Английский язык 5 класс Учебник Верещагина Афанасьева часть 2

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ENC I. N. Vereshchagina О. V. Afanasyeva ____^V V V pRosvESHCHENiYE iv) fj:? i;i;) PUBLISHERS t:i' W W V V W ФГОС и. Н. Верещагина О. В. Афанасьева АНГЛИИСКИИ ЯЗЫК V класс Учебник для общеобразовательных организаций и школ с углублённым изучением английского языка с приложением на электронном носителе В двух частях Часть 2 Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации 2-е издание Москва «Просвещение» 2013 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 В31 На учебник получены положительные заключения Российской академии наук (№ 10106-5212/202 от 12.10.11) и Российской академии образования (№01-5/7д-288 от 17.10.11) Условные обозначения ©) — задание с использованием аудиозаписи [РИВ1 — задание для подготовки к экзамену (prepare for the final assessment) ^|j —разговорные клише (conversational formulas) Vs — глагол в 3-м лице ед. числа настоящего времени Ved — глагол (правильный) в форме Past Simple V3 — третья форма глагола (причастие прошедшего времени) Верещагина И. Н. В31 Английский язык. V класс. Учеб, для общеобразоват. организаций и шк. с углубл. изучением англ. яз. с прил. на электрон, носителе. В 2 ч. Ч. 2 / И. Н. Верещагина, О. В. Афанасьева. — 2-е изд. — М. : Просвещение, 2013. — 172 с. : ил. — ISBN 978-5-09-031044-4. Учебник является основным компонентом учебно-методического комплекта «Английский Я.ЗЫК» и предназначен для учащихся V класса общеобразовательных организаций и шко.ч с углублённым изучением английского языка. В учебник включены уроки для повторения материала, пройденного во 2—4 классах, и основной курс. Задания учебника направлены на тренировку учащихся во всех видах речевой деятельности (аудировании, говорении, чтении и письме) и обеспечивают достижение личностных, метапредметных и предметных результатов. Содержание учебника соответствует требованиям Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта основного общего образования. УДК 37.3.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2ЛНГЛ-922 ISBN 978-.5-09-031044-4 (2) ISBN 978-5-09-031046-8 (общ.) Издательство «Просвещение», 2012 Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2012 Все права защищены The Geography of the UK and Its Political Outlook LESSOM 12 LET US REVIEW 4 A Ч 1 Say: a) what you used [ju;st] to do last summer; b) what things you used [ju:zd] yesterday: — to cook dinner; — to write a letter; — to prepare a talk on the History of the USA; — to make a picture. Example: 1) I used to swim a lot last summer. 2) I used meat to cook dinner. Work in pairs and talk about what you were doing at different time yesterday. Don’t forget to change over. Example: P^: What were you doing at 1 o’clock yesterday? Pg: I was having lunch. [] 3 Complete the text (using the present or the past passive) and read it to your classmates. England (separate) from Scotland by mountains. It (wash) by the North Sea. The main cities of England (situate) in the centre of the country. London, its capital, (found) many centuries ago. It used to be a port too. A lot of goods* (bring) to London from many countries now. Many different things (sell) in the shops and streets of London. London (visit) by many tourists every year. 4 Pretend you are a teacher, read the questions for your classmates to answer. The words below can help them. Example: — Why have you bought these daffodils? — They smelled so nice! to sound loud, to smell nice, to smell pleasant, to taste sweet, to taste good, to feel bad, to feel well 1. Why did you turn off the radio? 2. Why have you eaten the whole cake? 3. Why didn’t you go to school yesterday? 4. Why have you put these lilies here? 5. Why do you like honey? 6. Why don’t you take aspirin ['aesprm]? We are sure you know how to say that you like or dislike something. Look at the list below. I like it. I like it very much. I like it a lot. I really like it very much. I love it. Don’t forget it in such sentences: I like it when it rains. I like it when it’s warm outdoors. F I like it when my mother reads to me. ^ goods [godz] — товары This is how you can ask for a person’s opinion. Do you like it? Do you really like it? How do you like it? Is this OK? C- Is this all right? F This is the way to say that you don’t like this or that. I don’t like it. I don’t like it at all. I don’t like it a bit. c_ I can’t stand it.^ F Listen to the dialogues then act them out. ^41). Read and learn them by heart and 1) 2) - 3) Do you like it when it rains? Yes, I do. I like rainy weather. Do you really like it? Of course I do. It’s my favourite weather. How much do you like it? I like it very much. It’s really very good. Do you like the colour? Oh, yes, I do. I love it. Do you like it? I am afraid I don’t like it. Not a bit? Not a bit. Not at all? Not at all. I hate it. I can’t stand it. ^ I can’t stand it. — He выношу этого. LET US LEARM Who is^ at home now? Who has the dog? Who went there last night? Who can speak Chinese? В и t: Which of you is Ann? Which of you knows French? Which of you has a pet? Which of you went to the museum after classes? Which of you has bought the magazine? tOOK.BEAOA«0 bemewbeb My parents are. Nick has. (I have.) We all did. Nobody here can. She is. (I am.) We all do. (He does.) Boris and Peter have. They did. I have. Answer the questions. 1. Who discovered America? 2. Who has turned off the washing machine? 3. Which of you is Susan? 4. Which of them works at the factory? 5. Which of the flowers smells nice? 8 Express the following in English. 1) Кто защищает животных на нашей планете? — Люди. 2) Кто из вас поедет в Лондон? — Мы. 3) Кто из них продолжит эту работу? — Пётр и Анна. 4) Кто покупает газеты в вашей семье? — Мой папа. 5) Кто из вас выращивал примулы в саду прошлым летом? — Мои сёстры. 6) Что встаёт на востоке? — Солнце. В вопросе к подлежащему глагол всегда стоит в 3-м лице ед. числа. - read awd BEWlHNieeB Reported Speech Nick says: “I like my granny very much.” Nick says (that) he likes his granny very much. Nelly says: “I wrote a letter to my parents the other day.” Nelly says (that) she wrote a letter to her parents the other day. The Browns say: “We’ve moved into a new flat. Our flat is large.” The Browns say (that) they have moved into, a new flat. Their flat is large. The brothers say: “We won’t clean our flat now. We’ll do it later.” The brothers say (that) they won’t clean their flat now, they will do it later. V* Nick says: “Betty, give me some bread, please!” Nick asks Betty to give him some bread. Nick tells Betty to give him some bread. The teacher says: “Learn this poem by heart!” The teacher asks the pupils to learn this poem by heart. The teacher tells the pupils to learn this poem by heart. -/! Mother says: “Don’t open the window! It is cold in here.” Mother asks me not to open the window because it is cold in here. My aunt says to me: “Don’t go there!” My aunt asks me not to go there. My aunt tells me not to go there. 9 Put the following sentences into reported speech. Make all the necessary changes. Example: Helen says: “Don’t come back late, Susan!” Helen tells Susan not to come back late. 1. The people say: “Many animals are in danger.” 2. Nick’s granny says: “Don’t do any harm to the chrysanthemums, Nick!” 3. The teacher says: “Don’t speak so loudly, Betty!” 4. My grandpa says: “I like spring when all the fruit trees are in blossom.” 5. Bob’s cousin shouts to him: “Come here! Be quick.” 6. My teacher says: “Speak English in class, boys.” 10 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words mean: industry ['indostri], industrial [in'dAStriol], official [o'fijol], careful [’keoful] (care + ful), carefully b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: kingdom consist (of) as well state sign saint to be surprised especially ^ lonely c) Read the sentences to know how to use the words. kingdom ['kipdom] (n): a kingdom — kingdoms. ‘A kingdom’ is a country ruled by a king or a queen, state [steit] (n): a state — states. ‘A state’ is a country with its people who live together under one government. What is the official name of this state? sign [sain] (n): a sign — signs. A dark cloud is a sign of rain. The sign on the door of the shop said: “Closed on Sunday.” industry ['indostri] (n): an industry — industries. What are the important industries of this country? 8 industrial [in'dAStrial] (adj): The United States is an industrial country. Are there any industrial cities in the south of England? saint [seint] (n): a saint — saints. 1. Do you know any saints of the Russian Church? 2. The little boy thought his granny was a saint, she always helped him. consist (of) [kon'sist] (v): A year consists of twelve months, surprise [sa'praiz] (v): to surprise — surprised. Dad surprised us. He bought a little puppy. to be surprised (at) (v): Nick is not surprised at the information. We are all surprised at the latest news, lonely ['launli] (adj): lonely — lonelier — the loneliest. She is a very lonely person. Bob felt lonely at the new school. A person feels lonely when he is unhappy because he is alone, careful ['keoful] (adj): careful — more careful — the most careful. A person is careful when he thinks about what he is doing or saying. Be more careful with your work. Is she always careful? careless ['kealis] (adj): He is a very careless driver. Jean was careless when she was running downstairs and she fell. Don’t be careless! carefully ['keofoli] (adv), carelessly ['keolisli] (adv): You must write more carefully, you make so many mistakes. Don’t do your work carelessly! especially [I'spejli] (adv): I like the country especially in spring. This is an especially busy day. 11 Say: a) what days a week consists of; b) what months winter and summer consist of; c) how many rooms your flat (house) consists of. 12 Answer the questions. 1. What industrial cities do you know in Russia? 2. When do people feel lonely? 3. What is the usual sign of rain? 4. Why don’t children go to school in summer? 5. When and where must people be careful? 13 Give it a name: a) a country ruled by a king; b) a country with its people who live together under one government. LET US LISTEN, READ 14 Listen to the song “What Are Little Boys Made of?” ((©)42). WHAT ARE LITTLE BOYS MADE OF? What are little boys made of? What are little boys made of? Frogs and snails^ and puppy-dogs’ tails. And that’s what little boys are made of! What are little girls made of? What are little girls made of? Sugar and spice^ and all things nice. And that’s what little girls are made of! LET US READ AND TALK 15 Learn to read these proper names: the United Kingdom (the UK) Northern Ireland [,na:6an 'aialand] |ju;,naitid 'kipdam] Wales [weilz] the British Isles [,britij ’ailz] Scotland ['skntland] the Irish Sea [,airij 'si:] Edinburgh ['edinbara] the English Channel [,ir)glij 'tjaenl] Cardiff ['ka:dif] the Straits of Dover [.streits av Belfast [,berfa:st] 'dauva] the North Sea [,na:0 'si:] the Atlantic Ocean [at,laentik 'aujn] the Union Jack ['jirnian фаек] the English ['logli^ English ['ipgliJI the Scots [skots] Scottish ['skotif] the Welsh'"^ [welj] Welsh^ [welj] the Irish ['airij] Irish [‘а1пЛ the Irish Republic [,airij п'рлЬЬк] ^ snail [sneil] — улитка ^ spice [spais] — пряность ^ the Welsh — валлийцы (жители Уэльса) * Welsh (the Welsh language) — валлийский язык (язык Уэльса) 10 16 Read the text to get some new information about Britain. What are all possible names to call the country situated in the two large islands of the British Isles? THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE OF GREAT BRITAIN The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) is the official name of the state which is situated in the British Isles. Thus, “Great Britain” is often the same as “Britain” and refers^ only to Scotland, England and Wales. The “United Kingdom”, or the “UK” includes Northern Ireland. It consists of four countries which are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. You can see them on the map. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. The UK is an island state. The two main islands are Great Britain (where England, Scotland and Wales are situated) and Ireland. Northern Ireland and the independent Irish Republic are there. The two islands are separated by the Irish Sea. The UK is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Straits of Dover. Once the British Isles used to be a part of the continent. The nearest point to Europe is the Straits of Dover. The UK is also washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the North Sea in the east. Everyone who was born in Britain is British. People from England are English. People from Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland are not English. They are Scottish or Scots; Welsh and Irish. People from Scotland and Wales don’t like it when they are called English but they are British. More than 56 million people live in Britain. Many of them live in big industrial cities like London. Manchester and Liverpool, for example, are big industrial cities in the centre of England. But foreigners are often surprised by the fact that much of the land in Britain is open country. There are many lonely hills, quiet rivers, deep lakes and farmlands especially in the south of the country. Everyone in Britain speaks English, but in some parts of Scotland and Wales people speak different languages as well. The Welsh are especially proud of their language. They like to speak Welsh, to sing songs in Welsh and when you travel you can see road signs in Welsh all over Wales. ^ refer to — относиться к 11 1 Jack. It is made up of three crosses: the cross of St. George (the patron saint^ of England), the cross of St. Andrew (the patron saint of Scotland) and the cross of St. Patrick (the patron saint of Ireland). 17 Now you have learnt some more facts about the UK. Could you answer the questions? 1. Where is the UK situated? 2. Why do you think the UK is called “an island state”? 3. What other country is situated in the British Isles? 4. What languages are spoken in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland? 5. How many people live in Britain? 6. What is the Union Jack? What do you know about it? Reference Material The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) State ^ ^Country Capital People Language The United Kingdom England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland London London Edinburgh Cardiff Belfast the British, the English the Scots the Welsh the Irish English English Scottish/English Welsh/English Irish/English 18 Look through the Reference Material, and the map and name: — the parts (countries) the UK consists of, and their capitals; — the people who live in the UK and the languages they speak; — big industrial cities of Britain; — water bodies around the UK; — water bodies that separate Britain from the continent. 19 Were any of your classmates absent from the lesson? Tell him/her in brief what the text is about. (See ex. 16.) 20 Do you know any other facts about the land and people of Britain? Tell your classmates about them. First make a plan of your story. ^ the patron saint ['pcitran 'seint] — святой-покровитель 13 LET US LISTEN AND TALK fPflil 21 a) Listen to the text “I Hit Him Back First” (Q^43) and choose the right answer to each of the question. 1. Who was older Allan or Ted? a) Allan b) Ted c) They were the same age. 2. What was it that the boy’s Mother didn’t like? a) She didn’t like it when they fought with each other. b) She didn’t like it when they fought with other boys. c) She didn’t like it when they fought with each other and other boys. 3. Why was Allan crying when he came home from school? a) Because he had a fight. b) Because another boy had hit him. c) Because he knew his mother would be angry. 4. Who hit whom first? a) William hit Allan. b) Allan hit William. c) Ted hit William. b) Is it good when boys fight? What do they usually fight over? What are other ways of settling conflicts? LET US WRITE 22 Do ex. 3, 8 in writing. 23 Look at Betty and tell your classmates what she says. Example: Betty says (that) her native country is Britain. 1. My native country is Britain. 2. Don’t be surprised at this song! 3. Our country consists of four parts. 4. Come to see me, Nell. I feel lonely! 5. Be careful in this cold climate. 6. Protect the flowers from the cold. 24 Copy the table below and fill it in. State Country Capital People Language Scotland — Cardiff — — — — the English — — — the British English Ireland — — — 25 Write the pronunciation of the underlined words. Example: I used Du:st] to swim a lot when I spent my holiday at the seaside. 1. Mr Brown used to live in Scotland when he was a small boy. Now he lives in Wales. 2. I used my notes to prepare for the history class. 3. They used to work at the factory when they were young. 4. He used his book of fairy tales and read them to his son. 5. The children used their imagination to write a story about life in the past. 26 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. kingdom, state, sign, industry, industrial, saint, consist of, surprise, be surprised at, lonely, careful, careless, carefully, carelessly, especially Home Reading Lesson 12, text “Climate, Weather and Wildlife 15 ( I I LESSON 13 LET US REVIEW 1 Look at the pictures and say what Pete’s breakfast, lunch and dinner consisted of last Thursday. Example: Last Thursday Pete’s breakfast consisted of a glass of milk and two slices of bread. BREAKFAST LUnCH DinriER «% 16 2 Work in pairs. Say what your meals consisted of yesterday (P^). Tell your classmates what P/s meals consisted of yesterday (P^). Example: (Nick): My supper consisted of chicken and vegetables. Pg: Nick says his supper consisted of chicken and vegetables. 3 Say what countries the UK consists of. 4 Name some industrial cities you know in Russia, the UK and other countries. 5 Think of something you were surprised at in stories (books, pictures, games, etc.). Example: I was surprised at her visit. 6 Say when and why the people were surprised: My dad Pete The brothers Nell’s cousin Mrs Green The Browns was when surprised were because they didn’t get a letter from Wales, he saw me on a horse, she met her Irish relative in Moscow, the door of her flat was open. their car wasn’t in its usual place, their friends were not in. 7 Work in pairs. Make sentences. Here are the word combinations for you to use: an independent state, a well-known saint, a usual sign, a lonely man, careful work, a careless driver, a peaceful kingdom Example: P^: a well-known saint Pg: St. Patrick is a well-known saint in Ireland. 17 8 Look at the pictures and say what the students tell Mr Jones. ^ Example: Jim says he likes fruit, especially bananas. 1. Come again, please. 2. We are always glad.to see you! 3. We are going to Wales in May! 4. I have written a story. 5. I will spend a month in Scotland. 6. Don’t forget to write to us. 7. My birthday is in three weeks’ time. 8. I like fruit, especially bananas. 9 You know that English people often begin talking about weather when they meet each other. These are the usual phrases: It’s nice day today, isn’t it? ^ c_ Fine weather we are having today! F What a beautiful day! Not a cloud in the sky! It’s hot (warm) today! It’s hot and humid!^ It’s much too hot today! If the weather is not that perfect you may say: It looks like rain/snow. It’s cold outside! c_ I hope it’s not going to snow. It’s freezing!^ It’s bitter cold.^ F ^ humid ['hju:mid] — влажный ^ It’s freezing! [Triizio] — Морозит! ® bitter cold ['bits 'kould] — ужасно холодно 18 Sometimes people ask questions about weather: What’s the weather like today? c_ Is it sunny (foggy, dry, rainy, cloudy)? F How’s the weather? Is it going to rain? Do you think it’s going to be a nice day? The usual phrases to go on with your talk are: It sure is. It sure does. Yes, it is. Yes, it does. F I think it is. I think it does. It certainly is. It certainly does. 10 Listen to the dialogues then act them out. © 44). Read, learn them by heart and 1) 2) 3) 4) - 5) - — What’s the weather like today? Is it sunny? — It sure is. Dry and warm with just a light breeze. — Is it going to rain? — I hope not, though it looks like rain. There are many dark clouds in the sky and a cold wind is blowing.^ — It’s a nice day today, isn’t it? — It certainly is. Not a cloud in the sky, but 30 degrees above zero^ is too hot, much too hot. — Oh, yes. It’s hot and humid. — Is it usual summer weather in Moscow? — Maybe “yes” and maybe “no”. It depends, you know. It’s cold outside. It’s bitter cold. Is it going to snow? I’m not sure but I hope so. The weather will be milder then. Does it look like rain? It certainly does. ^ to blow [Ыэи] — дуть ^ 30 degrees above zero [digri:z о'Ьлу 'zioroo] 30 градусов выше нуля 19 LET US LEARN - read awd LOOK» HEWIEWIBER My dog is clever. Гт a student. They have a car. You look wonderful! Nelly lives in Paris. I was at home last night. You can swim well. He lived in London in 1993. They wrote a letter to Mr Brown. We have bought some apples. I will go to India. So is his dog. So are we. So has he. (So does he.) So do you. So does John. So were we. So can Nick. So did I. So did they. So has he. So will they. 11 Say that people can do (did, will do) the same things that you can. 1. I can dance, and so ... Pete. 2. I like ice cream, and so ... my sister. '* 3. I spent my holiday in the mountains, and so ... my parents. 4. I will go to the South in summer. So ... my friends. 5. I have many friends. So ... Nick. 6. I was at home on Sunday evening. So ... my grandparents. 7. My brother swims well. So ... I. 8. Ann will go to the theatre tonight. So ... I. 12 Work in pairs. Say that you can/will do (would like to do) something or that you could (liked, did, have done) something. Let your friend say that he can do (likes to do, etc.) the same. Don’t forget to change over. Example; Pj’. I can swim like a fish. Pgi So can I. P : I like oranges. Pji So do I. 20 tOOK.BEAOA'*» BEMEWBER Reported Speech 1. She asks: “Is Wales situated in the British Isles?’ She asks [if] Wales is situated in the British Isles. 2. They ask: “Did it snow yesterday?” They want to^know |if| it snowed yesterday. 3. Nelly asks: “Have you been to Spain?” Nelly is interested |if| I have been to Spain. 4. Bob asks: “Will it be possible?” Bob wonders [i^ it will be possible. wh? 1. She asks: “Where is Wales situated?’.’ ... She wonders where Wales is situated. 2. They ask: “When did it snow?” They want to know when it snowed. 3. Nelly asks: “Where have you been?” Nelly is interested where I have been. 4. Bob asks: “Why will it be possible?” Bob wonders why it will be possible. 5. She asks: “How many countries are there in the UK?’ She wonders how many countries there are in the UK. 13 Say what the people want to know. Mr Brown: “What is the capital of the United Kingdom?” Mary: “Is Scotland an independent state?” Billy: “Why is my cousin so careless?” The Davidsons: “How many industrial cities are there in the North?’ The teacher: “When will you go to Africa?” The doctor: “How do you feel?” 21 14 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words and word combinations mean: symbol ['simbl] empire [’empaio] colony ['kobni] politician [,pnli‘tijn] prince [prins] aristocrat [’asnstakrset] princess [ipnn'ses] permanent ['рз:тэпэп1] Ceylon [si'lmi] policy ['pnlisil Head of State b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: power royal to include to offer lawyer to elect former law to delay to belong (to) c) Read the sentences to know how to use the words. power ['раш] (n)'. It is out of my power to help you. The power of the church is great in the country. Does the Queen have real power in the UK? belong (to) [bi'bp] (v)\ belong — belonged. It is my book. It belongs to me. He belongs to this school. What club do you belong to? He never belonged to this group. I don’t belong here, royal ['roiol] (adj): ‘Royal’ means belonging to a king or queen. The royal family, the royal prince, a royal palace. The royal family lives in the palace. Does he belong to the Royal Society?^ include [in'klu:d] (v): include — included. I included eggs in my shopping list. Anna was not included as a guest. You don’t have to buy batteries ['beetonz] with that toy because they, are already included, former [Тэ:тэ] (adj): ‘Former’ means belonging to the past: in former times, in former days, in a former life, the former state, the former Soviet Union. Do you know the former President of the State (the one before the latest)? offer [bfo] (v): offer — offered. He offered to help me with the washing up. He offered me his help and advice. Does he ever offer you any money? law [b:] (n): a. law — laws. ‘A law’ is a rule made by government for all the people in a state or country. Laws tell people what they must do and what they must not do. lawyer [’Ь:)э] (n): a lawyer — lawyers. A lawyer is a person who knows much about the law. ’ society [sa'saioti] — общество 22 delay [di'lei] (v): delay — delayed. We must delay our journey. Bob is ill. My work delayed me at the office. The train was delayed two hours by the heavy snowfall. — Why was the start of the game delayed? — It was delayed because of the rain. elect [I'lekt] (v): elect — elected. ‘To elect’ means to choose someone by vote.^ They elected the President. People in Britain elect members of Parliament every five years. permanent ['рзгтэпэШ] (adj): a permanent job, permanent address. Do you have a permanent job here? I don’t know his permanent address. 15 Give it a name: — belonging to a king or a queen; — belonging to the past; — to choose by vote; — a rule made by government for all the people of the country; — a person who knows much about the law. 16 Look at the pictures and say what belongs to Jim and what to Caroline. Example: The ball belongs to Jim. ' by vote [v9ut] — голосованием 23 SHOPPING LIST Fish Sugar Oranges Cake Chicken Milk Bread 17 Natasha’s mother asked her to buy the following things: vegetables, bread, cheese, butter, apples, sugar, oranges, meat, fish. Look at her shopping list and say which of the things are included in it and which are not. 18 Say what John offers to do for his granny. Example: John offers to go shopping. 1. Shall I go shopping? 2. Shall I water the poppies? ________3. Shall I put the lilies in the vase? 4. Shall I clean the floor? 5. Shall I wash up? 19 Say why the football game was delayed. Use the following: — because of the rain, — because of the weather, — because of the snow, — because the captain was ill, — because the football players were late. Example: The game was delayed because of the rain. LET US LISTEN, READ AND LEARN! 20 Listen to the poem “The King’s Bread and Butter” ((^45), and read it. Then learn it by heart. THE KING’S BREAD AND BUTTER (by A. A. Milne) I The King asked The Queen, and The Queen asked The Dairymaid:’ “Could we have some butter for The Royal slice^ of bread?” The Queen asked The Dairymaid, The Dairymaid Said: “Certainly, ITl go and tell The Cow Now Before she goes to bed.’ ’ a dairymaid ['dearimeid] — доярка, работница на молочной ферме ^ slice [slais] — ломтик, тоненький кусочек 24 II The Dairymaid She curtsied^ And went and told The Alderney:^ “Don’t forget the butter for The Royal slice of bread.” The Alderney Said sleepily: “You’d better tell His Majesty^ That many people nowadays Like marmalade ['moimsleid] Instead.” LET US READ AlUD TALK Ш1 21 a) Do you want to know who rules the country in Britain? If you do, read the text. b) Complete the sentences after the text choosing the best variant. THE QUEEN AND PARLIAMENT It is rather difficult to understand the British way of ruling the country. In Britain the Queen is the Head of State, but in fact she doesn’t rule the country as she has no- power. The Queen is the symbol of the country, its history and its traditions. She is very rich. She travels about the United Kingdom, meets different people and visits schools, hospitals and other special places. So do all the members of the Royal Family: the Queen’s husband, her son Prince Charles, the Queen’s daughter Princess Anne and Princess Margaret, the Queen’s sister. At the beginning of the 20th century many countries all over the world were ruled by Britain. Among them were the British colonies and they were all part of the British Empire. India, Pakistan and Ceylon, for example, were also part of the Empire. Now these countries are independent states. But in 1949 Britain and the former colonies founded the Commonwealth.^ The Commonwealth includes many countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and others. The Queen of Great Britain is also the Head of the Commonwealth and the Queen of Canada, Australia and New Zealand. * curtsy ['k3:tsi] — делать реверанс ^ Alderney ['э:Иэш] — Бурёнка (порода коров) ^ His Majesty ['maecfeisti] — Его Величество the Commonwealth ['komanwelG] — Содружество наций 25 The real power in the country belongs to the British Parliament and to the British Government. The British Parliament has two houses: the House of Commons^ and the House of Lords.^ The House of Lords does not have much power but it is very important as it can discuss and change laws, it can delay laws too. The House of Commons makes laws about the policy of the country, taxes^ and many other things. The members of the House of Lords are not elected, they are selected.'* These members are permanent. They are often aristo- ^ the House of Commons — палата общин ^ the House of Lords — палата лордов ® taxes ['tseksiz] — налоги to select [si'lekt] — отбирать 26 crats, people of the church, lawyers and former politicians or life peers.^ The members of the House of Commons are elected. The British people elect 650 members of the House of Commons every five years. 1. India, Pakistan and Ceylon___ a) used to be the British colonies b) belong to the British Empire now c) are ruled by the Queen of Great Britain 2. The real power in Great Britain belongs to__ a) the Royal Family b) the British Parliament and the British Government c) the Queen of Great Britain 22 Read the answers to the following questions from the text. 1. Who is the Head of State in Britain? 2. Does the Queen rule the country? 3. What does the Queen do? 4. What do you know about the Royal Family? 5. What countries were included into the British Empire at the beginning of the 20th century? 6. What happened in 1949? 7. Who does the real power in Britain belong to? 8. What do you know about the British Parliament? 9. Why is the House of Lords important? 10. How often do the British people elect members of the House of Commons? 23 Divide the text into logical parts and name them. 24 Look through the text (ex. 21) again and get ready to talk to your classmates about the Queen and Parliament in Britain. 25 Imagine that one of your classmates hasn’t read the text. Tell him/ her everything you know about: — the Queen of the UK, of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales and the dominions overseas; — the British Parliament. 26 Were any of your classmates absent from the lesson? Tell him/her in brief what the text is about. (See ex. 21.) * a peer [рю] — пэр 27 <л LET US LISTEIU AIUD TALK 27 a) Listen to the text “A Tragedy in the Air” the items of the plan in the right order. 46) and put a) There was something wrong with the sound of the engines. b) The captain told the passengers he had bad news. c) The journey of the two friends began. d) The stewardess said the situation was under control. e) The passengers thought about the danger they were facing. f) The passengers started panicking. g) The captain said what his bad news was. b) What was the captain’s mistake? Why did he make it? Why is it important to think about other people’s feelings? LET US WRITE 28 Express the following in English. 1) Мне нравится, когда идёт снег. 2) Мне нравится, когда на улице тепло. 3) Нику нравится, когда его друзья приходят к нему. 4) Анне нравится, когда деревья в цвету. 5) Нам не нравится, когда ты получаешь такие письма. 6) Нам не нравится, когда они громко разговаривают. 29 Do ex. 8, 13 in writing. ч 30 Give the main ideas of the text (ex. 21) writing it out in not more than 10 sentences. 31 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. power, to belong to, royal, to include, former, to offer, law, lawyer, to delay, to elect, \)ermanen\. Home Reading Lesson 13, text “Rumpelstiltskin”, part I 28 LESSOM 14 LET US REVIEW 1 Look through the list of words and group them into 4 categories. First read out verbs, then nouns, adjectives and adverbs. Kingdom, power, state, belong, sign, royal, industry, include, industrial, law, elect, consist, careful, offer, lawyer, delay, carefully, lonely, permanent, be surprised, especially, former. 2 Say it right. How many true sentences can you make? Ч. It is out of his power to help in her to change their to offer your our the government, the plan, the laws, help. the lawyer, the life of people. 3 Play the ‘Champion’ game. Who can make up more sentences with: the royal family, in former days, offer, delay, elect? Try and think of some statements using: belong, it’s out of (in) his (her) power to help ..., include, lawyer, permanent. Say them to your classmates and let them agree or disagree. Ask questions for more information. 1. It belongs to him. 2. He offered it. 3. It was delayed. Look through the dialogue. Change it into reported speech and then read it aloud. Don’t forget to use the following: wonders, wants to know, is interested. Example: David says he likes travelling. Mary says so does she. She says she always goes to different places. David wants to know if Mary’s dad goes with her. I David: I like travelling. Mary: So do I. I always go to different places. David: Does your dad go with you? Mary: Sometimes he does. He very much likes to travel by car. David: Where do you usually go? Mary: We often go to the mountains. We are going to the Oka soon. Come with us, David. David: Thank you, Mary. I’d love to. It is usual for people to pay compliments ['kumplimants]. Do you remember the way to do it? You look wonderful today. That’s a nice dress! ^ You look great! Those are nice trousers! F What a good book! That’s a nice colour, it suits What wonderful pictures! you. People usually receive compliments in this way: So do you. c Thank you. I’m glad you like it. F Thanks a lot. I’m very- glad you like it. Thank you. You’re very kind. Thanks. You’re really very kind. 8 Listen to the dialogues then act them out. 1) - ®)47). Read, learn them by heart and You look wonderful today! — So do you. Ч — Those are nice shoes. — Thank you. I’m glad you like them. 2) — What wonderful pictures! Have you drawn them yourself? — Yes, I have. Thanks. You’re very kind. 3) — That’s a nice colour, it suits you. — Thank you. I’m very glad you like it. 4) — What a tasty cake! I like it very much. — Thank you. You are very kind. — No, I mean it. I really mean it. Your cake is really very good. Compliment your classmate on his/her clothes, looks, work and house. Let him/her answer you. Act the dialogues out.^ * duty ['djuiti] — долг 30 LET US LEARN lOOK-BEADA»*® should/shouldn’t + V You should do it. It is a good thing for you to do it. or It is the right thing for you to do it. I advise you to do it. You should be more careful! Nick should go there with them. You shouldn’t tell lies. She shouldn’t work so hard. I think we should eat out. I think Mary should join us. I don’t think you should do it. I don’t think you should buy it. Must is stronger than should. You must go there! (It’s your duty!^) You should go there! (It’s my advice.) 10 Choose the correct verb. Complete these sentences with should or shouldn’t. Example: You should sit quietly. Speak, eat, play, say, sit, put. quietly, slowly, in the street. your fingers in your mouth, when someone else is talking, loudly. “Thank you” when you get a compliment. 1. 2. 3. 4. You You You You 5. You 6. You 7. You 31 i — REAO AieO LOOKf BEWEWe®" either ... or ... Come either today or tomorrow. He is either in Paris or in London. Either my father or my brothers are coming. В и t: Either my brothers or my father is coming. Ti~T =3”r 11 Express the following in English. 1) Сделай это либо сегодня, либо завтра. 2) Купи или яблоки, или апельсины. 3) Он будет или адвокатом, или учёным. 4) Или мои сёстры, или мой брат собираются предложить им помощь. 5) Или мои братья, или мои кузены продолжат эту работу. 12 These are the words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words and word combinations mean: phrase [freiz] continent ['kontinont] topic ['tnpik] continental [.knnti'nentl] Latin [’laetm] humour ['hjuima] Greek [gri:k] respectable [ri'spektsbl] table manners ['maenaz] You know the word combination to tell a lie. What do you think the verb to lie means? b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: seldom dull way hardly ever show off sense respect knife knowledge offend fork 32 с) Read the sentences to know how to use the words. way [wei] (n): way — ways. ‘A way’ is a method or plan to do something. This is not the way to do it. The prince thought of a way to take the power. What is the right way to address the Queen? Foreign countries have a different way of life, seldom ['seldom] (adv): ‘Seldom’ means not often. I seldom see my friend now that he has moved to another city. She seldom, if ever, reads a book. ‘Very seldom’ means hardly ever. We go to the theatre very seldom. We hardly ever go to the theatre, dull [Ьл1] (adj): dull — duller — (the) dullest. A thing is dull if it is not interesting, if it is boring. A dull book (film, story, play, performance), etc. The film was so dull that Kate left before it was over. knowledge ['imlicfe] (n): Knowledge is all that is known. Does he have good knowledge of the French language? My knowledge of Russian history is not very good. show off ['Jou 'of] (v): to show off one’s knowledge, to show off one’s clothes. He is a boaster and always shows off. He knows much, but I don’t like the way he shows off his knowledge. Does he ever show off his clothes? sense [sens] (n): a sense — senses, a sense of humour, a sense of duty. My cousin John never comes on time. He has no sense of time. Do you agree that the English have a wonderful sense of humour? offend [o'fend] (v): to offend — offended. His words offended me. I’m sorry if I’ve offended you. Are you sure he was offended by my words? She was offended by her husband, respect [n'spekt] (v): to respect — respected. We respect our teachers. People should respect the law. I never promised to respect your feelings. respectable [ri'spektobl] (adj): He is not a respectable man. a fork [fo:k] (n), a fork — forks, a knife [naif] (n), a knife — knives, a spoon [spu:n] (n), a spoon — spoons. 13 Give it a name: — a method or plan to do something; — not often; — very seldom; — boring, not interesting; — all that is known. 33 14 Say it right. How many true sentences can you make? You should show off. shouldn’t get a deep knowledge, offend people, lie. look respectable, have a sense.of humour. 15 a) Look at the picture to know how to set the table, b) Say how to set the table. Example: You should put a big knife for meat to the right of the plate. 1. side plate 2. glass 3. spoon and fork for desert 4. meat or fish fork 5. plate 6. meat or fish knife 7. soup spoon 8. bread or cheese knife LET US LISTEiy, READ 16 Listen to the poem “Take Your Elbows' Off the Table” (@48), and read it. Then learn it by heart. TAKE YOUR ELBOWS OFF THE TABLE (by Caroline Graham) Take your elbows off the table. Keep those big feet on the floor. Take your hat off when you come in. You’re not outside Anymore. Keep your mouth shut^ when you’re eating. If you’re hungry. Ask for more. But take your elbows off the tgible, And keep those big feet on the floor. LET US READ AMD TALK 17 Read the text to find out the differences between the British and the continental ways of life. Do you think the writer of the text has got a sense of humour? THE BRITISH WAY OF LIFE During your four years of English classes you have already learnt a lot about the language and the people who speak it. Here are some facts about the British way if you want to compare it with life on the continent. In England many things are the other way round.® On the continent people seldom speak about the weather. If they do, it usually means they have no other topics to discuss. In England, if you don’t repeat the phrase “It’s a nice day today, isn’t it?” two hundred times a day people are surprised and think that you are very dull. On the continent Sunday papers'* appear on Monday; in England (the coun- ' elbow ['elbau] — локоть ^ keep ... shut — держать закрытым ® the other way round — наоборот papers = newspapers and magazines 35 try is really hard to understand) they appear on Sunday. On the continent, some people like cats, others don’t but in England cats are very special animals. Everyone loves them and takes care of them. On the continent people are proud of the things they know. They try to show off their knowledge and often quote^ Greek and Latin writers. In England only those who don’t know them or who haven’t read them do it. You can offend people on the continent in many ways, for example, if you laugh at them or make jokes about their life and work. But the English accept everything with a sense of humour. You can offend them only if you tell them they have no sense of humour. People on the continent either tell you the truth or lie, in England they hardly ever lie, but they don’t tell you the truth either. On Sundays on the continent even the poorest person puts on his best suit and tries to look nice and respectable. In England even the richest man dresses in some old clothes and doesn’t shave.^ Many continentals think life is a game; the English think cricket is a game. On the continent people have good food. In England people have good table manners. Table Manners 1. You should sit up straight. 2. You shouldn’t eat with your fingers. 3. You shouldn’t put your elbows on the table. 4. You should put your dirty knife, spoon and fork on your plate. 5. You shouldn’t talk with your mouth full. 6. You shouldn’t lick® your fingers. 7. You should say “Thank you” after the meal. 18 Here are some facts about life on the continent. Find in the text and read out the same information about the British way. On the continent: — People seldom speak about weather. — Sunday papers appear on Monday. — Some people like cats, others don’t. — People are proud of the things they know. They try to show off their knowledge____ — You can offend people in many ways: if you laugh at them or make jokes about their life and work. quote [kwaut] — цитировать — People either tell you the truth or lie. — On Sundays even the poorest person puts on his best suit and tries to look nice and respectable. — Many continentals think life is a game. — People have good food. 19 Grandmother Lou is taking her grandchildren out for a meaP. But they don’t have good table manners. Look at the picture and say which child she is talking to. Example: Grandmother Lou tells Bill not to put his elbows on the table. 1. You shouldn’t put your elbows on the table. ч 2. You should sit up straight. 3. You should put your dirty knife and fork on the plate. 4. You shouldn’t eat with your fingers. 5. You shouldn’t lick your fingers. 6. You shouldn’t lick your knife. 20 Now you know some differences between the British and the continental ways of life. Name them, please. 21 Were any of your classmates absent from the lesson? Tell him/her in brief what the text is about. (See ex. 17.) 22 What can you say about table manners? Do you always do what you should when you have dinner or any other meal at home? 23 We are sure you’ve got a younger brother, sister or cousin. Tell him (her) what table manners they should have. ' to take smb out for a meal в ресторане, кафе) вывести кого-либо поесть (не дома, например 37 I LET US LISTEN AND TALK 24 a) Listen to the text “She Wanted to Show off’ choose the right statement. ®)49) and 1. The young lady was intellectual enough to talk with important and respectable people. 2. The professor of history came from Mexico. 3. The young lady didn’t know that Mexico was on the other side of the Atlantic. 4. It wasn’t the first time that the young lady had heard about Columbus and his discovery. b) What do you think was the reaction of the guests when the young lady told them the “news”? Is it a shame to have little knowledge? Why (not)? LET US WRITE I 25 Do ex. 1 and ex. 5 in writing. 26 Do ex. 10, ex. 11 and ex. 14 in writing. 27 Write from the’ text (ex. 17) the facts about the British way of life. 28 Write down all the good manners you know.’* Ask your parents to help you with some ideas. 29 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. way, seldom, hardly ever, dull, knowledge, to show off, sense, offend, to respect, respectable, fork, knife — knives, spoon, lie, either ... or, should Home Reading Lesson 14, text “Rumpelstiltskin”, part II Health and Body Care LESSOm 15 LET US REVIEW Bob hardly ever takes care of himself. His elder brother John is giving him advice. Look at the table below and say what John is telling Bob. You should s be more careful. shouldn’t lie in the sun for 3 hours. show off your knowledge, offend your friends, speak to your lawyer, respect your teachers. What should you do to be healthy?^ And what shouldn’t you do? Look at the pictures and say. healthy ['helOi] — здоровый 39 Express the same idea using hardly ever. Example: Nick seldom shows off his knowledge. Nick hardly ever shows off his knowledge. 1. Bob seldom reads dull books. 2. People seldom talk about the weather on the continent. 3. In Britain people are seldom proud of the things they know. 4. In Britain people seldom do any harm to plants and animals. 5. In Britain people seldom like to live in industrial cities. Use either or neither to make the sentences complete. Example: ... be quiet or leave the library. Either be quiet or leave the library. I like ... dull books nor dull films. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ... you speak to my lawyer or Г11 do it. ... Nelly nor Tom can elect members of Parliament. I can offer you ... my help or my knowledge. You will ... offend them nor protect. 5 Jane Robinson is a primary school teacher. Look at the sentences and say what she tells (asks) her pupils. Example: Where does the sun rise? Jane asks where the sun rises. 1. Does power in Britain belong to the Queen? 2. Why is John laughing? 3. The sun sets'in the west. 4. Don’t do any harm to wild birds and animals! 5. Be especially careful when you cross the street! 6. We all live in the United Kingdom. 7. Why does Nelly feel lonely? 8. Can you understand these signs? 9. Does the House of Commons consist of permanent members? 6 We hope you do remember how to apologize^ in English. These are the usual ways to do it: I’m sorry. I’m very sorry. Sorry, I forgot to tell you. Sorry about yesterday. apologize [a'pcladsaiz] — извиниться, просить извинения 40 I’m terribly sorry. It’s my fault.^ It’s all my fault. Sorry, I forgot to call you. Excuse me. Excuse my being late. Excuse me for being late. People usually receive apologies in these ways: That’s all right. It’s not your fault. C, That’s OK. It’s not important, honestly. F Never mind. Forget it. Don’t worry^ about it. It doesn’t matter. No problem. 7 Listen to the dialogues then act them out. ^50). Read, learn them by heart and 1) - 2) 3) 4) 5) I’m sorry about yesterday. — Forget it. It’s not important, honestly. And it was not your fault. — Mummy, I’m sorry. The cake was so tasty that I ate it all. — Oh, dear! Don’t worry about it. I’ll make another. — Sorry, Nick. That’s my fault. — Oh, no, it isn’t. Don’t worry about it! It doesn’t matter. — Sorry, I forgot to phone you. — That’s OK. Never mind. I got the figures somewhere else. — Excuse my being late. May I come in? — Yes, you may. Better late than never, but better never late. 8 Choose a partner and tell him/her you would like to apologize for something. Let him/her answer you. Act out the dialogues. 9 Match the pictures and the phrases. 1) He has a headache. 2) He has stomachache. * a fault [fo:lt] — вина ^ worry ['wATi] — беспокоиться 3) Не has (а) toothache. 4) She is taking her brother to the dentist. 5) Mother is taking Pete to the doctor. 10 Look at the picture, and name the parts of Nick’s body. Ear, mouth, arm, body, chin, eye, face, finger, hair, head, heart, leg, foot (feet), lip, nose, shoulder, back, neck, stomach, toe. 1 3 1 V 1 s 1 4 -- 1 5 1 6 1 S za Ч 2 1 11 Now can you guess what these words mean? Earache, backache. 42 LET US LEARN UOOK,«^^® ВеВПЕвЯВЕИ Reported Speech Nelly said: “I live in Pskov.” Nelly said that she lived in Pskov. Nelly told mevshe lived in Pskov. After said that or told smb a verb is usually in the past. Direct Speech Reported Speech Examples am/is was She said: “Pete is reading.” are were She said Pete was reading. Tom said: “They are friends.” Tom said they were friends. have/has had I said to Dolly: “Bob has got a dog.” I told Dolly Bob had got a dog. Nelly said to Tim: “I have done it.” Nelly told Tim she had done it. can could Bob said to Fred: “I can’t swim.” Bob told Fred he couldn’t swim. do/does did I said: “It doesn’t snow here.” I said it didn’t snow here. V V(ed)/V3 Mary said to Harry: “We play basketball in play played the gym.” Mary told Harry they played basketball in the gym. write wrote Greg said: “I write letters very seldom.” Greg said he wrote letters very seldom. 43 12 Tell your classmates what they said. Example: Bella: “My brother never tells lies.” Bella said that her brother never told lies. Bob: “We have been to London.” Fred: “I always protect my pet.” Mary: “I never do harm to animals.” Mr Brown: “I am surprised at the news!” Polly and Bill: “We go to school at 9 o’clock.” Lucy: “I can’t skate.” 13 Put in said or told. Example: I ... Bob to come at 5. I told Bob to come at 5. 1. Kate ... she had many pets at home. 2. Sam ... me that Robert didn’t like porridge. 3. Mother ... her son to go to the dentist. 4. My cousin ... he could ski well. 5. She ... us her knowledge of French was good. 14 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words mean: pulse [paIs], temperature ['tempratjb] b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: chest ' silly health lung pain blood regular immediately hurt pressure break touch medicine c) Read the sentences to know how to use the words. chest [tjest] (n): ‘A chest’ is the upper,^ front part of the body of a person or animals. He has a weak chest, lung [Up] (n): a lung — lungs. ‘A lung’ is one of the two organs of breathing in the chest of a person and animals. He has not got good lungs. cough [kof] (v): ‘To cough’ means to force air from the lungs with a sudden sound. — Why is Betty at home today? — She has a cold and coughs all the time. upper ['лрэ] — верхняя 44 cough (n)\ a cough — coughs. He has a bad cough. What a lot of people have coughs this winter! The coughs of the people in the hall made it impossible to hear the speaker, blood [bUd] (n)\ What is the colour of blood? When the policeman came into the room he saw some blood on the floor, pressure ['prejs] (n)\ blood pressure, to take one’s blood pressure. Does the nurse take his blood pressure two times a day? break [breik] (v)’. break — broke [Ьгэик] — broken ['Ьгэикп]. 1. He fell and broke his leg. Wlio has broken the window? Mary dropped her doll and broke it. The cup will break if you drop it. 2. Tom will break the law if he drives too fast on this road. She never breaks a promise, regular ['regjub] (adj): ‘Regular’ means usual, unchanging. He has no regular work. Our regular teacher was not at school today. What is your regular dinner time? regularly ['regjubli] (adv): ‘Regularly’ means in a regular manner. Does he do his morning exercise regularly? pulse [paIs] (n): a. weak pulse, to feel the pulse. Did the doctor feel your pulse when he came? The doctor regularly feels her pulse, health [hel0] (n): There is a Ministry ['ministn] of Health in England. Fresh air and exercise are good for the health. Did the doctor tell Mary that she was in very bad health? healthy ['hel0i] (adj): a healthy climate (place), a healthy way of living, healthy food. The young boy had a healthy appearance. Walking is a healthy exercise. A person is healthy when he is not ill. touch [tAtJ] (v): touch — touched. ‘To touch’ is to put a hand or other part of the body on or against something. Do not touch these things, please. immediately [i'mi;di3tb] (adv): ‘Immediately’ means at once. Stop that immediately! If we leave immediately we can get to the cinema on time, temperature ['tempratjo] (n): to take one’s temperature. The nurse sent Mark home from school today with the temperature of 38 degrees. Did Mother ask him to take his temperature? medicine [’medsn] (n): medicine — medicines, to take medicine, a medicine for headache. She took the cough medicine every three hours. This is a good medicine fpr colds. Does he take medicines regularly? hurt [h3:t] (v): hurt — hurt — hurt. He hurt his back when he fell. My shoe hurts me. She hurt his feelings when she laughed at him. Does it hurt when you move? pain [pern] (n): to be in pain, to feel some pain, to have a pain in the chest. ‘Pain’ is a feeling of being hurt. He has a pain in his leg. The pain in Jack’s tooth became so bad that he went to the dentist. 45 silly ['sill] (adj): silly — sillier — (the) silliest. ‘Silly’ means foolish. Don’t be silly, you can’t drive home while it is snowing so heavily. 15 Give it a name: — the upper, front part of the body; — one of the two organs of breathing in the chest of a person and animals; — to force air from the lungs with a sudden, sharp sound; — to put a hand or other part of the body on or against something; — at once; — a feeling of being hurt; — foolish. 16 Make up not less than 6 sentences (ex. 9, ex. 10, ex. 11 can help you). Example: a) When he fell he hurt his shoulder. b) The old woman had a pain in her neck. c) This is a good medicine for a headache. a) When he fell he hurt his ... . b) The old woman had a pain in her ... . c) This is a good medicine for a ... . 17 Say what the doctor usually does when he/she comes to visit your granny. You may use the words from the box. Example: When’ the doctor comes to visit my granny, he usually asks her to breathe deeply. listens to her chest and lungs, takes her blood pressure, takes her temperature, feels her pulse, tells her to take the medicines regularly, tells her how many times a day to take her medicine 18 Make up as many true sentences as you can. It’s silly of you to him to her to them to us to to to 46 19 Nowadays people want to be strong and healthy. What about you? If you want to keep fit’ remember the rules: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Good Rules to Remember Get up early and go to bed early to keep fit. Take regular exercises to keep fit. Take a cool/cold shower to keep fit. Eat healthy food to keep fit. Never smoke to keep fit. Clean your teeth every morning and every evening to keep fit. Wash your hands before you eat to keep fit. Don’t forget: Too little food m&kes you thin. Too much food makes you fat. The wrong food makes you ill. The right food keeps you well. Too many sweets are bad for you especially for your teeth. 20 Read the proverb, give the Russian equivalent. Learn it by heart. Good health is above wealth.^ LET US READ AMD TALK 21 a) Read the dialogue to find out which of them — the doctor or the patient^ was silly. b) Read the text again and say if the following statements are “True”, “False” or “Not stated”. 1. The patient has been coughing for 14 days. 2. The temperature in the room where the doctor works is below zero. 3. The patient never takes any exercise. 4. The doctor tells the patient to smoke less. 5. The medicine for the cough is not tasty. 6. The patient understood why his feet hurt. ^ to keep fit — быть в форме (быть здоровым) ^ wealth [wel0] — богатство ® patient ['peijant] — пациент 47 AT THE DOCTOR’S Doctor: Would you like to come in? Patient: Thank you. (He coughs.) Doctor: That cough sounds really very bad. How long have you had it? Patient: For about 2 weeks. But it’s all right. Doctor: I think I should listen to your chest and to your lungs. Take off your shirt. Breathe in deeply, that’s right... and again, please, and once more, please. Sit down. I’m going to take your blood pressure. Patient: Can I put my shirt on? It’s rather cold in here. Doctor: Oh, certainly you can. Sorry about the cold. The central heating is broken. Well, ... Do you ever take any exercise? Patient: Not regularly. Sometimes I do. But I hardly ever do morning exercises. Doctor: You should take more exercise. All right. Now I want to take your pulse. Stand up, please, and touch your toes. Do you smoke? Patient: Oh, yes, I do. Doctor. About ten cigarettes a day. Doctor: You shouldn’t smoke at all. You should stop immediately. Now, I want to take your temperature. OK. That’s all right. Well, there you are then. Take this medicine 3 times a day after meals. Patient: But, Doctor, I didn’t come about my cough. Doctor: You didn’t? Patient: No, it’s my feet. Doctor. My feet hurt every time I walk. Doctor: Take your shoes off! Let me see. Do they hurt now? Patient: Oh, yes, they hurt. It hurts awfully here. I’ve had this pain for about 2 weeks. Doctor: I see... And these shoes... How long have you had them? Patient: The shoes? Oh, for about 2 weeks. Doctor. Oh, yes. I see. Doctor. It’s silly of me. Thank you. Doctor^. Goodbye. 22 Answer the questions. 1. Why did the patient come to see the doctor? 2. Why did the doctor begin to listen to the patient’s chest and lungs? 3. Why was it cold in the doctor’s room? 4. Was the patient a healthy man? 23 Read the text (ex. 21) with a partner. 24 Role play the dialogue. Then change over (ex. 21). 25 Say what people do if: — they have a headache; — they can’t sleep; — they have (a) toothache; — they have a pain in the heart; — they have a cold; — they have stomachache. to go to the dentist, to call a doctor, to go to bed, to take some medicine, to have a walk outdoors, to drink warm milk, to drink warm milk with honey or butter 26 Say what you should/shouldn’t do to be healthy (ex. 19 can help you). 27 Think of a story to illustrate the proverb (ex. 20) and tell it. LET US LISTEN ] 28 a) Listen to the text “Tim Takes Medicine” (@ 51) and choose the right answer to each of the question. 1. Why doesn’t Tim take his medicine? a) He doesn’t like it. b) He is well and doesn’t need it. c) His mother is against it. 49 г 2. How does it happen that the cat gets the medicine? a) The cat smells it and asks for it. b) Tim wants to test it on the cat. c) Tim remembers a book in which a boy gave his medicine to his cat. 3. What is the mother’s reaction? a) She doesn’t notice anything. b) She is not happy with what she sees. c) She wants to talk to the doctor. b) What was Tim’s mistake? Why was his behaviour wrong? People say it is impossible to hide secrets. What do you think about it? LET US WRITE 29 This is a short summary of the dialogue (ex. 21). Write it down referring to the past. A patient comes to see the doctor. He is coughing badly. The doctor says he doesn’t like-the patient’s cough and asks him to take off his shirt. He wants to know how long the patient has had his cough. The doctor asks if the patient takes much exercise. The patient says that he doesn’t do it regularly and explains that he hasn’t come about his cough. He says his feet hurt every time he walks. He has had this pain for 2 weeks. Then he understands that he has had new shoes for 2 weeks too. 30 Do ex. 4, ex. 12, ex. 16 in writing. 31 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. chest, lung, cough, blood, pressure, to break (broke, broken), regular, regularly, pulse, health, healthy, to touch, immediately, temperature, medicine, to hurt (hurt, hurt), pain, silly Home Reading Lesson 15, text “Rumpelstiltskin”, part III LESSON 16 LET US REVIEW 1 Let’s play the ‘Champion’ game. Name all the parts of a body you remember. Who’s finished the list? He/She is the champion. Example: P^: A head. P • JT 2* • • • 2 Work in pairs. should make up a compound/ P2 ~ a sentence with it. Example: P^: earache P^: I’ve never had earache. stomach, tooth, head, back, ear, ache 3 Yesterday Nick did a lot of wrong things. He tries to apologize. His elder sister calms him down.^ Complete the dialogues. 1) Nick: Sorry, I forgot to buy the medicine for granny. Sister: .. 2) Nick: .... Sister: Don’t worry about it. I’ve already done it. 3) Nick: Excuse my being late for lunch. Sister: .. 4) Nick: .... Sister: No problem. It was not your fault. 4 Yesterday Pete fell ill. The doctor came, examined^ him and talked to him. Say what the doctor told Pete. Example: “Don’t run about! Stay in bed.” The doctor told Pete not to run about and to stay in bed. 1. You should take your temperature twice a day. 2. Are you coughing badly? ^ a compound [kom'paund] — сложное слово ^ to calm down — зд. успокоить ® examine [ig'zaemin] — осматривать 51 3. Breathe in deeply, through the nose. 4. Take this medicine regularly, three times a day. 5. I’d like to listen to your lungs. 6. Does it hurt to move? Boris’s mother asked him to do some things before going out. When she came back she saw that he had done nothing. Mother got angry. What did she tell Boris? The words below can help you. Example: You should wash up immediately. to buy the medicine, to clean the carpet, to wash the forks, knives and spoons, to wash up, to make the bed 6 Pretend you are a doctor, choose ‘a patient’ among your friends, complete the dialogue and role play it. Patient: Oh, Doctor ..... Doctor: I see. Take off your blouse. I would like to listen to your heart and lungs. Patient: Yes, Doctor. And ..... Doctor: Have you taken your temperature? Patient: .... Doctor: Don’t worry. Patient: What shall I take for my cold? Doctor: ..... 7 Think of three more questions and answers to continue the conversation. Role play the whole dialogue. Don’t forget to change over. 8 We are sure you remember the way to ask for information and to give people information when they need it, especially when you are in some place you don’t know very well. These are the usual phrases: Excuse me, can you tell me the way to ...? c_ How can I get to ...? F How long does it take to get to ...? Is this ...? Does this bus go to ...? Is there a post office near here? Is the museum open on Sunday? Are the shops open on Sunday? When do they (does it) close? 52 9 Listen to the dialogues then act them out. 52). Read, learn them by heart and 1) — Excuse me, officer. Can you help me? — Yes. How may I help you? — Can you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square? — Of course. Go down this street and turn to the right. In less than ten minutes you’ll see Trafalgar Square. — Thanks a lot. — Anytime. 2) — Excuse me, please. I think I’m lost.^ How can I get to the Houses of Parliament? — Walk straight along the street and on the left you’ll see a building with a beautiful tower and a big clock. That’s it. — How long does it take? — Only a few'minutes. — Thank you very much. — You’re welcome. 3) — Is there a post office near here? I’d like to buy some stamps. — Yes, there is. It’s just over there on the opposite side of the street. But I’m afraid it is closed. — Is it open tomorrow? — Sure. — What time does it open? — It opens at nine, I think. — Thanks. — You’re welcome. Glad I was able to help. LET US LEARM tOOK-BEADAWO Reported Speech (Future in the Past) Nelly said: “I will help you.” Nelly said she would help us. I’m lost — я потерялся 53 Carol said: “We shan’t arrive at 5.” Carol said they wouldn’t arrive at 5. Phil asked Mary: “Will you go shopping?” Phil asked Mary if she would go shopping. Don’t forget to change the following: tomorrow ----------► in 2 days ---------► in 3 weeks --------► in 5 months -------► next day ----------► this ► now ► the next day 2 days later 3 weeks later 5 months later the next day, the following day that then Peter said: “We shall start in 2 weeks.” Peter said they would start 2 weeks later. Ann asked: “What will you do next Friday?” Ann asked what I should do the following Friday. Bill asked: “Why will she come tomorrow?” Bill asked why she would come the next day. ГТ---3" 10 This is what Ada said when she met Susan. Tell your classmates what she said. Example: Ada: “I will be fourteen in January.” Ada told Susan she would be fourteen in January. 1. Ada: “We will buy the medicine later.” 2. Ada: “Tim will phone us.” 3. Ada: “They will spend their holiday in Spain.” 4. Ada: “Bill will go shopping after lunch.” 5. Ada: “Father will go to the bank.” 6. Ada: “We shall go to the cinema on Monday.” 11 Work in groups of three. Follow the example. Example: P,: I will go to the Crimea next month. Pg: What did P^ say? Pg: He said he would go to the Crimea next month. 1. The doctor will feel my pulse. 2. I am sure my little brother will break this toy car. 3. My granny will take my temperature. 4. My mother will take her blood pressure. 5. My elder sister will visit a doctor tomorrow. 54 вЕмемвев no indefinite article a/an weather advice information knowledge progress money news hair* is always in the singular 1. What wonderful weather we are having today! 2. It’s good advice. Thank you for it. 3. No news is good news. 4. Is bad news better than no news? 5. Where is the money? — It is on the table. 6. What interesting and unusual information! You have to believe it! 12 Express the following in English. 1) Какая чудесная погода! 2) Новости важные. Кто принёс их? 3) Советы хороши, но я не могу последовать им. 4) Сведения неверные. Постарайся получить их снова. 5) Где деньги? — Я положила их в сумку. Я думаю, они там. 13 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words and word combinations mean: match [mastj], phone [faun], patient ['peijant], to examine [ig'zsemin] a patient, serious ['sionos], seriously ['sioriosh], to run (have) a high temperature, pretty bad = very bad b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: excite sneeze worry prescribe throat fall nod recover fall ill tongue swallow ^ hair в значении волосы всегда употребляется в единственном числе, однако возможно более редкое употребление hairs в значении волоски 55 с) Read the sentences to know how to use the words. excite [ik'sait] (v): excite — excited. ‘To excite’ means to make smb feel happy or enthusiastic about smth pleasant or good. The story excited the little boy very much. Don’t excite yourself! to be (get) excited about (by) smth: The patient is very ill and must not be excited. There is nothing to get excited about. Everybody was excited by the news of the victory, throat [Grant] (n): ‘The throat’ is the front of the neck. When you have a cold your throat is often red. To have a sore [so:] throat. Nick is ill. He has a sore throat. I often have a sore throat in autumn, fall [fo:l] (v): fall — fell — fallen. The book fell from the table to the floor. He fell out of the window. The leaves fall in autumn, to fall ill: He has fallen ill. nod [nnd] (v): nod — nodded. ‘To nod’ means to bow the head quickly as a sign of agreement or as a greeting. I asked him if he could come and he nodded. He nodded to me as he passed. He nodded to show that he understood. The president nodded and everyone sat down around the table. He nodded as if to say “yes”, examine [ig'zaemin] (v): examine — examined, to examine a patient, to examine a child, to examine a new theory ['Gian], plan. The doctor examined the child to see if she was ill. swallow [’swDbu] (v): swallow — swallowed. ‘To swallow’ is to move food or drink down the throat from the mouth into the stomach. The child had a sore throat and it was difficult for him to swallow, tongue [Up] (tv): a tongue — tongues. ‘The tongue’ is a movable organ in the mouth, used for tasting and swallowing or speaking. People use their tongues to speak. An animal’s tongue is cooked and used as food. Mother tongue. My mother tongue is Russian, worry ['wAfi] (v): worry — worried. ‘To worry’ means to give a person (oneself) no peace of mind. What is worrying you? — I have a bad tooth that is worrying me. She worries about little things. Her parents worry when she is out too late. The arithmetic problem worried her. sneeze [sni:z] (v): sneeze — sneezed. He has caught a cold and now he is sneezing very often. Whenever Tom has a cold he always coughs and sneezes. serious ['siarias] (adj): serious — more serious — the most serious, a serious face, a serious problem. After a few jokes his speech became serious. seriously ['siariasli] (adv): ‘Seriously’ means in a serious manner. He is seriously ill. 56 recover [п'клуэ] (v): recover — recovered. He has recovered from his bad cold and can go out tomorrow. She recovered slowly after her long illness.^ prescribe [pn'skraib] (v): prescribe — prescribed, to prescribe a medicine for ... (smb/smth). The doctor prescribed a new medicine for the pain in my chest. The doctor prescribed some medicine for John and he soon recovered. 14 Give it a name: — the front of the neck; — to bow the head quickly as a sign of agreement or as a greeting; — to look at smth closely and carefully in order to find out something; — to move food or drink down the throat from the mouth into the stomach; ' — an organ in the mouth used for tasting, swallowing or speaking; — to give a person (oneself) no peace of mind. 15 Make up not less than 6 sentences, completing the following. Everybody was excited by__ Example: Everybody was excited by their arrival. 16 Work in pairs. names a part of the body. uses this word in the sentence The doctor prescribed a new medicine for the pain in my______Don’t forget to change over. Example: P^: chest Pg: The doctor prescribed a new medicine for the pain in my chest. 17 You came to see your friend after the doctor’s visit. Ask him/her questions about this visit. Example: Did the doctor examine your body? 18 Say it right. How many true sentences can you make? I asked him to help me to prescribe the medicine to examine the child to swallow a spoonful of the medicine to show me his tongue and he nodded as if to say yes' ^ illness ['ilnis] — болезнь 57 V + -able = Adj imagine + -able = imaginable respect + -able = respectable read + -able = readable break -t- -able = breakable move + -able = movable Adj + -ness = N white + -ness = whiteness ill + -ness = illness polite + -ness = politeness weak -t- -ness = weakness 19 Look at the table above and fill in the necessary words. Example: The ... of the snow is fantastic! ^ The whiteness of the snow is fantastic! 1. She is very ill but the doctor doesn’t know what . 2. Though the cup is made of thin glass it is not .... 3. The Queen thought of all names ... to guess Rumpelstiltskin. 4. Everybody respects this gentleman. He is very_____ 5. I can’t read the book. I don’t think it is_ 6. Strong people don’t like___ 7. We were surprised at your formal ____ it is. the name of 58 LET US LISTEIU, READ AMD LEARM 20 Listen to the poem “Your Cold Is Getting Worse”, 53, and read it. Then learn it by heart. YOUR COLD IS GETTING WORSE (by Caroline Graham) Your cold is getting worse, You ought to^ see the nurse. Oh, no. I’m fine. My cold is much better. Your cough is getting worse. You ought to see the nurse. ‘‘ Oh, no, I’m fine. My cough is much better. Your cough sounds bad. It doesn’t sound good. You ought to see the nurse. You really should. 21 Read the proverb, give the Russian equivalent. Learn it by heart. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise,^ LET US READ AMD TALK 22 a) Read the text and decide which title is the best for it. • Doctor Green and the Bells • Ronald is Really 111 • Ronald’s “Trick” Illness b) Say what Ronald’s imaginary illnesses are and when he usually has them. Last Thursday morning Ronald Bell took part in the football match. The game was really exciting and Ronald’s team® won. The weather that day wasn’t fine at all. It was rather cold, there were dark clouds in the sky and it even started to rain several times. ' ought to = should ^ wise [waiz] — мудрый ® team — команда 59 When Ronald came home he felt that something was wrong with him. He had a terrible headache, a sore throat and he had a bad pain in his legs. He felt so bad that he decided to go to bed without his dinner. His mother understood that Ronald was ill and phoned Doctor Green. “Doctor, I think Ronald has fallen ill. Could you come?” Doctor Green visited the Bells the next morning. She was a nice woman of about 35. She came into Ronald’s room and asked him how he felt. Then she took the boy’s pulse, listened to his heart and lungs: “You feel pretty bad, don’t you?” she asked. “Terrible,” Ronald nodded. He said that sometimes when they had had a test at school he could pretend to be ill, just because he didn’t want to go to school. But it was not his “trick” illness this time. The doctor examined the boy’s throat and tongue. Ronald said that he -had stomachache and a pain in the right side.^ Doctor Green took the boy’s temperature. It was rather high. His throat was red and it was difficult for him to swallow and to breathe. Ronald’s mother asked if it was flu or tonsillitis.^ But Doctor Green told her not to worry. She said it was neither flu nor tonsillitis. It was just a bad cold. “Ronald is running a high temperature. He is sneezing and coughing now, but I’m sure, he will be much better in a few days. It is not serious. I am going to prescribe some medicine for his headache and his sore throat. Please, Mrs Bell, go and get the medicine. And you, Ronald, should stay in bed for 3 days at least.^ Drink warm milk with honey or mineral water. Then you will recover soon. Cheer up! I’ll send a specialist to have a look at your right side. Bye!” With these words she left the room. ' side — зд. бок ^ tonsillitis ['tonsi'laitis] — ангина ® at least [li:st] — no крайней мере 60 23 Find and read aloud the sentences to describe: — the weather; — Ronald’s illness; — what the doctor did when she came; — what the doctor asked Ronald to do. 24 Ask questions on the text for your classmates to answer. 25 Put the points in a logical order according to the text. 1. The doctor’s advice. 2. The mother’s call to the doctor. 3. The weather on the football match day. 4. The doctor’s visit. 5. Ronald’s health at the end of the day. 26 Were any of your classmates absent from the lesson? Tell him/her in brief what the text is about. (See ex. 22.) Use ex. 25 as a plan. 27 We hope you understand the proverb (ex. 21). Then think of a story to illustrate it and tell the story to your classmates. 28 Choose a partner and talk to him/her about the doctor’s last visit when you were ill. LET US LISTEiy AMD TALK [5ЕЁ1 29 a) Listen to the text “The Doctor’s Advice” (@ 54) and choose the right statement. 1. The doctor told the old gentleman to take some medicine. 2. The old gentleman went to the country and stayed there for two months. 3. When the gentleman came back to town he didn’t feel any better. 4. The gentleman had begun smoking when he lived in the country. b) Why do fewer people smoke nowadays? What makes people begin smoking? Are you against smoking? Why? 61 I LET US WRITE 30 Make a list of all the parts of the body you remember. 31 Do ex. 4, ex. 11, ex. 12 in writing. 32 Form the words according to the example. (See “LOOK, READ AND REMEMBER”, p. 58.) Check the spelling of the new words in the dictionary. V + -able = Adj + -ness = respect — weak — move — polite — change — dark — forget — fresh — count — ugly — 33 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. to excite, to be/get excited aboutjby smth, throat, to fall (fell, fallen), to fall III, to nod, to examine, to swallow, tongue, to worry, to sneeze, serious, seriously, to recover, to prescribe Home Reading Lesson 16, text “The Old Woman and the Doctor” 62 LESSON 17 LET US REVIEW 1 Group the words into 4 categories: N, V, Adj, Adv. Excite, seriously, throat, immediately, cough, sneeze, recover, serious, blood, pain, silly, worry, tongue, swallow, hurt, nod, fall, examine, regularly, lung, chest, carefully, seldom 2 Complete the sentences. 1. ... excited the little girl very much. 2. ... he always doughs and sneezes. 3. The doctor prescribed a medicine for____ 4. ... is seriously ill. 5. She worries about____ 6. People use their tongue to____ 3 Agree or disagree. 1. When you have a sore throat you can go for a walk. 2. You should always stay in bed when you cough. 3. You will recover quicker if you stay in bed. 4. If the doctor prescribes a medicine for you, you shouldn’t take it regularly. 5. A person is healthy when he is free from illness. 6. You should eat the right food to keep fit. 4 Bob was ill. Mother tried to encourage^ him. Say what Mother told Bob. Example: You will stay in bed till tomorrow. Mother said he would stay in bed till the next day. Mother: — You will stay in bed till tomorrow. — We shall go to the doctor in 3 days. — The doctor will feel your pulse. — The doctor will listen to your heart. — I shall take your temperature. — Don’t worry. You will recover soon. ^4^ ' to encourage [ш'клпёз] — подбодрить 63 Peter is a boy from the USA. He is in the centre of Moscow. He is near the monument to Yuri Dolgoruky. He is lost. Pretend you are Peter and ask the way to: a) the nearest post office, b) Red Square, c) the Bolshoi Theatre. Let your classmates tell you the way. Make up: a) adjectives from the following verbs: respect, move, drink, break; b) nouns from adjectives: ill, white, polite, kind. Example: a) laugh — laughable b) serious — seriousness Do you remember some phrases people use when they talk at the shops? If not, look at the list below. How much does it cost?^ What can 1 do for you? ^ How much is it? Why don’t you buy it? F I’d like to have a look at Can 1 help you? Can you show me ...? What size are you? Excuse me. I’d like What would you like to see? Can you change ...? What would you like to buy? t 8 Listen to the dialogues then act them out. 55). Read, learn them by heart and AT THE CHEMIST’S^' 1) — Good afternoon. — Good afternoon. Can I help you? — Yes, Fve got a terrible headache. — How long have you had it? — Only about two or three hours. — Try this medicine. — How much does it cost? — Three pounds, please. — Here you are. Thank you. — Thank you. ' cost [kost] (cost; cost) — стоить ^ at the chemist’s ['kemists] — в аптеке 64 2) — Good morning. — Good morning. What can I do for you? — I’d like a toothbrush^ and a tube of toothpaste.^ — Is that all, madam? — Yes, that’s all, thank you. 9 Fill in a, the or (zero article) to complete the sentences. — ... information is very important. — Where is ... money? — Do you think ... money is important in our life? — What ... weather do you like ... cold weather or ... hot weather? — What ... important news! — ... advice is good. LET IIS LEARIU - read awd I.OOKr BEWiew®®" Reported Speech Nelly said: “I have bought a good book.” Nelly said: “I bought a good book.” Nelly said she had bought a good book. present perfect past indefinite Ann said to Helen: f “Pete broke the glass. past perfect (in the reported speech) “Pete has broken the glass.’ Ann told Helen Pete had broken the glass. Fred asked Jill: | “Did you hear the news?” \ “Have you heard the news?’ Fred asked Jill if she had heard the news. * a toothbrush ['Ш:0ЬглЛ — зубная щётка ^ toothpaste ['tu:0peist] — зубная паста Frank asked Tom: | “Where did Jack go?” 1 “Where has Jack gone?’ Frank asked Tom where Jack had gone. Don’t forget the following changes. here --------► there now ------ this --------► that these ------ today -------► that day yesterday ---------- ago ---------► before last ------ then those the day before the previous ^ Compare: Frank said: “It’s hot here.” Frank said it was hot there. Mary asked: “Where do you live now?” Mary asked (me) where I lived then. David asked: “Have you seen this film?” David asked (me) if I had seen that film. Jane asked: “Have you bought these flowers?” Jane asked (me) if I had bought those flowers. John asked: “What are you doing today?” John asked (us) what we were doing that day. Betty asked: “Where was Nora yesterday?” Betty asked where Nora had been the day before. Kate asked: “Who broke the cup 3 days ago?” Kate asked who had broken the cup 3 days before. Sara asked: “Why didn’t you go to school last Friday?” Sara asked (me) why I hadn’t gone to school the previous Friday. 10 Work in groups of three. Follow the example. Example: P^: I wrote to my parents yesterday. What did say? Pg: He said he had written to his parents the day before. 1. Jack is coughing badly. 2. The doctor examined the patient two days ago. 3. Val is seriously ill now. 4. You will recover soon. 5. Show me your tongue, please. 6. Where did you go last night? 7. Have you done it today? previous ['pri;vios] — предыдущий LOOK. **®*^e**** bewewbeb the sick boy the sick girl the sick children the sick pupils ill/sick^ Nick is ill. Nick is a sick boy. the boy is ill/sick the girl is ill/sick the children are ill/sick the pupils are ill/sick to be ill = to be sick (Am. E.) 11 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words and word combinations mean: a diet ['daiat] to keep to a diet to be on a diet to keep to a diet of salad and fruit b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: suffer ride definite cream soft drinks definitely bitter fry soft bicycle cottage cheese dairy products c) Read the sentences to know how to use the words, suffer ['sAfo] (u): suffer — suffered. ‘Suffer’ means to feel pain. to suffer from: He suffers from headaches. She has suffered from a sore throat all week. She suffered from a broken leg. diet ['daiot] (n): ‘Diet’ is what one usually eats and drinks. The Japanese diet of fish, rice^ and vegetables. Proper diet and exercise are both important for health. The doctor ordered him a diet without sugar. to be on a diet: No cake for me, thank you! I’m on a diet. ^ sick [sik] — больной ^ rice [rais] — рис 67 to keep to a diet: The doctor told me to keep to a diet, fry [frai] (v): fry — fried. Shall I fry the fish for dinner? Andy fried bacon and eggs for breakfast. Fried food, fried eggs, cream [kri;m] (n): Cream is at the top of the milk. Butter is made from cream. Do you like cream? Would you like your coffee with cream? soft [soft] (adj): soft — softer — (the) softest. ‘Soft’ is not hard. Soft ground, soft voice, soft water, a soft drink. She has a soft voice. He likes only soft drinks. cottage cheese ['kDtid3 'tji:z] (n): ‘Cottage cheese’ is a soft white cheese. Russian people often eat cottage cheese for breakfast, dairy products ['dean 'prodAkts] (n): dairy products — products made from milk. My granny eats a lot of dairy products, bitter [bito] (adj): 1. ‘Bitter’ means having a bad taste. The strong coffee tasted bitter. The boy did not like the bitter medicine for his cough. 2. Bitter cold, bitter enemy. Put on your sweater. It’s bitter cold. Paul is my bitter enemy. definite ['definit] (adj): I want a definite answer “yes” or “no”. It is definite that Mary is going to school next autumn. The definite article, the indefinite article. definitely [’definitli] (adv): Definitely — in a definite way. He is definitely going to speak. That answer is definitely true. — Are you going with us? — Definitely. ride [raid] (v): ride — rode — ridden. ‘To ride’ means to sit on a horse or other animal and be carried along by it. He jumped on his horse and rode away. The youngest child rode on its father’s back. We rode across the fields. bicycle fbaisikl] (n): a bicycle — bicycles, a bicycle — bike, to ride a bicycle, to get on a bicycle, to get off a ^bicycle. Can you ride a bicycle? He got on his bike and rode slowly down the road, my (his) cup of tea: I don’t want to ride a horse, it’s not my cup of tea. 12 Give it a name: — to feel pain; — to be cooked in hot oiP or butter; — having a bad taste; — clear and certain; — in a definite way; — to sit on a horse or other animal and be carried along by it; — not hard. ^ oil [oil] — растительное масло 68 13 Answer the questions. 1. What dairy products do you know? 2. Who suffers from headaches in your family? 3. Who is on a diet without sugar? (meat? bread?) 4. Which of your family keeps to a diet of salad and fruit? 5. What is made from cream? 6. What is made from milk? 7. Which of you likes fried eggs? 8. When do you usually fry fish? 9. Strong coffee tastes bitter, doesn’t it? 10. Who is definitely going to speak? 11. Where can you ride a bicycle? 12. You like soft drinks, don’t you? Ч 14 Disagree. Example: — You get a sore throat when you keep to a diet of fruit. — I’m afraid you are not right. You don’t get a sore throat when you keep to a diet of fruit. 1. When you suffer from a headache you have a pain in the stomach. 2. When you suffer from tonsillitis you have a pain in your leg. 3. If you are on a diet you usually eat a lot of fried food. 4. Your mother lets you eat ice cream when you have a sore throat. 5. You never stay in bed, when you are seriously ill. 15 Look at the pictures and say where Nick rides his bicycle. 16 Say it right. How many true sentences can you write? Example: Swimming is not her cup of tea. Swimming Riding a bike her Playing the piano is not my Writing poems his Shopping Reading detective stories your cup of tea. LET US LISTEIU, READ AHID LEARIU 17 Listen to the poem “Mama Knows Best” ((^56), and read it. Then learn it by heart. MAMA KNOWS BEST (by Caroline Graham) You shouldn’t do it that way. You ought to do it this way. You ought to do it this way. You ought to do it my way. You shouldn’t wear it that way. ' You ought to wear it this way. You ought to wear it this way. You ought to wear it my way. Ч You shouldn’t go with them. You ought to go with us. You shouldn’t take the train. You ought to take the bus. You shouldn’t wear that hat. You ought to cut your hair. You shouldn’t get so fat. You ought to eat a pear. You shouldn’t do it that way. You ought to do it this way. You ought to do it this way. You ought to do it my way. LET US READ AND TALK 18 a) Look at the title of the dialogue and try to say what it is about. b) Some people live long lives and feel really well, some people suffer from all illnesses imaginable. What helps a person to keep fit, to remain healthy? You know some rules already. Now read the dialogue and draw out some more rules about what people should/shouldn’t do to keep fit. WHAT WE SHOULD DO TO KEEP FIT David: Hi, Steve. You look fantastic! I haven’t seen you for a long time and you haven’t changed a bit. You really look healthy. Steve: I guess I do. I hardly ever get a cold, maybe once in 2 or 3 years and that’s all. I never suffer from anything. David: No headaches, backaches, pains in the stomach? Steve (laughs): No, and my legs don’t hurt and my arms don’t hurt either. David: Do you think that’s because of your diet or the exercise you take? Steve: Oh, I don’t know. I mean I like food, and I think I eat healthy food — fruit, vegetables, lots of salad. But I also enjoy fried food, meat, fish. And I like dairy products — milk, cream, sour cream, cottage cheese. I eat bread and I am fond of pancakes with caviar though I don’t like sweets. In fact I like neither bitter nor sweet things. So, as you see, I can’t say I keep toa diet. David: No, definitely not. Do you take regular exercise? Steve: Not enough I think. My work keeps me busy. In summer I play volleyball, swim and ride a bicycle. Last summer I tried to ride a horse but quickly understood that wasn’t my cup of tea. David: Do you go in for any winter sports? Steve: Not really. I mean I walk a lot. But no jogging or playing indoor games. So that’s the exercise I do. By the way I don’t smoke and never drink alcohol, only soft drinks. 19 Read out what Steve does to keep fit. 71 N 20 Choose the right variant according to the text (ex. 18). Steve hasn’t changed a bit. Steve has changed a lot. Steve never suffers from anything. Steve suffers from all illnesses imaginable. Steve’s legs hurt a lot. Steve’s legs hardly ever hurt. Steve takes a lot of exercise. Steve doesn’t go in for sports regularly. Steve keeps to a diet. Steve doesn’t keep to a diet. Steve drives a car. Steve rides a bike. 1. a) b) 2. a) b) 3. a) b) 4. a) b) 5. a) b) 6. a) b) 21 Pretend you are a doctor. Let the classmates answer your questions about their health. 22 Retell the text (ex. 18) in your own words. Refer your retelling to the past. 23 Say what you should eat for good health. 24 Say what exercise you should take to keep fit. LET US LISTEN AMD TALK 25 a) Listen to the text “An III Turn” in the right order. 57) and put the items a) Miss Martha decided to help the poor man. b) When the man came to the shop again he was very angry. c) Miss Martha thought that the man did not look healthy. d) Miss Martha had a shop where she sold bread. e) Miss Martha put some butter on the man’s bread. f) The man explained that now his plan was good for nothing. g) The man was not young but very pleasant. b) Can you think of a different kind of end to the story? 72 LET US WRITE 26 You are sure to know some words for food and drink. Copy the table and fill it in. Food Drinks Cold Hot Cold Hot 27 Write not less than 10 good rules to keep fit. 28 Do ex. 4, ex. 9 in writing. 29 Remember the fast time you were ill. Describe it. (Write not less than 10 sentences.) 30 Read the text and complete it using the right* forms of the verbs. THE TRAVELLER A man once went to Greece. When he (come) home he {begin) {tell) tales about his trip. He {speak) about the things he {done). One day he {tell) his friends he {take) part in a jumping-match. “I {win) it. Just {go) to Greece and ask them. Everyone {tell) you it’s true.” But one of his friends who {listen) to him said, “If you can jump as well as that, we needn’t go to Greece. Let’s {imagine) this is Greece for a minute. And now — jump!” (After a fable by Aesop) 31 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. to SMffer (from), diet, to be on a diet, to keep to a diet, to fry, cream, soft, soft drink, cottoge cheese, doiry products, bitter, definite, definitely, to ride (rode, ridden), bicycle (bike), (not) my (his) cup of tea Home Reading Lesson 17, text “George Mikes and His Book 73 LESSOlU 18 Review 2 LET US TALK Imagine that you are a teacher of geography. Use the map of Great Britain (see p. 12) and tell your imagined pupils all you can about Britain. (Lesson 12, ex. 16, ex. 18, ex. 19 can help you.) Say all you can about the power of state in Great Britain, the Queen and Parliament. (Lesson 13, ex. 21, ex. 22 can help you.) Say in what way the British differ from the people living on the continent. (Lesson 14, ex. 17, ex. 18 can help you.) We are sure you have a younger brother/sister or a friend. But we are not sure they have good table manners. Can you teach them? (Lesson 14, ex. 17, ex. 19 can help you.) Say what people should do to keep fit. (Lesson 15, ex. 19, ex. 21, Lesson 17, ex. 14, ex. 19 can help you.) Work in pairs. Choose a partner and ask him/her questions about: — his/her health; his/her last illness; his/her last visit to the doctor. Don’t forget to change over. (Lesson 17, ex. 8, ex. 18 can help you.) 7 Complete the text with the items that fit in best. Alice was a schoolgirl. She (1) _______ Teacher (2) _______ very unusual. The girl (3) _______. Miss Reed very much and wanted to know about her as much as she (4) ________. Alice never (5) _______ to think about Miss Reed. She (6) ________where Miss Reed usually (7) when the school was over. Alice was interested if her teacher lived alone, if she (8) any brothers or sisters. 1. a) think, b) thought, c) thinks, d) was thinking 2. a) is, b) are, c) was, d) were 3. a) likes, b) like, c) liked, d) liking 4. a) could, b) can, c) can’t, d) couldn’t 5. a) stop, b) was stopped, c) has stopped, d) stopped 6. a) wonders, b) wonder, c) wondered, d) has wondered 7. a) go, b) goes, c) had gone, d) went 8. a) has, b) had, c) have, d) has had 74 LET US READ AMD TALK 8 a) Read and say what the main idea of the text is. b) Complete the sentences after the text choosing the best variant. MR MARTIN Mr Martin had never married. He lived alone in a small house in a village situated in the south of Wales. Mr Martin never felt lonely. He was very much interested in many different things. He tried to get as much information as possible about the United Kingdom, the Royal Family and its history. He wanted to know what the government was doing about the lives of poor people in big industrial cities. Mr Martin studied law seriously and often had long talks about the problems of power in the country with his neighbour,* a former lawyer. He had very interesting plans to offer, plans how to make the work of Parliament better. But he was especially interested in the problems of health. Mr Martin had a lot of knowledge about health and medicine. He led a regular life and was always very careful about what he ate and drank. He hardly ever went out when the weather was cold because he was always afraid that he would fall ill. He was afraid of getting some terrible illness. So he often went to see his doctor whom he respected very much and whom he definitely believed. But the doctor was getting very ^ neighbour ['neiba] — сосед 75 tired of Mr Martin’s regular visits and his imagined illnesses. In fact Mr Martin was a healthy man, he seldom caught a cold, he never had a headache, earache or pains in the stomach. But he thought he had all the illnesses imaginable. One day Mr Martin hurried into the doctor’s office and told him he was sure he had some terrible illness which he had read about in the newspaper. He showed the doctor the paper. The doctor read it carefully and then said: “I’m surprised, Mr Martin, that you think you have this illness. There are no signs that you have it. As it is written here, people don’t know when they have this illness. There are no symptoms ['simptamz] and people usually feel very well. They don’t cough or sneeze, they have no pains in the head or in any other part of the body, their pulse is normal ['no:ml], so is their blood pressure. It doesn’t hurt them to move, to breathe or to swallow. So, please, don’t be silly. You shouldn’t worry.” Mr Martin was offended. “But that’s just how I feel, doctor. I don’t suffer from all these things either.” 1. Mr Martin was interested .... a) in politics most of all b) only in his health c) mainly in the problems of medicine and health 2. The Doctor ... that Mr Martin was ill. a) didn’t think b) was sure c) imagined ’ 9 Find and read out the sentences to describe the pictures. 10 Find and read out from the text all the words and word combinations referring to the topic “Health”. 11 Ask questions on the text for your classmates to answer them. 12 Were any of your classmates absent from the lesson? Tell him/her in brief what the text is about. (See ex. 8.) Sports and Games LESSON 19 LET US REVIEW 1 Express the same ideas using ought to. Example: You should examine these pictures carefully. You ought to examine these pictures carefully. 1. You should keep to a fruit diet. 2. You should eat more dairy products. 3. You should definitely visit your granny every week. 4. You should take some cream, cottage cheese and butter to your grandparents. 5. You should take your little sister to the eye specialist. 6. You should clean the flat with the vacuum cleaner. 2 Say what the children told their mother yesterday. Example: Fanny: Jack was excited. Fanny told her mother Jack had been excited. Jim: Nelly has already recovered. Bill: Caroline nodded to me when I saw her. Jack: The picture fell from the wall 3 days ago. Ann: The doctor examined my throat. Fred: It hurt me to swallow. Tom: We have bought the medicine. John: We felt excited. Sue: Join us! 3 Say what the children asked their teacher last week. Example: Carol: Where does the sun rise? Carol asked the teacher where the sun rose. Kate: When will we go to see the Houses of Parliament? Boris: Did Jack play the violin at school? Andrew: Who does the book belong to? Steve: Where is Nick’s bicycle? 77 George: Who protected the little girl? Pam: What separates England from the continent? 4 Fill in the table: my him she it us your them Choose the right word. 1. Look! I’ve bdught the books. Shall I give (their, them) to you? 2. Pete, I’m talking to (you, your). Where are (you, your) keys? 3. Ann’s little cousin is playing the piano. She can play (it, its) well. 4. Do you see the boy near the blackboard? Do you know (him, his)l — I do. But I don’t remember (him, his) name. 5. I’m not sure it is (their, them) problem. 6. This is my dog Rex. (It, Its) tail is black-and-white. Use the right pronoun to complete the sentences. 1. I don’t know these men. Do you know ...? 2. Where is Tom? I want to speak to__ 3. We live in Wales. ... parents live with .... 4. Ann, have you done ... homework? Have ... finished ... yet? 5. I have bought nice fresh bread. Will you take ... out of bag? 6. They are in the garden. But where are ... children? the LET US LEARIU LOOK, bead BEWIEWIBER I — my — mine he — his — his she — her — hers it , — its — its we — our — ours you — your — yours they — their — theirs — Whose book is this? — It’s my book. — Are you sure it is yours? — Yes, I am. It’s mine. — Whose bicycles are they? — They are our bikes. They are ours. Complete the sentences. Example: It’s my washing machine. It is mine. 1. It is our village. It is_ 2. They are his puppies. They are — 3. It is her violin. It is__ 4. They are our chrysanthemums. They are _____ 5. It is your guitar. It is .... 6. They are their sculptures. They are____ UOOK, ВЕЛО AND Future Indefinite He will go to bed They will read to you She will call me We shall buy a new sofa Present Indefinite when he comes home, when you are in bed. if she arrives, if we get the money. She will go to the doctor if she doesn’t get better. We shall be surprised if he doesn’t protect her. They will go to the stadium if it doesn’t rain. I will play the guitar if he is not in. 8 Say what they will do when the lesson is over. Example: When the lesson is over, Nick will go to the cinema. 80 т 9 Begin or complete the sentences. a) b) 1. If it doesn’t snow, ... 2. When they finish their job, ..... 3. When we learn the poem, ...... 4. If we go to the cinema, ... 5. If the weather is fine, ... 1 .....I will go shopping. 2 .....she will book a ticket. 3 .....they will eat pancakes with caviar. 4 ....he will explore the new land. 5 ....they will continue their work. 10 Say what you will do if it doesn’t rain. Example: I will go swimming if it doesn’t rain. 11 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words mean: cricket ['krikit] athletics [aeG'letiks] golf [golf] horse riding ['ho;s raidip] club [kUb] climbing ['klaimir)] rugby ['глдЬт] university [Ju;ni'v3:siti] college ['knlicfe] international [,т1э'пае/пэ1] match [maetj] championship ['tfffimpianjip] b) Look up the words in your vocabulary: boat boating invent probably team exist lawn widely row rowing develop spread compete competition hold c) Read the phrases and sentences to know how to use the words. boat [bout] (n): a boat — boats, to go in a boat. Every summer they travel along the Thames in a boat, boating: My cousins are fond of boating. Boating is a popular sport in Britain. to go boating: It is so pleasant to go boating early in the morning, row [гэи] (v): row — rowed. ‘To row’ means to move through the water in a boat with oars.^ We rowed across the lake. Can you row a boat? ' oars [o;z] — вёсла rowing: to go in for rowing. Rowing is popular in many European countries. My elder brother is a sportsman. He goes in for rowing, invent [inVent] (v): invent — invented. ‘To invent’ means to make or think of something for the first time. — Who invented the telephone? — Alexander Bell did. He invented the telephone in 1876. Radio was invented by A. Popov in 1895. develop [di'vebp] (v): develop — developed, to develop a business. The government should develop new industries. I’d like to develop this idea. probably ['probobli] (adv): You will probably win the game. John probably told his father all about it, but I’m not sure. We’ll probably go on a trip this summer. spread [spred] (v): spread — spread — spread. 1. The news of the discovery spread quickly. If I tell you this secret, don’t spread it. The fire soon spread through the whole village. 2. Spread jam on your bread, widespread: a widespread illness, a widespread sport, team [ti:m] (n): a team — teams. A ‘team’ is a group of people acting together in a game. A football team, a basketball team, a volleyball team, a hockey team. John is in the school cricket team, compete [kam'piit] (v): compete — competed. ‘To compete’ means to try to win. The two girls competed for the first prize, competition [,knmpi'ti/n] (n): a competition — competitions, an important competition. to be in competition with: He was in competition with 10 others. Our team was in competition with three others for the championship. George is going to take part in the swimming competition, exist [ig'zist] (v): exist — existed. ‘To exist’ means to live or to be real. Many people believe that God exists. We cannot exist without air, food and warmth. Man cannot exist for long without water, lawn [b:n] (n): a lawn — lawns, a green lawn. A lawn is an area ['еэ пэ] of land covered with grass around the house. A lawn in front of the house. Lawn tennis is played on a lawn, hold [hauld] (v): hold — held — held. ‘To hold’ means to keep or to take in the hands or arms. If you hold my bag I will unlock the door. The girl was holding her father’s hand. Hold your head up! to hold a competition in smth: They hold a competition in boxing. 12 Read out the names of sports and games. Competition, athletics, boating, climbing, mountain, probably, horse riding, golf, ball, skating, rugby, row, team, volleyball, lawn tennis, cricket, basketball, skiing, hockey, develop, football, boat, compete, lawn, rowing. 82 13 Say it right. Make up as many true sentences as you can. was invented a) Radio Football The telephone Fast food b) Cricket Boxing Rugby Hockey Golf Football Skiing is spread by A. Bell, in America, in England, by A. Popov. all over the world, in Britain, in Russia, in England. 14 Say what game you will probably play next Monday. Example: I will probably play chess next Monday. 15 Name 5 or 6 widespread sports and games in Russia. 16 Use the following word combinations in the sentences of your own. Example: to develop one’s body A lot of exercises develop our bodies. to develop a plan, to develop one’s business, to develop one’s ideas, to develop one’s imagination, to develop a new industry 17 Fill in the words boat (boating), row (rowing), team, college, international, competition, lawn. 1. ... and ... are popular sports in Britain. 2. Our football ... took part in the.......last year. 3. There is a green ... in front of our cottage. 4. Where do you keep your fishing ...? 5. He goes in for sports and takes part in all ... competitions. 6. Can you ...? 7. Are you a member of your ... cricket team? 83 LET US LISTEIU, READ AlUD LEARIU 18 Listen to the poem “Selfish”’ ((^58). Then read and learn it by heart. SELFISH (after Caroline Graham) This is mine! That’s yours! Don’t touch mine! Get your own. This is mine. That’s yours. That’s yours. Hey, what are you doing? What are you doing with that? That’s mine! Hey, what are you doing? What are you doing with that? That’s his! Hey, what are you doing? What are you doing with that? That’s hers! What’s mine is mine. What’s yours is yours. What’s his is his. What’s hers is hers. What’s ours is ours. What’s theirs is theirs. * selfish ['selfij] — зд. эгоист 84 LET US READ AIUD TALK 19 Read the text and answer the question at its end. POPULAR BRITISH SPORTS AND GAMES The British people like everyone else like sports and games. But if they are asked to name their favourite sport they will probably name football, cricket and tennis, though many of them go in for such sports as golf and hockey, athletics and climbing, horse riding and boating, rugby and rowing. Britain invented and developed many of the sports and games which are now played all over the world. Football is one of them. Probably the most popular sport nowadays was first developed in England. It is spread all over the country — in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their national teams compete with each other every year. They take part in different competitions. The two best teams play in the Cup Final at Wembley Stadium in London. National teams of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland take part in European competitions and other international matches. There are many football clubs all over Britain. Cricket is another popular summer sport. It is sometimes called the English national game. It is known that people played cricket in England as early as 1550L Many cricket clubs were founded in the 18th century. Nowadays this summer game, which is typically British, is played in schools, colleges and universities and in most towns and villages of Britain. Teams play weekly games from late April to the end of September. Cricket is a very long game, and quite dangerous. It is a slow game too. International cricket matches can last for 5 days. Boxing as a British sport is one of the oldest. It existed even in Saxon times. Golf was developed in Scotland and now is widely spread all over Britain. Tennis, or lawn tennis, is another popular game in Britain. It was first played in England in 1872 and the first championship at Wimbledon was in 1877. Nowadays every summer in June, the British hold their famous International Tennis Championship at Wimbledon, in west London. Swimming, boating and sailing have always been popular in Britain and are enjoyed by thousands of people. But the British are less interested in skiing and skating, typically Russian types of sport. Can you explain why? ^ as early as 1550 — ещё (уже) в 1550 году 85 20 Read out the sentences from the text to describe the pictures. 21 Ask questions on the text for your classmates to answer. 22 Speak about: a) popular British sports and games; b) sports and games popular in Russia. LET US LISTEN AND TALK IN4^1 23 a) Listen to the text “You’ve Won!” (@59) and choose the right statement. 1. The old gentleman made friends with the boys. 2. The little cat did not belong to any of the boys. 3. The old gentleman wanted to win the competition. 4. The old gentleman told the biggest lie. b) Why is it important to have good manners? Do people with bad manners make you unhappy or angry? Can you give an example? 86 LET US WRITE 24 Express the following in English. 1) Если я буду чувствовать себя плохо, я пойду к врачу. 2) Когда мои родители вернутся, мы пойдём смотреть соревнования по гребле. 3) Если не будет дождя, мы будем играть в теннис на лужайке перед домом. 4) Если Ник будет дома в 6, мы посмотрим футбольный матч по телевизору вместе. 5) Когда папа придёт домой, мы пообедаем и поедем на стадион. 6) Если наша команда будет много тренироваться, мы выиграем эти соревнования. 25 Use the right form of the pronoun to complete the sentences. Ч 1) This is (my, mine) team. 2) The picture is (my, mine). 3) Is (her, hers) boat big or small? 4) (Our, Ours) skates are better than (your, yours). 5) She is an old friend of (my, mine).. 6) Where are (their, theirs) children? 7) Is he a friend of (your, yours)? 26 Do ex. 1, ex. 2, ex. 3 and ex. 9 in writing. 27 Refer the words of ex. 28 to the right column. Nouns Verbs Adverbs Adjectives Pronouns 28 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. cricket, golf, athletics, horse riding, climbing, club, college, m'wersity, international, rugby, boat, boating, to go boating, to row, rowing, to invent, to develop, probably, to spread {spread, spread), team, to compete, competition, to exist, lawn, to hold (held, held), mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs Home Reading Lesson 18, text “From the History of Sport” 87 LESSOni 20 LET US REVIEW 1 Look through the words and then read out the words in alphabetical order: beginning first with ‘a’, then with ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, etc. Boat, among, row, invite, develop, probably, rowing, spread, team, compete, exist, lawn, hold, cricket, competition, golf, club, rugby, college, boating, arrival, match, athletics, horse riding, climbing, university, international, championship. 2 Name all sports and games you know. 3 Express the same ideas in another way. Example: This is my old boat. This old boat is mine. 1. This is my book. 2. That is her bike. 3. Is this your money? 4. That is our dog, it is not their dog. 5. This is their house. 6. We’ve got two cars. Our car is white. Their car is red. 4 Say it right. How many true sentences can ypu make up? boating, rowing, cricket, golf, rugby. horse riding, climbing, this hockey team. 5 Say what you will do if the weather is fine (not less than 10 sentences). Example: If the weather is fine we shall go for a walk. My uncles is fond of My elder brother My friends My little sister That boy The girl are 88 6 Look at the pictures and say whose things they are. Example: The spoons and forks are Betty’s. Betty Polly t\' ' \' Andrew Susan Mary Fred 7 Say when they were invented. Cars Spaceships Radio Telegraph Telephone Television Computers was/were invented in the 19th century, in the 20th century. 89 8 Look at the pictures and say that you are not sure, but think that these children go in for the following kinds of sport. Example: Probably, Nelly goes in for running. Bob Nick Nelly, Tom ^ Fred Peter Sue, Ann 9 Say what the government should develop. new industries. The government should develop ^ education [,edju'keijn] — образование culture. the economy. business. the food industry, the film industry, the tourist industry, education.’ 90 10 The Browns are in London. Say when they will go home. Example: Ted will go home after he visits the British Museum. Ted Fred Mr Brown Mrs Brown The Browns Susie to visit the British Museum. to buy return tickets. to finish their business. to visit the National Gallery. to see the English Prime Minister. to speak to the famous English professor. to play the final game of cricket. 11 Make the sentences complete using myself, himself, etc. 1. Be careful. Don’t burn____ 2. Betty never thinks about other people, she only thinks about____ 3. When we are alone we sometimes talk to_______ 4. He fell off his bike but didn’t hurt___ 5. Fred and Sam! When you ride your bikes, be careful and look after ___ 91 12 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words and word combinations mean: international [,int9'naejn3l] college ['kolicfe] football player match [mastj] practically ['praektikali] student [’stjuidant] sportsmen ['spoilsman] result [n'zAlt] b) Look up the words in your vocabulary: coach follow draw train following punish training trouble (n) punishment excellent trouble (v) throw receive race c) Read the phrases and sentences to know how to use the words. train [trem] (v): train — trained — trained. ‘To train’ means to teach or learn how to do something. We trained the dog to bark^ when it wants to go out. Every morning Nick spends 2 hours training for the game. The man trained the team for the competition, training ['treinip] (n): ‘Training’ is a course of special exercises, practice, food, etc.; to keep sportsmen healthy and fit. to be in/out of training: He has been out of training for 3 months, coach [kaotf] (n): ‘A coach’ is a teacher or trainer (a person who trains sportsmen for games, competitions). Mr Smith is the coach of our swimming team. His father is a baseball coach, trouble ['1глЫ] (v): trouble — troubled — troubled. ‘To trouble’ means to worry. I am troubled by the news of my friend’s illness. Does your headache still trouble you? May I trouble you for a glass of water? Don’t trouble to meet me. trouble (n): trouble — troubles. ‘Trouble’ is a difficult or dangerous situation. Will it be much trouble for you to do this? Did it give you much trouble? Life is full of troubles, to get into trouble: Nick is a boy who always gets into trouble. Be careful! Don’t get into trouble! race [reis] (n): a race — races, to have a race, to run a race, to run a race with smb, to lose a race, to win a race. How often do they have boat races? Dan won the race because he is the best swimmer in the team, excellent ['ekssbnt] (adj): excellent work, excellent health, an excellent wife. ‘Excellent’ is very, very good. The teacher told Dick’s parents that his work in arithmetic was excellent. ’ to bark [ba:k] — лаять 92 draw [dro;] (n): a draw — draws to end in a draw: The game ended in a draw (neither side won). Did the basketball game end in a draw? Our football team has had five wins and two draws this season, receive [ri'si:v] (v): receive — received — received. ‘To receive’ means to get. When did you receive the letter (news, telegram)? He received a good education. The lake receives water from this river. Jack received a book for his birthday. I haven’t received a letter from Jim recently. to receive people (businessmen, teachers, guests): The host of the party received his guests at the door. When are you receiving the delegation from Britain? punish ['pAmJ] (v): punish — punished — punished. ‘To punish’ means to make a person suffer for the wrong he has done. Careless drivers should be punished. punishment ['рлш/тэп1] (n): punishment — punishments. ‘Punishment’ is the act of punishing. His punishment was very serious, he had to work in the garden for two hours.* follow [Tnbu] (v)\ follow — followed — followed. ‘To follow’ means to go or come after. The boy trained his dog not to follow him across the busy street. Spring follows winter. Does Monday follow Sunday? You go first and I will follow you. Follow this road until you reach the church then turn left. To follow a story (a text). The students followed the story with interest. Do you follow me? following ['fbbuip] (adj): the following day (week, month). The child was sick in the evening, but on the following day he seemed quite well again. What are you doing the following week? throw [0гэи] (v): throw — threw — thrown. Is it my turn to throw? He threw the ball a 100 metres. Throw me the ball. She threw off her clothes and jumped into the water. 13 Give it a name: — to go or come after; — to teach or learn how to do something; — a person who trains sportsmen; — to worry; — a difficult or dangerous situation; — very, very good; — to get something; — to make a person suffer for the wrong he has done; — the act of punishing. 93 14 Think of the meaning of the following phrase. How can you say it in Russian? Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. 15 Answer the following questions using the new words and word combinations. 1. Who trains sportsmen for international competitions? 2. What do we call members of the football team? 3. What do sportsmen do to keep fit, to be in excellent form? 4. How does the game end if the result is 0:0? 5. What can a coach say to his sportsman if he hasn’t done any training for a long time? 6. What kind of student is a boy or girl if he (she) gets very, very good marks? 7. What kind of competition do sportsmen have if two or more boats compete with each other? 8. If you are a teacher, will you use any punishments? How will you punish your students? 16 A sportsman who plays football is a football player. What do we call a sportsman who: — plays basketball? — plays volleyball? — plays cricket? — plays golf? — plays tennis? — plays rugby? ^ 17 Make the sentences complete using: trouble (n), trouble (v), receive (v), follow (v), following (adj). 1. Does your stomach still ... you? 2. May I ... you for a cup of coffee? 3. Do you know the ... people: Mary Kelley, Don Smith? 4. What information have you ... ? 5. Never ... such a bad example. 6. When did you ... this letter? 94 LET US LISTEN, READ AND LEARN 18 Listen to the song “If It Snows” ((®)б0). IF IT SNOWS If it snows, if it snows, What’ll you do? What’ll you do? I’ll go skiing if it snows. That’s what I will do. If it rains, if it rains. What’ll you do? What’ll you do? I’ll stay at home if it rains. That’s what I will do. LET US READ AND TALK 19 Read the text and say what is the right answer to the Professor’s question and why the text is called “He Was Only Wrong by Two!”. HE WAS ONLY WRONG BY TWO! Jack was the football coach at an American college. He always tried to find good football players for his team. Jack trained his players very well. They were good at running, jumping, swimming, rowing and playing different games. They often took part in races and practically always won. All Jack’s players were tall strong men, excellent sportsmen and just nice people. They hardly ever gave him trouble and the college team was the best in their state. Regular training, keeping to a diet and a lot of exercises were very important for the sportsmen. They always followed the coach’s advice and received good and excellent results in all home and international competitions and matches. They seldom lost a game, hardly ever ended matches in a draw. In fact they practically always won. The only trouble with some of his football players was their poor knowledge of many school subjects because the sportsmen were often poor at maths, English, etc. and it was not always easy for them to become college students. One day the coach brought an excellent young football player to the Professor of the college. The Professor had to ask the young player a few questions. The Professor chose very easy questions but the boy couldn’t answer them. At last the Professor asked; “Well, what’s five times seven?”^ The student thought for a long time and then answered: “Thirty-six.” The Professor shook his head and looked at the coach, “It’s impossible!” he s^id, “I don’t want to punish your team. I understand he can throw a ball very well but, alas,^ he doesn’t know mathematics at all. He can’t be a student.” But the coach seriously asked: “Oh, please, sir! Let him become a student. He was only wrong by two.” 20 Read out the sentences to describe the pictures. 21 Put the sentences in a logical order and use them as a plan to retell the text. 1. The coach said the new student was only wrong by two. 2. The coach’s sportsmen had a very poor knowledge of all the school subjects. 3. The coach had the best college football team in his state. 4. The football players had regular training to keep fit. ^ five times seven = 5x7 (пятью семь) ^ alas [a'lais] — увы 22 Pretend you are: a) the Professor; b) the coach; c) the new football player and retell the story. 23 Discuss the question if the Professor should take the new student into the college. 24 Choose a partner and talk on the following: “Sport in Our Life.” LET US LISTEN AND TALK ГРИ1 25 a) Listen to the text “An Excellent Student” choose the right answer to each of the question. ®)61) and 1. Why was the teacher angry with Tom? a) Tom didn’t know geography of Great Britain. b) Tom didn’t know history of Great Britain. c) Tom didn’t know answers to any questions. 2. Why did the teacher say “George Washington”? a) She wanted to help Tom. b) She wanted to give the right answer herself. c) She hoped Tom would speak about him. 3. Why did Tom go to his seat? a) He thought the teacher had called another student. b) He thought the teacher wanted to speak about George Washington. c) He was afraid of the teacher. b) Do you remember any funny things that happened at your lessons? Speak about one. LET US WRITE 26 Use the following word combinations and write questions beginning with: what, where, when, why, how, how often. To train regularly, to receive letters, a college coach, to punish the younger brother, to follow mother’s advice, to trouble the Professor, to end in a draw, to become an excellent student. 97 27 Express the following in English. 1) Если наш тренер приедет в 5.15, мы начнём тренироваться вовремя. 2) Если мой друг уедет в деревню к своему двоюродному брату, он попадёт в беду снова. 3) Если матч кончится вничью, пошли мне телеграмму. 4) Когда он придёт на стадион, он будет играть в гольф. 5) Когда команда выиграет игру, она получит приз. 6) Когда начнётся игра, он бросит мяч. 28 Write а short story about your favourite sport or game. 29 Complete the text with the items that fit in best. The (1) morning, Ellie (2) out of bed as soon as she woke up. It was (3) so there were no lessons. Ellie could spend the whole day with her favourite horses at the stables. She was already dressed by the time the maid (4)_________with her breakfast on a silver tray. She didn’t touch the boiled egg, but (5)______the orange juice. Then she took the buttered toast and ate it as she ran down to the stables. 1. a) last, b) latest, c) next, d) nearest 2. a) stood, b) got, c) turned, d) disappeared 3. a) Thursday, b) Tuesday, c) Wednesday, d) Sunday 4. a) went, b) brought, c) arrived, d) walked 5. a) drank, b) drunk, c) was drinking, d) had drunk 30 Learn to writ6 these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. to train, training, cocjch, trouble (to get into trouble), race, excellent, draw, to end in a draw, to receive, to punish, punishment, to follow, following, to throw (threw, thrown) Home Reading Lesson 19, text “Two Ways to Count to Ten Shopping LESSON 21 LET US REVIEW 1 Say what you will buy or where you will go if you win (receive, have) a lot of money. Example: If I receive a lot of money, I will go travelling. 2 Make the following sentences complete. Example: I’ll throw him a ball when he joins us. 1. I’ll throw him a ball when____ 2. She will speak to her coach when .... 3. They will train regularly when____ 4. I won’t trouble Mother when____ 5. We’ll take part in the boat race when____ 6. Mrs Brown will punish Jim when______ 7. I’ll follow your advice when___ 3 Look at the pictures and say what Mrs Green received the other day. 99 4 Say how the games ended. Example: The game of football ended in a draw. game of football game of cricket game of rugby game of basketball game of volleyball 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 5 Say the things you have bought are really very, very good. Example: I have bought an excellent sweater. 6 Express the same idea in a different way. Follow the example. Example: The book belongs to me. It’s mine. 1. The violin belongs to Fred. 2. The guitar belongs to him. 3. The piano belongs to Mrs Green. 4. The painting belongs to my granny. 5. The sculpture belongs to Roger. 6. The flute belongs to her. 7. The cups belong to us. 7 Say that people always (never) do the following action themselves. Example: Liz always cooks herself. 1. Liz always cooks___ 2. Bill never drives the car .... 3. Janet always cleans the carpet with the vacuum cleaner .... 4. Bob and Sam are small but they always'write letters to their grandparents____ 5. The children always wash up____ 6. Colin never turns on TV .... 8 Say that you (Nelly, we, they) also like (do) the same. Example: Jack always trains in the morning. So does Kate. 1. Jack always trains in the morning. (Kate) 2. Pete can play rugby very well. (We) 3. Bob and Kate were in the City yesterday. (Polly) 4. Albert has done his homework. (I) 5. They got excellent marks. (Ted) 6. Caroline plays the flute badly. (You) 7. Alice has received a letter from him lately. (Betty) LET US LEARN bewiewibeb Neither does she/do we. Bill can’t play the flute. I am not tired. We weren’t at'home at 3. I haven’t got her address. They won’t play golf. He didn’t train yesterday. He doesn’t buy dairy products at the supermarket. Neither can John. Neither are we. Neither was she. Neither has Ann. Neither will we. Neither did Jack. Neither do I. 9 Make up as many true sentences as you can. Example: Ann can’t cook. Neither can Rob. 1. ... am is are 2. ... was 3. ... So were 4. ... Neither do 5. ... does 6. ... did 7. ... can 8. ... will have has d 101 tOOK, BEAD AWO reibewbeb We buy white bread and brown bread at the baker’s. We buy flour, sugar, rice and salt at the grocer’s. We buy meat (pork, beef), sausages at the butcher’s. We buy fish at the fishmonger’s.^ We buy fruit and vegetables at the greengrocer’s. We buy dairy products (milk, cream, etc.) at the dairy. We buy biscuits, cakes at the confectionery.® We buy sweets and chocolates at the sweet shop. 10 Answer the following questions. 1. What can you buy at the baker’s? 2. What can you buy at the butcher’s? 3. You buy sweets at the greengrocer’s, don’t you? 4. Where can you buy cottage cheese? 5. You can buy vegetables at the greengrocer’s. What else can you buy there? 6. Where can you buy fish? LOOK, BEIBEWIBEB a I 1. a bottle of milk (water, juice, oil) 2. a can of lemonade (Pepsi, coca-cola) -r -i* 3. a packet of tea (biscuits) rj ' at the fishmonger’s [TifmAJogaz] — в рыбном магазине (отделе) ^ at the dairy ['dean] — в молочном магазине (отделе) ® at the confectionery [kan'fekjhari] — в кондитерской 4. a jar of jam (honey, coffee) 5. a tin of fruit (meat) 6. a bar of chocolate l^SI 7. a loaf (loaves) of bread 8. a bag of sugar, flour 9. a carton of yoghurt, cream 10. a pound of bacon 11. a Jcilo of meat H 11 Yesterday Mrs White went shopping. At the supermarket^ she bought many things. What did she buy? She bought: of cream of tomato ketchup of milk of soup of bread of flour of tea of meat LET US READ AMD LEARM 12 a) Listen to the dialogue for it. • At the Baker’s • At the Grocer’s • At the Greengrocer’s 62) and decide which title is the best ^ supermarket ['sju:p3,ma:kit] — магазин самообслуживания 103 b) Read the dialogue, learn it by heart and then act it out. Jane: And now we’re going to buy some vegetables. Let’s cross the road. There’s the greengrocer’s over there. Greengrocer: Good morning, madam. What can I do for you? Jane: I want a large cabbage,^ please, and half a kilo of carrots. Greengrocer: Yes, madam. Anything else? Jane: Some fruit, please, six of those oranges and a kilo of these apples. Greengrocer: Any grapes,^ madam? Jane: No, nothing else, thank you. (On their way to the grocer's.) Jill: There is little flour left. Will you go to the grocer’s and buy a bag of flour and some sugar, please? Ann: Shall I also buy a bag of sugar? Jill: Could you buy two and a packet of tea? Ann: We haven’t got any rice. What about salt? Jill: There is a lot. But you can buy a bottle of vinegar^ and two bottles of oil. Is that OK? 13 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what these words and word combinations mean: bacon ['beikon] sausages ['soisicfeiz] rice [rais] company [’клтрэш] a sweet shop . hopefully (hope + ful + ly) to do some (the) shopping b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: pork tie piece a bit change beef wrap fat pay kilo cut c) Read the phrases and sentences to know how to use the words. piece [pi:s] (n): a piece — pieces, a piece of furniture, a piece of advice, a piece of paper, a piece of cake. There are pieces of broken glass all over the floor. How big piece of cake would you like? Let me give you a piece of advice. ^ a cabbage ['kaebicfe] — кочан капусты ^ grapes [grerps] — виноград vinegar [Vinigg] — уксус 104 pound [paund] (n): 1. ‘A pound’ is a piece (unit) of money in Great Britain. — How much is it? — It is ten pounds. 2. A measure of weight.^ Sugar was sold by the pound in Britain but most weights now are metric. pay [pel] (v)'. pay — paid — paid, paying. ‘To pay’ is to give money for the goods bought. Did you pay 2 pounds for that book? I paid the money yesterday. You must pay me at once, a bit [bit] (adv) (= a little): a bit tired. Wait a bit! That’s a bit too much to pay. Your answer is a bit too long. Aren’t we a bit early? fat [faet] (adj): fat — fatter — (the) fattest, a fat man, fat cheeks, fat meat. That man is not very fat. The child has got fat cheeks. I don’t like fat meat. You’ll get even fatter if you eat all those sweets. A fat cat sat on a mat^ and ate a fat rat.^ pork [po:k] (n):" ‘Pork’ is the meat of a pig used as food. How often does your granny cook pork? My grandparents don’t like pork. cut [кл1] (v): cut — cut — cut, cutting. ‘To cut’ means to divide. Laura cut the pie into six pieces. I cut my foot. We have to cut the grass today. Don’t cut your fingers on the broken glass. This knife won’t cut. The boys cut the cake in two and ate half each. wrap [raep] (v): wrap — wrapped — wrapped, wrapping, to wrap something. Did you put the book in a box and wrap it up in brown paper? They offered to wrap the shoes in the shop, but I wanted to wear them at once. beef [bi:f] (n): ‘Beef’ is the meat of a cow used as food. Beefsteak [biifsteik] is a thick piece of beef for frying, tie [tai] (v): tie — tied — tied, tying. Is your little brother learning how to tie his own shoes? He tied his dog to the door, tie (n): I have bought a tie as a birthday present for John, change [tjeincfe] (n): ‘Change’ is notes,”* coins given to you if you pay more (the difference between the price of things bought and the money you’ve paid). Can you give me change for a $1 note? I have no small change. If you buy something that costs three pence and pay for it with a pound, you’ll get ninety-seven pence change. * a measure [’тезэ] of weight [weit] — мера веса (450 г) ^ mat [maet] — половичок, коврик ® rat [r$t] — крыса ■* notes [nauts] — банкноты (бумажные деньги) 105 14 Read the question in A, choose and read aloud the right answer in B. 1. Does your mother often buy pork? 2. Who usually goes to the baker’s in your family? 3. What do people buy at the fishmonger’s? 4. Does your brother like sausages? 5. That sportsman is very fat, isn’t he? 6. How many loaves of bread do they buy every day? 7. How much did she pay for that nice piece of beef? 8. Could the grocer give her the change? В Five pounds and fifty pence. Of course, he could. They usually buy two loaves of bread. Yes, he does. Yes, she does. We like fried pork for dinner. My sister does. Oh, yes, he is. They buy fish, caviar and other things at the fishmonger’s. 15 Make up as many true sentences as you can. Use the following: — That’s a bit too much to pay for .... — I paid ... pounds for that_ — He wrapped ... in ... paper. Example: That’s a bit too much to pay for the caviar. I paid 2 pounds for that toy. He wrapped the book in brown paper. 16 Look at the pictures and say what Nelly is cutting. 106 LET US READ AMD TALK l1 17 a) Read the text and say what the butcher thought of Mary Poppins’s visit. AT THE BUTCHER’S Mary Poppins is doing some shopping with the children. She has a long shopping list. They have already been to the grocer’s and have bought sugar, bacon, salt and rice. They have also been to the fishmonger’s and have bought fish for supper. They have been to the baker’s and have bought two loaves of white bread. Now Mary finds she will have to go to the butcher’s to buy some meat. ^ “Two pounds of sausages, please, and some best pork,” said Mary Pop-pins. “Sorry, we are in a hurry.” The butcher, was a fat friendly man. He was also large and red, rather like one of his own sausages. “In a hurry,” he said to Mary Pop-pins. “Well, that’s a pity! I hoped you had come to talk a bit. We, butchers, you know, like a bit of company. But if you are in a hurry, of course... Two pounds, did you say? Right.” And he cut off some sausages and wrapped them up first in white and then in brown paper. “And I have a very nice piece of pork here. Have a look.” “That looks very good. How much is it?” “Well, four pounds. So, that comes to eight pounds with the sausages. Is that all right?” “Yes, thank you.” “Anything else?” he said hopefully. “Maybe some beef?” “Not today,” said Mary Poppins. The man tied up the parcel and gave it to her. “Bad weather,” he said. “Don’t believe we’re going to get any summer at all,” answered Mary Poppins. She paid the money and got the change, then they went out of the shop. L 107 b) Read the text again and say if the following statements are “True”, “False” or “Not stated”. 1. Mary Poppins wants to buy a lot of things. 2. The children and Mary Poppins are late for lunch. 3. The butcher was a tall thin man. 4. Mary Poppins liked the butcher. 5. Mary Poppins wanted to buy some beef. 6. That summer was very rainy. 18 Ask 6 questions on the text. 19 Read the talk between the butcher and Mary Poppins in the reported speech. 20 Read out the sentences from the text to describe: — the butcher; — the talk about the weather. 21 Say what shops Mary Poppins visited that day and what she had bought. 22 Think of a dialogue between; a) Mary Poppins and the grocer; b) Mary Poppins and the fishmonger; c) Mary Poppins and the baker. 23 Say when you last went shopping, where you went and what you bought. LET US LISTEIU AMD TALK 24 a) Listen to the text “A Laconic Answer!” ((^63) and choose the right statement. 1. King Philip ruled in Laconia. 2. King Philip conquered Laconia. 3. The Lacons wrote a polite letter to King Philip. 4. When we don’t use many words we do the same as the Lacons did. b) Do you write letters or e-mails to your friends or relatives? What do you usually write about? Do you like writing letters? Why (not)? 108 LET US WRITE 25 Do ex. 2, ex. 3 in writing. 26 Do ex. 7, 8, 9 (5—6 sentences) in writing. 27 Express the following in English. 1) Oh храбро защищался. 2) Неожиданно она увидела себя в зеркале. 3) Он очень маленький. Он не может одеваться сам. 4) Она всегда говорит только о себе. 5) По утрам я готовлю завтрак сама. 6) Я видела это сама. 7) Я видела его самого. 28 Describe your last visit to the sweet shop. Use your imagination. 29 Learn how to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. piece, pound, to pay (paid, paid), a bit, pork, fat, to cut (cut, cut), to wrap (wrapped, wrapped), beef, to tie, change Home Reading Lesson 20, text “A Trip to Britain” 109 LESSON 22 LET US REVIEW 1 Say where you usually buy: pork, bread, vegetables, beef, butter, milk, sweets, meat, cheese, fish. Example: I usually buy pork at the butcher’s. 2 Yesterday your mother went shopping. a) She bought a bottle of oil, a loaf of bread, a can of coca-cola, a packet of tea, a bar of chocolate, a tin of meat, a jar of Jam. Say where she bought all these things. Example: Mother bought a bottle of oil at the grocer’s. b) But she forgot to buy something. Ask her about it. Example: Did you forget to buy a bottle of juice? 3 How many sentences can you make, using the words: fat, a bit, cut, wrap, piece, pound, pay, change? Say them for your classmates to agree or disagree. Example: P^: That cat is very fat. That’s right. It is very fat. 4 Pretend you are a teacher. Ask your classmates where and what they usually buy. '* Example: Where do you usually buy sweets? What do you usually buy at the fish monger’s? 5 Give Miss Maple’s answers to the baker’s questions. Baker: Good afternoon, madam. What can I do for you? Miss Maple: ..... Baker: Brown bread or white bread? Miss Maple: ..... Baker: How many loaves would you like? Miss Maple: ..... Baker: Shall I wrap them up or put them in a plastic bag? Miss Maple: ..... 110 6 Now pretend that one of you is a baker, the other is Miss Maple. Act out the conversation. Don’t forget to change over. 7 Think of 2 or 3 more questions which the baker could ask Miss Maple. 8 Read the example. Complete the sentences with the pronouns that rhyme with the noun before them. Example: This sign is .... This sign is mine. 1. Those flowers are .... 2. Those doors are___ 3. These teddy bears are .... 4. These furs are____ 5. That quiz^ is ^.. LET US LEARN 100К.ВИ®Л«0 One and ones in place of countable nouns. Don’t use that knife! Use this clean one. This book is green, that one is red. I don’t want to wear my old shoes. I want to wear my new ones. The children I like to teach are the ones who like to learn. We don’t use one in place of an uncountable noun. In this case we repeat the noun or use no noun at all. Don’t use that milk. Use this fresh milk. Don’t put that butter in the porridge. Use this fresh. a quiz [kwiz] — проверочная работа 9 Use one or ones where possible. 1. —Which shirts would you like to see? — The ... on the second shelf.^ 2. — Which shoes do you like best? — The red — 3. — Which computer do you use? — The ... in the central office. 4. Pour away^ some dirty water and get some clean_____ 5. I think my parents will sell their old car and buy a new__ 6. — Please pass me that plate. — Which ...? 7. — Which jeans are you going to buy? — The most expensive .... 10 These are the new words for you to learn. a) Guess what the following words mean: a supermarket ['sju:p9,ma:kit] ready-made clothes b) Look up the following words in your vocabulary: store cost blanket towel pillow pure department necessary sheet price cotton wool woollen c) Read the phrases and sentences to know how to use the words. store [sto:] (n): a store — stores. ‘A store’ is a place where goods® are sold. A store is a large shop. A clothing store, a furniture store. 112 ' shelf [Jelt] — полка ^ pour away [po: aSvei] — вылей ® goods [gudz] — товар, товары а grocery store. Where did Mother go? She went to the clothing store. Jack walked into a store to buy a hat. department [di'padmont] (n): a department — departments. ‘A department’ is a separate part. 1. The English department at school will have three new teachers this autumn. Is the police department part of the city government? 2. In a very big shop there are numerous departments — the food department, the men’s clothing department, the grocery department, etc. a department store is a large shop with many departments for different kinds of goods. Where is the nearest department store? cost [knst] (v): cost — cost — cost. A motorcar costs a great deal of money. I can’t buy it; it costs too much. This cost me 1000 pounds. How much does it cost you to keep a car? It will cost you a lot of money to fly to Paris. Carelessness may cost you your life. How much does it cost? It costs a lot. price [prais] (n)’. a price — prices. ‘Price’ is a sum of money for which a thing is offered, sold or bought. High price, low price. What price did you pay for the house? What is the price of this suit? Are eggs sold at a high price? Prices are going up. necessary ['nesison] (adj): necessary — more necessary — (the) most necessary. — What is necessary for good health? — Proper food and rest,^ I think. Sleep is necessary for health. It is not necessary for you to come to school on Sundays. It is a day off. cotton ['kntn] (n): Cotton is used to make cloth.^ Cotton clothes, cotton oil, cotton goods. blanket ['blsepkit] (n): a blanket — blankets. Blankets are used on beds to keep people warm. Ted’s blanket is always on the floor when he sleeps. I haven’t got a warm blanket, sheet [frt] (n): a sheet — sheets. ‘A sheet’ is a large piece of cotton cloth. Put clean sheets on the bed. A person usually sleeps with one sheet under and another over him. We’ve got ten cotton sheets. towel ['tauol] (n): a towel — towels, a clean towel, to dry something with/on a towel. Her towel is always clean. Dry yourself with a towel! Dry your hands on the towel, pillow ['pilou] (n): a pillow — pillows. Pillows are used to put one’s head on when resting or sleeping. A soft pillow, a hard pillow, a small pillow. Pillows in Britain and Russia are different. ' rest [rest] — отдых ^ cloth [klo:0] — ткань 113 wool [wul] (n): ‘Wool’ is the soft hair of the sheep and some other animals. — Where do you get wool from? — We get it from Australia and Scotland, When people have backache they often wear wool next to the skin.^ woollen ['wubn] (adj): Woollen things are made of wool. Woollen blankets, a woollen coat, a woollen sweater. Have you got a red woollen coat? He doesn’t like to sleep under a woollen blanket. pure [pjua] (adj): pure — purer — the purest, pure water, pure milk. I bought a tie of pure silk. Her dress is made of pure wool. 11 Give it a name: — things which are made of wool; — something that is used on beds to keep people warm; — a large shop; — a sum of money for which a thing is sold; — the soft hair of the sheep; — a large shop with many departments; — something that is used to cover a bed; — something that is used to put one’s head on; — water and only water. 12 Make up as many true sentences as you can. It is/isn’t necessary for me to come here you to go shopping them to do the shopping her to go there by car him to pay for it ^ us to receive money to train this team to buy it on Sunday, on Saturday. 13 Complete the following sentences: a) What’s the price of__ Example: What’s the price of this red blouse? b) It will cost you a lot of money_ Example: It will cost you a lot of money to buy a new TV set. ^ skin [skin] — кожа (ч.еловека) LET US READ AND LEARN BEWeWBE" British Money There are a hundred pence (p [pi:]) in a pound. COINS a 50 p coin = fifty pence or 50 p & 20 p coin = twenty pence or 20 p a 10 p coin = ten pence or 10 p a 5 p coin = five pence or 5 p a 2 p coin = two pence or 2 p alp coin = one pence or 1 p a one pound coin = one (a) pound a two pound coin = two pounds a five pound coin = five pounds r 115 NOTES a 50 pound note = fifty pounds £50 a 20 pound note = twenty pounds £20 a 10 pound note = ten pounds £10 a 5 pound note = five pounds £5 £5,80 = five pounds eighty (pence) or five eighty £1.25 = one pound twenty-five or one twenty-five 13 p = thirteen pence ■ж. American Money There are a hundred pennies = cents (c) in a dollar. COINS a 25 cent coin = a quarter =25 pennies (cents) a 10 cent coin = a dime =10 pennies (cents) a 5 cent coin = a nickel = 5 pennies (cents) a 1 cent coin=l penny (cent) 116 NOTES a 100 dollar note = a hundred dollars = ^100 . a 50 dollar note = fifty dollars = $b0 a 20 dollar note = twenty dollars = %20 a 10 dollar note = ten dollars =^^10 a 5 dollar note = five dollars — a 1 dollar note = one dollar =%1 $20.75 = twenty dollars seventy-five cents or twenty seventy-five $7.80 = seven dollars eighty cents or seven eighty 14 Look at the pictures in “LOOK, READ AND REMEMBER” and name British and American coins and notes which you see there. 15 What is a name for: a) a 25 cent coin; b) a 5 cent coin; c) a 10 cent coin. Say: £1.35 10 p $20.40 15 c £88 2 p $89 21 c £4.35 45 p $51.30 55 c 117 17 Look at the pictures and say what their prices are. Example: The dress costs twenty-five pounds. £25 $44.99 $20 18 Complete the 1. How many 2. How many 3. How many 4. How many 5. How many 6. How many 7. How many questions and answer them. ... are there in a pound? ... are there in a dime? ... are there in a dollar? ... are there in a twenty pound note? ... are there in a nickel? ... are there in a quarter? ... are there in a hundred dollar note? LET US READ AIUD TALK 19 a) Read the text and say what Mrs Morrison bought for her husband. 118 b) Complete the sentences after the text choosing the best variant. AT SELFRIDGE’S^ “I have some shopping to do. Would you like to come to Selfridge’s with me?” Mrs Morrison asked the girls that afternoon. The White Sale^ was on at Selfridge’s, the big store in Oxford Street. Mrs Morrison wanted to buy a blanket, a pair of sheets and some towels. She bought the towels first. “These are a bargain,”^ said the shop assistant. “The usual price is 11 pounds for six, the White Sale price is 9.” Mrs Morrison also bought a pair of cotton sheets^and a blanket of pure Scotch wool, but no pillows. “Shall we help you carry the things you’ve bought?” Collette asked. “No, that won’t be necessary. If they send them tomorrow. I’ll get them this week.” “Now let’s go to the ready-made clothes department and look at that skirt, I told you about,” Mrs Morrison said to Jean. “If you like it and if it suits you, you can have it; you need one for school.” Jean liked the skirt. “How much does it cost?” she asked. It cost 8 pounds, which was not very expensive, but they did not have her size. “We’ll be able to get it for you in about ten days’ time,” said the shop assistant. Then Mrs Morrison chose a silk [silk] tie for her husband — next Friday would be his birthday — and she bought a pair of gloves for herself. Then the three of them went to the food department and bought some food for five o’clock tea. 1. The White Sale is___ a) a sale at Selfridge’s b) a sale of towels, sheets, blankets c) a sale of ready-made clothes 2. Jean didn’t buy the skirt because__ a) she didn’t like its colour b) it was very expensive c) the skirt didn’t fit her ' Selfridge’s — a large department store in Oxford Street, London, especially famous for its food department ^ the White Sale — a sale of towels, sheets, etc. ® a bargain ['ba:gin] — сделка (покупка с выгодой) 119 20 Answer the questions. 1. What is “Selfridge’s”? 2. Where is this store situated? 3. What is the “White Sale”? 4. What did Mrs Morrison want to buy? 5. What was the price of the towels? 6. What kind of sheets did she buy? 7. When will Mrs Morrison get all she has bought? 8. Could the girl buy a skirt? Why? 9. What did Mrs Morrison buy for herself? 21 Give a short summary of the text. 22 Imagine that you are at Selfridge’s with Mrs Morrison. Tell us what you would like to buy there and why. 23 Work in pairs. Think of your conversation with the shop assistant at Selfridge’s. Act out this conversation. Then change over. LET US LISTEN AMD TALK [5Efi 24 a) Listen to the text “Mrs Green or Mrs Brown?” ((©) 64) and choose the right statement. 1. Mrs Green went to the supermarket nearly every day. 2. The shop assistant called Mrs Green the wrong name. 3. Mrs Green was angry and corrected her mistake at once. 4. The shop assistant understood her mistake. Ч b) Do you like going to the shops? What shops do you like most? Why? With whom do you like to do your shopping? Why? 25 Tell us in a few words about your last visit to a department store or a supermarket. Say what you bought there, what the prices were, how much money you spent there. LET US WRITE 26 Do ex. 9, ex. 12, ex. 13 in writing. 27 Write a few words about your last visit to a store (a department store, a supermarket, any shop). 120 [pro] 28 Read the text and complete it with the right forms of the verbs. It happened many years ago. An old man (sit) under a big tree. His horse (be) near the tree. It (eat) green grass. Suddenly the old man (see) two armed men who (hide) in the bushes. The old man (jump) up and (ask) his horse to fly with him as fast as he (can). “Or else,” he (say), “the enemy (catch) us,” But the horse (look) lazily at his master and (ask) “Do you think they (make) me carry heavier things then I have to now?” “No,” (say) the master. “Then I don’t mind,” (answer) the horse. “My life (not, be) worse.” (After a fable by Aesop) 29 Learn to write these words. Write the words to the teacher’s dictation. See how many you’ve written correctly. Ч , store, department (department store), to cost (cost, cost), price, necessary, cotton, blanket, sheet, towel, pillow, wool, woollen, pure Home Reading Lesson 21, text “What Is Shakespeare?” 121 LESSOM 23 Review 3 LET US TALK 1 Let’s play “A Boasting Game”: says what he/she (his/her friends, relatives, etc.) can do himself/herself, etc.; P2 expresses his/her doubt; Pg disagrees with P^. Example: P^: I can make a vacuum cleaner myself. Pg: Can you really make a vacuum cleaner yourself? Pg: You can’t make a vacuum cleaner yourself. 2 Say what sports and games you (your friends, relatives) will play if the weather is not bad. Example: If the weather is not bad my classmates will play football. 3 We are sure you know something about popular British sports and games. Please say a few words about them. 4 And now say what you know about Russian popular sports and games. 5 Work in pairs. Ask each other questions (and answer them) about what shops you will go to and what you will buy if you go to Paris. Ч 6 Describe your last visit (with your mum) to a department store. 7 a) Read the text and complete the sentences after it with the best variant. b) Say what you think of Jim. 122 THE REAL PRICE Jim was a fourteen-year-old boy who was fond of sports. In fact, he was the best football player at school, but he also skated well, was good at boating, rowing and swimming and went in for jumping and running. He always took part in different school matches and competitions and probably was the cleverest sportsman in his team. Не was also inventive.^ The following story proves it. One day Jim walked into a store which had a sign outside “Second-hand clothes bought and sold.”^ Jim was carrying an old pair of jeans. He asked the shop assistant of the store, “How much will you give me for these?” The man looked at the jeans and then said: “Two dollars.” He was not polite at all and it was clear he was not much interested in the jeans. Jim looked at the shelves full of pillows and towels, woollen sweaters and silk shirts and then said: “What! I am surprised. I thought they cost more, ... 5 or 6 dollars for example.” “No,” said the man. “They are not worth a cent more than® two dollars.” “Are you sure?” asked Jim. “Very sure,” said the man. “Well,” said Jim taking some money out of his bag. “Here’s your money. These jeans were hanging'* outside your store with the price tag that said $6.50, but I thought it was too much money. So before paying I decided to come in and to make sure how much they really cost. Thank you. I know the real price now. So will you wrap them for me?” ^ inventive [in'ventiv] — изобретательный, находчивый ^ “Second-hand clothes bought and sold” — «Скупка и продажа поношенной одежды» * are not worth a cent more than — не стоят ни на цент больше, чем ‘‘ hang [hasp] — висеть 123 Не saw the shop assistant wrap and tie his jeans, took the change and with the jeans he had bought he left the store. The surprised shop assistant didn’t know what to say. 1. Jim was in the shop, __ a) he was wearing an old pair of jeans b) he had an old pair of jeans in his arms c) he was selling 2. For the jeans Jim paid a) less money than b) as much money as c) more money than the shop assistant wanted to get. 8 Read out the sentences to describe Jim. 9 Read out what the author of the text says about the shop assistant. 10 Tell Jim’s story in a few words. First make a plan of the story. LET US WRITE 11 Complete the text with the items that fit in best. Miss Honey was Matilda’s teacher. She (1) You could (2) ___________ she was about twenty-three. (3) _____ (5) _____ rather young. She never her pupils very much. She quietly but the little boy and girls (6) _________ all her her • voice and (4) words. Miss Honey (7) to solve them. their problems and always (8) 1. a) was, b) were, c) been, d) being 2. a) can, b) could, c) can’t, d) couldn’t 3. a) rose, b) rise, c) raised, d) risen 4. a) love, b) loves, c) loved, d) loving 5. a) speak, b) spoke, c) speaks, d) has spoken 6. a) hear, b) hears, c) hearing, d) heard 7. a) understood, b) understand, c) understands, d) understanding 8. a) helped, b) helps, c) has helped, d) help 124 PROJECT WORK Make a 3—5 minute presentation on one of the following topics. Use slides, pictures, music and animation. If necessary, ask your parents or your friends to help you. You may use some reference books and Internet resources, for example: www.Wikipedia, org, www.britannica.com,www.encyclopedia.ru. Decide whose presentation was the best and why. Project Work 2: The Geography of the UK and Its Political Outlook (Units 12—14) • A place in Britain • The Lake District • A British tradition • Scottish national clothes • Irish dancing • The Houses of Parliament • A place of interest in Britain Project Work 3: Health and Body Care (Units 15- • Healthy food • What we drink • The danger of dieting • My favourite outdoor activity • Our PE lessons • Sports and games at our school -18) Project Work 4: Sports and Games (Units 19—20) • A sport I like • A game I like • My favourite team • An athlete I admire • A popular British sport • A popular American sport • A popular Russian sport 125 THE NOUN Имя существительное — это такая часть речи, которая обозначает лицо, предмет и отвечает на вопросы кто? что?. Существительные могут быть исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми. §1. Исчисляемые имена существительные имеют два числа: единственное и множественное (а сир — cups, а dog — dogs). В единственном числе подобные имена существительные всегда употребляются с артиклем а/ ап или the. There is а pen in the bag. The pen is new. §2. В восклицательных предложениях, начинающихся с what, подобные имена существительные всегда употребляются с неопределённым артиклем. '• What а wonderful emblem! What а sweet lily! Исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе в таких предложениях с артиклем не употребляются. What tall trees! What sweet toys! Неисчисляемые существительные в таких предложениях также употребляются без артикля. What deep snow! What fresh air! 126 §3. Имена существительные weather, advice, information, knowledge, progress, money, news в английском языке являются неисчисляемыми. Несмотря на то что в русском языке эти существительные могут стоять в форме единственного и множественного числа: advice — совет / советы, information — информация/сведение / сведения, knowledge — знание / знания, progress — достижение / достижения, news — новость/новости, в английском языке эти существительные не употребляются в форме множественного числа, перед ними не используется неопределённый артикль, согласуются они с глаголом в единственном числе и заменяются местоимением it. It is good advice. I will follow it. What sad information! That is good news. Tell me more about it. Слово hair — волосы также относится к этой категории имён существительных, однако в современном английском языке имеются довольно редко употребляемые формы а hair — волосок, hairs — волоски. a) Му sister’s hair is beautiful. It is dark and long. b) Sorry, there are some hairs on the plate. §4. Имена существительные могут образовываться от имён прилагательных при помощи суффикса -th. warm (тёплый) — warmth (тепло) long (длинный) — length (длина) strong (сильный) —■ strength (сила) wide (широкий ) — width (ширина ) §5. С именами существительными, обозначающими названия языков English, French, Indian, Chinese, 127 артикль не употребляется. Отсутствие артикля часто обозначается термином zero article (нулевой артикль). Однако если в наименование включается имя существительное, то название языка содержит определённый артикль: the English language the German language §6. C именами существительными, обозначающими национальность (одно лицо), употребляется неопределённый артикль: а Russian ап American ап Englishman Однако для обозначения коллективного названия нации часто употребляется определённый артикль: the English — англичане the French — французы the Chinese — китайцы §7. Имена существительные одушевлённые могут использоваться в притяжательном падеже (the Possessive Case), который образуется при помощи апострофа ’ и окончания -S. 1) Если имя существительное стоит в единственном числе, к нему прибавляется ’s — например: The boy’s [boiz] toy — игрушка мальчика The student’s ['stjuidsnts] book — книга студента The boss’s ['bnsiz] order — приказ директора 2) Если имя существительное стоит во множественном числе, в притяжательном падеже к нему прибавляется только апостроф ’. Ср.: The boys’ [boiz] toys — игрушки мальчиков The students’ ['stjuidants] books — книги студентов The bosses’ ['bnsiz] order — приказ директоров 128 3) Если имя собственное оканчивается на -s(-x), в притяжательном падеже к нему прибавляется апостроф ’ и окончание -s. Max’s ['masksiz] answer — ответ Максима Thomas’s ['tomasiz] car — машинка Томаса Возможен и иной способ образования притяжательного падежа только при помощи апострофа Произношение формы существительного не изменяется. Мах’ ['maeksjz] answer Thomas’ ['tnmosiz] car THE ADJECTIVE Имя прилагательное — это такая часть речи, которая обозначает признак, качество предмета и отвечает на вопросы какой? который?. В предложении имена прилагательные выступают чаще всего в качестве определения (а red book) или именной части составного именного сказуемого. (The boy is tall. He feels bad.) При постановке вопросов к имени прилагательному (типа Какой язык ты учишь! Какой твой любимый цвет!) употребляется вопросительное местоимение what. What language are you learning? What is your favourite colour? Однако, если поставленный вопрос содержит как бы выбор (какой — этот или тот!) из ограниченного числа предметов, употребляется which. Which car is yours — the green one or the red one? §8. Имена прилагательные могут образовываться от имён существительных при помощи суффикса -у, при этом значение вновь образованного прилагательного— «обладающий качеством данного объекта»: cloud + -у = cloudy — облачный rain + -у = rainy — дождливый salt + -у = salty — солёный 129 THE PRONOUN Местоимение — это такая часть речи, которая указывает на лицо, предметы, их признаки, количество, но не называет их. Местоимения имеют несколько разрядов. Личные: I (те), you, he (him), she (her), it, we (us), they (them). Притяжательные: my, your, his, her, its, our, their (mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs). Возвратные: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Указательные: this — these; that — those; such. Вопросительные: who, what, whose, which, etc. Неопределённые: some, any, somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything, one. Отрицательные: no, none, nobody, no one, nothing, neither. Обобщаюи^ие: all, every, everybody, everything, both, either, other, another, each. §9. Вы уже знакомы с притяжательными местоимениями (possessive pronouns), когда они играют роль определения при существительных: ту book, his dog, our flat. Однако притяжательные местоимения имеют ещё одну форму, которая употребляется самостоятельно. Это независимая, или абсолютная, форма притяжательных местоимений: a) ту book — the book is mine his dog — the dog is his her hat — the hat is hers b) Our flat is big, yours is bigger. Your house is smaller than ours. Give me your pen, please. Mine won’t write. 130 §10. Возвратные местоимения (reflexive pronouns). Возвратные местоимения образуются путём прибавления элементов -self (единственное число) и -selves (множественное число) к личным местоимениям в объектном падеже (him, her, it, them) или притяжательным местоимениям (my, our, your). Единственное число myself yourself himself herself itself Множественное число ourselves yourselves themselves I saw it nlyself. Я видел это сам. Do it yourself! Сделай это сам! Do it yourselves! Сделайте это сами! They said it themselves. Они сами это сказали. Не is looking at himself in the mirror. Он смотрит на себя в зеркало. Don’t cut yourself! Не порежься! Don’t hurt yourself! He ушибись! §11. Неопределённое местоимение one — некто, кто-то имеет форму множественного числа — ones — любые, всякие. Это местоимение часто употребляется вместо имени существительного, упомянутого ранее, чтобы его не повторять. Ann has got а grey kitten, and I have got a white one. These are the recommended books. Which ones have you read? Местоимение one на русский язык обычно не переводится. §12. Для постановки вопросов типа Кто из вас ...? Кто из них ...? употребляются структуры Which of you ...? Which of them ...? 131 Which of you has passed the exam? Кто из вас сдал экзамен? Но: — Who lives in London? Кто живёт в Лондоне? — Mr Green does. Господин Грин. THE VERB Глаголом называется часть речи, которая обозначает действие (состояние). В английском языке имеется четыре группы видовременных форм: 1) группа неопределённых времён — Indefinite (Simple) Tenses; 2) группа продолженных времён — Continuous (Progressive) Tenses; 3) группа совершенных времён — Perfect Tenses; 4) группа совершенных длительных времён — Perfect Continuous Tenses. Все эти грамматические времена бывают настояш;и-ми, прошедшими или будуш;ими. Многие видовременные формы глагола — это сложные формы, которые образуются при помош;и вспомогательных глаголов (be, do, have, shall/will). Вспомогательные глаголы не имеют собственного значения, они лишь указывают на время совершения действия, лицо, число. §13. Очень важно помнить, что глаголы to be, to have, to do могут употребляться и как смысловые глаголы, и как вспомогательные. ч 1) Nick is at home. Yesterday we were in the park. (to be — смысловой глагол) Nick is riding a bike. The letters were written yesterday. (to be — вспомогательный глагол) 2) I have a mother. He had a farm 3 years ago. (to have — смысловой глагол) I have already read the book. He said he had seen the film. (to have — вспомогательный глагол) 132 3) She does it every summer. When are you going to do the work? (to do — смысловой глагол) When does she have breakfast? I don’t want to take any pictures. (to do — вспомогательный глагол) §14. Глагол to have со значением иметь, обладать в современном английском языке чаще всего выступает в виде структуры have got/has got: I have got a pen (реже I have a pen). При образовании отрицательных предложений наиболее частотными структурами являются: They have not got pens/He hasn’t got a pen и They don’t have pens/He doesn’t have a pen. (Структура He hasn’t a pen употребляется крайне редко.) Однако когда в предложении есть отрицательное местоимение по, употребляется просто форма has/have. I have no sister. He has no friends. They had no work to do yesterday. §15. Глагол to be, выступая в качестве глагола-связки, употребляется для построения составного именного сказуемого: She is ill. The rose is sweet. The orange is bitter. §16. Глаголы to taste, to sound, to feel, to smell также выступают в качестве глагола-связки при образовании составного именного сказуемого. I feel bad, I don’t feel well. Я чувствую себя плохо, а не хорошо. The rose smells sweet. Роза сладко пахнет. The orange tastes bitter. Апельсин горек на вкус. При этом в русском варианте, как видно из вышеприведённых примеров, в предложениях имеется простое глагольное сказуемое, и оно определяется наречием. §17. Глагол to like в современном английском языке в предложениях типа: Я люблю, когда идёт дождь. Мне нравится, когда на улице солнечно требует после себя дополнение it. I like it when it rains. I like it when it is sunny outdoors. §18. 1. В английском языке для описания событий, которые происходят постоянно, обычно используется настоящее неопределённое время (Present Simple). С этим временем вы знакомы со 2 класса. Обратите внимание на необходимость использования окончания -s во 2-м лице ед. числа глагола. I go to work 5 days a week. He/she goes to work 5 days a week. John usually drinks milk in the afternoon. Отрицательные и вопросительные формы образуются при помощи вспомогательных глаголов do/does. Do you help your parents? , Does she do her room on Saturday? She doesn’t live in Paris. 2, Наречия неопределённого времени seldom, always, sometimes, usually, often, never часто используются в предложениях, описывающих обычные, повторяющиеся действия. Обычно эти наречия стоят перед смысловым глаголом, но после глагола to be. They often go to the country in summer. We don’t usually get up early. He always driver his car himself. But: They are often late for classes. He is usually home at 5. 134 § 19. Для описания действия, происходящего в момент речи, употребляется настоящее продолженное время (the Present Continuous Tense). Look! Ann is wearing such a funny hat. Однако целый ряд глаголов в этом времени обычно не употребляется. К этим глаголам относятся глаголы: to hear to love to want to prefer to understand to seem to remember to feel to see to wish to hate to know to forget to believe to recognize He knows this fact. Do you see that tree over there? При этом, однако, следует иметь в виду, что глагол to feel при описании самочувствия может употребляться как в Present Indefinite, так и в Present Continuous: How are you feeling today? He doesn’t feel well. §20. The Present Perfect Tense часто используется для описания действия, которое происходило в прошлом и до сих пор продолжается. She has always lived in that street. Она всегда жила на этой улице. (и сейчас живёт). Очень часто время Present Perfect используется также для описания состояния, которое имело место быть в прошлом и продолжается в настоящий момент. We have always been proud of you. Мы всегда гордились вами (и сейчас гордимся). I have always wanted to visit London. Мне всегда хотелось побывать в Лондоне (и сейчас хочется). §21. Способы выражения будущего времени. В английском языке существуют несколько способов того, как можно рассказать о будущем действии, событии. Для этого употребляются: 1) the Future Indefinite Tense — для выражения однократного или повторяющегося действия в будущем. We shall meet and talk one of these days. Will you phone me every week. Слова и словосочетания, которые обычно указывают на это время: tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/month/year, etc. in a week/month/year (через педелю/месяц/год) one of these days / na днях) Часто это время употребляется, если мы решаем что-то сделать в момент речи. I like this dictionary. I will buy it. What would you like to have? I’ll take chicken soup, I think. 2) оборот to be going to — собираться сделать что-то — для описания запланированного действия, для выражения намерения говорящего. Мы собираемся совершить действие и сообщаем о том, что хотим исполнить то, что мы решили сделать заранее.’’ I am going to watch a film on television. Is she going to travel by car? Этот же оборот употребляется для описания какого-то события в будущем, если говорящему ясно, что оно обязательно произойдёт. Look at the sky! It’s going to rain. — Is it going to snow? — I hope not. 3) the Present Continuous Tense — для описания запланированного действия, которое произойдёт в ближайшем будущем. What are you doing next Monday? We are having a party tomorrow night. Очень часто подобным образом употребляются глаголы движения (to come, to leave, to arrive, to go). When is Allan arriving from Kiev? We are leaving for Paris next week. We have bought tickets. We are going to the theatre tonight. §22. Придаточные времени и условия. В придаточных времени и условия после союзов if, when, as soon as не употребляется будущее время. When Niok returns, he will call you. Когда Ник вернётся, он позвонит вам. If it rains, we’ll stay at home. Если пойдёт дождь, мы останемся дома. If he doesn’t play with us, we won’t win. Если он не будет играть с нами, мы не выиграем. §23. Для выражения повторяющегося события в прошлом употребляется оборот used to. Это событие, действие происходило когда-то в прошлом, но не происходит сейчас. They used to swim a lot last summer. Они обычно много плавали летом (а сейчас так много не плавают ). I used to travel with my parents. Я имел обыкновение путешествовать с родителями (а сейчас нет). Отрицательная и вопросительная формы оборота чаще образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to do. Не didn’t use to like skating when he was small. Did you use to go in for sports at school? Однако возможны варианты: He used not to like riding a horse when he lived in the country. 137 §24. The Past Continuous Tense выражает незаконченное действие в прошлом. Это — длительное действие, про-исходяш;ее в определённый момент в прошлом. Nick was having а bath at that time. Yesterday at four you were playing chess. При этом то, когда именно происходило то или иное действие в прошлом, может также уточняться при по-мощ,и придаточных предложений, вводимых союзами when и while. Steve was making a phone call when John entered. While Jane was lying on the beach her sister was working hard at home. The Past Continuous Tense может описывать так же действие, которое продолжалось в прошлом в течение указанного отрезка времени и обозначено в предложении такими словосочетаниями, как all day long, all night, the whole evening. Cp.: She was cooking all the morning yesterday. Однако, если указание на отрезок времени происходит при помош;и предлога for, используется Past Simple. Cp.: She cooked for two hours and then left (the house). §25. Модальные глаголы. Глагол should (shouldn’t) передаёт в английском языке идею долженствования, выражаемую в мягкой форме: в качестве совета, рекомендации. You should go there! Тебе следует пойти туда. You shouldn’t speak that loudly. He следует так громко говорить. В этом смысле модальный глагол ought to очень близок по значению к глаголу should и может в большинстве случаев заменять его. После глагола ought употребляется частица to. You ought to have a rest. 138 §26. Страдательный залог (Passive Voice). В английском языке имеются два залога — действительный (Active Voice) и страдательный (Passive Voice). В предложении Mrs Brown grows flowers in her garden глагол употреблён в действительном залоге, так как Mrs Brown (подлежащее предложения) сама совершает действие, сама выращивает цветы. Если для говорящего не важно, кто совершает действие, или если он этого не знает, то глагол употребляется в страдательном залоге. Beautiful roses are grown here. Здесь выращивают великолепные розы. X Образуется страдательный залог при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующей форме (am, is, are, was, were) и второго причастия основного глагола. Для так называемых правильных глаголов эта форма совпадает с формой прошедшего времени. У неправильных глаголов эту форму нужно запомнить: to be-ь Participle II. В отрицательных предложениях вспомогательный глагол to be употребляется с частицей not. Such books are not sold here. Подобные книги здесь не продаются. В вопросительных предложениях глагол to be ставится перед подлежащим. Was St. Petersburg founded in 1703? §27. Косвенная речь (Reported Speech/Indirect Speech). Речь, которая передаёт подлинные слова какого-либо лица, называется прямой речью. Речь, в которой передаётся содержание того, что было кем-то сказано, называется косвенной. При изменении прямой речи в косвенную соблюдаются правила согласования времён. Если глагол, который вводит косвенную речь, употреблён в настоящем или будущем времени (Present Indefinite, Present Per- 139 feet. Future Indefinite), в косвенной речи время глагола не меняется. Не says he was in Moscow in 2001. Если глагол, вводящий косвенную речь, употреблён в прошедшем времени (Past Indefinite), то в косвенной речи обычно происходят следующие изменения: Present Indefinite ^ Past Indefinite Не said: “I think Nelly is right.” ^ He said he thought Nelly was right. Past Indefinite, Present Perfect -* Past Perfect He said: “I lived in the country.” He said he had lived in the country. He said: “I have done it.” —>• He said he had done it. Future Indefinite Puture-in-the-Past He said: “I will go there.” -»■ He said he would go there. Если в косвенной речи сообщается о событии, которое является как бы общим фактом, то правило согласования времён в этом случае часто не применяется: Не said Paris is the capital of France. a) Утвердительные и отрицательные предложения в косвенной, речи. Если после глагола to say, который вводит прямую речь, есть указание на то, к кому эта речь обращена, то глагол to say меняется на to tell smb. '' Jeff said to Ann: “I am going to Glasgow.” ^ Jeff told Ann he was going to Glasgow. Bee личные и притяжательные местоимения изменяются в зависимости от того, от какого лица что-то сообщается. Pam said to Jill: “I want to talk to you.’ Jill she wanted to talk to her. Pam told Союз that часто опускается после глаголов to say, to think, to know и т. д. He remembered (that) she had asked him about it. 140 в утвердительных и отрицательных предложениях в косвенной речи происходят также следующие изменения: now —> then today ^ that day tomorrow the next day the day after tomorrow two days later in two days ^ two days later ago ^ before next year ^ the next year last week ^ the week before, the previous week here ^ there this —>■ that these those Необходимо обратить внимание на перевод подобных предложений на русский язык. Не said he was writing a letter. Он сказал, что пишет письмо. She said she lived in Rostov. Она сказала, что живёт в Ростове. They said they had lived in Rostov two years before. Они сказали, что жили в Ростове два года тому назад. б) Вопросы в косвенной речи. В вопросах в косвенной речи соблюдается прямой порядок слов, т. е. сказуемое стоит после подлежащего. Тот asked if “Do you like ice cream?” asked Tom. I liked ice cream. Robert asked: “Where has Pete gone?” ed to know where Pete had gone. Robert want- b) Просьбы и приказания в косвенной речи. Повелительные предложения в косвенной речи вводятся обычно следующими глаголами: to tell, to order, to ask, при этом указывается лицо, к которому обращена просьба или приказание. Robert to his friend: “Come here!” ^ Robert asked his friend to come up to him. Robert to Bob: “Don’t be late!” Robert told Bob not to be late. I 4 141 THE ADVERB Наречие — часть речи, которая указывает на признак действия, на обстоятельства, при которых оно протекает. Не always works hard. §28. В предложении наречие может уточнять а) глагол, б) прилагательное, в) наречие. a) Му granny doesn’t hear well. б) She is rather small. b) I didn’t sleep very well. Наречия неопределённого времени (often, always, seldom, usually, etc.) обычно стоят перед основным глаголом, но после глагола to be. Не often goes to school by bus. Does she usually get up at seven? I am seldom unhappy. Многосложные наречия неопределённого времени (sometimes, generally, occasionally) обычно могут стоять как в начале, так и в конце предложения. Generally, she arrived at 5. He goes there sometimes. EniGLISH-RUSSIAlU VOCABULARY adj — adjective — прилагательное adv — adverb — наречие conj — conjunction — союз interj — interjection — междометие a (an) [э] [эп] артикль abbey ['aebi] аббатство about [o'baut] prep o, об, насчёт above [эЪлу] prep над above zero выше нуля academician [э,кзебэ'т1/п] академик accept [sk'sept] принимать to accept the invitation принимать приглашение according [o'koidip] prep согласно, соответственно accountant [a'kauntont] бухгалтер across [g'kres] adv через; prep через act out ['aekt 'aut] разыграть no ролям action ['aekjn] действие activity [ak'tmti] деятельность, активность actor [’aekto] актёр add [aed] добавлять, прибавлять address [a'dres] адрес admiral ['asdmaral] адмирал advice [ad'vais] совет to ask for advice просить совета to follow the advice следовать совету to take advice воспользоваться советом It is good advice. Это хороший совет, advise [ad'vaiz] советовать afraid [a'freid] испуганный to be afraid of smb/smth бояться кого-то/чего то Africa ['asfnka] Африка African ['aefnkan] африканский n — noun — суш;ествительное prep — preposition — предлог pron — pronoun — местоимение V — verb — глагол after ['а:йэ] prep после; adv потом afternoon [,o:fto'nu:n] полдень in the afternoon днём, в полуденное время again [э'деп] adv снова against [a'geinst] prep против to be against smtfi быть против чего-то age [ei(fe] возраст at the age of в возрасте agree [a'gri:] соглашаться air [еэ] воздух airport ['eopoit] аэропорт Alaska [a'lasska] Аляска alien ['eilion] чужестранец, иноземец all [э:1] pron весь, все all day long целый день alone [эЪип] adj один along [aimj] adv вдоль aloud [aiaud] adv вслух alphabet ['«Ifabit] алфавит already [od'redi] adv уже also ['o:ls3o] adv также, тоже always ['o:lw9z] adv всегда America [э'тспкэ] Америка Central America Центральная Америка North America Северная Америка South America Южная Америка American [э'тепкэп] американский among [э'пид] prep среди 143 amount [a'maunt] количество ancient [‘em/ant] древний and [a;nd], [and] conj и, a animal [aenimal] животное announcer [a'naunsa] диктор another [э'плбэ] другой answer ['ctnsa] n ответ; v отвечать Antarctic [,asn'ta;ktik] Антарктика antonym ['eentanim] антоним any ['em] pron какой-нибудь anybody ['eni,bt)di] pron кто-нибудь anything [‘em0io] pron что-нибудь apartment [a'pnrtmant] квартира (амер.) apologize [3'pnlaci5aiz] извиняться apology [a'pnladsi] извинение appear [э'рю] появляться appetite ['sepitait] аппетит applaud [a'pbid] аплодировать applause [a'pb:z] аплодисменты apple ['aspl] яблоко April ['eipral] апрель architect ['cukitekt] архитектор the Arctic Ocean ['aktik 'эцГп] Северный Ледовитый океан aristocrat ['acnstakra;t] аристократ arm [cum] рука (от ладони до плеча) armchair ['cumt/ea] кресло army ['а:mi] армия to be in the army служить в армии to go into the army пойти в армию to join the army пойти в армию around [a'raund] adv вокруг arrange [a'reincfe] располагать arrival [a'rarvl] прибытие arrive at/in [a'raiv] прибывать в art(s) [o;t(s)] искусство as [aez], [az] pron потому что; в то время как Asia ['eija] Азия ask [a:sk] спрашивать, просить, приглашать to ask for smth просить что-то at [act] prep у, около at first сначала attack [a'taek] атаковать, нападать attentively [a'tentivli] внимательно audience [’o:dians] аудитория, зрители August ['a:gast] август aunt [a:nt] тетя Australia [n'strcilia] Австралия automobile ['a;tamobi:l] автомобиль autumn ['a:tam] осень baby ['beibi] ребёнок до одного года, младенец back [bajk] п задняя часть чего-то to be at the back of smth в глубине, располагаться в задней части to be in the back сзади back adv назад to come back возвращаться backache ['b^keik] боль в спине, боль в пояснице bacon ['beikan] бекон bad [bsed] (worse; the worst) плохой (хуже; самый плохой) badge [ba:d5] значок badminton ['baedmintan] бадминтон bag [Ьагд] сумка, портфель baker ['beika] булочник at the baker’s в булочной balance ['baebns] баланс, пропорция balcony ['baelkam] балкон ball [bad] мяч ballet ['Ьж1е1] балет the Baltic Sea ['badtik 'si;] Балтийское море bank [baegk] берег (реки, озера) bar [ba;] кусок, брусок a bar of chocolate плитка шоколада, шоколадный батончик barber ['ba:ba] парикмахер (мужской) at the barber’s в парикмахерской baseball ['beisba:!] бейсбол basic ['beisik] основной, главный basic course основной курс basketball ['ba;skitbad] баскетбол bathroom ['ba;Grom] ванная battery ['btetan] батарея, аккумулятор battle ['baetl] битва, сражение be [bi:] (was/were; been) быть, находиться to be able to быть в состоянии (делать что-то) to be going to собираться 144 to be lost потеряться to be on at the cinema идти в кинотеатре (о фильме) What’s on at the “Udarnik”? Что идёт в «Ударнике»? What’s on TV? Что по телевизору? I have been to London. Я бывал в Лондоне. to be on быть включённым to be off быть выключенным bear [Ьсэ] медведь beauty ['bju:ti] n 1) красота 2) красавица because [bi'knz] conj потому что become [bi'kAm] (became; become) становиться bed [bed] кровать to go to bed ложиться спать bedroom ['bedrom] спальня beef [bi:f] говядина beer [bia] пиво before [biTo:] prep до, перед; adv раньше begin [bi'gin] (began; begun) начинать beginning [bi'ginio] начало behind [bi'haind] за, сзади believe [bi'liiv] 1) верить 2) полагать I can’t believe my eyes! He могу поверить своим глазам! bell [be!] колокол, звонок belong to smb/smth [bi'lnp] принадлежать кому-то/чему-то below [bi'bu] adv внизу, ниже Berlin [Ьз:'1т] Берлин besides [bi'saidz] adv кроме того best [best] самый лучший better ['beto] лучше, лучший Better late than never. Лучше поздно, чем никогда. But better never be late! Ho лучше не опаздывать! between [bi'twiai] adv между Bible ['baibl] Библия big [big] большой biography [bai'ografi] биография birch [Ьз:1[] берёза bird [b3:d] птица birth [Ьз:0] рождение date of birth дата рождения place of birth место рождения birthday ['b3:0dei] день рождения Happy birthday to ...! C днём рождения ...! bit (a bit) [bit] немного, чуть-чуть bitter ['bits] adj 1) горький 2) резкий, сильный, ожесточённый bitter adv очень, ужасно It’s bitter cold! Ужасно холодно! black-and-white film чёрно-белый фильм blackboard ['blaekboid] школьная доска block [bbk] квартал to walk two blocks пройти два квартала blossom [ЪЬзэт] цвет, цветок to be in blossom быть в цвету blouse [blaoz] блуза blow [bbu] (blew; blown) дуть blue [blu:] голубой, синий board [bo:d] борт on board the ship на борту корабля boaster ['bausta] хвастун boat [bout] лодка, корабль to go boating кататься на лодке body ['bodi] тело bonfire ['bnnfaia] большой костёр book [buk] n книга; v бронировать, заказывать заранее bookcase ['bukkeis] книжный шкаф boot [bu:t] ботинок boring ['bo:ng] скучный born [bo:n] рождённый to be born родиться boss [bos] босс, начальник both [Ьэи0] pron оба bottle ['botl] бутылка box [boks] коробка, ящик boy [boi] мальчик bracket ['brgckit] скобка given in brackets данные в скобках branch [braintj] ветка, ветвь brave [breiv] храбрый bravei*y ['breivari] храбрость bread [bred] хлеб break [breik] (broke; broken) ломать, разбивать to break a law нарушить закон breakfast ['brekfost] завтрак to have for breakfast на завтрак 145 breathe [bri;d] дышать breeze [bri:z] лёгкий ветерок, бриз bridge [Ьпф] мост bright [brait] яркий bring [brio] (brought; brought) приносить bronze [bronz] бронзовый brother [Ъглбэ] брат brown [braun] коричневый brush up ['Ьгл/ Чр] освежать в намяти build [bild] (built; built) строить builder [’bilda] строитель building ['bildiol здание burglar [Ъз:д1э] вор, грабитель burn [Ьз:п] (burnt; burnt) гореть bus [bAs] автобус by bus автобусом number 7 bus автобус номер 7 bus stop автобусная остановка at the bus stop на остановке автобуса business ['biznis] дело, занятие busy ['bizi] adj 1) занятой 2) оживлённый but [bAt] COnj HO butcher ['butja] мясник at the butcher’s в мясном магазине (отделе) butter [Ъа1з] масло buy [bai] (bought; bought) покупать by [bai] prep y, около by heart наизусть by the way между прочим bye/bye-bye [bai/'bai'bai] пока California [,k3eli'fo;ni3] Калифорния call [ko:l] n 1) звать 2) звонить calm [ka:m] успокаивать Calm down! ['ka:m'daun] Успокойся! can [kaen] консервная банка a can of coca-cola банка кока-колы can [kaen] (could) мочь Could I have ...? He мог бы я ...? Canada ['кжпобэ] Канада canal [кэ'пае!] канал Canberra [‘кэепЬэгэ] Канберра candy ['kaendi] конфета (амер.) cap [каер] кепка, шапка capital ['kaepitl] столица Capitol ['kaepitl] Капитолий car [ка:] машина by car машиной care [кеэ] забота to take care of smb/smth заботиться о ком-л. I чём-л. careful ['keaful] осторожный carefully ['keafuli] осторожно careless ['keslis] беспечный, неосторожный carelessly ['keolisli] неосторожно carpet ['kaipit] ковёр carrot (carrots) ['kccrat] морковь carry ['kaen] носить to carry mail перевозить почту cartoon [ko;'tu:n] мультфильм the Caspian Sea ['kaespisn 'si;] Каспийское море castle ['ka;sl] замок catch [kastj] (caught; caught) поймать, схватить to catch a plane (train, bus) успеть на самолёт (поезд, автобус) category ['kaetigari] категория caviar [’kievia:] икра celebrate ['sclibreit] праздновать celebration [|Seli'breij'n] празднование cent [sent] цент central ['sentral] ценз'ральный central heating центральное отопление centre ['senta] йентр century ['sentjon] век ceremony ['serimsni] церемония certain ['s3:tn] определённый, некоторый certainly ['s3:tnli] adv конечно champion ['tfaempion] чемпион change [tjemc[5] n сдача; u 1) менять 2) делать пересадку Where do we change? Где мы пересаживаемся? Change over. Поменяйтесь ролями, character ['kajnkto] герой (книги, фильма ) cheap [tfi:p] дешёвый check (up) [Ifek (ap)] проверять check in регистрировать 146 check-in регистрация chemist ['kemist] аптекарь at the chemist’s в аптеке chest [tfest] грудная клетка Chicago [U'kaigao] Чикаго chicken (chick) ['ifikin] цыплёнок child [Ijaild] ребёнок children ['tjildran] дети chimney ['tjimm] труба China [Ч/атэ] Китай choice [Ijbis] выбор choose [tju:z] (chose; chosen) выбирать Christian ['kristian] христианин Christmas ['krismas] Рождество chronicle ['kiDinkl] летопись chrysanthemum [kn'saen0im9m] хризантема » church церковь cinema ['smamo] n 1) кино 2) кинотеатр cinema-goer ['зшэтэ.дэш] любитель кино What’s on at ...? Что идёт в ...? circle ['s3:kl] обводить кругом circus ['s3:kas] n цирк; adj цирковой city ['siti] большой город class [kla:s] класс after classes после занятий before classes до занятий in class в классе business class первый класс (о билете на самолёт ) tourist class второй класс (о билете на самолёт) classical ['klaesikl] классический classroom ['klursnjm] классная комната, класс clean [kli;n] adj чистый; v чистить, убирать cleaning day день уборки clever ['kleva] умный climate ['klaimit] климат climb [klaim] залезать, взбираться close [klauz] закрывать clothes [klaudz] одежда cloud [kland] облако clown [klaun] клоун club [к!лЬ] клуб coat [kaut] пальто, пиджак, куртка coffee ['knfi] кофе coin [koin] монета gold coin золотая монета cold [kaold] холодный collect [ka'lekt] собирать, коллекционировать collection [ka'lekjh] коллекция collector [ka'lekta] коллекционер colonist ['kolanist] колонист, житель колонии colony ['knlani] колония colour ['кл1э] цвет colour film цветной фильм coloured ['iovlad] раскрашенный colourful ['k/vlaful] красочный, яркий column ['kolam] колонка combination [.kombi'neijn] сочетание, комбинация word combination словосочетание come [клт] (саще; come) приходиз-ь Come and see me some day. Заходи ко мне как-нибудь, to come back возвращаться to come from 1) быть родом 2) приходить из/с to come home приходить домой comedy ['komidi] комедия comfortable ['lumfotabl] удобный common ['knman] обычный commonly ['komanli] обычно least commonly used реже всего используемое most commonly used наиболее часто используемое compare [кэт'реэ] сравнивать, сравнить compete [kam'pi'.t] соревноваться competition [,kDmpi‘ti/n] соревнование complete [kom'plid] заканчивать compliment ['komplimant] комплимент to pay a compliment делать комплимент compose [kam'pauz] сочинять, составлять compound [kom'paond] сложное слово computer [kam'pjuda] компьютер concert ['kons9t] концерт conductor [kan'dAkta] n 1) дирижёр 2) кондуктор confectionery [kan'fckjnari] кондитерская 147 conference [‘konfrans] конференция conservative [kan'ssivativ] консервативный consist (of) [kan'sist] состоять (из) consult [kan'sAlt] консультировать continent ['kontinant] континент continental [.konti'nentl] относящийся к материку continue [kan'tinju:] продолжать conveniences [kanVirniansiz] удобства modern conveniences современные удобства convenient [kan'viinjant] удобный conversation [.kniiva'seijn] беседа cook [kuk] готовить cooker ['ко'кэ] плита cooking day день приготовления пищи copy out ['kopi 'aul] списывать, переписывать corner ['кз:пэ] угол in the corner в углу correct [ka'rekt] правильный correctly [ka'rektli] правильно corresponding [,kDn'spondio] соответствующий cost [kost] (cost; cost) стоить How much does it cost? Сколько это стоит? costume ['kostjuim] костюм (маскарадный ) cottage t'kotidj] коттедж cottage cheese ['kotici^ 'tji:z] творог cough [kof] n кашель; v кашлять count [kaunt] считать countable ['kaontobl] исчисляемый country ['kAntri] n 1) страна 2) сельская местность in the country за городом cover ['клуэ] n обложка, покрытие; и покрывать cowboy ['kauboi] ковбой cream [kri:m] сливки create [krii'eit] создавать criminal ['knminl] n преступник; adj преступный critic ['kntik] критик criticize ['kntisaiz] критиковать crocodile ['krokadail] крокодил crossword [‘kn)sw3:dj кроссворд cry [krai] V 1) плакать 2) кричать to cry for help звать на помощь Cuba [’kju:b9] Куба culture ['клк/э] культура cup [клр] чашка cupboard ['клЬзб] буфет, кухонный шкаф, полка curious ['kjuarios] любопытный curtain ['кзйп] занавес curtsy ['ksitsi] делать реверанс custom ['kAStam] обычай So many countries so many customs. Сколько стран, столько и обычаев, customs ['kASlsmz] таможня at the customs на таможне customs officer ['kAStamz .ofisa] таможенник cut [kAt] (cut; cut) резать; срубать daffodil ['daifodil] нарцисс dairy ['dean] молочный dairymaid ['deorimeid] доярка, молочница dairy products молочные продукты daisy ['deizi] маргаритка danger f'deincfea] опасность in danger в опасности out of danger вне опасности dangerous ['dein^sras] опасный dark [da:k] тёмный It is getting dark. Темнеет, daughter [Уэ:1э] дочь day [dei] день the day before yesterday позавчера day off выходной день the other day на днях dead [ded] мёртвый dear [dia] дорогой Oh, dear! O, Боже! December [di'sembo] декабрь decide [di'said] решать decorate ['deksreit] украшать 148 decoration [ideks'rei/n] украшение decorator ['dekareita] декоратор deep [di;p] глубокий definite ['definit] определённый definitely ['defimtli] определённо delay [di'lei] n задержка; v задержи-вать(ся), опаздывать Delhi ['dell] Дели democratic [,dem9'kr£etik] демократический denote [di'naut] обозначать dentist ['dentist] зубной врач department [di'panmant] отдел department store [di'padmsnt sto:] универмаг departure [di'pa:tfa] отправление depend [di'pend] зависеть to depend on smb/smth зависеть от кого-то! чего-то It depends! Судя по обстоятельствам, describe [di'skraib] описывать desk [desk] парта at the desk за партой dessert [di'z3:t] десерт for dessert на десерт detailed ['di:teild] детальный detective film [di'tektiv 'film] детектив develop [di'vebp] развивать devoted to smb [di'vautid] преданный кому-то dialogue ['daialng] диалог diary ['daiari] дневник dictionary ['dikjanri] словарь die [dai] умирать diet ['dai9t] диета to be on a diet быть на диете to keep to a diet придерживаться диеты differ ['difa] отличаться difference ['difrsns] отличие different ['difrant] различный difficult ['difiklt] трудный dime [daim] монета в 10 центов dining room ['damip rum] столовая (в доме) dinner ['dina] обед, ужин to have for dinner на обед dirty ['d3:ti] грязный disagree [.disa'gri;] не соглашаться disappear [.disa'pia] исчезать discover [dis'kAva] открывать discoverer [dis'kAvara] первооткрыватель discovery [dis'lovvan] открытие discuss [di'skAs] обсуждать dislike [dis'laik] не любить divide [di'vaid] делить do [du:] (did; done) делать doctor ['dnkta] врач documentary (film) [,dDkju'mentari] документальный (фильм) dollar [’dnla] доллар dolphin ['dnlfin] дельфин door [da:] дверь doubt [daut] сомнение down [daun] adv вниз downstairs [.daun'steaz] adv внизу, вниз drama ['dra:ma] драма draw I [dra:] (drew; drawn) v рисовать draw II n игра вничью to end in a draw заканчиваться вничью dress [dres] n платье; v одеваться drink [drigk] (drank; drunk) пить driver ['drarva] водитель dull [dAl] скучный, пасмурный duty ['dju:ti] долг, обязанность each [i;tj] pron каждый each other друг друга ear [la] yxo earache ['lareik] боль в ухе earth [з;0] земля east [i;st] восток easy ['i:zi] лёгкий eat [id] (ate; eaten) есть education [,edju'keijn] образование egg [eg] яйцо Egypt ['iid^ipt] Египет elbow [‘elbau] локоть elect [I'lekl] избирать, выбирать electricity [i,lek'trisiti] электричество elephant ['elifant] слон 149 else [els] adv ещё what else что ещё where else где/куда ещё who else кто ещё emblem ['етЫэт] эмблема emperor ['етрэгэ] император empire ['етрагэ] империя empty ['empti] пустой encourage [ш'клпс^] 1) поощрять 2) вдохновлять end [end] п конец; v заканчивать(ся) at the end в конце up to the end до конца enemy ['enimi] враг engineer [,encfei'ni3] инженер enjoy [in'djoi] получать удовольствие enumerate [I'njuimoreit] пронумеровать equivalent [I'kwivalant] n эквивалент; adj равный especially [I'spejli] особенно Europe []шгэр] Европа European [^оэгэ'р1:эп] европейский even ['i:vn] adv даже evening ['iivnip] вечер in the evening вечером on Monday evening в понедельник вечером ever ['evo] adv когда-нибудь everybody ['evri,bodi] pron каждый everything ['evriGir)] pron всё examine [ig'zaemin] n экзамен; v 1) экзаменовать 2) осматривать excellent ['cksalont] отличный excite [ik'sait] волновать excuse [ik'skju:z] извинять Excuse me ... Извините exercise ['eksasaiz] упражнение to do exercises делать упражнения exercise book ['eksasaiz buk] тетрадь exhibition [,eksi'bij’n] выставка exist [ig'zist] существовать expensive [ik'spensiv] дорогой, стоящий дорого explain to (smb) [ik'splein] объяснять ( кому-то ) exploration [,ekspb'rei/n] исследование explore [ik'splo:] исследовать explorer [ik'spbxa] исследователь express [ik'spres] выражать extra ['ekstra] дополнительный face [feis] n лицо; v повернуться лицом fact [faekt] факт factory ['faektsn] фабрика fairy tale [Теэп teil] сказка fall [fo:l] (fell; fallen) падать false [foils] неверный family ['faemili] семья famous for smth ['feimos] известный чем-то fantastic [fon'taestik] потрясающий far [fa:] далёкий far from далеко от the Far East Дальний Восток fare [feo] плата за проезд farm [fa:m] n ферма; v обрабатывать землю fast [fa:st] adj быстрый; adv быстро fat [fact] толстый, жирный father [Та:5э] отец favourite ['feivoril] любимый feature (film) ['fiitjo] художественный (фильм) February [ТеЬгоэп] февраль feel [fill] (felt; felt) чувствовать to feel bad чувствовать себя плохо to feel like doing smth иметь желание что-то сделать festival ['fcstrvol] фестиваль few [fju:] adj не'Ьколько, мало a few [fju:] несколько fewer ['Ои:э] меньше fiction [Т1к/(э)п] художественная литература field [fiild] n 1) поле 2) отрасль fight [fait] rt 1) драка 2) сражение; V драться, сражаться to have a fight сражаться to fight against smb сражаться против кого-то to fight for smth сражаться за что-то fill in ['fil 'in] вставить film [film] фильм historical film исторический фильм 150 find [faind] (found; found) найти to find out найти; выяснить fine [fain] прекрасный; хороший finger [Tinga] палец finish ['fmij] v заканчивать fire ['faiaj n 1) огонь 2) камин 3) пожар fireman [Таютэп] пожарный fireplace [’faispleis] камин firework [Taiowsik] фейерверк fish [fij] n рыба; v ловить рыбу fisherman ['fi/этзп] рыбак flat [flECt] квартира flight [flait] полёт floor [По:] n 1) пол 2) этаж on the ground floor на первом этаже flour [flaua] мука flower ['Паиэ] цветок . flu [flu:] грипп flute [fllu:t] флейта to play the flute играть на флейте fly [flai] (flew; flown) летать to fly east (west) лететь на восток (запад) fog [fng] туман foggy ['fngi] туманный folk [fauk] народный follow [fnlau] следовать following ['fnlauig] следующий fond [fond] любящий to be fond of smth/smb любить что-то/кого-то to be fond of doing smth любить делать что-то food [fu:d] пища, еда foolish [Tu:IiJ] глупый foot [fut] (feet [fi:t]) нога/ступня (ноги) to go on foot идти пешком football [futbo:l] футбол foreign ['form] иностранный forest ['fnrist] лес forget [fa'gel] (forgot; forgotten) забывать fork [fo;k] вилка form [form] n 1) форма, анкета 2) класс; V составлять former [То:тэ] бывший found [fannd] основывать founded [Taundid] основанный to be founded быть основанным fountain [Tauntin] фонтан fox [fnks] лиса France [fra: ns] Франция free [fri:] свободный, бесплатный freeze [fri:z] (froze; frozen) замёрзнуть, заморозить It’s freezing! Морозит! frequently ['fri:kwontli] adv часто fresh [frej] свежий Friday [Traidi] пятница fridge [finds] холодильник friend [frend] друг friendly ['frendli] дружелюбный friendship [Trendjip] дружба frog [frog] лягушка from [from] prep от, из front [fifAnt] n передняя сторона; adj передний in front of smth перед чем-то fruit [fru:t] фрукт, фрукты fry [frai] жарить fulfil [furfiii] выполнять full [ful] полный to be full of smth быть полным чего-то furniture [Тз:пи]'э] мебель future ['fjiKtJa] будущее gallery ['gaebri] галерея game [geim] игра gangster ['gaegsto] гангстер garden ['ga:dn] сад gas [gaes] газ general ['с^епэгэ!] n генерал; adj общий geography [dsfingrafii] география German ['4s3:m3n] немецкий Germany ['с[5з:тэш] Германия get [get] (got; got) получать, доставать to get on with smb ладить c кем-то to get into a car сесть в машину to get out of a car выйти из машины to get on a train (bus) сесть на поезд (автобус) to get off a train (bus) сойти c поезда (автобуса) to get ready приготовиться 151 to get together собираться to get up вставать giant [’cfeaiant] n великан; adj гигантский giraffe [ф'га:П жираф girl [дз:1] девочка give [grv] (gave; given) давать to give back возвращать to give a call to smb звонить кому-л. glad [glaed] довольный to be glad быть довольным glass [gla:s] 1) стакан 2) стекло go [дэи] (went; gone) идти, ехать to go in for sports заниматься спортом to go on telling smth продолжать рассказывать что-л. God [god] Бог My God! Боже мой! Thank God! Слава Богу! gold [gauld] n золото; adj золотой (сделанный из золота) as good as gold золотой (человек) a heart of gold золотое сердце gold coin золотая монета golden ['gauldan] золотой; золотистый golden hair золотистые волосы good [gud] хороший Good luck! Удачи! government ['gAVinnant] правительство grammar ['gramma] грамматика grandfather ['grsend.fcuda] дедушка grandmother ['дгзеп,тлбэ] бабушка grandparents ['дггеп,реэгоп18] дедушка и бабушка grass [gras] трава grasshopper ['gras,hDpa] кузнечик great [greit] adj 1) великий 2) потрясающий, отличный It’s great! Великолепно! Потрясающе! You look great! Ты отлично выглядишь! greedy ['gri:di] жадный green [grim] зелёный greengrocer ['gri;n,graus9] зеленщик, продавец отдела «овощи-фрукты» at the greengrocer’s в магазине (отделе) «овощи-фрукты» 152 greeting ['grirtir)] приветствие on greeting приветствуя grocer ['дгэшэ] бакалейщик at the grocer’s в бакалейном отделе group [gru:p] n группа; и группировать, классифицировать grow [дгэи] (grew; grown) расти guess [ges] догадываться guest [gest] гость guitar [gi'ta] гитара to play the guitar играть на гитаре gun [длп] ружьё hair [hea] волосы half [haf] (halves [havz]) половина (половинки) It’s half past 5. Половина шестого, hall [ha:l] холл, прихожая Halloween [,haslau'i;n] канун Дня всех святых hamburger ['ЬэзтЬз:да] гамбургер hamster ['hsemsta] хомячок hand [hicnd] рука (ладонь) handicraft ['htendikraft] урок труда Hanoi [hae'nai] Ханой happen to smb/smth [‘hcep(a)n] случаться c кем-то/чем-то happy ['heepi] счастливый Happy New Year! C Новым годом! hard [had] adj упорный, тяжёлый; adv упорно, тял^ело, сильно hard-boiled eggs [,had'baild egz] яйца вкрутую hardly ['hadli] adv едва, почти hardly ever [‘hadli 'eva] очень редко, почти никогда hare [hea] заяц harm [ha:m] вред to do (a lot of) harm причинять (много) вреда harvest ['havist] урожай, сбор урожая hate [licit] n ненависть; v ненавидеть haughty [’ha:ti] надменный, высокомерный have (has) [haev] ([haez]) (had; had) иметь to have got (has got) иметь N to have (has) to do smth иметь необходимость что-то сделать hawthorn ['ho;0o:n] боярышник he [hi:] он head [hed] голова head teacher [,hed 'tirlfa] директор школы headline ['hedlain] заголовок hear [hia] (heard; heard) слышать heart [ha:t] сердце by heart наизусть heartache ['ha:teikj боль в сердце Hello! [he'bu] interj Привет! help [help] помогать to help about the house помогать no дому to help about the house day день помощи по дому to help smb with some subject помогать кому-л. по предмету her [li3:] pron её, ей, о ней here [1пэ] ado здесь Неге it is. Вот, пожалуйста! Ш! [hai] inter] Привет! hide [haid] (hid; hidden) прятаться hide-and-seek [,haidan'si:k] прятки (детская игра) high [hai] adj высокий; ado высоко hill [hil] холм him [him] pron его, ему, о нём (кого?) his [hiz] pron его (чей?) historic [hi'stonk] исторический history ['histori] история hobby ['hobi] хобби, любимое занятие hockey ['hnki] хоккей hold [hauld] (held; held) держать holiday ['hnbdi] n 1) праздник 2) каникулы holly ['holi] остролист home [haum] дом, домой at home дома homework ['houmwaik] домашнее задание to do homework выполнять домашнее задание honest ['nnist] честный honey [Ълт] мёд honeysuckle ['luni,SAkl] жимолость hop [hop] хмель hope [haup] надеяться hopscotch ['hopskotj] классики (детская игра ) horn [ho:n] рог, рожок horror ['hnra] ужас horror film (movie) фильм ужасов horse [ho:s] лошадь hospitable ['hospitabl] гостеприимный hospital ['hospill] больница host [haust] хозяин hostess ['haustis] хозяйка hot [hoi] горячий hot and cold running water водопровод hour [aua] час house (houses) [haus] (['hauziz]) дом (дома) how [hau] adv как, каким образом How are you? Как дела? How are you getting on? Как поживаешь? How do you do? Здравствуйте! how often как часто how long сколь долго, сколько времени how many сколько (с исчисляемыми сущ.) How do you like it? Как тебе это нравится? How've you been? Как ты поживал это время? How long have you been here? Сколько времени ты здесь? humble ['ЬлтЬ1] скромный, застенчивый, робкий humid ['hju:mid] влажный humorist ['hjmnarist] юморист hundred ['hMidrid] сотня, сто hungry [Ълрдп] голодный to be hungry быть голодным, хотеть есть hunt [lunt] охотиться hunter ['liAiita] охотник hurry ['lun] n спешка; v спешить to be in a hurry спешить Hurry up! Поторопись! hurt [hs:t] (hurt; hurt) и 1) болеть 2) причинять боль 153 ice [ais] лёд ice cream [,ais 'kri:m] мороженое Iceland ['aisland] Исландия idea [ai'dia] мысль That’s a great (good) idea! Замечательная идея (мысль)! identification [aiidentifi'keijn] опознавание, установление подлинности ill [il] больной to be ill болеть illness ['ilnjs] болезнь illustrate ['ilastreit] показать на примере imagination [i.mgedji'neijn] воображение imagine [I'mascfein] представить, вообразить immediately [i'mi:di3tli] немедленно important [im'podant] важный impossible [im'pnsabl] невозможный in [in] prep в (где?) in an hour через час include [in'klurd] включать indeed [in'dird] adv в самом деле independence (from smh) [.indi'peiidons] независимость (от кого л.) India ['india] Индия Indian ['indianj индийский the Indian Ocean Индийский океан Indians ['indianz] индийцы industrial [in'dAStnal] промышленный industry ['indastn] промышленность informal [in'fa.inal] неофициальный information [,infa'meijn] сведения instead [in'sted] adu вместо чего-то instrument ['instromant] инструмент interested ['intristid] заинтересованный to be interested in smth интересоваться чем-то interesting ['intnslip] интересный international [,inta'n£ejnal] международный interval ['intavl] интервал interview ['intavju:] n интервью; v брать интервью into ['into] prep в (куда?) invent [in'vent] изобретать invitation [,invi'tcijn] приглашение invite [in'vait] приглашать Ireland ['aialand] Ирландия irregular [I'regjola] неправильный island ['ailand] остров it [it] pron OHO It takes smb 3 hours to do it. Нужно 3 часа, чтобы сделать это. It’s been а long time. Много времени прошло. It was nice meeting you. Приятно было познакомиться. Italian [I'laeljon] итальянский Italy ['itali] Италия jacket ['ctscckil] куртка, жакет jam [d5iem] джем, варенье January ['cfeasnjuan] январь jar [(fea:] банка a jar of jam банка варенья jeans [ф1:пг] джинсы job [