cleaned their flat by 5 o’clock. Nora had gone away by the time the letter came. Чаш;е всего эта форма используется в косвенной речи: Peter said he had bought the sweets the day before yesterday. John asked if I had ever been to Paris. Past Perfect употребляется также для того, чтобы показать, что одно событие в прошлом произошло раньше другого: Nobody came to the meeting because Angela had not posted the invitation cards. She couldn’t find the book that I had lent her. Past Perfect часто употребляется в придаточном предложении после союза after {после того как)\ After she had cried, she felt better. Эта же форма употребляется в главном предложении сложноподчинённого предложения, когда придаточное начинается с союза before {прежде чем, до того как): Before Mother came home, Bob had already made lunch. III. The Future Perfect Tense — будущее совершённое время употребляется для выражения будущего действия, которое закончится до определённого момента в будущем: Му granny will have become a pensioner by the year 2015. Этот определённый момент в будущем, до которого закончится действие, может быть выражен по-разному. Помимо точной даты, например the year 2015, это может быть обстоятельство времени, вводимое предлогом by; By the end of the week Nick will have finished his report. К концу недели Ник закончит свой доклад. By the middle of the 21st century we’ll have built a lot of space stations. К середине XXI века мы построим много космических станций. 331 Точный момент в будущем может также быть выражен другим будущим действием, например Present Simple в придаточном предложении времени и условия. Эти придаточные чаще всего начинаются с союзов before (до того как) и when (когда): When we meet again, I am sure Jane will have become a famous writer. Когда мы встретимся снова, я уверен, Джейн станет знаменитой писательницей. Наречие already в предложениях с Future Perfect употребляется после вспомогательного глагола shall/will: They will already have left for Chicago by this time next week. Они уже уедут в Чикаго к этому моменту на следующей неделе. § 4. The Perfect Continuous Tenses I. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense — настоящее совершённое продолженное время имеет две разновидности. 1) Это время употребляется со всеми глаголами (кроме глаголов to know, to be, to have и некоторых других, обычно не используемых в форме продолженного времени) для описания действия, которое началось в прошлом, длилось какое-то время в прошлом и продолжается в момент речи: It has been snowing for 3 hours already. Снег идёт уже 3 часа. (Это означает, что снег начал идти три часа тому назад, шёл все эти три часа и идёт в момент речи.) It is 12 o’clock. Bob has been working since 9 o’clock. It’s time to have a break. Время — 12 часов. Боб работает с 9. Пора сделать перерыв. Как видно из вышеприведённых примеров, на русский язык подобные случаи переводятся настоящим временем. В предложениях этого типа часто встречаются указатели типа for 3 hours, since 1978, since he came, for a long time, for years, during this month, recently. Необходимо отметить, что в придаточных предложениях после союза since употребляется простое прошедшее время: Robert has been playing chess so well since he began to train 332 regularly. т с тех пор как Роберт начал тренироваться регулярно, он так замечательно играет в шахматы. 2) Present Perfect Continuous употребляется для того, чтобы показать, что длительное действие только что закончилось и определённым образом связано с настоящей ситуацией, может её объяснить: — Why are you so hot? — I’ve been running all the way. — Почему ты так запыхался? — Я бежал всю дорогу. (Но уже не бегу, процесс только что завершился.) I’ve got а headache. I’ve been writing postcards since morning. I have written 6 postcards. У меня болит голова. Я с утра пишу открытки. Я написала шесть открыток. (Но в момент речи уже не пишу, только что закончила.) II. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense — прошедшее совершённое продолженное время употребляется: 1) для описания длительного прошедшего действия, которое началось раньше какого-либо другого действия в прошлом и продолжалось в тот момент, когда это другое действие началось: At 4 she realized she had been working for 3 hours. John and Bill had been fighting for about 10 minutes when the teacher came in. 2) для описания длительного прошедшего действия, которое закончилось непосредственно перед моментом начал а другого действия в прошлом: When Jane arrived, I had been waiting for 3 hours. She was tired because she had been washing up all evening. III. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense — будущее совершённое продолженное время употребляется для выражения длительного будущего действия, которое начнётся ранее другого действия в будущем или до определённого момента в будущем и будет продолжаться в этот момент: By seven o’clock Jill will have been writing her article for 3 hours non-stop. 333 к семи часам Джил будет уже 3 часа писать, не прерываясь, свою статью. Это время очень редко употребляется в современном английском языке и только с глаголами, которые предполагают выражение длительного действия: learn, live, study, work, travel, write, read, listen (to), lie, sit, wait, rain, snow, etc, § 5. Passive Voice Страдательный залог. Данное явление значительно чаще встречается в английском языке, нежели в русском. Глагол в форме страдательного залога употребляется в тех случаях, когда либо не известно, либо не важно, кто совершает действие: The letters will be posted. В тех случаях, когда при использовании страдательного залога необходимо указать источник действия, он вводится в предложение при помощи предлога by: That was done by John, not by Kate. 3a глаголом в страдательном залоге может следовать предлог with, указывающий на инструмент, при помощи которого совершается действие: Meat should be cut with a knife. В страдательном залоге существуют следующие видовременные формы: Present Simple Passive am/is/are + The work is done. Past Simple Passive was/were + The work was done. Future Simple Passive will be/shall be + The work will be done. Present Progressive Passive is being are being The work is being done. Past Progressive Passive was being ^ ^ were being The work was being done. 334 продолжение Present Perfect Passive has been .. have been The work has been done. Past Perfect Passive had been + The work had been done. Future Perfect Passive will have been The work will have been done. При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим (When was the hook written?). Если вспомогательных глаголов два, то перед подлежащим ставится первый из них (When will the letters be posted?). В отрицательной форме отрицание следует за первым вспомогательным глаголом: The article has not been translated yet. В английском языке есть группа глаголов (to give, to allow, to show, to tell, to offer), после которых возможно употребление и прямого, и косвенного дополнения (Mother gave Tom an apple). Хотя эти глаголы могут употребляться в двух страдательных оборотах (1. Тот was given an apple. 2. An apple was given to Tom), первый вариант оказывается более предпочтительным. I was offered an interesting job. Nick was allowed to go there. We were told about it yesterday. Следует обратить внимание на употребление в страдательном залоге глаголов, которые часто используются с предлогами, — to laugh at, to speak to (about), to listen to, to send for, etc. He is much spoken about. О нём много говорят. They are never listened to. Их никогда не слушают. The doctor has been sent for. 3a доктором послали. § 6. Mood Наклонение — это грамматическая категория, показывающая, как говорящий рассматривает определённое действие относительно действительности {реальный факт — изъяви- 335 тельное наклонение (the Indefinite Mood), нереальный, желаемый — сослагательное (the Subjunctive Mood). Побуждение к действию (просьба, приказ) выражают глаголы в повелительном наклонении (the Imperative Mood). § 7. The Subjunctive Mood Глаголы в сослагательном наклонении указывают на нереальность описываемого действия или на его желательно с т ь/н ежелательность. В русском языке в подобных случаях употребляется соответствующая форма глагола с частицей бы (Если бы сейчас была зима! Я бы поехал в Санкт-Петербург летом.). В английском языке сослагательное наклонение выражается различными формами. Если речь идёт о нереальном или желаемом действии в настоящем или будущем и об этом действии сообщается в придаточном предложении, то глагол ставится в форму сослагательного наклонения, которая совпадает с формой простого прошедшего времени. If I had time. Если бы у меня было время. If he came early. Если бы он приехал рано. If he did it tomorrow. Если бы он сделал это завтра. Для глагола to be во всех лицах грамматически более правильно употреблять форму “were”. If it were autumn now! If I were grown-up. If he were at home now. Если бы сейчас была осень. Если бы я была взрослой. Если бы он был дома сейчас. В главном предложении употребляется форма would -Ь инфинитив без частицы to. I would go there. Я бы поехала туда. She would buy it. Она бы это купила. 336 Следует обратить внимание на перевод конструкции I wish + глагол в сослагательном наклонении, которая может переводиться двояко: I wish he were in Moscow. 1) Было бы хорошо, если бы он был в Москве. 2) Жаль, что его нет в Москве. § 8. Complex Object Конструкция «сложное дополнение» характерна для английского языка. Она состоит из имени существительного в именительном падеже (the child, the boy, the students) или местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, her, them, you, it) и либо глагола в неопределённой форме (с частицей to или без неё), либо причастия первого: I want the boy (him) to understand me, Я хочу, чтобы мальчик (он) меня понял. Г И таке the students (them) do it. Я заставлю студентов (их) сделать это. We saw you crossing the street. Мы видели, как вы переходили улицу. Complex Object употребляется после трёх групп глаголов. 1) Первая включает глаголы to want, to expect, to like, структуру would like, после которых в конструкции Complex Object используется только неопределённая форма глагола с частицей to: Would you like me to come early? We didn’t expect you to arrive so late. I don’t want my brother to go away. 2) После второй группы глаголов to see, to watch, to notice, to hear (так называемых глаголов зрительного, слухового и чувственного восприятия) в конструкции Complex Object возможно использование как неопределённой формы глагола без частицы to, так и причастия первого: I saw her walk into the house. We noticed him walking along the street. В группе с глаголами зрительного, слухового и чувственного восприятия следует различать случаи использования инфинитива и причастия. Инфинитив употребляется для обозначения завершённого действия или нескольких последовательных действий (глагол совершенного вида в русском варианте). АП of us heard Max say that. Bee мы слышали, как Макс сказал это. The students saw the teacher enter the room and stop at the blackboard. 337 Учащиеся видели, как учитель вошёл в комнату и остановился у доски. п ричастие первое используется для обозначения действия в процессе (глагол несовершенного вида в русском варианте). АН of us heard Max saying that. Bee мы слышали, как Макс говорил это. The students saw the teacher entering the house. Учащиеся видели, как учитель входил в дом. I felt something crawling up my leg. Я почувствовал, что что-то ползёт у меня по ноге. Конструкция Complex Object не используется, если глаголы to hear, to see и to feel имеют переносное значение. I feel that my father is right. Я чувствую (понимаю), что мой папа прав. We see that you are not going to give up. Мы видим (понимаем), что ты не собираешься сдаваться. They hear that а new teacher is coming to our school. Им стало известно, что новый учитель приходит к нам в школу. 3) Третья группа включает глаголы to let, to make, после которых в конструкции Complex Object неопределённая форма глагола употребляется без частицы to: Olga makes me work very hard. I won’t let you go there alone. Однако в пассивных структурах с глаголом make частица to употребляется. Глагол let в пассиве обычно не используется совсем. The children were made to sing. Детей заставили петь. They let us watch the film. Они позволили нам смотреть фильм. We were allowed to watch the film. Нам разрешили смотреть фильм. 338 г E«^zi5fc-R.i Vocabulary .usstan adj — adjective — прилагательное adv — adverb — наречие AmE — американский вариант английского языка BrE — британский вариант английского языка conj — conjunction — союз colloq — colloquial — разговорный count — countable — исчисляемое n — noun ■— существительное pi — plural — множественное число prep — preposition — предлог pron — pronoun — местоимение sb — somebody — кто-то sth — something — что-то V — verb — глагол uncount — uncountable — неисчисляемое u4a adventure [odVentjo] приключение afterwards ['adtswsdz] потом, позже almost ['oilmoust] почти amazing [э'тешр] удивительный anxious ['юрк/эз] озабоченный, беспокоящийся appropriate [a'prsupriot] подходящий, соответствующий average ['эеуэпф] средний bargain [Ъа:дт] сделка, удачная покупка bark [Ьа:к] лаять to bark up the wrong tree идти HO ложному следу beat [bi:t] (beat, beaten) бить bend [bend] (bent, bent) согнуть, сгибать beyond [bi)nnd] вдали, за, свыше bounce [banns] подпрыгивать, скакать bouncy ['baonsi] резвый bowl [Ьэи1] миска, глубокая тарелка brunch [ЬглШ]] поздний завтрак Сс candle ['kfendl] свеча candlestick ['ksendl^stik] подсвечник chatterbox ['tjfctobnks] болтун, болтунья cheerful ['tfrafol] бодрый, весёлый cheerfully ['tjiafoli] бодро, весело claw [кЬ:] коготь close [klsus] adj близкий condensed milk [kon,denst 'milk] сгущённое молоко contain [kan'tem] содержать container [kon'temo] контейнер contents ['kmtents] содержание 339 cosy fkaozi] ad] уютный tea cosy ['ti: .ksozi] n стёганая салфетка для чайника cupful ['клрйт!] п полная чашка 3d deserted [dr'z3:tid] пустынный desperate f'despsratl отчаянный desperately ['despsratli] безнадёжно, отчаянно despise [di'spaiz] презирать devour [di'vaus] глотать dictionary ['dikjsnri] словарь disappoint [|diS3‘pomtl разочаровывать disappointed [.disa'pointid] разочарованный do [du:l делать to do away with sth покончить c чем-либо to do out вычистить, убрать (комнату) to do up 1) застёгиваться; 2) прихорашиваться to do with хотеть, нуждаться drill [dril] тренировать drop [drop] ронять dust [dASt] пыль dusty ['dASti] пыльный edition [I'di/n] издание either ['ai5o] любой (из двух)-, тоже (в отрицательных предложениях) enormous [I'nioimos] огромный fair [feo] ярмарка fascinating [Tsesmeitip] чарующий fascination [.fsesi'iieijn] очарование 340 feather ['fedaj пёрышко fill [fil] наполнять to fill up заполнять filthy ['filGiJ грязный firm [f3:m] твёрдый folk [Гзо’к] народ, люди fortunate ['tbtjnatj счастливый, удачливый fortune [Toitjnl 1) судьба, удача; 2) богатство, состояние foundation [faun'deijnj основание fur [Гз:] п мех; ad] меховой fussy [Tasi] суетливый, шумный 09 gallop ['дж1эр] скакать, нестись вскачь get [get] получать, доставать to get along уживаться, ладить to get away удрать, исчезнуть, сбежать to get down to work приняться за дело to get off сойти c поезда (велосипеда, автобуса) to get on сесть на поезд (велосипед, автобус) to get out выйти наружу to get over преодолеть, справиться to get up вставать (обычно с постели ) glassful ['gla:sfoll n полный стакан gloomy ['glu:niij угрюмый greet [grid] приветствовать ground [graund] земля handful ['hsendful] n полная рука, пригоршня, горсть handy [‘haendij умелый г helpful ['helpfal] полезный house [haos] 1) дом; 2) палата household ['haushould] 1) домочадцы; 2) домашние дела; домашнее хозяйство Л idiom f'ldiaml идиома impress [im'pres] впечатлять impression [im'prejn] впечатление impressive [im'presiv] впечатляющий inhabitant [in'iiEebitsntJ житель interpret [m't3:prit] 1) интерпретировать; 2) переводить {устно) interpreter [in't3:pnt9] переводчик {устный) intonation f,mt3'nei|n] интонация introduce [,mtr3'dju:s] представлять {кого-либо, кому-либо) isolation [,ais3ieijn] изоляция, одиночество kindly ['kamdli] adj добродушный knock (at/on) [nnk] стучать knock down свалить, сбить с ног а laughter ['1а:йэ) смех librarian [[агЪгеэпэп] библиотекарь light [lait] п 1) свет; 2) огонёк; ad] 1) светлый; 2) лёгкий; v (lit, lit) освещать, зажигать {свет) nbt manage ['тгепк^] справляться memorize ['memaraiz] запоминать, заучивать наизусть mend [mend] чинить miscellaneous [,misiiemj3sl разное, всякая всячина mother tongue [,тлбэ '1лр] родной язык mouthful ['maoGftflj п полный рот mumble [’тлтЫ] мямлить, бормотать murmur ['тз;тэ] п бормотание; и бормотать Mt neighbourhood [iieibahod] окрестности, округа noble ['пэиЫ] благородный Оо old-fashioned [,opld facjnd] старомодный particular [ps'tikjulaj отдельный, частный in particular [ш patikjula] в частности particularly [po'tikjulali] особенно, в особенности patch [psetJl заплата, клочок paw [рэ:| лапа periodical [^pisr/ndikl] периодическое издание pick (up) [pik] поднимать piggy ['pigij поросячий plateful I'pleitful] n полная тарелка pocket money ['pokit ,тлт] карманные деньги point [point] указывать, показывать 341 pop (in) [pop] 1) всунуть; 2) внезапно появиться pop-eyed [,pt)p'aid] c вытаращенными глазами practice ['praektis] практика practise ['praektis] практиковаться pram [prsem] коляска prance [pra:ns] скакать, гарцевать promise ['pnimis] n обещание; V обещать property ['propsti] собственность pull [pull] тащить push [puj] толкать quadrille [kwa'dril] кадриль Яг realize ['nalaiz] 1) представлять себе, понимать; 2) осуществлять, выполнять reflect [ri'flekt] отражать regret [ri'gret] сожалеть regretful [ri'gretfal] сожалеющий regretfully [n'gretfali] c сожалением reindeer ['remdia] северный олень related [n'leitid] родственный, связанный с repair [п'рез] чинить reply [n'plaij отвечать rude [ru:d] грубый run [глп] убегать to run away/off убежать, удрать to run down 1) останавливаться (о часахУ, 2) говорить с пренебрежением to run in заглянуть, забежать, заехать to run out 1) выбежать; 2) кончаться, иссякать 342 over 1) переехать, за- давить; 2) перелиться через край rush [глЛ устремиться, кинуться to rush at sb/sth накинуться на кого-либо/что-либо to rush to conclusions торопиться с выводами to rush in/into торопливо войти, ворваться to rush off/out торопливо выйти, уйти to rush to броситься, спешно отправиться search [ssdJJ n поиск; v искать to search (for) искать что-либо secretly ['skkrith] секретно, тайно seem [si:mj казаться serial ['signal] сериал set [set] (set, set) ставить, класть to set about doing sth начать делать что-то; приняться за что-то to set out/off 1) помещать, выставлять; 2) отправляться в {путешествие) to set sb to do sth заставлять кого-либо приняться за дело share [[еэ] делить(ся) sight [salt] 1) вид, зрелище; 2) достопримечательность to come in sight появиться в поле зрения sleepily ['sli:pili] сонно solemn ['snlam] торжественный sour ['saua] кислый speech [spi:tj] речь spell [spel] чары, колдовство under the spell заколдованный spoil [spoil] (spoiled, spoiled) портить to spoil a child избаловать ребёнка spoonful ['spuinful] n полная ложка spread [spred] (spread, spread) 1) распространять; 2) намазывать stare [stea] n пристальный взгляд; V смотреть пристально storyteller ['stointela] рассказчик straw [stra;] солома stripy ['straipi] полосатый struggle ['strAgl] д 1) трудное задание; 2) борьба; v 1) с трудом что-то делать; 2) бороться to struggle with sth биться над чем-то ft tablecloth ['teiblktoB] скатерть teenager ['trneidjol подросток (от 13 до 19 лет) telly ['tell] {разг.) телевизор thread [0red] нить threaten ['Gretnj угрожать tiny ['taini] крошечный toe [tau] палец ноги translator [traens'Ieita] переводчик {письменных материалов) transport [tr8en'spo:t] перевозить, переносить tremendous [tn'mendas] потрясающий triumph ['traiamfj триумф tune [tju;n] n мелодия; v настраивать to tune up настраивать инст-румент(ы) turn [t3:n] 1) вращать(ся); 2) вертеть(ся) to turn around обернуться to turn down сделать тише to turn inside out вывернуться наизнанку to turn into превратить(ся) to turn off выключить to turn on включить to turn out оказаться to turn over перевернуть(ся) to turn up 1) появиться, очутиться; 2) сделать громче to turn upside down перевернуться; перевернуть вверх дном Uu underestimate [,лпбэ'ез11щей] недооценивать unwind [,An'waind] разматывать, раскручивать up-to-date I|Apto'deit] современный V(x victory [ 'viktanj победа vocabulary [уэи'кгеЬ]о1эп] 1) словарь; 2) лексикон, словарный запас тог wake (up) [weik] (woke (up), woken (up)) просыпаться, будить watchful {'wDtjTsl] внимательный wave [weiv] махать weigh [wei] взвешивать weight [weit] вес willing ['wilipj охотно делающий что-либо wind [waind] 1) виться, извиваться; 2) наматывать; 3) заводить (часы) winding ['waindip] вьющийся 343 Topical Vocabulary English — a Language of the World to brush up English — улучшить знания по английскому языку to do sth right/wrong — делать что-либо правильно/непра-вильно to find sth helpful (hard, etc.) — считать что-либо полезным (трудным и т. д.) to keep your English up — работать над английским, поддерживать язык на уровне to master а language — овладеть языком to read books in the original — читать книги в оригинале social English — английский для общения Me and Му World an adult ['агбл11] — взрослый as old as the hills — древний, очень старый to brighten ['braitn] — сделать радостнее, светлее a brother-in-law [ЪглдэппЬ:] — шурин, деверь а daughter-in-law [’dotarinb;] — сноха, невестка ап elderly person — пожилой человек to encourage [ш'14лгк(5] — вдохновлять, одобрять, поощрять а father-in-law [Та;бэпп1о:] — тесть, свёкор to have mnch in common — 344 иметь много общего an infant [’infant] — маленький ребёнок in one’s mid-twenties — около 25 лет in-laws ['mb:zj — родственники CO стороны жены или мужа loyal [’bial] — преданный, верный а middle-aged [,midl'eid5| person — человек среднего возраста а mother-in-law ['тлбэппЬ:] — тёща, свекровь а newborn baby — новорождённый ап old-age pensioner — пенсионер а pastime — занятие, времяпрепровождение а person advanced in years — человек преклонного возраста а person coming of age — человек, вступающий в пору совершеннолетия а person getting on in years — человек пожилого возраста а relation [n'lei/n] — родственник reliable [ri'laisblj — надёжный, тот, на кого можно положиться а sister-in-law ['sistarrnb:] — золовка а son-in-law ['злпшЬ:] — зять а toddler ['tndiaj — ребёнок 1—2 лет, только научившийся ходить How does he look? — Как он выглядит? (я его давно не видел.) What does he look like? — Как OH выглядит? (Каков он внешне? ) What is he like? — Что он за человек? ШШfФ It Takes Many Kinds to Make the World bald [boild] — лысый a beard [bisd] — борода belief [bi'li:fj/beliefs [bi'liifs] — ве-рование(я) bulky ['Ьл1к|] — крупный bushy f’boji] (eyebrows) — кустистые, густые (брови) caring ['keanpj — любящий, заботливый considerate fkan'sidarst] — внимательный к другим curious ['kjusriosj — любопытный curly ['кз:1т] (hair) — кудрявые (волосы) а dimple ['dimpl] — ямочка на щеке или подбородке even ['i:vn] (teeth) — ровные (зубы) expressive — выразительный eyebrows ['aibrauzj — брови eyelashes ['ailsejiz] — ресницы fair (hair) — светлые (волосы) full (lips) — пухлые (губы) greedy — жадный having a good sense of humour [hjuma] — обладающий чувством юмора ill-mannered [,il'maen9d] — плохо воспитанный, с дурными манерами independent [|indi'pend3Ht] — самостоятельный, независимый intellectual [,int9lektju3lj — умный loveable ['kvobll — чудный moody ['mtiidij — в дурном расположении духа а moustache (moustaches) [m9'sta;J] — усы nasty [’noistij — отвратительный, неприятный patient I'pcijnt] — терпеливый personality [paisa'naebti] — личность pointed ['pointid] (nose) — острый (hoc) skinny ['skmi] — тощий slender — стройный slim — изящный smooth [smu:5J (hair) — гладкие (волосы) to socialize fsaujalaiz] — общаться stout [stautj — полный thick (hair) — густые (волосы) thin (hair) — редкие, тонкие (волосы) turned-up (nose) — вздёрнутый (нос) uneven (teeth) — неровные (зубы) wavy (hair) — волнистые (волосы) to wear one’s hair long — носить длинные волосы short — ... короткие волосы shoulder-length — ... волосы до плеч ... close-cropped [,kbus kmpt] — коротко стриженные in а (pony) tail — ... хвостик in а plait [plsetj — ... косу .. in a braid [breid] — ... косу loose over one’s shoulder — волосы, распущенные по плечам well-mannered — воспитанный, с хорошими манерами 345 346 ¥ШгФ The Pleasure of Reading an adventure [adVent/a] story/ novel — приключенческий рассказ/роман an author ['о:0э] — автор ап autobiography [lOitabai'Dgrgfi] — автобиографическая книга a biography [bai'ngrafi] — биография a character ['kasrokta] — герой (произведения) a classic — классическое произведение a detective story — детективный рассказ или повесть а dramatist ['drasmotist] — драматург enjoyable [in'cfeoiobl] — доставляющий удовольствие entertaining [.enta’teinig] — развлекательный exciting [ik'saitig] — волнующий, захватывающий fascinating [fgesmeTtnj] — увлекательный a folk [fauk] tale — народная сказка a historical novel — исторический роман a horror [Ъпгэ] story — страшный рассказ a humorous [hjuimorosj story — юмористический рассказ a love story — рассказ или повесть о любви moving — трогательный а novel ['novl] — роман а novelist [’novslist] — романист а plot — сюжет а poetess [,p3ui'tjs] — поэтесса а romance [rau'msens] — роман, повесть романтического содержания а science fiction [,sai9ns 'fikjn] book — научно-фантастическая книга secondary — второстепенный a travel book — книга о путешествии a war [wo;] novel — роман о войне witty — остроумный tfMtW Popular Arts an actor — актёр an actress — актриса to applaud [a'pbtd] the actor — аплодировать актёру backstage ['bseksteidsj adv — за кулисами a ballet dancer [ bEelei,da:ns9] — балерина или танцор a box office — театральная билетная касса to buy a seat — купить билет в театр to call the actors — вызывать на поклон a cameraman ['кютэгэтэп] — оператор a cloakroom ['kbukrom] — гардероб a conductor [кэп'блЬэ] — дирижёр a costume ['kDstju:m] designer [di'zaina] — художник no костюмам a crime film — детектив curtain calls ['кзЯп 'ko:lz] — вызовы на поклон to take curtain calls — выходить на поклон the curtains draw — занавес открывается или закрывается the curtain falls/drops/goes down — занавес опускается the curtain goes up/rises — занавес поднимается a designer [di'zama] — художник a director [di'rekts] — режиссёр a drama ['dra:ma] — драма, пьеса серьёзного содержания а dressing room — театральная уборная а feature ['fidja] film — художественный фильм а foyer [Toiei] — фойе to go to the pictures (cinema, movies) — ходить в кино a horror film — фильм ужасов a house (in a theatre) — зал the leading part — ведущая роль the lights go up/down — огни зажигаются/гаснут make-up — n грим; v гримироваться a matinee ['meetmei] — утренний спектакль или сеанс а movie — фильм а musical ['mju:zikll — мюзикл the musicians tune up — музыканты настраивают инструменты an opera house — оперный театр to put on/stage a play — поставить {на сцене) a rehearsal [ri'hsisl] — репетиция to rehearse [n'h3;s] — репетировать a row [гэи] — ряд {кресел) scenery ['siinori] — декорации a screen — экран a scriptwriter — сценарист a soloist ['saulsuist] — солист a stage — сцена a star — кинозвезда a supporting part {role) — второстепенная роль a thriller ['0п1э] — остросюжетный фильм a tragicomedy — трагикомедия an usher [’л[э] — билетёр, капельдинер a war film — фильм о войне a western ['weston] — фильм о ковбоях и Диком Западе а wing — кулиса Sport in Our Life aerobics [eo'raubiks] — аэробика aikido [ai'ki;d9uj — айкидо archery ['adjan] — стрельба из лука an athlete ['seGlid] — спортсмен athletics [seG'letiks] — лёгкая атлетика boxing ['boksip] — бокс to break a record ['rekoidj — побить рекорд climbing ['klaimir)] — скалолазание a coach [kantj] — тренер to compete in a championship — состязаться, участвовать в чемпионате а court [kod] ^— корт а crew [kru;] — команда (в водных видах спорта) cross-country skiing — бег на лыжах, лыжные гонки cycling ['saiklip] — велоспорт darts [dads] — метание дротиков diving ['daivii}] — прыжки в воДУ downhill skiing ['daunhil 'sknp] — скоростной спуск на лыжах {горнолыжный спорт) draughts [dra:fts] — шашки to draw [dro:] a game — свести игру вничью fencing [’fensip] — фехтование 347 A » fitness [Titnis] centre — центр укрепления здоровья a gym fcisim] — гимнастический зал gymnastics [i^mi'naestiks] — гимнастика high jump f'hai (tsAmpl — прыжки E высоту a horse race [reisj — скачки an ice rink ['ais noki — каток indoor [‘indo:J games — игры, в которые играют в помещении indoors [,rn‘do:z] — внутри, в помещении ап instructor fin'strAkta] — инструктор а judge [с^лф] — судья judo ['ckjUidaul — дзюдо long jump ['Idij (jjAiiip] — прыжки в длину to lose the competition [,kDmpi'tiXn) — проиграть соревнование martial arts [,ma:jTo:ts] — боевые искусства a motor race ['msota 'reis] — мотогонки mountaineering [,maunti nranp] — альпинизм a national team — сборная страны outdoor ['autdo:j games — игры, в которые играют на улице outdoors [,aut'do:z] — снаружи, вне помещения а риск [рлк] — шайба а racetrack ['reistrsk] — беговая дорожка а referee [.refa'ri:] — судья (е игровых видах спорта) riding — верховая езда а ring — ринг rowing ['гэ'очр] — академическая 348 гребля rugby ['rAgbi] — регби а running race — состязание в беге sailing — парусный спорт to score [sko:] points and goals [gaulzj — набирать очки, забивать голы to set records — устанавливать рекорды a shuttlecock ['jAtlkokj — волан snooker ['snu:ko] — снукер {игра на бильярде) а sport [spo:t] — вид спорта sports [spo:ts] adj — спортивный sports grounds ['spoils 'graundz] — спортивная площадка a stadium ['steidjamj — стадион a swimming race — заплыв, состязание в плавании taekwondo [.tai'kwDndou] — таэквондо to take part in — принять участие в a tournament ['tuanamontj — турнир track and field [itrsekond'fiild] — лёгкая атлетика to train [trein] — трениро-вать(ся) water polo ['poulou] — водное поло weightlifting ['weit,liftip] — тяжёлая атлетика to win the competition —^ победить в соревновании to win the cup — выиграть кубок to win the prize [praiz] — выиграть награду working out ['w3;kii) ’aut] — занятия на снарядах wrestling ['reslip] — борьба yachting ['joitiol — парусный спорт Contents Russia, My Homeland Revision,........................... . .............. 3 Reading for Information: Swan Lake ......... 10 Reading for Discussion: A Page from a Diary .... 11 Speaking . ............................................ 13 Writing .............................................. 18 Miscellaneous ........................................ 21 English — a Language of the World Revision: The simple tenses. Tag questions. The continuous tenses. Complex object. Phrasal verbs: to look, to take, to give, to make................................. 24 Reading for Information: An English-speaking World 35 New Language. Grammar: The noun (Classification. Plural forms). The article (General rules)........37 Social English: to use at the lessons ........ 41 Phrasal Verbs: to get ........................ 42 New Words to Learn............................ 44 Reading for Discussion: Are You Happy with the Way You Are Taught English? ............................... 49 Speaking ............................................ 52 Discussing the Text........................... — Discussing the Topic ....................... . 53 Writing................................................ 57 Miscellaneous ....................................... 59 Me and My World Revision: The present perfect tense. The past perfect tense. Indirect speech. Word building.................. 62 Reading for Information: Great Britain: a Country of Traditions ............................................ 68 New Language. Grammar: The future perfect tense. The definite article. Articles with the nouns school, college, hospital, bed................ 72 Social English: to express one’s opinion, agreement, disagreement and discuss things .... 78 Phrasal Verbs: to turn........................ 79 New Words to Learn............................ 81 349 Reading for Discussion: Danny’s Story 87 Speaking ............................................. 91 Discussing the Text........................... — Discussing the Topic ......................... — Writing.............................................. 98 Miscellaneous ........................................100 It Takes Many Kinds to Make the World Revision: Object description. Adjectives. Degrees of comparison. The present perfect continuous tense.........102 Reading for Information: A. A. Milne .........113 New Language, Grammar: The past perfect continuous tense. Late, old, far, near and their degrees of comparison...................................117 Social English: How to ask and answer questions .......................................124 Phrasal Verbs: to rush.......................125 New Words to Learn...........................126 Reading for Discussion: Tigger Comes to the Forest and Has Breakfast .................................. 132 Speaking .............................................137 Discussing the Text........................... — Discussing the Topic ........................ — Writing............................................. 142 Miscellaneous ........................................144 Christmas Revision..............................................148 Reading for Information: Before Christmas Day ... 149 Reading for Discussion: Christmas Day. King John’s Christmas ............................................151 Speaking............................................ 155 Miscellaneous ......................................... — 350 ® The Pleasure of Reading Revision: Narration devices. Indefinite and definite article. Tenses and forms to describe future ........ 157 Reading for Information: The Printed Word...............170 New Language. Grammar: Collective nouns. Countable and uncountable nouns. Article with the names of meals. Future perfect continuous. Object clauses ........ 173 Social English: How to react to people’s words 181 Phrasal Verbs: to run ................... 182 New Words to Learn .......................... 183 Reading for Discussion: The Reader of Books 192 Speaking...........................................196 Discussing the Text — Discussing the Topic .............. 197 Writing............................................201 Miscellaneous ..........................................204 Popular Arts Revision: Indefinite forms of the passive voice. Modal verbs with passive constructions...................209 Reading for Information; Theatre and Cinema: How It All Began..........................................215 New Language. Grammar: Continuous and perfect forms of the passive voice. Passive voice with verbs that have two objects. Verbs with prepositions in the passive voice. Articles with the names of seasons, parts of the day...........218 Social English: How to reply to offers . . . 229 Phrasal Verbs: to set..........................230 New Words to Learn.............................231 Reading for Discussion: The Story of Merrymind .....................................237 Speaking................................................241 Discussing the Text............................. — Discussing the Topic ..........................242 Writing ................................................248 Miscellaneous ..........................................250 Sport in Our Life Revision: Clauses of time and condition. Word combinations with make and do .................................253 Reading for Information: History of the Olympic Games ..................................................262 New Language. Grammar: Subjunctive Mood ..... 265 Social English: Formal and informal English . 271 Phrasal Verbs: to do...........................272 New Words to Learn.............................273 Reading for Discussion: The Great Shooting Day ......................................... 278 Speaking ...............................................282 Discussing the Text............................. — 351 Discussing the Topic ........................283 Writing..............................................292 Miscellaneous .......................................295 Exploring the World Speaking ............................................298 Grammar Revision ....................................301 Vocabulary Revision .................................304 Reading for Discussion: Come Away, Come Away! . . 307 Writing..............................................311 Miscellaneous .......................................313 Project Work ................................................315 Reference Grammar ......................................... 318 English-Russian Vocabulary...................................339 Topical Vocabulary ..........................................344 Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК VII класс Учебник для общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка Центр лингвистического образования Руководитель Центра Ю. А, Смирнов, зав. редакцией английского языка М. А. Семичев, ответственный за выпуск О. В. Миронова, редактор А.Е. Колесникова, художественный редактор Н.В. Дождееа, художники Гальдяев, С.В. Трубецкая, Ю.В. Алексеева, дизайнер А. В. Тарасова, редактор карт Р. С. Азизбаева, технический редактор С.Н. Терехова, компьютерная верстка О.Ю. Мызииковой, оператор Н.А. Степанова, корректоры И. Б. Окуиева, Д. А. Белитов, Налоговая льгота — Общероссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005-93—953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД № 05824 от 12.09.01. Подписано в печать 02.07.15. Формат 70х90‘/гв- Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура SchoolBookASanPin. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 19,91 + 0,46 форз. Доп. тираж 10 000 акз. Заказ № 43742. Акционерное общество «И.эдательство «Просвещение 127521, Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Отпечатано по заказу АО «ПолиграфТрейд» в филиале «Смоленский полиграфический комбинат» ОАО «Издательство «Высшая школа». 214020, г. Смоленск, ул. Смольянинова, 1. Тел.; +7(4812) 31-11-96. Факс: +7(4812) 31-31-70. E-mail: spk@smolpk.ru http://www.smolpk.ru Irregular Verbs 1. be [bi:J was [wDz], were [w3:j been [bi:n] being ['bi:ig] быть, находиться 2. beat |bi:t] beat [bi:t[ beaten [bi:tn] beating ['bhtig] бить 3. become [Ы'клт] became [bi'keim] become [Ьт'клт] becoming [bi'kAmig] становиться, превра/цат 4. begin [bi'gm] began [bi'gaenj begun [bi'gAn] beginning [bi'ginir)] начинать 5. bend [bend] bent [bent] bent [bent]/bended ['bendid] bending ['bendig] согнуть 6. blow [Ыэи] blew [blu:] blown [Ыэуп] blowing ['blauig] дуть 7. break [breik] broke [brauk] broken ['Ьгэок(э)п] breaking ['breikii)] ломать, разбивать 8. bring [bnr)] brought [bn:t] brought [bra:t] bringing ['Ьпг)щ) приносить 9. build [bild] built [bilt] built [bilt] building ['bildig] строить 10, bum [Ьз:п] burnt [b3:nt] burnt [Ьз:п1] burning ]'Ьз:п1г)] жечь, сжигать 11. buy [bai] bought [bo:t] bought [bo:t] buying ['bang] покупать 12, catch [ksetf] caught [ko:t] caught [ko:t] catching ['kaetfig] поймать, схватишь 13. choose [tfu:z] chose [tfauz] chosen ['(Гэиг(э)п] choosing ]'tfu:zig] выбирать 14. come [клт] came [keim] come [клт] coming ['клгшд] приходить, приезжать 15. cost [knst] cost [knst] cost [kost] costing [’knstig] стоить 16. cut [кл1] cut [k\t] cut [kAt] cutting ['kAtig] резать, разрезать 17.do[du:] did[did] done [dAn] doing ['du:ig[ делать 18. draw [dro;] drew [dm:] drawn [dro:n] drawing [dra:ig] рисовать 19. drink [dngk] drank [dragk] drunk [drAgk] drinking ['dngkig] пить 20. eat [kt] ate [et] eaten ['ktn] eating ]'i:tig] есть, питаться 21. fall [fo:l] fell [fel] fallen ['fo:ln] falling [’fa:lig] падать 22. feel [fi;l] felt [felt] felt [felt] feeling [Tdig] чувствовать 23. fight [fait] fought [fod] fought [fo:t] fighting ('faitig] сражаться, бороться 24.find [faind] found [fatmd] found [faund] finding [Taindig] находить, обнаруживать 25.fly [flai] flew [flu:] flown [Пэип] flying ['flaiig] летать 26. forecast ['fD:ka:stj forecast ]'fo;ka:st] forecast ['fo:ka;st] forecasting ]'fa:ka:stig] предсказывать пого<>у (forecasted ['fakastid]) (forecasted ['fo:ka:stid]) 27. forget [fa'get] forgot [fa'got] forgotten [fa'gotn] forgetting [fa'getig] забывать 28. freeze [frkz] froze [fraoz] frozen ['fr3tjz(3)n] freezing [Triizig] замерзать, заморажинтп 29. get [get] got [gnt] got [got] getting ['getig] получать, доставать 30. give [giv] gave [geiv] given ['grvgn] giving [’givig] давать, дарить 31. go [дэо] went [went] gone [gon[ going ['дзшд] идти, направляться 32. grow [дгэи] grew [gru:[ grown [graun] growing ['grauig] расти 33. hang [bseg] hung [Ьлд] hung [Ьлд] hanging ['h^gig] вешать, висеть 34. have [hgev] had [heed] had [hsed] having [hasvig] иметь, обладать 35. hear [hia] heard [hsid] heard [h3:d] hearing ['hiang] слышать 36. hide [haid] hid [hid] hidden ['hidan] hiding ['haidig] прятать 37. hold (hauldj held [held] held [held] holding ['hauldig] держать, содержать 38. hurt |Ьз:1[ hurt [h3:t] hurt [hsrt] hurting ['h3:tig[ причинить боль, ушиби пн 39. keep [ki:p| kept [kept] kept [kept] keeping ['ki:pig] держать, хранить 40, know |пзо| knew [nju:] known [naun] knowing ['nauig] знать 41. lay [lci| laid [leid] laid [leid] laying ['leiig] класть, положить 12. lead |li:d| led [led] led [led] leading ['li:dig[ вести, РУ ководи т ь 43. learn |l:j:n| learnt [ l3:nt] (learned) learnt [l3:nt[ (learned) learning ['1з;тд] изучать, учить 44.leave [li:v| left [lefti left [left! leaving ['li:vig] покидать, оставлять t € ^ Jit ® / 0 0 W f f ^ ^ ^ Ф ^ f 0 0 W ^ f й ^ 45. let [let] let [let] let [let] letting ['letip] позволять 46. lie [laij lay [lei] lain [lein] lying ['laiip] лежать 47. light [lait] lit [lit] lit [lit] litting ['litip] освещать 48. lose [lu:z] lost [Inst] lost [Inst] : losing ['lirzip] терять 49. make [meik] made [meid] made [meid] making ['meikip] делать, изготовлять 50. mean [min] meant [ment] meant [ment] meaning ['mi:nip] иметь в виду 51. meet [mi:t] met [met] met [met] meeting ['mi:tip] встреч^ать 52. pay [pel] paid [peid] paid [peid] paying ['pciip] платить 53. put [put] put [pot] put [put] putting ['putip] класть, положить 54. read [ri;d] read [red] read [red] reading ['ridip] читать 55.ride [raid] rode [raud] ridden ['ridn] riding ['raidip] ехать верхом 56. rise [raiz] rose [rauz] risen ['riz(o)n] rising ['raizip] вставать, подпиматыя 57. run [гАп] ran [rsen] run [глп] running ['ramp] бегать 58. say [sei] said [sed] said [sed] saying ['senp] сказать 59. see [si:] saw [so:] seen [sin] seeing ['si;ip] видеть 60. sell [sel] sold [soold] sold [sould] selling ['selip] продавать 61. send [send] sent [sent] sent [sent] sending ['sendip] посылать 62. set [set] set [set] set [set] setting ['setip] ставить, помещать 63. shake [Jeik] shook [fuk] shaken ['Jeik(o)n] shaking ['Jeikip] трясти, качать 64. shine [fain] shone [fon] shone [Jnn] shining ['/ainip] светить, блестеть 65. show [fau] showed [food] shown [foun] showing ['Jouip] показывать 66. sing [siq] sang [s£cr)] sung [sap] singing ['sipip] петь 67.sleep [slip] slept [slept] slept ]slept] sleeping ['sli:p[p[ спать 68. smell [smel] smelt [smelt] (smelled) smelt [smelt] (smelled) , smelling ['smeirp] пахнуть 69, speak [spik] spoke [spouk] spoken ['spouk(o)n] speaking ['spi:kip] говорить 70. spell [spel] spelt [spelt] (spelled) spelt [spelt] (spelled) spelling ['spelip] писать!диктовави^ буквам 71. spend [spend] spent [spent] spent [spent] spending ['spendip] тратить, npofiftdurtn> 72.spoil [spall] spoilt [spoilt] (spoiled) spoilt [spoilt] (spoiled) spoiling ]'spoil[p] портит it 73.spread [spred] spread [spred] spread [spred] spreading ['sprcdip] pacnpocntpatumib 74. stand [stsend] stood [stud] stood [stud] standing I'stLcndip] стояние 75.steal [stil] stole [stoul] stolen [’stoul(o)n] stealing ['sti:lip] красть, eopoffumit 76. strike [straik] struck [strak] struck [strak] striking ['slraikip] ударя т f>. п ора жа т t, 77.swim [swim] swam [swffim] swum [swam] swimming ]’swEmip[ плаваип> 78. take [teik] took [tuk] taken ['teik(o)n] taking ['(eikipj брапп* 79. teach [ti:tii taught [to:t] taught [to;t] ' teacliiiig ['li:l|ip] учить, ггреподиввпгь 80. tell [tel] told [tould] told [tould] telling j'ldii)] гказат1> 81. think [вщк] thought [9o:t] thought [0o:t] tliinkiiig I'Oipkii.il (fyjMa/nb 82. throw [0гэи] threw [0ru:] thrown [0roun] j tlimwing ['Or.iuipl Opiirum !• 83. understand understood understood iiiiderstniiding nOUUAUt/flh [/nda'stsend] [.Ando'stud] [,ando'stud] j,aiid.Vslinidii|| 84. wake (up) [weik] woke (up) [wouk] woken (up) [’woukon] walling I'wcikip] прап.ппппы'я. Oyihttnu 85. wear [wes] wore [wo:] worn [wo;n] wearing ]’wiMiii|[ OitHUit tuhuiUtiM, тичитАеи) 86. win [win] won [wan] won [wan] winning I'wiiiiri] (ti