Английский язык 11 класс Учебник Афанасьева Михеева

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о. V. AFANASYEVA I.V. MIKHEEVA ^ о. в. АФАНАСЬЕВА И. В. МИХЕЕВА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК S3] 1УЧ[1[ВЕ]ШК1 для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Профильный уровень Москва «Просвещение» 2008 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 А94 Условные обозначения: — при выполнении задания предполагается использование аудиозаписи — задание в формате Единого государственного экзамена (National Examination Format) — упражнение рекомендуется сделать письменно в тетради — задание в формате ЕГЭ предполагается выполнять с аудиозаписью Афанасьева О. В. А94 Английский язык. XI класс : учеб, для шк. с углубл. изучением англ, яз., лицеев и гимназий : профил. уровень / О. В. Афанасьева, И. В. Михеева. — М. : Просвещение, 2008. — 253 с. : ил. — ISBN 978-5-09-016617-1. ISBN 978-5-09-016617-1 УДК ;m.l67.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АНГЛ-922 Издательство «Просвещение», 2008 Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2008 Все нрава защищены О ш^т 4-» U "D О 4-* С: Music — along with drama and dance — is one of the performing arts. Its history runs further into the past than written language, but because it was not written down or recorded, nearly all music is lost to us. Today music is everywhere. So it was many centuries ago. Did you ever walk in a forest and suddenly come upon a little brook bubbling merrily along its path? Didn’t it sound like music? When the rain pitter-patters against a roof, or a bird sings heartily — aren’t these like music? When man first began to notice his surroundings, there was a kind of music already there. And then when he wanted to express great joy, when he wanted to jump and shout and somehow express what he felt, he felt music in his being, perhaps before he was able to express it. Eventually man learned to sing, and this was the first manmade music. What do you think would be the first thing man would want to express in his song? Yes, the happiness of love. The first songs ever sung were love songs. On the other hand, when man was face to face with death which brought him fear, he expressed this, too, in a different kind of song, a kind of dirge^ or chant. Now we can’t imagine our lives without music. No special knowledge is required to listen to music, but much study is required to become a performer. All great musicians combined talent and hard work to become really famous. 1. Answer the questions. 1. What role does music play in your life? 2. Music is one of the fine arts. What other fine arts do you know? Which of them do you prefer? 3. Can you play any musical instruments, dance or sing? Do you think one should be able to do these things? Why (not)? 4. Which of the two traditions in music — classical or popular — do you prefer? Do you like modern or old music? What particular kinds of it? 5. When, where and how do you listen to music? How often do you do it? 6. Do you like to listen to music when you are alone or when you are with other people? Do you discuss music with your friends? 7. Do you have any favourite 'a dirge [с1з:({^] — a slow sad song often sung at a funeral 2. performers — musicians, singers or bands? Who are they and why do you like them? 8. What in your view makes music such a popular hobby? Do you think it is mostly a hobby for the young? 9. Can listening to music turn into a kind of addiction? Do you know people addicted to music? Does music help them or does it interfere with their lives? 10. Do you think one should develop their taste in music? How can people do it? 11. What world-famous composers do you know? What facts about their lives and work can you mention? 12. Do you know any musical festivals, competitions? Where and when are they held? Do you know these music terms! 1. The cello is a__instrument. a) brass b) string c) keyboard 2. “Presto” is a tempo marking meaning___ a) “very fast” b) “in moderate time” 3. Tenor is____ c) “slowly” a) higher than soprano b) higher than bass [beis] c) the highest of the four pitches (alto, bass, soprano and tenor) 4. “Forte” is a dynamic marking meaning________ a) “soft” b) “quiet” c) “loud” 5. An octet is a group of____musicians. a) six b) seven c) eight 6. Tio(h) is the____note on the sol-fa musical scale. a) first b) last c) first and the last 7. Percussion instruments produce sounds by being, a) blown into b) struck c) pinched 8. A_____is usually based on a religious text. a) cantata b) concerto c) sonata Listening Comprehension 3. They Want to Make Really Good Music" (No 1) and say if Listen to the text the statements below are true, false or not mentioned in the text. 1. Kareem and George are from Wales. 2. They are of the same age. 3. They attended one and the same school. (1 4. There are eight children in Kareem’s family. 5. It took Kareem and George some time to become friends. 6. Their favourite music is hard rock. 7. George thinks Kareem is an interesting person to talk to. 8. The boys are sure they will make world-famous musicians in future. In the text you have just heard George and Kareem say they want to make really good music. Say what really good music is for you. Mention these: • if it is music for some particular instrument or it is orchestral music; • if it is music with melody, rhythm and harmony; • if it is classical music, popular music (folk, jazz, rock’n’roll, hard rock, etc.); • if it is any kind of music that can stand the test of time. Listen to the text "The Greatest Cellist of All Times” (No 2) and complete the statements below. 1. Mstislav Rostropovich spent his early years in---- 2. He got his musical education in_____ 3. He studied not only the piano but also_____ 4. ____he was awarded the highest distinction of the Soviet Union. 5. Rostropovich’s support for dissidents led to official disgrace and as a result he_____ 6. Rostropovich was a huge influence on______ 7. Rostropovich was a musical director and conductor of the US National Symphony Orchestra in Washington D. C. from_____to______ 8. His performance during the fall of the Berlin Wall was shown_______ 9. His Russian citizenship was____ 10. He received many_______ 11. Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich died in Moscow on______ 6. М. L. Rostropovich had to leave his native country and to live in immigration for many years. It is a known fact that a lot of artists, actors, composers, etc. often leave the places where they were born to make their careers in other countries. Work in groups and discuss these: • why people usually immigrate; • if it is good for people to live in immigration, especially if they deal with the world of arts; • if it is an advantage for the country when a) its citizens live and work in immigration, b) when they live and work in other countries being citizens of their own country; • how do people generally react to immigrants a) in the country they have left, b) in their new place of living. 7. Listen to the information about the British composer Henry Purcell (No 3) and choose the right item in the statements that follow. 1. Henry Purcell lived in the____century. a) 16th b) 17th c) 18th 2. As a young boy Henry Purcell began his career by______ a) singing b) writing music c) singing and writing music 3. The instrument that he played was_____ a) the violin b) the flute c) the organ 4. Purcell played in____ a) St. Paul’s Cathedral b) Westminster Abbey c) Durham Cathedral 5. Purcell wrote one of the first genuine English______ a) sonatas b) symphonies c) operas 6. Те Deum [4i: 'diam] by Purcell was____performed in St. Paul’s. a) regularly b) sometimes c) once 7. Orpheus Britannicus is a_____ a) hymn b) song c) number of songs 8. The music form Purcell didn’t work in was______ a) odes b) symphonies c) cantatas Л Listen to a piece of music by Henry Purcell (No 4) and say what feelings this music arouses. Would you like to listen to more music by this composer! Why (not)! Does Purcell's music sound like the music of any other composers that you know! What composers! Reading 9. Read six texts about Russian composers (1—6) and match them with the phrases (a—g) below. There is one phrase you don't need to use. a) This composer belonged to the nobility. b) This composer didn’t have brothers or sisters. c) This composer used to study legal systems of different countries before becoming a composer. d) This composer was born into a wealthy family with a strong military background. e) This composer wrote music that helped people to struggle and survive. f) This composer spent the last years of his life in Germany. g) This composer didn’t like to spend his time with those who wrote music. ■ Russian Composers ■ 1. Glinka was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition outside his country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian music. Glinka was the son of a wealthy merchant. He spent much of his youth being schooled in many countries across Europe where he soaked up the culture of the more artistically advanced European countries. His education in music theory was minimal and he chose instead to associate himself with the poets and artists of the time instead of fellow composers. During this period there was little to no Russian national music. Instead the aristocracy imported their music from the major musical countries such as Germany, France and Italy. 2. Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov was a Russian composer and teacher of classical music. His most famous composition is The Flight of the Bumblebee. Born in Tikhvin, near Novgorod, to an aristocratic family, Nikolay showed musical ability from an early age, but studied at the Russian Imperial Naval College in Saint Petersburg and then joined the Russian Navy. In 1871, despite being largely self-taught, Rimsky-Korsakov became professor of composition and orchestration at the Saint Petersburg Conservatoire. 3. Sergei Prokofiev was a Russian composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. He was born in the village of Krasnoe in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine. He was an only child. His mother was a pianist and his first music teacher. By the age of nine he had composed his first opera. His other compositions got praise for their originality. For some time he lived abroad — the USA, France, Germany. In 1934 he moved back to the Soviet Union. 4. Alfred Schnittke was a Russian and Soviet composer. He was born in the city of Engels on the Volga. He began his musical education in 1946 in Vienna where his father, a journalist and translator, had been posted. Schnittke’s early music shows the strong influence of Dmitry Shostakovich. Then he moved on to a new style which has been called “polystylism”, where music of different styles is mixed. The composer once wrote: “The goal of my life is to unify serious music and light music, even if I break my neck in doing so.” In 1990, Schnittke left Russia and settled in Hamburg. His health was poor, and he suffered several strokes before his death on August 3, 1998 in Hamburg. 5. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born to a middle-class family in Votkinsk, Russia in 1840. Like Schumann, a composer who had a strong influence on him, Tchaikovsky dutifully studied law before following his true calling by entering the St. Petersburg Conservatoire where he studied from 1863 to 1865. Among his teachers was Anton Rubinstein with whom he studied composition. One of the greatest composers ever lived, he wrote music ultimately deeply Russian. As Stravinsky wrote, his “music is quite as Russian as Pushkin’s verse or Glinka’s song.” 6. Dmitry Shostakovich was born on September 25, 1906 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He stood out as a musical prodigy after taking piano lessons at the age of nine. In 1919, he enrolled in classes at the Petrograd Conservatoire. After finishing school, he started working as a concert pianist for money, but also wrote compositions. His 5th Symphony was a great success and remains one of his most liked works. In 1941, Shostakovich began working on his 7th Symphony and continued, even after the great Patriotic War with Germany broke out. The sympho- G Jid ny proved to be popular and inspiring to the Russian people. It depicted heroic fighting against aggression and became a symbol of Russian resistance to Germany. 10. Choose one of the Russian composers from ex. 9 and prepare a short talk on his life and work. Mention these: • time of birth, place of birth, early years; • education received; • main compositions; • end of the career. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (1804-1857) Sergei Sergeievich Prokofiev (1891-1953) Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) Dmitry Dmitrievich Shostakovich (1906-1975) Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (1934-1998) I 11. The text you are going to read is about Wolfgang Amadeus MozartV How much do you know about him! Share your information with the class. 12. Read the text and say which of the statements after it are true, false and which facts are not mentioned in the text. First of the Great Romantics Mozart is the greatest composer of all time, claims conductor Charles Hazelwood. “Somehow, in just one phrase, he can express 50 different colours of emotion, and he seems able to do it with such ease. Most of great composers have an idea and at first they write it out like a piano score, then they orchestrate it. Mozart wrote straight off the top of his head, fully scored for the orchestra — and when you look at his manuscripts there are virtually no second thoughts, no mistakes, no crossings out. This is in marked contrast to Beethoven, who is no less a genius, but his manuscripts are like a battlefield.” We met Hazelwood in the heart of London’s Soho. Just around the corner was Frith Street where Mozart’s family took lodgings in 1764 when they came to London to show off the eight-year-old prodigy Wolfgang. For Mozart’s father, Leopold, it was a tremendously risky enterprise. He took a sabbatical from his work as director of music to the Archbishop of Salzburg^ and he uprooted his young family to hit the road like a travelling circus, in carriages and fancy clothes, so they could cut a dash through the courts of Europe. He wagered everything on the talent of his small son, who he hoped would make his family’s fortune. Travelling by land and crossing the Channel were very difficult. But five days after they arrived in England, little Wolfgang was playing for the young George III and Queen Charlotte, who welcomed them warmly. Londoners would visit the Mozarts in their lodgings in the afternoons to amuse themselves by listening to the child prodigy. 'Wolfgang ['wulfgaen] Amadeus [,sem3'dei3s] Mozart ['mautsait] ^Salzburg ['sa2ltsb3:g] — Зальцбург (город в Австрии) Q ip Mozart could play his clavier blindfolded or with a cloth thrown over the keyboard. What most astonished people were his powers of improvisation, when the leading musicians of the day challenged him to contests. “While they’d stagger away completely, exhausted, the boy Mozart would jump off stage, saying, ‘Any more?”’ explains Hazelwood. So was Mozart simply born a genius? Of course, he was, says Hazelwood: “Mozart had a quality that most mere mortals don’t have — but genius is a mixture of genetic make-up and life itself, all the brilliant and terrible things that happen. True art comes through living life.” At last Mozart got his chance to break away from his father’s tight grip. He made his own tour to France. Mozart arrived in Paris, in torrential rain. Soon his mother, who was chaperoning him, fell ill and died. “There could be no greater expression of his suffering than his A-minor piano sonata, which he wrote after his mother’s death,” says Hazelwood. “It is true to say that Mozart was the first Romantic composer. Until then,” says Hazelwood, “art was very much a trade or a skill. You wrote music to order for a patron or employer. There were great composers before him, Haydn for instance, but in Mozart we get, for the first time, music that is life. He was writing out of a deep, inner spiritual need, because he had to write it. People may say it’s rubbish: Beethoven was the first Romantic and Mozart wrote music that conformed to formal structures. But Mozart’s genius was such that he worked within the conventions, took the small change of his day and turned it into a mint of gold.” Mozart, who had failed to gain recognition that he deserved in his own country, took up a lowly appointment as a court musician at the Archbishop’s palace in Salzburg and, in 1781, as a member of the household, he went to Vienna, where he spent the last ten years of his life. As was customary, he was treated like any other servant: at table, Mozart sat below the valets but above the cooks. He soon fell out with the Archbishop; the arch-oaf, he called him. But Vienna was the city at the centre of the Enlightenment, the place to be. In Vienna he fell in love with Constanze Weber and decided to marry her. They were made to be together. Even before they married, Constanze had inspired some of Mozart’s most sublime music. The unfinished C-minor Mass, one of his greatest religious works, was written when Constanze was ill as a pact with God to ensure her recovery. And then, suddenly, in 1787, Leopold died. Mozart was consumed with grief. “He wrote Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, the saddest music anybody has ever written in a major key,” Hazelwood explains. “It’s elegant and sad. It seems bright and gay, but underneath there’s a dark vein of melancholy and sorrow.” Aged 31, Mozart was at the height of his powers — but the following year saw him overwhelmed by troubles. Although now a court composer, his financial affairs were a disaster and his six-months-old baby daughter died; she was the third child that he and Constanze had lost. His own health had never been good; he was constantly catching chills and was always too busy to recover from them. During the summer of 1788, living hand to mouth, Mozart wrote his last great trilogy of symphonies, which changed the course of music. “The 40th is on every mobile phone from Tokyo to New York. It’s a timeless work nothing can ruin. It’s also a work of fury, anguish and despair. But the 41st symphony. The Jupiter, is his last will and testament to the world. It opens a whole new world of possibility.” 1. Charles Hazelwood is a musician. 2. Hazelwood thinks that both Mozart and Beethoven were geniuses but their manner of working was different. 3. Charles Hazelwood met the newspaper correspondent in London’s Soho because that was where Hazelwood lived. 4. Mozart was born in Salzburg. 5. Mozart began to compose music before he was five years old. 6. Mozart performed throughout Europe as a child. 7. It was King George III who organized Mozart’s tour of Europe. 8. For some time Leopold Mozart tightly controlled his son’s life. 9. Mozart became very famous in his country during his lifetime. 10. Mozart married beneath him. 11. The Mozarts were not a well-to-do family. 12. Mozart wrote 41 symphonies. 13. Mozart died when he was 35. 14. All specialists consider Mozart to be a Romantic composer. 13. Find in the text the equivalents for the following. Use some of them in sentences of your own. 1) a written copy of a piece of music 2) to write spontaneously, without preparation D 3) a thought that someone’s past decision or opinion may not be right 4) to live in rented furnished rooms 5) a period when someone does not do their ordinary job and may travel or study 6) to start on a journey {informal) 7) to make people admire you 8) a musical instrument of the piano family 9) with a piece of cloth that covers someone’s eyes to prevent seeing 10) to walk with great difficulty being extremely tired 11) a very heavy rain 12) to go to places with a young unmarried person to help or to be responsible for their behaviour 13) nonsense {informal) 14) generally accepted practice 15) a male servant (usually looking after his master’s clothes) 16) to spoil relations 17) an agreement 18) to be made helpless, overpowered 19) to live in poverty 14. Find in the text the descriptions of Mozart's works, listen to the fragments of these works (No 5) and compare what is written in the text with your own feelings. 1. A-minor piano sonata 2. C-minor Mass 3. Eine Kleine Nachtmusik 4. The 40th symphony 5. The 41st symphony. The Jupiter 15. A. Comment on these lines from the text. To what other musicians can you apply these words! 1. “Somehow, in just one phrase, he can express 50 different colours of emotion, and he seems able to do it with such ease.” 2. “...genius is a mixture of genetic make-up and life itself, all the brilliant and terrible things that happen. True art comes through living life.” 3. “He was writing out of a deep, inner spiritual need, because he had to write it.” 4. “...he worked within the conventions, took the small change of his day and turned it into a mint of gold.” B. In small groups discuss the phenomenon of geniuses and prodigy children. Is their life easy or difficult! Is genius a curse or a blessing! 16. Read the text and answer the questions after it. ■ Singing a "Comic" SongB (after Jerome K. Jerome) Speaking of comic songs and parties, reminds me of a rather curious incident at which I once assisted. We were a fashionable and highly cultured party. We had on our best clothes, and we talked pretty, and were very happy — all except two young fellows, students, just returned from Germany. The truth was, we were too clever for them. Our brilliant but polished conversation, and our high-class tastes, were beyond them. They were out of place, among us. They never ought to have been there at all. Everybody agreed upon that, later on. We discussed philosophy and ethics. We flirted with graceful dignity. Somebody recited a French poem after supper, and we said it was beautiful; and then a lady sang a sentimental ballad in Spanish, and it made one or two of us weep — it was so pathetic. And then those two young men got up, and asked us if we had ever heard Herr Slossenn Boschen ['slosan 'bpfan] (who had just arrived, and was then down in the supper-room) sing his great German Comic song. None of us had heard it, that we could remember. The young men said it was the funniest song that had ever been written, and that, if we liked, they would get Herr Slossenn Boschen, whom they knew very well, to sing it. They said nobody could sing it like Herr Slossenn Boschen; he was so intensely serious all through it that you might fancy he was reciting a tragedy, and that, of course, made it all the funnier. It was his air of seriousness that made it so irresistibly amusing. We said we yearned to hear it, that we wanted a good laugh; and they went downstairs, and fetched Herr Slossenn Boschen. He appeared to be quite pleased to sing it, for he came up at once, and sat down to the piano without another word. Herr Slossenn Boschen accompanied himself. The prelude did not suggest a comic song exactly. It quite made one’s flesh creep, but we murmured to one another that it was the German method and prepared to enjoy it. I don’t understand German myself. I learned it at school, but forgot every word of it two years after I had left, and have felt so much better ever since. Still I did not want the people there to guess my ignorance; so I hit upon what I thought to be rather a good idea. I kept my eye on the two young students who had taken a position behind the Professor’s back. When they tittered, I tittered; when they roared, I roared; and I also threw in a little snigger all by myself now and then, as if I had seen a bit of humour that had escaped the others. I noticed, as the song progressed, that a good many other people seemed to have their eyes fixed on the two young men, as well as myself. And yet that German Professor did not seem happy. At first, when we began to laugh the expression of his face was one of intense surprise, as if laughter were the very last thing he had expected to be greeted with. We thought this very funny: we said his earnest manner was half the humour. The slightest hint on his part that he knew how funny he was would have completely ruined it all. As we continued to laugh, his surprise gave way to an air of annoyance and indignation, and he scowled fiercely round upon us all (except upon the two young men who, being behind him, he could not see). That sent us into convulsions. We told each other that it would be the death of us, this thing. The words alone, we said, were enough to send us into fits, but added to his mock seriousness — oh, it was too much! He finished amid a perfect shriek of laughter. We said it was the funniest thing we had ever heard in all our lives. And we asked the Professor why he didn’t translate the song into English, so that the common people could understand it, and hear what a real comic song was like. Then Herr Slossenn Boschen got up, and went on awful.* He swore at us in German, and shook his fists, and called us all the English he knew. He said he had never been so insulted in all his life. It appeared that the song was not a comic song at all. It was about a young girl who lived in the mountains, and who had given up her life to save her lover’s soul — I’m not quite sure of the details, but it was something very sad. It was a trying situation for us — very trying. We looked around for the two young men who had done this thing, but they had left the house in an unostentatious manner immediately after the end of the song. 1. Why do you think the two students played their joke on the guests? 2. How did they prepare the guests for the joke? 3. Why did many guests look at the two students while the professor was singing? 'went on awful — зд. разошелся вовсю im 4. What made the professor furious? 5. Why had the two students left the party before it was over? 6. What does Jerome make fun of in the episode you’ve read? 17. Find in the text English equivalents for the following: 1) флиртовать c изысканным достоинством 2) крайне серьезен 3) серьезный вид 4) чрезвычайно (непреодолимо) забавный 5) мечтать услышать что-то 6) мороз по коже 7) не хотеть, чтобы кто-либо догадался о моем невежестве 8) мне пришла в голову ... мысль 9) не сводить взгляда с кого-либо (2 варианта) 10) подхихикивать 11) юмор, который не заметили остальные 12) малейший намек с его стороны 13) уступить место, смениться 14) рассмешить кого-либо до слез 15) среди взрыва безудержного смеха 16) быть оскорбленным 17) трудное положение 18) покинуть дом, не привлекая внимания к своим персонам 18. Work in pairs and make up a dialogue between the two students going home after the party and discussing the incident with Herr Boschen. Mention these: • the way the students felt during the party; • the reason they wanted to take revenge on the guests; • the idea (method) of the revenge itself; • the reason why they chose the position behind the professor’s back; • the expression of the professor’s and guests’ faces while the professor’s singing; • the professor’s and guests’ behaviour during the singing; • the students’ early escape. These words and phrases can be useful: • it was clever of us; • don’t you agree...; • what do you think...; • and another thing...; • can you remember...; • how did you feel when...; • think what might have happened...; • how very considerate of us...; • what do you mean...; • what got into you...; • I think it was a fantastic idea; • that was great; • that’s all very well but...; • you don’t seem to realise that...; • that’s true but... . 19. Remember if you (or some of your friends, relatives) have ever been at a party or some other gathering and felt uncomfortable because • the rest of the guests were too sophisticated for you; • you yourself couldn’t say a word about the problems being discussed; • you couldn’t make up your mind what way of behaviour to choose as you felt you didn’t belong. Describe the situation and mention these; • when it was; • where it was; • what exactly the gathering was like; • what exactly your feelings were; • what way of behaviour you chose then; • if it was the behaviour you should have chosen. se New Vocabular 20. Learn to use the new words. 1. annoy (v): to make someone feel slightly angry or impatient. It annoys me when you don't listen to what I'm saying, jack's manner to be late is beginning to annoy me. 2. annoyance (n): a slightly angry or impatient feeling. To my annoyance i found the shop dosed, shaking his head in annoyance, Andrew left the room and banged the door behind him. 3. beyond (prep/adv): 1) further away than sth else {formal). The sea was beyond the trees but we could hear it in the distance. She has never been anywhere beyond her home town; 2) continuing after a particular time or date. Гт not planning beyond the end of the month; 3) not able to be done. Unfortunately, the situation was beyond our control. The car was damaged so badly, that it was beyond repair. His complex ideas were beyond my understanding. 4. earnest (adj): serious and meaning what you say. No doubt, Steve is a very earnest young man. It's time to have a really earnest discussion of our problems. 5. fierce (adj): 1) involving very strong feelings such as determination, anger or hate. The other day we had a fierce debate on modern politics. He found himself under fierce criticism for his views; 2) involving a lot of force or energy. We followed the fierce competition between the two companies with a lot of interest; 3) very angry or ready to attack. The fierce dog won't allow anyone to enter the house, what's the matter? why do you look so fierce today? 6. fit (n): 1) a strong sudden physical reaction or emotion you cannot control. The comedy gave the viewers fits of laughter. I'm quite worried about your coughing fits. If / were you, I'd go and see the doctor. He often suffers from fits of depression. To have (throw) a fit. to get very angry and shout or become violent {informal). Mrs Wilson will have fits if she catches us in her garden; 2) being the right size or shape for someone or something {singular). You can adjust the width of the boots to get a better ft. By fits and starts, stopping and starting again. He has been writing his book by fits and starts for over ten years. 7. hit (hit, hit) (v): to deliberately touch sb or sth with a lot of force. A taxi almost hit him as he was crossing the street. / accidentally hit my knee on the desk. Ann hit him in the face. Don't you dare hit Rex with a stick! 8. ignorance (n): lack of knowledge about sth. / am embarrassed by my complete ignorance of history. / tried not to betray my ignorance. The two sisters lived [n total ignorance of each other. To admit (confess) one’s ignorance. / had to confess my ignorance of these facts. 9. incident (n): something that happens, often, something that is unpleasant. These incidents were the latest in the series of disputes between the two nations. He came to regret the whole incident. 10. indignant (adj): shocked and angry because one thinks that something is unjust or unfair. She becomes absolutely indignant if anyone tries to contradict her. jane became rather indignant over suggestions that she had lied. They were quite indignant at her remarks. 11. insult ['msAlt] (n): a rude remark or sth a person says or does which insults you. Their behaviour was an insult to the people they represent 12. resist (v): 1) to stop yourself from doing sth that you would very much like to do. Jane couldn't resist tasting all the dishes. I couldn't resist asking him about his new girlfriend. To resist (the) temptation. The children couldn't resist the temptation of watching their favourite cartoon-, 2) to oppose or fight against someone or something. We need some medicine to help us resist infection. One criminal was injured while resisting arrest. 13. irresistible (adj): impossible to refuse, not want or not like; to be too strong resisted, an irresistible desire, an irresistible smile. The sea was irresistible and we decided to have a swim. 14. roar (v): 1) to make a very loud noise. The engine roared and the vehicle leapt forward. The Hon roared in the distance. He roared with pain-, 2) to laugh long and loudly. His jokes made us all roar (with laughter). He threw back his head and roared with laughter. swear (swore, sworn) (v): 1) to use words that are deliberately offensive. That's the first time I've ever heard him swear, she was shouting and swearing at everyone-, 2) to make a sincere statement that you are telling the truth. "Tve never seen the man — / swear." You swore to me that you would never see her again. / can't swear to it, but I think / saw him yesterday. 15 21. Insert proper prepositions where necessary to complete the sentences. 1. I swear changed _ __ you, I don’t know anything. 2. The town has . recognition. 3. ____ his annoyance he found the sitting room in a mess. 4. The old lady felt indignant ____ what a broken she had just heard. 5. He was hit over the head . bottle. 6. It would have been better to remain ____ 7. We couldn’t resist ______ the temptation and jumped into the Ignorance. inviting water of the swimming pool. 8. Little Charles hit his arm _____ the table. 9. Lucy felt indignant ___ his suggestion and hit him the face. 10. If I were you I would try to conceal my Ignorance these facts. 11. He shook his head annoyance and began explaining the situation again. 12. Alec has U d been writing his composition ______ fits and starts for several months. 13. Fred’s behaviour is an insult _______ his parents. 14. When the audience heard his joke they roared ____ laughter. 15. How dare you shout and swear them? 22. You know the words in column A. Read the sentences and say what the words in column В mean. Look them up in a dictionary if necessary. A annoy earnest fierce fit (n) Ignorance В annoying earnestly earnestness fiercely fit (v) fitting ignorant ignoramus A incident indignant insult (n)' resist roar (v) swear В incidentally indignation insult (v) insulting resistance resistant roar (n) roaring swearing 1. The rain is so annoying, it prevents you from doing so many things. 2. The cucumbers taste bitter. How annoying! 3. If you say something earnestly, you say it very seriously; if you do something earnestly, you do it in a thorough and serious way intending to succeed. 4. I say this in all earnestness. 5. The wind was blowing fiercely, and the clouds threatened rain. 6. The kimono was made to fit a child. 7. The punishment must always fit a crime. 8. The pencils fit neatly into the box. 9. It seemed entirely fitting that she should be wearing black. 10. I didn’t think it fitting to ask James about his daughter’s death. 11. The general public remained totally ignorant of the danger. 12. You can’t imagine what an ignoramus I am, not knowing the things I should by all means know. 13. Incidentally, what are the travel arrangements for tonight? 14. He mentioned the problem with his partner only incidentally. 15. She was filled with indignation at the conditions under which they were forced to work. 16. The article was insulting to the Melvil family. 17. His plan is meeting a lot of resistance. 18. Some people are very resistant to the idea of exercise. 19. The roar of traffic was unbearable. 20. The roaring waterfall looked magnificent. 21. Swearing and using swearwords are considered offensive and shocking by most people. 23. Change the sentences so that you could use the new words. 1. The dress is not the right size for me. 2. Stop using offensive words in front of the children. 3. The patient gave a deep loud sound of pain. 4. The city fought against the enemy for two weeks. 5. She doesn’t know anything about computers. 6. I must go now. By the way, if you want that book. I’ll bring it next time. 7. You will offend her, if you don’t go to her party. 8. I was angry and surprised at being unfairly dismissed and I showed that. 9. He made me a little angry and impatient because he kept interrupting. 10. I struck my knee against the chair. 11. It was one of the strangest happenings in my life. 12. The house was guarded by a violent dog which was likely to attack. 13. I’m sure he was absolutely serious when he said he would never come here again. 14. What lies to the further side of the mountains? 24. Complete the text with the words of your new vocabulary in their right forms. Ш Playing the Bagpipes Ш In his famous book Three Men in a Boat we can read a funny episode written in Jerome’s usual e____’ manner. In it the author tells a story of a young man who was studying to play the bagpipes and found his family r______^ his new hobby and was very much a______® by it. At first the young man used to get up early in the morning to practise, but he had to give that plan up, because of his sister. She was a believer, and she said with i_______that it seemed such an awful thing to begin the day like that: the sounds of the bagpipes i___* her religious feelings. So he sat up at night instead and played after the family had gone to bed, but that did not do, as it got the house such a bad name. People, going home late, would stop outside to listen, and then gossip all over the town, the next morning, that a fearful murder had been committed at Mr Jefferson’s the night before; and would describe how they had heard the victim’s U shrieks and the r____® voice of the f____^ murderer cursing and s_____*, which was followed by the prayer for mercy, and the least dying gurgle of the corpse. Then they knocked up a little place for him at the bottom of the garden b_____® the yew trees and made him take the instrument down there when he wanted to play it; and sometimes a visitor would come to the house who knew nothing of the matter, and they would forget to tell him about it, and caution him, and he would go out for a stroll round the garden and i_____hear the bagpipes h_____a high note without being prepared for it, or being i_____of what it was. If he was a man of strong mind, it only gave him f______but a person of average intellect was unusually sent mad. 25. Express the same in English using the new words. 1. He оставайся там позже полуночи. 2. Салат горчит. Какая досада! 3. Противник оказал сильное сопротивление, но оно было сломлено. 4. Он поклялся ничего не говорить. 5. Джек не мог устоять перед искушением и заглянул в темную комнату. 6. Улыбка Лоры была неотразимой. Она знала, что может заставить их сделать все, что захочет. 7. Гувернантка с раздражением покачала головой: поведение детей было оскорбительным для их родителей. 8. Он настоящий невежда. 9. Все семейство было возмущено поведением Энн. 10. Клянусь тебе, я ничего подобного не делала. 26. А. In the text "Singing a 'Comic' Song" you can find different ways of describing laughter. Make a list of them and match them with the following definitions: 1. to laugh very loudly 2. to laugh quietly, especially at something that is rude or at something unpleasant that has happened to someone 3. to laugh quietly, especially because you are nervous or embarrassed 4. laughter that gives one a strong sudden physical reaction you cannot control 5. a loud burst of laughter B. In English there are some other words connected with the idea of laughter. They are: 1. chuckle (v): to laugh quietly especially in a private or secret way; 2. giggle (v); to laugh in a nervous, excited or silly way that is difficult to control; 3. guffaw [ga'fo:] (v): to laugh very loudly; 4. grin (v): to smile showing your teeth; 5. smirk (v): to smile in an unpleasant way because something bad has happened to someone else, or because you have achieved an advantage over them. C. Of all the words connected with laughter (sections A, В of the exercise) say which denote 1. unpleasant, quiet laughter or smile; 2. loud laughter; 3. unpleasant laughter (smile); 4. laughter you can barely control; 5. laughter (smile) because one is nervous; 6. laughter that is private or secret. 27. A. Describe the situation(s) when • people can roar or guffaw; • people titter; • one’s smile can turn into a grin; • one’s smile can turn into a smirk; • girls can giggle; • a person will chuckle. B. Say: • what can make people snigger; • what can send a person into a fit. 28. Work in three groups with an interviewer in each to find out what the class think about laughter. Then share the information. Interviewer One. Find out the following: 1. what kinds of things your classmates laugh at; 2. if they laugh at people who are physically or mentally handicapped (why yes/no); 3. what kind of jokes they like; 4. if they like slapstick comedies^; 5. who their favourite comedians are; 6. who their favourite humorist writers are. 'a slapstick comedy — комедия «пощечин» Interviewer Two. Find out if your classmates 1. think they are funny (why/why not); 2. suspect that other people think they are funny and why it is so; 3. sometimes try to be funny purposely (why they do it); 4. think that people in Russia and people from other countries laugh at different things; 5. burst out laughing when they see something extremely funny or hold their laughter back (inhibit); 6. think it is important to have a sense of humour (why/why not). Interviewer Three. Find out the following: 1. what kinds of people seem funny to your classmates; 2. if your classmates think women have a better sense of humour than men or the other way round; 3. what funny things in their opinion children and pets do; 4. if your classmates laugh out loud when they are alone; 5. if they ever laughed so hard that they cried and when it was; 6. if they like to watch comedies, what kind of comedies and what was the funniest comedy they have ever seen. 29. Learn how the words below can be discriminated. 1. to bring — to take — to fetch to bring — to come with, to carry or lead. If you bring someone or something with you when you come to a place, you have them with you. If you ask someone to bring you something, you are asking them to carry or move it to the place where you are. Please, brins your calculator to every lesson. He would have to brins Judy with him. Brins me a glass of water, please. to take — to move or carry sth from one place to another. If you take someone or something with you when you go to a place you have them with you. If you take them to a place you carry or drive them there. It's Richard's turn to take the children to school. She gave me some books to take home. to fetch — to go and get sth from another place and bring back. If you fetch sth, you go to the place where it is and return with it to the place where you were before. Let me fetch a chair for you. 2. to cry — to weep — to sob to cry — to produce tears from the eyes as a sign of sorrow. The boy fell over and started crying. to weep {formal) — to cry tears because of sadness or strong emotion, usually quietly and for a long time. Weepins. the mourners followed the coffin to the churchyard. to sob — to cry noisily while taking short breaths. She couldn't stop crying and sobbed herself to sleep. 3. to long — to wish — to yearn to long — to want sth very much, especially when this used to happen or existed in the past. He lonsed for the good old days when teachers were shown respect. to wish {formal) — to want strongly to do sth. Everyone has the right to smoke if he or she wishes, but not the right to ruin the health of those around them. to yearn {formal) — to want sth so much that you do not feel happy or complete without it, but you know you are not likely to get it. Above all the prisoner yearned for freedom. 30. Complete the sentences with the suitable words. A. take — bring — fetch 1. Come to the party and _______ your friend, Г11 be very happy to see you both. 2. Could you please go and _________ a piece of chalk from the teacher’s room? 3. It was my grandmother who __________ me to the theatre for the first time. 4. We are meeting at 8 near the school, don’t forget to _____ your packed lunches with you. 5. It’s not so difficult to teach your dog to ______ sticks. 6. Father came home early and _______ a big beautifully decorated cake. 7. When I go travelling, I always _____ this bag, it’s very convenient. 8. My friend -----me this magnet as a souvenir from England. 9. In the evening we used to go and milk from the nearby farm. u B. cry — sob — weep 1. I held back tears because I didn’t want my friends to think that I was______2. Brokenhearted she _________ silently at night not to disturb her family. 3. I always feel like ____ when I watch this scene at the end of the film. 4. From behind the door we heard a child _____ loudly in the house. 5. When Joan heard the happy news, she began to -----tears of joy. 6. We were woken up in the middle of the night by a loud noise: it was little Andy _____ and calling his mother. 7. Please don’t _____ I’ll repair your doll, I promise. 8. She _____ hysterically her whole body shaking. 9. The girl ---- quietly trying to hide her bitter tears from her friends. с. long — yearn — wish 1. Duncan still ___ for his dead wife after all these years. 2. If you ______ really hard, maybe you’ll get what you want. 3. — Where is he now? — I only _______ I knew. 4. Max waited for the taxi to come. He ________ desperately to be back at home. 5. They were the words she had secretly _______ to hear. Patricia was happy. 6. Though Beatrice knew she couldn’t have children of her own, she ______ for them. 7. “I _____ they could come,” said Martin. 8. Boris ____ for the winter to be over. 9. Vera knew the family desperately needed her help, she understood she could hardly leave them, but she ________ to go to St. Petersburg to become a movie actress. Phrasal Verb to hit 31. 1. to hit back = to retaliate; a) to criticize someone who has criticized you. The President hit back his rival by accusing him of double standards^ b) to deliberately hit someone because they have hit you. Just because someone hits you doesn't mean you have to hit back. 2. to hit on (upon) = a) to suddenly have an idea. They hit on the idea of celebrating the occasion with a concert; b) to discover sth by chance. Looking through the papers George hit upon his companion’s betrayal. 3. to hit out = a) to say sth that criticizes or expresses anger towards someone or sth. Mrs Jackson hit out at the committee's decision; b) to try to hit someone in an uncontrolled way. He screamed and hit out at the girl. 4. to hit (up) for = to ask someone for sth, especially money. I'm sure he’ll hit you up for the money he needs. Translate these sentences into Russian paying attention to the phrasal verb to hit. 1. He hit back at us. 2. He hit out blindly. 3. I hit on a plan. 4. Can I hit you up for some cigarettes? 5. I had never punched anybody in my life, but I hit out and gave him a black eye. 6. The President has hit back at those who have criticized his economic reforms. 7. James hit upon a radical solution to the problem. 8. You know he’ll try to hit us for cash. 9. She was scared he might hit on the truth. 10. She raised her arm, trying to hit out. 32. Complete the sentences. Use back, on (upon), out, (up) for. 1. He screamed and hit ______ at her. 2. Dan hit me, so I hit him ______3. Somehow they hit _________ the number that opened the bank’s safe. 4. John used to throw things at his elder brother and hit _____ at him. 5. I am sure Alice will try to hit us up ________ some money. 6. The children wandered through the garden and hit ______ a small valley. 7. Alec hit ___ an answer to the riddle and was really happy. 8. You must always hit _________ if they criticize you unjustly. 9. I decided to hit my parents _______ the money to buy a motorbike. 10. In his speech the minister hit ____________ at racism in the armed forces. New Grammar Grammar, as you know, is a science that studies structure of any language. The two parts of it are MORPHOLOGY and SYNTAX. Morphology deals with parts of speech. You have been mostly doing morphology so far. Syntax studies sentences, their types and their meanings. SENTENCE Every time we speak, we use sentences. A sentence is a combination of words which expresses a complete thought. It is important what sentences are for: • to make statements (declarative sentences): a) A rose bush grew in the garden (positive sentence); b) Alice can*t read yet (negative sentence). • to ask questions (interrogative sentences): a) Did Mozart travel a lot in his childhood? (a general question); b) Was John born in New York or Boston? (an alternative question); c) She doesn't speak French, does she? (a disjunctive question); d) Where do you live? Who did it? (special questions) • to request or demand action (imperative sentences): Give me a call tomorrow, please. • to express emotions (exclamatory sentences): What a wonderful dancer she is! Note; Don’t forget to use a full stop, a question or an exclamatory mark at the end of a sentence. Mind that in polite requests or when you suggest or offer something, a question mark is also used at the end of a sentence. Could I have a glass of water? Can you post this letter for me? I wonder if we could borrow your dictionary? 33. Read the sentences and say which of them are declarative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory. Example: Modernism in music involved a radical break with the existing conventions (positive declarative). 1. The piano is not the oldest of the keyboard instruments. 2. Was Placido Domingo ['pla:sid9u da'miogau] a tenor or a bass? 3. How long did Sergei Prokofiev live abroad before he returned to the Soviet Union? 4. What an unusual electronic instrument! 5. I don’t think I need a dictionary of common musical terms. 6. Tell me all you can about rock’n’roll. 7. Immigrants to the USA brought folk music from their native countries. 8. By the 1920s the popularity of jazz had spread far beyond the black community, hadn’t it? 9. A British group, the Beatles^ adopted rock, then mixed it with musical ideas from other parts of the world. 10. How dramatic the music sounds! 11. Let’s go and listen to The Marriage of Figaro by W. A. Mozart. 12. Have you ever heard the name of Duke Ellington? USES FOR PERIODS, QUESTION MARKS AND EXCLAMATORY POINTS 1. Use a period after statements and commands. Laura didn't come on time. Feed the dog after you unpack the suitcase. 2. Use a question mark after a question. How much is three times four? 3. Use an exclamation mark after an exclamation or after a command that shows strong feelings. What a scary movie that was! Watch out for the car! 34. Use full stops, question marks or exclamatory marks at the end of these sentences. 1. What divine music_____ 2. What do you know about professional dancers of the past_________ 3. There are four distinct traditions of the dance in India, aren’t there__ 4. Is music intended to give pleasure or to make the listener uneasy__ 5. Schubert admired Beethoven and often drank in the same cafe___ 6. Schubert never spoke to Beethoven_ 7. Tell me who wrote the operas A Life for the Czar and Ruslan and Lyudmila___ 8. Music is not only an art_ 9. Don’t be late_ 10. Please be on time_ 11. Can you play that piece again_ 12. Can I offer you something to drink_ 13. How sentimental the melody sounds__ MEMBERS OF A SENTENCE Usually sentences have two main members: The subject — what it is (подлежащее) The predicate — what we are saying about it (the subject) (сказуемое) The subject can be expressed by nouns, pronouns, gerunds, infinitives, numerals, and some other parts of speech. / live in Moscow, (personal pronoun) Gardenins is my hobby, (gerund) Thirteen is not a lucky number, (numeral) The predicate can be either verbal^ (expressed by a verb/verbs) or nominal^ (expressed by a link verb^ and its nominal part fore-dicative**! usually expressed by nouns, pronouns, numerals and adjectives: 'verbal predicate — глагольное сказуемое ^nominal predicate — составное именное сказуемое ^link verb — связочный глагол ‘‘nominal part or predicative — составная именная часть сказуемого (предикатив) Predicate Verbal (link verb) (predicative) (link verb) (numeral) 35. Find the main parts (subject, predicate) in these sentences and say: a) how the subject is expressed, by what part of speech; b) what kind of predicate it is (nominal or verbal). 1. The greatest operas of the first half of the 18th century were written in England. 2. Claude Debussy is the key figure in the birth of musical Modernism. 3. The violins produce the highest sound of all the string instruments. 4. Music since 1945 has developed in many different ways. 5. Music is difficult to describe. 6. A melody may have harmony. 7. Dancing plays an important role in my life. 8. Modern composers have developed electronic music. 9. To play the piano as he does is a real art. 10. I love dancing. MORE INFORMATION ABOUT MEMBERS OF A SENTENCE The secondary members of a sentence are the object.^ the attri-bute^ and the adverbial modifier.^ object — дополнение ^attribute — определение ^adverbial modifier — обстоятельство They lived there happily for many years. Г ^ J / r > adverbial adverbial adverbial modifier 1 modifier modifier of place of manner of time But the word order can be changed: For many years they lived happily in a small southern town. The adverbial modifiers of indefinite time (always, sometimes, generally, occasionally, often, never, seldom, etc.) are usually used before the main verb but after the verb “to be”, modal verbs or auxiliary^ verb: 1. She is often late. 2. He always comes on time. 3. I can sometimes understand him. 4. I have never been there. 36. Say what members of the sentence are the underlined words. 1. Call the police immediately. 2. I would like to ride a camel. 3. Dora’s cousin lives in Denmark. 4. A dictionary is a wonderful source of information. 5. A dictionary will give vou a lot of information about words. 6. John is mv best friend. 7. A huge troll lives in a cave. 8. Paris is the city to see. 9. Reading is becoming less popular than it used to be. 10. Big eyes stared from the tiny pale face. 37. Complete the sentences using the adverbial modifiers of indefinite time in their proper places. 1. The ambulance carries medical supplies (always). 2. Jamie watered the garden (occasionally). 3. Girls are more interested in philology than boys (generally). 4. She travels alone (never). 5. We don’t see each other at weekends (usually). 6. Jack is late for his classes (seldom). 7. Have you done your room (yet)? 8. It is difficult to choose (always). 9. John is absent from his classes (hardly 'auxiliary [3:g'zill3n] verb — вспомогательный глагол ever). 10. Jo welcomes us with a bright smile (always). 11. We can improve writing with a help of pronouns (often). 12. Cheetahs can run very fast (generally). 13. Harold eats meat (never). 14. They have prepared everything for the trip (already). 15. Late autumn is a succession of rain, hail and snowing (generally). Vocabulary and Grammar Revised 38. Complete the text with the derivatives formed from the words in the right-hand column. Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninov Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninov was a Russian composer, pianist and 1______Born into a 2_____ family, Rachmaninov had his 3_____ piano lessons with his mother at the family estate. Already in his early years he showed great 4_______ skills. But his First Symphony was a complete flop with the critics. It was 5______ due to the 6_______ of the piece ___ recep- Alexander Glazunov, who 7____ and under-rehearsed it. This 8. tion led to a breakdown. Rachmaninov quickly recovered his 10____, the result of which was the Piano Concerto No 2. The piece was very well received and remains one of his most popular 11_______ Rachmaninov was also a 12______ respected pianist. His technical 13__ and rhythmic drive were 14____and his large hands were able to cover a twelfth. conduct wealth one compose large, conduct like disaster nerve confide compose high perfect legend 2* \l} т 39. Read the text and change the words in brackets or form new words on their basis to make the text grammatically and logically correct. Mr and Mrs Wilson lived in a big crowded city. One summer they decided to spend (1. they) holidays in the country. The (2. one) village they arrived at was the (3. quiet) place they ever (4. be). They liked it very much. It was so (5. differ) from the city. One day they (6. go) for a walk and (7. meet) an old man who (8. sit) alone in the warm sun outside (9. he) front door. Mr Wilson asked him, “Do you like living in such a quiet place?” The old man said he (10. do). Mr Wilson said, “What are the good things about it?” The old man answered, “Well, everybody (11. know) everybody else. People often come and visit me and I often go and visit them. And there are also lots of (12. child) there.” Mr Wilson said, “That’s interesting. And what are the bad things?” The old man smiled, “Well, the same things, really.” 40. Complete the text choosing the best word from the rows after it. All lovers of music in Moscow know this beautiful old building in Bolshaya Nikitskaya — the Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatoire. In the evening, there are always 1_______of people near it, for the concerts 2.______ there are so popular that there are never enough tickets for those 3_______them. So don’t 4_________of approaching the Conservatoire around this time, you are assailed by eager music lovers asking if by any chance you have an 5_______ticket. The monument 6._______ Tchaikovsky in front of the Conservatoire building 7____ _ in 1954. Incorporated into the ornament of the railing surrounding the monument is music cast in bronze from 8._____ compositions — the opera Eugene Onegin, the ballet Swan Lake, the Sixth Symphony, Quartet No 1, the 9.________ for violin and orchestra, and the romance The Day Reigns. 1. a) mobs b) crowds c) numbers d) collections 2. a) hold b) holding c) held d) held up 3. a) wanting b) wishing c) looking d) expecting 4. a) surprise b) be surprising c) be surprised d) surprised 5. a) free b)independent c) nobody’s d) extra 6. a) by b) of c) on d) to 7. a) uncovered b) was uncovered c) was uncovering d) had been uncovered 8. a) six Tchaikovsky popular b) six popular Tchaikovsky c) six popular Tchaikovsky’s d) six of Tchaikovsky’s popular 9. a) Concert b) Concerto c) Concertina d) Consort 41. Choose the right verb forms after the text to make it complete. Three or four hundred years ago there was a little town in Germany where the people weren’t as clever as people are nowadays. One night a large owl (1. fly) softly onto a certain barn that belonged to one of the townspeople. Soon the owl, as she hunted about for mice, noticed the sky (2. get) lighter. She didn’t like daylight and stayed where she was in the nice dark barn hiding. Soon the sun (3. rise) and the townspeople began to wake up, and a manservant came whistling out to the barn (4. fetch) some straw. He opened the door and saw the owl’s two great gleaming eyes. He was so terrified, that he rushed out again. “Master! Master!” cried he. “There’s a huge monster in the barn the like of which I never (5. see) before!” His master knew that his servant was not very brave and went to the barn to see for himself. But no sooner he (6. open) the door than he saw the owl’s eyes gleaming in the light. He as (7. frighten) at the sight as his servant. “Help! Help! Come quickly, neighbours!” cried he. “There’s a horrible beast in my barn. I (8. shut) it up, but the whole town will be in danger if it (9. break) loose!” Soon a 1 surge crowd headed by the mayor gathered around the barn talking excitedly about the terrible monster which was as tall as the church tower and as fierce as a dragon. The mayor even made a little speech in front of his fellow citizens suggesting that the barn should (10. burn). They were making so much noise that the owl left the barn through a window high up in the barn roof and soon reached her own hollow tree without (11. notice) by anybody. u 1. a) flowed b) flown c) flew 2. a) to get b) getting c) got 3. a) raised b) rose c) risen 4. a) to fetch b) fetching c) fetches 5. a) seen b) had seen c) have seen 6. a) has he opened b) he had opened c) had he opened 7. a) was as b) was as being c) had been as frightened frightened frightened 8. a) shut b) have shut c) am shutting 9. a) breaks b) break c) will break 10. a) burn b) be burned c) have been burned 11. a) being noticed b) notice c) noticing Open the brackets to complete the text. Edward got a job at last. His job was the invoicing and transportation of stuff that (1. sold). On the first day he (2. allow) to go about six. As he (3. find) his way back, he (4. feel) a deep sense of satisfaction. He (5. have) a job. Even he (6. know) it was a poor sort of job; but that didn’t prevent him from (7. feel) like a fam- ishing man who had suddenly been given food and drink. He was happy. London (8. give) him work to do. He was no longer a (9. stare) visitor to the city, an idle hanger-on. In this vast ant-heap, he was now an ant that was busy (10. carry) a half-inch of straw or fragment of leaf, like most of the other ants. He (11. satisfy). 43. Express the same in English. 1. — Что ты читаешь, Алик? — «Ангелы и демоны» Дэна Брауна. — Сколько времени (Как давно) ты ее читаешь? — Около двух недель. Это такой интересный роман. Никогда не читал ничего столь захватывающего. 2. Была полночь. Братья и сестры Джоаны мирно спали в своих кроватках. Джоана не могла спать. Она лежала с закрытыми глазами с 10 часов. Она лежала и думала о своем завтрашнем посещении театра. Она едва могла поверить тому, что увидит, как танцуют известные исполнители. 3. Я знаю мужчину, который стоит у окна. Мы отдыхали вместе на Средиземном море в прошлом году. Мы много плавали, загорали, совершали различные увлекательные поездки на лодках на острова. 4. По прибытии вас отвезут из аэропорта в гостиницу на автобусе. Ужин подадут в половине восьмого. Если рейс будет отложен, вам сообщат вовремя. 5. — Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты сходил в магазин и купил две буханки белого хлеба, пакет муки, банку (консервированных) фруктов и три килограмма (молодого) картофеля. Он такой вкусный. — Хорошо, схожу. Где деньги? — Они на столе. 6. Возможно, дядя Том позвонит сегодня, но это маловероятно. Я думаю, он прибудет в Рим поздно ночью и не захочет беспокоить нас. Но он наверняка заедет к нам завтра утром. 7. — Интересно, какая будет погода завтра? — Думаю, будет довольно прохладно, возможно, пойдет дождь. Такая погода типична для осенней Москвы. Не забудь взять зонтик, когда будешь выходить. 8. — На твоем месте я бы начала учить французский: тебе так хорошо даются языки. — Боюсь, я не могу это делать сейчас, так как мне приходится тратить много времени на математику. Знаешь ли, у меня проблемы с ней. — А ты планируешь изучать иностранные языки после того, как окончишь школу? — Я думаю об этом. 9. Когда утром я вышла из дома, не было и намека (sign) на дождь. Ярко светило солнце, а небо было голубым и ясным. Несколько часов спустя на- U чал дуть сильный ветер, небо покрылось облаками, и начался сильный дождь. Я пожалела, что забыла свой зонтик дома. 10. С того момента как музыкант появился на сцене, мы не могли оторвать от него глаз. Мы наблюдали за тем, как он подошел к пианино, сел на стул (bench) и открыл инструмент. Музыка, которую мы тогда услышали, была самой впечатляющей из того, что я когда-либо слышал. 44. Маке up suitable sentences in the subjunctive mood to give advice. Example: Why don’t you work harder at school? Teachers would like you better. You wouldn’t be afraid to get a bad mark at the examination. 1. You should try to get up earlier. 2. Why don’t you limit the time you spend on watching television? 3. I think you should find yourself a holiday job for the summer. 4. Why don’t you learn to play the guitar? 5. I would recommend cutting down on sweets. 6. You should take up skiing or skating. 7. Why don’t you get a cat or a dog? 8. I’m quite sure that you should read more in English. 9. Why don’t you redecorate your room? 10. If I were you I would spend more time with my friends. 45. Л. Play the personality game and describe yourself, and then one of your friends or relatives. Categories: animal, plant, colour, food or drink, music, country. Example: If I were an animal. I’d be a cat because they are so independent. If I were a colour. I’d be red, because it’s so exciting. B. In pairs make up a conversation between a parent and a child in which the child asks for something and the parent is rather doubtful that it should be bought. Use the subjunctive. Act the dialogue out. Example: — Dad, please! Will you buy me a dog? — No, I’ve told you before if you had a dog, you would spend all your time on it and would neglect your duties. — But dad, I would take the dog out and have more exercise! Exercise is so useful for me. 46. Look at the pictures and say who these people are and what they are famous for. What do you know about them! 47. study the topical vocabulary to speak about music. • Music has been called both the most mathematical and the most abstract of the arts. “Music is born of emotion,” Confucius observed. It can become a kind of universal language understood by all people on the planet if they are prepared to acquire it. The main elements of music are • rhythm; • melody; • tempo; • tone colour. • The first purposefully composed music appeared in Medieval Europe and the art of composition has been developing ever since. It has passed through the following stages: • Medieval music (c. 1000—1450) • mostly church music in the form of chants; • secular songs sung by minstrels, minnesingers and troubadours; • rise of polyphonic techniques when several melodic lines are added to the main melody. • Renaissance music (c. 1450—1600) • the rise of distinct secular styles and forms; • further development of polyphony; • instruments are used not only to accompany singers; • keyboard instruments and lute become popular. • Baroque music (c. 1600—1750) • popularity of vocal music; • speechlike rhythm over a simple accompaniment; • beginning of opera; • new forms: the oratorio, the cantata, the concerto; • string and keyboard instruments popular. • Classical music (c. 1750—1825) • opera is the primary genre of vocal music; • new forms: • the sonata (three- or four-movement piece); • the symphony (a long piece of classical music played by a large orchestra); • the concerto; • the string quartet. • Romantic music (c. 1830—1910) • free adoption of old forms; • opera becomes a “total art work” combining music and drama with rapid stage action and melodramatic plot; • virtuous piano works; • new forms: • romantic songs including “songs without words”; • nocturnes; • rhapsodies; • preludes. • interest in folk music. • Musical pluralism (after World War I) • style becomes a matter of choice rather than a matter of accepted conventions; • asymmetric rhythm; • extensive use of percussion instruments; • appearance of electronic music; • computer gives composers new possibilities in synthesizing and processing sounds; • experimental music and improvisation; • appearance of pop music; • new forms: jazz, rock, rap, techno, metal, etc. • Musical instruments are popularly divided into several groups: • string(ed) instruments (strings): • the lute family: guitar, banjo, a number of folk instruments; • the violin family: violin, viola, cello, double bass [beis]; • harp. • woodwind: piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, bassoon. • brass: French horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba. • percussion: timpani, drum, cymbals, xylophone, tambourine, orchestral gong, vibraphone. • keyboard: grand piano, pianoforte, organ, synthesizer. (Ш • People related to creating and performing music are: • songwriter; • duet; • trio; • quartet; • quintet; • sextet; • septet; • octet; • ensemble; • band. • composer; • instrumentalist; • performer; • virtuoso(i/s); • conductor; • singer; • chorister; • librettist; • soloist; • vocalist; Music can sound very different. Some pieces sound complicated and intricate, others may be just a few bars repeated many times. Some melodies are almost impossible to remember, but others may haunt you for a long time. Music can impress you as • divine; • catchy; • serious; • lively; • harmonic; • popular; • touching; • progressive; • mystical; • individual; • expressive; • avant-garde; • dramatic; • experimental; • daring; • original; • complex; • imaginative; • lucid; • haunting. 48. A. Look at the pictures on p. 45 and name these instruments. B. Name musicians who play these instruments. Consult a dictionary if in doubt. Example: cello a) double bass b) bassoon c) cello d) clarinet e) cymbals f) drum cellist; drum — drummer. g) flute m) trombone h) French horn n) trumpet i) grand piano o) tuba j) harp p) viola k) oboe q) violin l) piccolo r) xylophone 6j::. Sm 49. Say what musical instruments these musicians play(ed). 50. Look at the list of musical terms and find four words in the list which denote: a) musical instruments; b) types of singers in a choir; c) groups of musicians; d) kinds of musical compositions; e) how loud music could be. 1. cornet 8. prelude 15. concerto 2. cantata 9. adagio 16. oboe 3. tenor 10. alto 17. andante 4. forte 11. piccolo 18. oratorio 5. orchestra 12. ensemble 19. octet 6. bass 13. soprano 20. cymbals 7. quintet 14. pianissimo A. Match the musical terms 1. septet cl;> 2. piccolo CO CO 3. nocturne cO CO 4. prelude CO cO 5. rhapsody CO 6. symphony cO cO CO 7. polyphony CO eJ) 8. cantata CO 9. oratorio cO CO 10. concerto cO CO a) a piece of music related to the night, esp. a soft beautiful piece of piano music. b) a type of music that combines several different tunes at the same time. c) a long piece of classical music for an orchestra. d) a piece of music for a musical instrument and an orchestra. e) a short piece of music that introduces a large musical work. f) a long piece of classical music for singers and an orchestra, usually based on a religious story. g) a group of seven singers or musicians performing together. h) a piece of religious music performed by a singer or an orchestra. i) a dreamy piece of classical music that is not regular in form. j) a small flute. B. Look at the picture (p. 48). Name the musical instruments in the symphony orchestra and their groups. t oe ^ (^conductor’s podium^ b c Speaking 52. A. Try to match the names of these composers (pp. 49—50) with the periods in the history of music. a) Baroque music c) Romantic music b) Classical music d) Modern music 1 Ludwig van Beethoven ['lodwig vaen 'beith3uv(3)n] Frederick Handel ['haend(3)l] Johann Sebastian Bach [berk] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ['mautsat] II 49}) Д/Т"' ___L f1 i.5; .6 Franz Liszt [list] Franz Joseph Haydn ['haid(3)n] 8 I Claude Debussy [дэ'Ьиж] Maurice Ravel [rae'vel] B. Read the text to check your matching. ■ Kinds of Music Ш More kinds of music are available to interested listeners today than ever before — on records, on tape, and in live performances. There are two major traditions of music, generally known as clas- steal and popular^ although the line between them is not always clear. The term classical music is often used to describe the long tradition of “serious” music from the European Middle Ages to the present. The classics are often associated with orchestral music, but they also include solo music for instruments, opera and choral music. EARLY MUSIC. European music grew from the music of the Christian church in the Middle Ages. The church used chants in its services — simple music for one voice. In time, some churches added a second voice, producing a kind of harmony. By 1400, composers were writing music for four or more voices. By the year 1600, music both for the church and for the courts of kings and nobles was highly developed. Musical plays gradually developed into opera and ballet. Composers wrote many pieces for two or more parts (either voices or instruments) and produced a style of music called polyphonic, or many-voiced. BAROQUE MUSIC. The composer and performer who acted as a bridge between this early style and later styles was Johann Sebastian Bach (1685—1750). He was a great organist and composed many pieces for the organ as well as much instrumental music for groups of instruments that were coming to resemble the modern orchestra. The most famous of those are the six Brandenburg Concertos. The other great composer of the age was George Frederick Handel (1685—1759). Although born in Germany, Handel spent most of his life in England. His greatest works were oratorios, dramatic works that often told a biblical story for orchestra, solo voices, and chorus. CLASSICAL MUSIC. By 1750, composers were tired of the complicated many-voiced music of Bach and Handel. They were looking for a simpler musical language. The result was the music of the classical period (about 1760 to 1790): symphonies, concertos for solo instruments with orchestra, and an increasing amount of music pieces for the newly developed pianoforte. This instrument is an early version of the modern piano. This classical period produced two great composers: Franz Joseph Haydn (1732—1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756—1791). ROM ANTIC MUSIC. By 1790, still another style was beginning to take over from the classical style. Composers were seeking a musical language that would more easily express their inner- <1 most thoughts and feelings. The new style came to be called Romantic, and it influenced serious musicians for more than 100 years. The first great Romantic composer was Ludwig van Beethoven (1770—1827). His early works owed much to Haydn and Mozart, but he gradually learned to express his own dramatic feelings in his music. His nine symphonies are among the most important orchestral works ever written. Early in his career, Beethoven became almost completely deaf. He never really heard many of his great compositions performed except in his own mind. Among later Romantic composers in Germany were Franz Schubert ["Ju:b9t] whose songs for voice and piano are still widely loved and played; Robert Schumann ['Juiman], a great composer for the piano; and Johannes Brahms [bra:mz], whose orchestral works seek to outshine even Beethoven’s. The Polish-French pianist Frederic Chopin [’/оршо] and the Hungarian Franz Liszt wrote challenging new pieces for piano, while the Russian Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky became a master of the symphony and other orchestral forms as well as operas and ballets. Meanwhile, opera became the great national music of Italy. Late in the 1800s, Richard Wagner ['va:gn9] developed a form of grand opera in Germany. MODERN PERIOD. Since 1900, serious music has undergone rapid changes. Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel sought to make music more like painting, seeking new “colours” and sounds in orchestra. Igor Stravinsky’s early compositions were so filled with unfamiliar timbers, rhythms, and harmonies, that they caused riots in their first performances. Dmitry Shostakovich and Alfred Schnittke gave up traditional scales and harmonies and composed a new musical language. The Hungarian Bela Bartock and the American George Gershwin, a composer of Broadway musicals, searched for folk themes and used them in new and surprising ways. 53. Look through your Topical Vocabulary (ex. 47) and the text "Kinds of Music", name the main periods in the development of music and describe them. Name some composers belonging to each period. 54. Ж. Read what J. B. Priestley, the well-known British author, wrote about a jazz-band performance he heard in the USA in the 1930s and comment on it. Try to figure out what people's perception/impression of music depends on. J. в. Priestley writes that the jazzmen were wearing “convicts’ clothes” and battered black bowler hats. Now and again, as he notes, one of them would clutch the microphone and follow incomprehensible lyrics into it; but most of the time they simply banged away at the piano and drums and blasted away through trumpet, trombone and saxophone. The author confesses that he didn’t know if it was good jazz or bad, but the sheer noise produced by the performers whom he calls “young maniacs” could easily blast anyone’s ear-drums. The smoky hot room simply shuddered with sound. Naturally, no talk was possible; only a desperate exchange of roars and shrieks. B. Do you think your parents/grandparents could say the same about modern music styles and modern music bands! 55. A. In his other essay J. B. Priestley writes about playing music at home. Say if you agree with him and why, in your view, it is becoming a lost tradition. Do you think it can or should be revived! J. B. Priestley writes that chamber music at home is delightful. Not so much for listeners as for actual performers. For the author there was “a sort of cosy magic about it. You are at home, all safe and snug, and yet also wandering in spirit” with the music. The author remarks that a lot of music was written for fun, but we tend to forget about it and take it too solemn or serious. The performance may not be ideal, but you can catch the mood of the piece. In conclusion he writes, “...every time a violin is taken up to the lumber room, a piano is carried away, and in their place is a gadget that turns music on and off like tap water, we move another step away from sanity.” B. Nowadays there seem to be a lot of gadgets playing music. Look at the pictures and name them. tape recorder music centre 56. Walkman mobile mp3 player CD-player C. In pairs discuss if these gadgets are a blessing or a curse. Below there are some ideas that you may develop. • “canned” music and live music • bringing people together or separating them • cost of the gadgets • influence on people’s health • convenience of new hi-fi ▲. Say И you're acquainted with the trends in modern music listed below and with the performers who made them popular. Which of them do you like or dislike! Disco — dance-based popular music of the ’80s. Disco emphasizes the beat above anything else, even the singer and the song. Dance-pop — music that grew out of disco. In it a pounding club beat frames simple, catchy melodies. Hip-hop — music related to rap with a relatively slow tempo. The emphasis is on the bass. House — the music that grew out of the post-disco club culture. It is less pop-oriented with the beat more mechanical and elements of other styles (like rap, jazz, soul, etc.). This music is meant to be instrumental; if there are vocalists, they sing wordless melodies. Techno — strictly electronic music, designed for a small, specific audience. Techno produced such subgenres as hardcore, ambient, and jungle. Hardcore techno sounds aggressive and undanceable because of its fast beat. Ambient took the opposite direction, slowing the beats down. Trance — music characterized by brief synthesizer lines repeated endlessly throughout tracks, with minimal rhythmic changes. This style acquired popularity in the late ’90s and became dance music around the globe. B. Speak about your favourite genre of modern music and about why you are hooked on H. 57. Remember or imagine some situation when listening to a piece of music or song made you laugh or cry or evoked some other profound emotion. Say: • when it was; • what exactly evoked that emotion; • where it was; • why you think you felt like that. 58. What does music mean to youl Below there are some questions that may help you to speak about it. 1. Do you have a good ear for music or are you tone-deaf? 2. Are you selective in your choice of music? 3. Are you original in your choice or do you conform to the tastes of others? 4. Does music help you or does it interfere with your studies? other interests? 5. Do you prefer to listen to live or “canned” music? 6. Do you collect your favourite music pieces? How many times can you listen to the same piece of music or the same song? 7. Are you a user or a creator of music? 8. Would you like to know more about music? Do you think it could help you understand music better or enjoy it more? 7i ■ Writing to explain an opinion ■ People often share an opinion by writing about it. An essay that explains an opinion is called an argumentative essay because when you explain your opinion to others, you usually give the reasons why you feel that way. 59. Read the paragraph below and say what reasons the writer gives to support his/her opinion. Few people would dispute that this is the Age of Communication. More than at any time in history, you are judged on your communication skills, both in speech and in writing. The successful development of your personal life, your relationships and your career now more and more depend on the way in which you express your thoughts into language. How well do you do this depends, in its turn, upon your understanding of grammar. So in u many ways you are as good as your grammar. That’s why grammar should be taken seriously. 60. A. Read the list of different opinions. Choose one of them and think of the reasons to support H. Write as many reasons for the chosen opinion as you can. 1. Every child should be taught to understand and enjoy classical music. 2. Classical music belongs to the past. Modern people require modern music. 3. Opera and ballet are entertainments for the selected few. 4. Each child should be able to play some musical instrument. 5. Even if you don’t have a good ear for music, you can develop it. 6. Music classes play an important role in schoolchildren’s development, but they should be different. B. Talk over the chosen topic with other people to get more reasons. Sometimes talking and discussion can change your opinion. Keep an open mind. 61. Think of an opinion and write a paragraph on H. Remember to provide the key sentence in your paragraph. Try and be as convincing as you can. Miscellaneous 62. Listen to the poem (No 6) and say what its message is. Ш The Minstrel Boy ■ by Thomas Moor The Minstrel Boy to the war is gone In the ranks of death you will find him; His father’s sword he hath girded on. And his wild harp slung behind him; “Land of Song!” said the warrior bard, “Though all the world betrays thee. One sword, at least, thy rights shall guard. One faithful harp shall praise thee!” The Minstrel fell! — but the foeman’s chain Could not bring that proud soul under; The harp he loved ne’er spoke again. For he tore its chords asunder; And said, “No chains shall sully thee, Thou^ soul of love and bravery! 'thou = you Thy^ songs were made for the pure and free, They shall never sound in slavery!” 63. Translate the text into Russian. Try to preserve the original style of the author. George got out his banjo after supper, and wanted to play it, but Harris objected: he said he had got a headache, and did not feel strong enough to stand it. George thought the music might do him good — said music often soothed the nerves and took away a headache; and he twanged two or three notes, just to show Harris what it was like. Harris said he would rather have the headache. George has never learned to play the banjo to this day. He has had too much all-round discouragement to meet. He tried on two or three evenings, while we were up the river, to get a little practice, but it was never a success. Harris’s language used to be enough to unnerve any man, added to which, Montmorency would sit and howl steadily, right through the performance. It was not giving the man a fair chance. “What’s he want to howl like that for when I’m playing?” George would exclaim indignantly, while taking aim at him with a boot. “What do you want to play like that for when he is howling?” Harris would retort, catching the boot. “You let him alone. He can’t help howling. He’s got a musical ear, and your playing makes him howl.” So George determined to postpone study of the banjo until he reached home. But he did not get much opportunity even there. Mrs P. used to come up and say she was very sorry — for herself, she liked to hear him — but the lady upstairs was in a very delicate state, and the doctor was afraid it might injure the child. Then George tried taking it out with him late at night, and practising round the square. But the inhabitants complained to the police about it, and a watch was set for him one night, and he was captured. The evidence against him was very clear, and he was bound over to keep the peace for six months. 'thy = your Не seemed to lose heart in the business after that and advertised the instrument for sale at a great sacrifice — “owner having no further use for same” — and took to learning card tricks instead. It must be disheartening work learning a musical instrument. You would think that Society, for its own sake, would do all it could to assist a man to acquire the art of playing a musical instrument. But it doesn’t! (Abridged from “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerome K. Jerome) 64. Did you know that...! • The symphony orchestra in the 19th century could consist of 80 or more instruments performing for a conductor in a concert hall. Generally, the 19th-century structure of the orchestra hasn’t changed. • The oldest musical instrument is, probably, human voice. But the instruments as such are very old, too. Archaeologists have discovered musical instruments dating back almost 30,000 years. Stringed and wind instruments are mentioned in the Bible, and they played an important role in the ceremonies and entertainments of the Greek and Roman civilizations. • Beethoven originally meant his Eroica symphony to be a homage (an evidence of respect and admiration) to Napoleon. This was quite a romantic act because Napoleon for a time being was regarded as the champion of freedom. Later the composer decided to delete Napoleon’s name when the French general declared himself emperor. • In Japanese music there are two distinct traditions: folk music and art music. Japanese folk song is associated with work, dance, ceremony or feasts. It is sung with or without the accompaniment of hand-clapping or instruments. Art music is associated with the court, and with the religious ceremonies. It is performed by a male choir with instrumental accompaniment. Project" \Nov< A. Prepare a presentation devoted to one of these: • a composer; • a performer (singer, dancer, pianist, etc.); • a conductor; • a group of musicians (singers, dancers); • an opera or a ballet; • one of trends in music. B. Present this information to the class. Illustrate it with musical fragments, slides and pictures. ^ i л JT X' \.Л "f f TOWN TIND ITS I TIRCHITEaMRE t UNIT ONE No architecture can be truly noble which is not imperfect. (John Ruskin. The Stones of Venice) UNIT TWO ■7 rr V» Г UNIT [THREEi I r n t ■irV UNIT FOUR I / с -2 T3 о Architecture, as you know, is the art and science of planning, designing and constructing buildings. It is also a particular style in which a building is constructed — Gothic or Baroque for example. We can also speak about the architecture of New York, Moscow or London. Different cities look different due to their architecture, which gives them individuality. But can we always recognise beauty when we see it? And is beauty a universal phenomenon never changed? What is more important for buildings — to be beautiful or to be functional? To answer these we should remember that architecture is not all about beauty: the graceful lines of buildings, perfect proportions and elegant decoration. It is also about people and their comfort, because buildings are constructed for use. When we speak about architecture we mainly think of big cities, cities with their numerous problems — pollution and overpopulation, heavy traffic and alienation, fast tempo of living and nearly bearable stress city dwellers have. Yet many people believe that “there is only in cities all that life can afford”. 1. Answer the questions. 1. Have you ever been interested in architecture? What do you think of this art? 2. When, in your opinion, was architecture more decorative and impressive: in the previous centuries or nowadays? Explain your answers. 3. What styles of architecture do you know? When and where did they emerge? 4. What buildings in our country can you refer to ancient Russian architecture? 5. What do you think of modern architecture in Russia? 6. In what building do you live? Where would you like to live? 7. What factors in your view are more important for architecture — beauty or functional significance? 8. What are the main problems of big cities? How is it possible to solve them? 9. Do you live in a big city, a town or a village? What are advantages and disadvantages of the place where you live? 2. A. Match the pictures of these famous buildings (1—8) on pp. 61—62 with their names (a—h). a) San Marco in Venice ['veins] (The Cathedral of Venice) b) Hagia ['aiD] Sophia in Istanbul c) The Colosseum [,kDl9'si:9m] in Rome d) The Centre Pompidou in Paris e) Notre Dame [,пэтгэ 'da:m] f) The Cathedral of Florence g) Salisbury ['sDilzbsri] Cathedral, England h) Taj Mahal [/ta:(d)3 ma'hcul] в. Match the pictures of these types of buildings (1 — 10) on pp. 63—64 with their names (a—j). a) mansion c) palace b) castle d) chapel e) bell-tower f) tomb g) high-rise building h) terraced house i) cottage j) bungalow 3. Match the names of the architects (1 —10) with the names of their creations (A—J), pp. 65—66. 1. Sir Christopher Wren 4. Matvey Kazakov 2. Andrei Voronikhin 5. Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli 3. Antonio Gaiidi ['gaudi] 6. Vasily Bazhenov 7. Barma and Postnik 9. Alexey Shchussev 8. Auguste de Montferrand 10. Joseph Bouve [bu:'vei] [,тэипГэ'го:п] A. The Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo Petrovsky Palace (intended to be the last overnight station of royal journeys from St Petersburg to Moscov\/) . t ff ^ 3 — O. B. Афанасьева, 11 кл. ^ 1 f'' "■. j b- / 4. Answer the questions. 1. Do you live in town or in the country? Is it where you would always like to live? Why (not)? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city and living in a small place? г рг 6. Speak about the history and peculiarities of a church (cathedrai) or a secular building of some architecturai interest. 7. Listen to the text "Organic Architecture" (No 8) and a) say which of the two buiidings in the pictures is the Kaufmann House and which is Civic Centre; ♦ c>oc^ until very recently. b) choose the right item to complete the sentences. 1. The International Style in architecture _ a) has been doomed b) has been most influential c) has been dominating 2. The buildings of the International Style_____ a) are easily recognizable and look alike b) are varied in numerous details c) are full of individuality each 3. ____ with the principles of modern International Style. a) All contemporary architects agree b) Not every architect agrees c) Hardly any architect agrees 4. Frank Lloyd Wright is famous for his ________ buildings. a) outmoded b) classical c) unconventional 5. Frank Lloyd Wright quite naturally _______ his buildings into the setting. a) incorporates b) installs c) extracts 6. Frank Lloyd Wright’s on modern architecture was really great. a) spell b) impact c) authority 8. Speak about organic archifecfure. • expladn how you understand the term “organic architecture”; • if you like the idea of this style; • if this architecture is more suitable in your opinion for big towns or the countryside. 9. What building repeating the shape of the natural object(s) could you think of! Describe it. 10. A. Listen to the five guidebook texts about English towns (No 9) and say which of the towns: 1. is an important centre of automobile production; 2. has two parts that don’t look alike; 3. is a well-known resort; 4. has a lot of vegetation; 5. was founded for military purposes by Romans. B. Match the texts with the pictures on p. 70. 11. Say which of the places mentioned in ex. 10 you would like to visit and why. ^0 Rea^g 12. Read the texts about Russian architects and say which of them a) didn’t finish his education in architecture; b) was not born a free person; c) had an administrative post alongside with his work of an architect; d) built the official residences of the Russian royal family in the city of St. Petersburg; e) lived long enough to witness most of his works destroyed; f) was born and died in the same century. 2d 1. Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli was a Russian architect of Italian origin. He developed an easily recognisable style of late Baroque. His major works, including the Winter Palace on the Neva River and the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, are famed for extravagant luxury and opulence of decoration. Rastrelli was appointed to the post of senior court architect in 1730. His works found favour with Empress Anna and Empress Elizabeth. The new Empress Catherine dismissed baroque architecture as old-fashioned, and the aged architect had to retire to Courtland where he supervised decoration of the ducal palaces. The square before the Smolny convent bears Rastrelli’s name since 1923. i The Winter Palace (St. Petersburg) 2. Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov was a Russian Neoclassicist architect. He was one of the most influential Muscovite architects during the reign of Catherine II. Kazakov completed numerous private residences, two royal palaces, two hospitals, Moscow University and the Kremlin Senate. Kazakov was born in Moscow in 1738 and died in 1812 in Ryazan. When he was twelve, he joined the architectural school of Dmitry Ukhtomsky where he worked and studied. Instead of going to Italy to study Italian classics, Kazakov learned his trade repairing relics and never travelled far from Moscow. Numerous private houses built by Kazakov literally shaped the city before 1812. Those were very simple classicist structures. “Kazakov’s Moscow” disappeared in the fire of 1812. The few surviving houses were later altered, rebuilt or torn down. 3. Vasily Ivanovich Bazhenov was born in 1737 and died in 1799. In the Russia of the 18th century the architecture was, perhaps, the most prospering kind of art and Bazhenov was certainly one of the leading architects of that time. Bazhenov received formal European education, studied in France and Italy. When he returned to his native Moscow he found there the work to his talent and aspirations. He was to reconstruct the Kremlin. This project was not finished. Catherine ordered to stop the work. There was no money. For more than ten years Bazhenov had been building Tsaritsyno. But the Empress didn’t like the manor. Beautiful small houses seemed to her too small and close — on paper everything looked more impressive. She ordered to reconstruct Tsaritsyno. 4. Andrei Nikiforovich Voronikhin was born in Ural. His parents were serfs of Count A. S. Stroganov. At the age К e It :# , il IT ’П“ ^ I The old building of Moscow University (Moscow) Pashkov’s House (now the old building of the Russian State Library) 71 of 13—14 he began to show real interest in architecture. His abilities were noticed and he was sent to Moscow for further education. He joined the architectural team of V. I. Bazhenov. M. F. Kazakov predicted Voronikhin’s bright future. According to the remaining documents, we can assume that Voronikhin took part in painting of hallway of Troitse-Sergieva Lavra in 1778. The year of 1800 was a turning point in his life: architectural design of the Kazan Cathedral was approved. Alexey Viktorovich Shchussev was that Russian architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting the architecture of Imperial Russia with the style of Communist Russia. He studied under Leon Benois and Ilya Repin. From 1894 to 1899, he travelled in North Africa and Central Asia. He was also a diligent student of Old Russian Art. After briefly experimenting with Neoclassicism, Shchussev turned to Constructivism in the 1920s. He designed the Kazan Railway Station, Lenin Mausoleum, and the Hotel Moskva in Moscow. After the mausoleum commission, Shchussev was cherished by the government authorities. In 1926, he was nominated director of the Tretyakov Gallery. He was appointed head of the group that designed major bridges and apartment complexes in Moscow. Shchussev died four years after the end of World War II. The Kazan Cathedral (St Petersburg) The Mausoleum In Red Square (Moscow) 71 6. Frants Osipovich Shekhtel (1859—1926) was born in St. Petersburg. His education in architecture was incomplete. When he was young he was a stage-painter and a book designer. Author of numerous mansions, pavilions at international exhibitions, industrial buildings and structures, Shekhtel designed the Yaroslavsky Railway Station in Moscow. His best works include the mansion of the industrialist Ryabushinsky built in 1900—1902. The configuration of the building is such that a casual observer is at a loss to say how many storeys the building has. The Yaroslavsky Railway Station (Moscow) 13. A. Discuss the problem of how much the work of an architect depends on those who commission buildings. Say if architects are free to choose • the location; • the size; • the style; • the material; • the decoration of the building. B. Do you think the proverb "He who pays the piper calls the tune" has any grounds! 14. Read the text and choose the right item in the statements after it. Ш Michelangelo as an Architect ■ Michelangelo Buonarroti is now most famous as a sculptor, painter and draftsman. Few visitors to the Sistine ['sisti:n] Chapel in the Vatican may be aware of his enormous contribution to the final design and completion of St. Peter’s. Of the hundreds of thousands who go to see his “David” at the Academia in Florence, only a handful will even know of the existence of his Laurentian Library in the same city — one of the most revolutionary interior designs in architectural history. Yet, the Florentine artist spent more of his long career occupied with architecture — he devoted 18 years to St. Peter’s alone — than with any other pursuit. Michelangelo had initially trained as a painter, but the creator of the Sistine ceiling denied that this was — or had ever really been — his calling. Similarly, when invited to undertake the design for the Laurentian Library in 1524, he warned: “Faro cio che io sapro, benche non sia mia professione” — I'll do what I can, although it's not my profession. Though the artist destroyed many of his drawings before his death in February 1564, a reasonable number of architectural drawings escaped the flames. Without them we would have little idea of his highly unconventional working methods, which produced in turn highly original architectural results. On being asked in 1515 to collaborate on the design of the facade for the church of San Lorenzo in Florence, to which complex the Laurentian Library would later be added, Michelangelo recognised that he lacked experience in this type of design. Accordingly, he hastened to put himself through a crash, teach-yourself course, making particular use of the so-called Codex Coner, a manuscript compendium of architectural and decorative drawings from which he copied classical motifs and features. Not a team player, Michelangelo worked alone, defensive of his independent status and never, as he said himself, “the kind of painter or sculptor to keep a studio.” Operating outside the studio system, he often became involved in designing the settings for his own sculptures. Convinced that an understanding of the human body was as necessary a skill in architecture as in the figurative arts, the artist tackled the design of a piece of architecture very much as he would have done a preparatory figure drawing. Rather than starting with a simple “idea” sketch, and developing more detailed and exact drawings on successive sheets of paper, Michelangelo would typically do an initial sketch and then repeatedly draw on top of it, creating a kind of multilayered drawing as his ideas advanced. Woodcut Portrait of Michelangelo by Chstoforo Coriolano One remarkable upshot of this was that, having tried various superimposed alternatives, rather than choosing one or another, he would combine elements from several to create hybrid versions that were fresh and original. Paper was expensive and the artist had austere habits, so every available sheet of paper, including his own draft letters and those he had received from others, was covered back and front with his drawings. Having effectively produced architecture on the page, he would then make a clay or wax model of the kind that he would do for a sculpture, in which form he would continue to modify the design. While the artist studied classical buildings and their ornamental features, his approach was not archeological, for he saw them as essentially a means to the end of creating something quite new. Rules, as far as he was concerned, even if laid down by the ancients, were there to be broken, and break them he did, often to the surprise and consternation of his contemporaries. Moreover, his application of sculptural methods in modelling buildings and his manipulation of space, light and shadow helped to break down the divide between structure and decoration, introducing a new sense of freedom. These lessons took time to be fully understood, and the baroque builders Bernini and Borromini, born more than 30 years after Michelangelo’s death, were his first true disciples. It was Bernini who said about him: “He was a great sculptor and painter, but a divine architect.” '^1 1. People as ____ know more of Michelangelo’s work as than a) an architect ... a painter b) a painter and a sculptor ... an architect c) a sculptor ... a painter 2. The artist _____ thought that architecture was his strongest point. a) hardly b) definitely c) really 3. Michelangelo’s architectural drawings were ______ lost. a) all b) partly c) nearly all 4. The artist realised that he was ____ for working on the design of the church of San Lorenzo. a) well prepared b) not quite prepared c) made 5. The artist_____ a) brushed up his knowledge of design b) asked more experienced artists to help c) wrote a manuscript describing his working methods 6. Michelangelo preferred to work_______ a) together with other artists b) on his own c) with his disciples 7. The artist made his architectural drawings______ a) in the same manner as most architects did b) in the traditional way c) as if he were making sketches of human figures 8. The artist’s architectural drawings were _____ the final stage of his work on the project. a) not b) — c) considered to be 9. The artist often produced _____ buildings. a) classical b) conventional c) original 10. Michelangelo’s architectural genius was _____ recognised. a) never b) immediately c) eventually 15. A. Read the text "Michelangelo as an Architecf' again and find in it words and word combinations which mean the same as the following: 1) to know, to realise 2) something that you do that helps to achieve something 3) a very small number of people 4) an activity that you enjoy 5) unusual, original working methods 6) to work with someone to produce something 7) not to have enough experience 8) a course of study in which you are taught a lot about a subject in a short time 9) written by hand before books began to be printed 10) art representing people, objects and scenes, rather than feelings and ideas as abstract art does 11) the first original sketch 12) a mixture of different things or styles 13) a lifestyle when a person severely reduces the amount of money that is spent 14) a letter that may have changes made to it before it is finished 15) the people who lived a very long time ago, especially in Greece or Rome f/ i78 16) a shocked feeling, often caused by something unexpected 17) people who lived at the same time as a particular event or person 18) extremely good B. Use some of the words and word combinations in sentences of your own. 16. There are some names of people and Italian places and works of art mentioned in the text about Michelangelo. How much do you know about them! Share your information with your classmates. 17. Read the text and say which of the three titles is more suitable for it and why. a) The First Impressions of London b) The First Customers c) The First Days of a New Life This extract comes from “They Walk in the City", by John Boynton Priestley (1894-1984), a British writer and broadcaster who took a humorous view of English life in his novels. His many plays include “Dangerous Corner". He also wrote about literature, travel and society. The main character of the novel “They Walk in the City" is Rose Salter, born in a small textile town of England, who comes to London and becomes a waitress. Rose was shown what to do by a senior waitress, who had been carrying poached eggs on toast and pots of tea for the last ten years, called Wade. She knew every labour-saving trick and spoke of the customers always as if they were fairly amiable but occasionally dangerous lunatics, her view being that the customer was always wrong. This was fortunate for Rose, who, in spite of her trembling anxiety at first which made every trip to a table a terrific ordeal, could not help making a few mistakes. Rose’s chief difficulty was in understanding what people said. She was used to hearing people shout at the top of their broad Haliford voices. Here people either mumbled into their newspapers or rattled away in high birdlike London tones that made no sense at all. Some were disagreeable: they had been bossed about half the day themselves, and now it was their turn to be superior and unpleasant to somebody. Unlike Miss Wade, who took it easy and had only the minimum time and no real sympathy to spare for customers. Rose was not only willing but deeply sympathetic. She felt sorry for most of the •Weft ('• people who came in; they looked so worried and tired; and she was only too anxious to rush away and bring them quarts of tea,^ and mounds of poached eggs. Some of them were exciting, too. On her third afternoon there she had quite a talk with one odd and exciting person. He came in carrying a mass of typed sheets in a ragged blue cover, flopped into a chair, and instead of looking at the menu he stared gloomily at these typed sheets. When Rose asked him what he wanted, he did not even look up but groaned: “Anything.” “Well,” said Rose, “but what’s anythingV" “Oh, I dunno.” He looked from his messy typed sheets to the menu, and from the menu up to Rose. Then he smiled, quite cheerfully, and promptly gave an order for tongue and salad and a roll and coffee. When she returned with her tray, he looked up at her again and said: “You’re from Leeds, aren’t you?” “No, I’m not,” she told him. “Haliford. And — my God — what a place!” He said nothing more for a moment while she was setting out his lunch. Then he asked: “And when did you leave Haliford?” “Last week.” He laughed at that, though Rose saw nothing funny about it. 'quarts of tea — зд. литры чая (1 quart = 2 pints = 1.137 litres) ,J'-i-H < I But he was quite pleasant. “And what do you think of London, then, Miss Haliford?” “Well,” said Rose carefully, “I think I shall like it. Of course I haven’t seen much of it yet.” “Of course,” he said gravely, “you can’t have. In fact, you haven’t begun to see it yet, have you?” No, she hadn’t. He seemed to want to talk and she was ready to listen, so she contrived to linger on without looking as if she were merely gossiping. “It isn’t a town, a place like Haliford, this isn’t, y’know,” he continued slowly. “It’s a wilderness. It’s the Amazonian jungle. It’s another Grand Canyon. Whole tribes live here, buried away, nobody knows much about ’em. One night you might wander into the middle of one of ’em, and never be heard of again. That’s London, lass — that’s London.” He sighed, and Rose, who could not make head or tail of this nonsense, looked vaguely sympathetic. Then he smiled, and so she smiled back at him, and the effect was to make his whole face to light up. “You’re what this salad ought to have been — young and fresh and crisp and green. And where d’you live? Islington? And why Islington? Oh, you were recommended to go there? Well, be careful. There are old witches in Islington living on second floors behind lace curtains.” He turned to his lunch and Rose left him. When she went to give him his bill, he stared gravely at her. “Wish me luck,” he said. Rose did, as he got up. He looked hard at her again. “Don’t forget the unknown tribes. Or the old witches in Islington. Watch out! Be careful, I say. Turn down the wrong street of London and you’re lost for ever. Goodbye, my child.” 18. Find in the text the English equivalents for these: 1) яйцо пашот 2) уловка, позволяющая не делать лишней работы 3) достаточно дружелюбный 4) большое испытание 5) голоса с заметным халифордским акцентом 6) трещать напропалую, безудержно 7) неприятный (о человеке) 8) ими помыкали 9) не принимать близко к сердцу 10) сочувствие к посетителям 11) «горы» яиц 12) плюхаться в кресло 13) тут же, без задержки 14) ухитриться задержаться надолго 15) дикая местность, пустыня 16) разобраться в чем-либо 17) свежий и хрустящий 18) кружевные занавески 19. Answer the questions on the text (ex. 17). 1. Where is the scene laid? 2. What did Rose do there? Do you think she had any previous experience of the job she was doing? 3. What was Miss Wade’s position in the cafe? Why was it fortunate for Rose that her supervisor was Miss Wade? 4. What did Rose think of her customers? Why was it difficult for her to understand them? 5. What was unusual about the customer who came into the cafe on the third day of Rose’s work? 6. Was he satisfied with his lunch? 7. What did he tell her about London? 8. What did the customer caution Rose against? Do you think Rose understood the customer’s warning? 9. What did she think of London? 10. Why do you think Rose was rather careful choosing the answer to the question if she liked London? 11. The customer was sure that Rose hadn’t begun to see London yet, wasn’t he? What made him feel so certain of it? 12. How would you comment on the customer’s utterance “Turn down the wrong street of London and you’re lost for ever”? Do you think he really meant a street or was he talking about something else? 20. A. Think of how the plot of Rose's story could possibly develop. B. Say what problems people coming from small provincial places may face in a big city. 21. In the book "They Walk in the City" J. B. Priestley says that Haliford was a little market town where a lot of mills had closed down and the population had grown old. How can you describe the lifestyle in Haliford! How does it differ from the lifestyle in London! Why do a lot of people tend to move to big cities! What makes people leave big cities for small places! 1- ^ ' л , ■: V':- Г?1^^^ЯЯИЯ 22. Learn to use the new words. 1. amiable ['eimisbl] (adj): friendly and pleasant. Liz is a gentle, funny, amiable person, what an amiable young man he Is! 2. crisp [krisp] (adj): 1) firm in a pleasant way {about food). / like my bacon to be crisp. The new carrots were fresh and crisp; 2) clean and smooth {about cloth, paper). She looked very neat in her crisp white blouse; 3) cold and dry {about weather). It was a crisp winter day and we decided to take a walk along the river. 3. gloomy ['glu:mi] (adj): feeling or looking sad and without hope. What makes you so gloomy today? / remember spending hours in the gloomy old library. That winter the economic news was gloomy. 4. gossip ['gosip] (v): to talk about other people or things that are not important. To gossip about or over someone or sth. / don't like those who gossip about their friends, / don't trust them. 5. linger ['ligga] (v): 1) to stay somewhere longer or spend longer time doing sth than necessary for your own enjoyment or benefit. We decided to Unger after class. To linger over sth. My father likes to linger over breakfast and read the newspapers; 2) to be fixed on sth {about eyes). She let her eyes Unger on him. To linger in the mind or the memory. The girl's lovely face lingered in my memory; 3) to last or continue for a long time. To linger on. The smell of fish lingered on in the kitchen. 6. nonsense ['nnns(3)ns] (n): 1) ideas or statements that are not true. Don't trust him: what he is saying is complete nonsense. It is nonsense to believe this superstitious stuff. To talk nonsense. I think he was talking nonsense yesterday; 2) unreasonable or annoying behaviour. To stand or put up with (any) nonsense. / don't want to put up with any more nonsense from you. 7. ordeal [o;'di:l] (n): an extremely unpleasant experience, especially one that lasts a long time. During the war these people suffered a terrible ordeal. The work turned out to be an ordeal for me. 8. rattle ['rastl] (v): to make short sharp knocking sounds as it moves or shakes. The wind was so strong that the house shook and the doors and windows rattled. James entered the room rattling a bunch of keys. To rattle on (away), to talk quickly and for a long time. Jane was rattling on, though no one was listening. 9. spare [spea] (v): 1) if you spare sth, you can give, lend or spend it. How much money can you spare? Can you spare me five minutes? To spare neither money nor expense. He spared neither money nor expense in helping us; 2) to prevent someone from experiencing an unpleasant, painful or embarrassing situation. Can you spare me the trouble of going there? To spare sb’s feelings. Break the news gently to spare your mother's feelings. To spare sb from doing sth. No one can be spared from cleaning the classroom. To spare sb sth. !'m so happy she was spared the ordeal of surgery. Spare me the necessity of doing it. To spare sb’s life. The soldiers displayed so much bravery that Napoleon ordered to spare their lives. 10. sympathy ['simpaGi] (n): 1) a natural feeling of kindness and understanding that you have for someone who is experiencing sth unpleasant. They write about the problems of immigrants with a lot of sympathy. To have sympathy for someone. We all have great sympathy for the victims of the food; 2) agreement with or support of an idea, a plan, etc. To have sympathy with sth. Do you have any sympathy with his plans? To be out of/in sympathy with sb or sth. Some people are still in sympathy with these strange ideas. 11. sympathetic [,simpa'0etik] (adj): kind to someone who has a problem and willing to understand how they feel. In the diffcult situation Paul turned out to be the only sympathetic person. jiH was a sympathetic listener. To be sympathetic to someone or sth. The government were very sympathetic to the new proposals. To have a sympathetic ear. If you have a sympathetic ear, you are willing to listen to other people's problems. 12. vague [veig] (adj): 1) not clear, not definite. Through the fog we saw the vague outline of a ship; 2) forgetful, absent-minded, not precise. He was always very vague when making arrangements. 13. flop [flop] (v): 1) to fall heavily. She flopped into an armchair. At the end of the scene the actors flopped on to the floor, 2) to fail, be unsuccessful. The new play flopped and was taken off Broadway after a week. 23. A. Find the phrases to be fortunate for sb, a terrific ordeal, to be used to doing sth, to shout at the top of one's voice, to be bossed, to flop into a chair, to linger on sth, to make head or tail of sth, watch out in the text of ex. 17, explain what they mean and say in what situations you can use them. B. Illustrate one of the phrases by a short story. The ideals of Italian artists were fully realised by Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo in the High Renaissance, in the 15th century. For 100 years after the High Renaissance the architects of central Europe had been happy to work within the limits of the classical tradition. They admired the simplicity of the ancient architecture of the Greeks and Romans and asked no more. But in time younger artists began to grow tired of the rigid limitations of these ideas. The baroque style had a certain freedom for rules and restraints, a lot of flexibility and ornamentation on the inside of churches and palaces, the sculpture and painted decorations, the designing of furniture were used to produce rich and exuberant effect. Baroque was the art style of the 17th and the first part of the 18th century. Then a new variation took its place, called rococo. There was no abrupt change from baroque to rococo, but a change to taste leading to a new way of using the same material and motifs. Rococo ornament was on the whole daintier and smaller. Neoclassical buildings are made recently (18th—19th centuries) but in the classical style of a former time, especially in the style of ancient Greece and Rome. Contemporary architecture takes a bewildering variety of forms and makes use of a far wider range of materials than ever before. 61. A. Remember a beautiful building you have once seen and describe it. Mention: • where it is situated and what type of building it is; • its size; • if it belongs to any particular architectural style; • the material it is made of; • some of its specific features; • how its interior is decorated; • what impression it made on you. B. Describe your dream house, a place you'd like to live in. You may illustrate your description with a picture. 62. Read the text and answer the questions after it. ■ Views of the City ■ One hundred and fifty years ago, the founder of evolutionary theory Charles Darwin, predicted that the unpleasantness of life in crowded cities would not change, but humans would learn to U7i love it. As far as the British are concerned, he was almost right. Many city dwellers today have cut all ties with the land and live in happy ignorance of what goes on in the country. For them the circuit of school or office, supermarket and nightlife have become a natural habitat. This state of affairs is, however, comparatively new. In Britain there is a much longer tradition of hostility to the city. English literature is full of anti-urban sentiment which is based on the idea that God made the country and man made the town. Britain’s favourite poets are the Romantics, who came from the country and loved it. The most quoted poem in the English language is Wordsworth’s Daffodils, which evokes an idyllic rural scene. Charles Dickens, in a sense, broke the spell of the rural myth. His novels are generally celebrations of city life, and the background of London streets is as important as the characters themselves. But even he sees the negative side. His London is often foggy, muddy, cold, wet and unfriendly. The most famous exception to this negative view of the city is the great wit, literary critic and dictionary writer Dr. Johnson. He loved life in London in the 18th century, hated going out of the city and said: “When a man is tired of London he is tired of life, for there is in London all that life can afford.” 1. What are the two principal views on city life typical of the British? Which of them would you support? Is the traditional view of cities in Russia positive or negative? 2. Why, in your opinion, in the 17th—18th centuries English writers and poets didn’t think much of the English capital city writing, “Nobody is healthy in London, nobody can be” (Jane Austen) or “Hell is a city much like London — a populous and smoky city” (P. Shelley)? 3. Would you agree with Charles Darwin’s prediction about the unpleasantness of city life and the change of people’s attitude to it? 4. How can you explain the anti-urban attitude that English literature is full of? Comment on the idea expressed in the text “God made the country and man made the town.” 5. What can you say about Dr. Johnson’s description of London? Do you think these words can be referred to Moscow or any other big city? 6. Why, do you think, city dwellers get adapted to rural life with a lot of difficulty? Do you think people from the country have problems when they move to cities? What problems could they be? i18 63. А. Living in a big city has a lot of advantages but it also has its disadvantages. Put the following features of city life under the categories of "good points" and "bad points" and continue the list. • streets are crowded (thronged) with people; • the system of municipal transport is well-developed; • heavy traffic and traffic jams in rush hours are a typical feature; • there are a lot of things to see and to do; • the level of noise is too high for a person to feel comfortable; • a lot of people have to live in small flats in very crowded conditions; • there is a wide range of entertainments; • there are good opportunities for getting a good education and making a successful career; • you are hardly ever left alone or at one with nature; • people have to commute to work covering long distances every day; • the criminal situation in big cities usually leaves much to be desired; B. Speak about the problems that people living in big cities may have and the advantages of such a life. 64. In recent decades there have appeared the so-called mega-cities. Read the text and discuss these in small groups: • what is understood by mega-cities ['meg3,sitiz]; • what mega-cities can you name in England; • if there are such places in Russia; • if the growth of mega-cities is natural; • if there is any reason to limit their size. Britain now remains one of the most urbanized countries in the world, with nine in ten of the population living in towns or cities. Britain’s cities, at one time big by international standards, have long since been overtaken by giants like New York, Tokyo, Mexico City. But that doesn’t mean that they are small. London has a population between 12 to 14 min people (Greater London — 7.5 min people). Then there are a number of major conurbations: urban areas that started as collections of neighbouring towns, but have grown together and fused into massive single units. Birmingham is the main component of what is called the West Midlands, a mega-city about 57 kilometres across and with a population about 3 min people. Manchester is grouped together with a ring of old industrial towns such as Stockport, Oldham and Bolton to make up Greater Manchester. Then there are the conurbations of West Yorkshire, Merseyside, Tyneside and Clydeside in Scotland. 65. Try to imagine what big cities will be like within about 50 years. Speak about different aspects of city life: a) size b) population c) variety of buildings d) transport Decide whose description is: the most optimistic, the most detailed, the most realistic. 66. Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you is planning to leave town for the country and the other, on the contrary, is going to move to a big city. Talk to each other and try to convince your partner that he or she is making a mistake. e) traffic jams f) pollution g) amount of vegetation, etc. 120; Writing Ш Writing to give arguments Ш When people write essays explaining their opinion of some fact they often regard it from different angles and offer their praise or criticism, in other words, they give their arguments “for” or “against” it. When you write an argumentative essay you should find some arguments “for” and some arguments “against” the problem under discussion. In your final paragraph you write your “verdict” — what you really think of the problem. Sometimes you support just one point of view. Sometimes you decide that the opposite opinion could be accepted. But very often people have mixed feelings about various situations or facts. Whatever your final solution is you should write it in the last paragraph of your essay. Thus the body of an argumentative essay should have four parts: I. Introduction II. Arguments for the point under discussion III. Arguments against it IV. Conclusion Suppose, your task is to write an essay on the following: “Computers were invented in the middle of the 20th century. Since then some people think they are a blessing while others do not approve of their extensive usage.” I. In the introduction you broaden the statement and stress the fact that there are two points of view on the computers. II. In the second part you enumerate the positive sides of this phenomenon. You mention, for example, that people have an easy access to a lot of information, they can do the shopping from home, can have some medical advice, etc. III. In the third part of the essay you may write that due to computers people do not socialize, they may get eye diseases, headaches, insomnia, etc. IV. The final part of the essay will be a certain summing up of your analysis, a conclusion with your opinion. 67. Read the paragraph below and single out arguments for and against moving into suburbs. In recent decades, people have been moving out of city centres into suburbs, new towns, smaller towns and the country. On the one hand, it seems to be a logical thing to do, as cities become more and more overpopulated and unsuitable for healthy living with all their emotional and physical stress, hustle and bustle and growing pollution. On the other hand, villages and isolated farms and cottages, which used to be full of agricultural workers, are now the homes of people who drive to their offices in town and the whole pattern of life in the country is changing dramatically. If this process goes on, won’t we lose our countryside with its quiet unhurried way of life, wild nature and clean air? 68. Write argumentative essays on these problems. 1. The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by a great number of cars and other vehicles in big cities. They certainly are a must for our civilization but they also make city dwellers’ lives much more complicated. 2. Living in a big city is an advantage for children and young people as they can get a good education, qualified medical care, etc. but it also has a bad impact on their health and often makes their life stressful and even dangerous. u л ' Й^ру, ■>;- Мх. .^Г.-' J'.‘ fe/: |^«V: Л ' ll ‘ '{- l'i = diamond brackets __= underline Letter = bold (on first letter) air = italics 3.4 = three point four 34. Name these punctuation marks and symbols. 1. { } 2. * 3. ______ 4. — 8. <> 7. ( ИЯВНШЯШ 9. / 10. [ ] 5. - 11. “ 12. ; Capital letters mark the beginning of a sentence. They are also used for proper nouns: personal names and titles, nationalities, languages, days of the week, months of the year, seasons, public holidays, geographical locations. Capital letters are used for titles of books, magazines, newspapers. Note that if a proper name consists of two or more words, all the content words in the name are capitalized: The British Museum. Cf.: Музей прикладного искусства. u 35. Some of the sentences below have mistakes. Find these sentences and correct the mistakes. 1. ‘The Times’ has a Sunday colour supplement. 2. We often buy french bread in the form of thick sticks. 3. Jane Austin’s ‘Sense and sensibility’ made a really great impression on me. 4. Sigmund Freud was an Austrian doctor who developed a new system for understanding the way that people’s minds work. 5. Mecca is a city in Saudi arabia where the prophet Muhammad was born. 6. ‘Casablanca’ with Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman is considered an all-time classic. 7. The Rolling stones, one of the most successful groups ever, first became popular in 1963. 8. October is the tenth month of the year between September and november. 9. The romans are remembered as skilled and effective soldiers, great builders and engineers. 208 MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PUNCTUATION Full stops close grammatically independent sentences. I. They may or may not be used in: • initial shortenings: U.K./UK; T. S. Eliot/T S Eliot; • other abbreviations: prof./prof; etc./etc; doc./doc; But the practice of using full stops in these cases is becoming less common. II. A full stop is not usually used: • in the abbreviations of words when they include the last letter of the word: Rd (Road), Ltd (Limited), St (Street) • for common sets of initials (the BBC^ [,bi:bi:'si:]; a UFO^ [Jurefau] or • for acronyms (words in which initials are pronounced as a word): the NATO^ ['neitau], AIDS'* [eidz], the UNO^ ['ju:n9u], the RAF^ [reef]. Full stops are not used in newspaper headlines, in the titles of books and other works: Mid Summer Night’s Dream, New School to Be Built, Summit Talks. 36. Give abbreviations for the following. Check in a dictionary. Use full stops where they may appear. 1. the alphabet; 2. Home Box Office (a TV channel); 3. laboratory; 4. Mister; 5. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (an international organization); 6. please turn oyer (written at the bottom of the page to tell the reader to look at the next page); 7. departure; 8. His Excellency (a title of important state officials); 9. Member of Parliament; 10. post meridiem; 11. singular; 12. postscript (a note added at the end of a letter, giying more information); 13. John Boynton Priestley; 14. George Bernard Shaw u ’the BBC — the British Broadcasting Corporation ^a UFO — an unidentified flying object hhe NATO — the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ■*AIDS — Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ^the UNO — the United Nations Organization *the RAF — the Royal Air Force MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PUNCTUATION Commas are mainly used in the following cases: 1. In enumerating, except for a final item preceded by the conjunction AND. There were apples, pears, oranges and peaches in the bowl. The town was cold, dark and inhospitable. 2. In tag questions and responses. You are coming, aren’t you? Yes, thank you. No, I won’t. 3. With vocatives^ and interjections. “Fred, it’s disgusting. You’re cheating people who trust you.’’ “What did you do, daddy?’’ he asked. “Oh, no. Headmistress, that can’t be right!’’ Well, what do you think they have done? 4. In reporting speech. He said, “Now it’s time to begin.’’ “Now it’s time to begin,’’ he said, “and you will be the first to speak.’’ 5. In clauses. a) Normally commas are used if the subordinate clause comes before the main clause. If you don’t come, she will be offended. But: She will be offended if you don’t come. b) Subordinate or comment clauses that provide additional information or that elaborate information given in the main clause are separated by a comma. It won’t help you, to be honest. To tell you the truth, I don’t believe him. You don’t need to shout, if I may say so. c) Commas are also used to mark non-defining relative clauses. Mrs Richardson, whose photo you saw yesterday, is an old friend of mine. Commas are not mainly used in these cases: 1. Defining relative clauses which do not add to or amplify a statement are not punctuated by a comma. The house which you built in the country is not very conveniently situated. Some people who came to the party were strangers to us. 'vocative ['vokativ] — обращение iSIO 2. Normally there are no commas between clauses separated by AND, OR and BUT, though they may be used. There was a muddy pond in the garden(,) and this was the home of some frogs. In American English commas in this case are used more often than in British English. 37. There are no commas in the sentences below. Say where they must be or may be. I. Well Matilda aren’t you going outside with the others? 2. Oh I was. I was flying past the stars on silver wings. 3. They passed the greengrocer and then they came out at the other side of the village. 4. You won’t tell anyone about this will you? 5. Calm yourself down child calm yourself down. 6. It is quite possible that you are a phenomenon but I’d rather you didn’t think about yourself like that. 7. “By the way” Ma said “did you do anything about the car?” 8. She was a sweet gentle and caring creature. 9. It was cool dark and very unpleasant downstairs. 10. If you write an email now he will get it immediately Bess believe me. II. Pop departed across the field to the truck and Mr Charlton at once felt much more himself. 12. When he first asked me I laughed at the question. 13. Have you ever heard of Max Preston who came to our school last month? 14. The woman had a small suitcase a box an h-bag and an umbrella. 38. Use commas where and if necessary to complete the sentences. 1. This is the problem which we’re solving at the moment. 2. Tell him about it when he comes. 3. If they arrive early they will be able to have a short tour of the city. 4. The man whose face seems familiar to you is our principal. 5. I have been to Rhodes Crete and some other islands of the Mediterranean. 6. The guy who is waiting in the office wants to talk to you. 7. I will be delighted if you get a chance to know this outstanding writer. 8. Emily Green who was here in the morning won’t join us. 9. We’ll ask Dick who is the oldest in the family just to say a few words. 10. If my daughter leaves me I’ll miss her very much. u STILL MORE INFORMATION ABOUT PUNCTUATION I. Colons are used to introduce lists, to indicate a subtitle or a subdivision of a topic. There are different trends in painting: classicism, romanticism, impressionism, cubism, etc. The History of Britain: A Personal View. Colons may also be used to mark a clause in which reasons or explanations are given. We decided against buying the DVD player: it was rather heavy to take on holiday with us. II. Semi-colons are sometimes used instead of commas to separate items included in a sequence or list. The shopping centre has a number of features: a cinema: two meeting rooms; a fast-food cafe; a small gymnasium. Semi-colons may also be used instead of full stops to separate two main clauses. In such cases the clauses remain grammatically separate but are linked in meaning. Some cats sleep during the night; most cats are active during the dark. In contemporary English semi-colons are not frequently used. Full stops and commas are much more common. 39. Explain the use of colons in these sentences. 1. In formal English we always read year dates as hundreds: 1999 (nineteen hundred and ninety-nine). 2. She still enjoys such books: science fiction, detective stories, historical novels. 3. We have everything we need: land, brains, wealth, technology. 4. American Literature: 20th Century. 5. She decided against going to Spain in November: the weather is usually dull and rainy there in that month. 6. The man had been paralysed: this, not age, explained his unsteady walk. 7. I decided to leave: John and Mary were obviously tired. 8. Please send the stipulated items: your birth certificate, your passport and your CV’. ’CV (curriculum vitae [кэ,пк)э1эт 'virtai]) — a document giving details of your qualifications and the jobs you have had in the past that you send to someone when you are applying for a job (Резюме). 212 40. Use semi-colons instead of commas and full stops where it is possible. 1. Taylor was an outstanding actor. With a few telling strokes he characterized King Lear magnificently. 2. The breakfast menu consisted of fruit juice or cereal, a boiled egg, toast and marmalade, and a pot of tea or coffee. 3. I had been aware that they sometimes disagreed violently. I had not realised that they were seriously contemplating divorce. 4. The room was bright, spacious and very cosy. 5. Everybody knows that, don’t they? 6. She slowly, carefully, deliberately moved the box. 7. She is expected later today. She is not expected to open the conference. 8. She bought eggs, butter, bread and coffee. Vocabulary and Grammar Revised 41. Complete the text with the derivatives formed from the words in the right-hand column. Once upon a time two poor woodcutters were making their way home through a great pineforest. It was winter, and a night of bitter cold. It was 1__________, 2______weather. The rivers lay 3________ under the thick ice. iJ perfect monster, motion So cold it was that even the animals and the birds did not know what to make of it. 213^ “The Earth is going to be married, and this is her 4_____dress,” whispered the Turtle doves to each other. They were quite frost-bitten, but felt that it was their duty to take a 5_______view of the situation. “Nonsense!” growled the Wolf. “I tell you that it is all the fault of the 6____ and if you don’t believe me, I shall eat you.” The Wolf had a 7_______8_______mind, and was never at a loss for a good 9______ “Well, for my own part,” said the Woodpecker, who was a born 10____________ “I don’t care an 11_________theory for 12______s. If a thing is so, it is so, and at bride romance present it is 13.. cold.’ govern thorough, practice argue philosophy atom explain terrible N5 (From “The Star Child" by Oscar Wilde) 42. Read the text and change the words in brackets or form new words on their basis to make the text grammatically and logically correct. Dick lived in Oxford and he had a new girlfriend, Daisy by name. One Sunday they (1. go) for a picnic in the country. When they (2. walk) to a nice place near a river they (3. see) a cow and (4. it) calf. “Look, Daisy,” Dick said, “that cow (5. give) the calf a kiss. Isn’t it (6. wonder)!" 214 “Yes, it is,” Daisy smiled. “(7. they) behaviour is very sweet.” “Doesn’t it make you want to have a kiss too, Daisy?” Dick said (8. look) at (9. she). Daisy (10. think) for a few seconds and then she said, “No, it doesn’t really, Dick. Does it make you want to have one?” “Yes, it does, Daisy,” Dick answered (11. hold) (12. she) hand. “All right, then go and get a kiss,” Daisy said, “and I (13. wait) here. It (14. look) a nice, quiet cow.” 43. Choose the right items in the rows after the text and complete it. Ш A Fish of the World^ ■ (after Terry Jones) Ы A herring once decided to swim right round the world. “I’m tired of the North Sea,” he said, “I want to find out what else there is in the world.” So he swam off south into the deep Atlantic. He swam and he swam and all the time he saw many strange and wonderful fish that he 1.______ before. And he passed by devilfish and sawfish and swordfish and bluefish and blackfish and mudfish and sunfish, and he 2______by the different shapes and sizes and colours. He swam on, into the wide Pacific, and then he turned north and headed up to the cold Siberian Sea, where huge white icebergs 3_______by him like 4_______ ships. And still he swam on and on and into the frozen Arctic Ocean. And on he went, past Greenland and Iceland, and finally he swam home into his own North Sea. All his friends and relations gathered round and 5._____ a great fuss of him. They had a big feast and 6______him the very best food they could find. But the herring just yawned and said: “I’ve swum round the entire world. I have seen everything there is to see, and I have eaten more exotic and wonderful dishes you could possibly imagine.” And he refused to eat anything. 'Игра слов: a man of the world — светский человек; a fish of the world — зд. рыба, не такая, как все, особенная рыба, которая лутешествовала вокруг света. т Then his friends and relations begged him to come home and live with them, but he refused. “Fve been everywhere there is, and that old rock is 7______and small for me.” And he went 8._______ and lived on his own. Eventually, one of the 9______of the herrings swam up to him, and said: ‘‘Listen. If you don’t live with your family, you’ll make them sad. And if you don’t eat, you’ll die.” But the herring said: “I don’t mind. I’ve been everywhere there is to go, and now I know everything there is to know.” The old fish 10._____ his head. ‘‘No one has ever seen everything there is to see,” he said, ‘‘nor known every- thing there is to know. There must be something left.” Well, just then, a fishing-boat came by, and the herring 11______to market that very day. And a man bought the herring and ate it for 12--------And he never knew it had swum around the world, and had seen everything there was to see, and knew everything there was to know. ■ ^ 1. a) never saw b) didn’t see c) had never seen d) has never seen 2. a) was amazing b) was amazed c) amazed d) amazing 3. a) sale b) sole c) sold d) sailed 4. a) strong b) mighty c) forceful d) influential 216 tl f ■ i 5. a) made c) demonstrated 6. a) proposed c) offered 7. a) greatly dull c) unhappily dull 8. a) off c) back 9. a) older c) elder 10. a) nodded c) shook 11. a) caught and took c) had caught and taken 12. a)supper c) the supper b) produced d) did b) suggested d) fed b) dull enough d) too dull b) in d) forward b) oldest d) eldest b) turned d) raised b) was caught and taken d) had been caught and taken b) a supper d) that supper 44. Read the second part of the fairy tale, open the brackets and make the text complete. Ш The Selfish Giant Ш Part II (after Oscar Wilde) So the Spring came but in the garden of the Selfish Giant it was still winter. The birds (not, care)’ to sing in it as there (be)^ no children, and the trees (forget)^ to blossom. The only people who (please)'’ were the Snow and the Frost. “Spring (forget)® this garden,” they cried, “so if it never (come)® we (live)^ here all the year round.” Then they invited the North Wind (stay)® with them, and he (come)®. He (wrap)’® in furs, and he (roar)” all day about the garden, and (blow)’^ the chimney pots down. “I cannot understand why the Spring is so late in coming. I can’t see it (approach)’® my garden,” said the Selfish Giant, as he (sit)’'* at the window and (look)’® out at his cold white garden. But the Spring never У kle (come) Autumn. nor the Summer, nor the One morning the Giant (lie)^^ awake in bed when he (hear)^® some lovely music (play)^®. It sounded so sweet to his ears that he (think)^*^ that the King’s musicians (pass)^^. The Giant (not, hear)^^ such lovely music since he came to his castle. “I believe the Spring (return)^^ at last,” said the Giant. He jumped out of bed and looked out. What he (see)^'*? 45. Choose the right verb forms after the text to make it complete. ■ The Selfish Giant Ш Part III (after Oscar Wilde) In every tree that he could see there was a little child. And the trees were so glad 1_________the children back again that they 2______themselves with blossoms, and 3____________their arms above the children’s heads. The birds 4________about and twittering with delight, and the flowers 5________up through the green grass and laughing. It was a lovely scene, only in one corner it was still winter. In it 6_____a little boy. The poor tree 7_________with frost and snow. “8________up, little boy,” said the tree and it 9-----its branches; but the boy was too tiny. And the Giant’s heart 10_________as he looked out. “How selfish I 11.____!” he said. He was really very sorry for what he 12___________ So he 14___ 13.. _ downstairs. The little boy didn’t see the Giant And the Giant 15______up behind him and 16--------him gently in his hand, and 17_____him up into the tree. And the tree 18______at once into blossom, and the birds came and 19_____ _ on it and the Spring came at last. “It is your garden now, little children,” said the Giant. And when the people 20_______to market at twelve o’clock they 21______the Giant 22_____with the children in the most beautiful garden they ever 23______ 1. a) have c)to have 2. a) covered c) would cover 3. a) waved c) waving b) having d) have had b) have covered d) was covering b) were waving d) had waved 4. а) с) 5. а) с) 6. а) с) 7. а) с) 8. а) с) 9. а) с) 10. а) с) 11. а) с) 12. а) с) 13. а) с) 14. а) с) 15. а) с) 16. а) с) 17. а) с) 18. а) с) 19. а) с) 20. а) с) 21. а) с) 22. а) с) 23. а) с) flying flew were looking looking standing had stood covered was covered to climb climbs bend bent melt has melted had been have been had done did was running will run was coming had come had stolen was stealing took was taking had put put broke would break to sing would sing was going were going see had seen playing was playing have seen had seen b) were flying d) had flown b) looked d) had looked b)stood d) was standing b) was covering d) had covered b) climb d) climbed b) bends d) had bent b) was melting d) melted b) has been d) was b) has done d) would do b) ran d) would run b) came d) coming b) stole d) has stolen b) had taken d) has taken b) would put d) was put b) was breaking d) had broken b)sang d) singing b) went d) go b) seeing d) saw b) to play d) had played b) saw d) see u 46. Express the same in English. 1. Когда я проходил мимо открытого окна, я услышал звуки музыки. Кто-то играл на пианино. Музыка звучала сладко и нежно. 2. Послушай! Бьют часы в столовой. Уже шесть. Смеркается. 3. Когда снова увидишь Питера, передавай ему привет. Я не видел его целую вечность и очень скучаю. 4. Мама не стала бы сердиться, если бы ты не разбил ее любимую чашку. Не стоило тебе ею пользоваться. 5. К пяти часам уроки были уже сделаны, обед приготовлен и дом сиял чистотой. Ребятишки сидели вокруг стола и ждали родителей. 6. Боюсь, что эта одежда не годится для катания на лыжах. Тебе нужен свитер потеплее и пара перчаток. День сегодня достаточно холодный. 7. Если бы я вчера знал ответ на этот вопрос, я бы лучше сдал экзамен. Честно говоря, вчерашний экзамен был самым трудным в моей жизни. 8. Я услышал, как кто-то тихонько постучал в дверь. Кто бы это мог быть? Родители уже вернулись с работы, а гостей мы не ждали. 9. Какое-то время он жил на ферме, где его заставляли кормить овец и ухаживать за коровами. Постепенно он привык к этой работе, и она даже начала ему нравиться. 10. Кто знает, где водятся олени? Вы с легкостью ответите на этот вопрос, если вспомните, как люди используют этих животных. 47. А. Look at the school rules and say what pupils must/mustn't or have to do. Example: Pupils must come to school at least ten minutes before the bell. What is a good pupil of Benton School like? A good Duoil: comes to school at least 10 minutes before the bell; always leaves the jacket in the cloakroom; never misses the morning registration; attends school assemblies on Monday mornings; always wears the uniform; never runs about the building during the breaks; says “Sir” or “Miss” to the teachers politely; never fights with other pupils; helps those who need help; brings sports clothes for PE lessons; never brings to school any objects that may cause danger; always keeps his/her uniform and other clothes tidy; never chews chewing gum in the school building; keeps the school yard tidy. 220 в. Say what Benton School pupils are not allowed to do. Example: Pupils are not allowed to come to school later than ten minutes before the bell. 48. Say what the royalty are spared in comparison with common people and why. Example: The Windsors don’t have to rent a house because they have several residences belonging to the family. 1. The Queen/cook her own meals; 2. Prince Philip/mown the lawns around Windsor Castle; 3. Prince Charles/drive his car; 4. Prince Harry/look after his polo horse; 5. Prince William/shop for food every day; 6. .../save money; 7. .../be thrifty; 8. .../wash the cars; 9. .../stand in queues; 10. .../live in obscurity. 49. A. Use mustn't, needn't, don't have to in the following situations. 1. People who have blood pressure problems ________ forget to take tablets every day. 2. In most countries people _______ pay for secondary education. 3. You _____________________________ worry about the food: I’ll buy everything necessary myself. 4. We _______ take our skates: we can always hire them at the skating rink. 5. Be careful with this medicine, you ____ overdose it. 6. Young people under 18 _______ work but they may do it if they choose to. 7. I believe that we ________ speak badly about other people behind their backs. 8. You _________ wear your warm coat today, the day isn’t so cold as yesterday. 9. You ______ explain anything: I understand you perfectly well. 10. We ______ panic, the ecological situation may change for the better. B. Say what exactly you mustn't, needn't or don't have to do. 50. Match the sentences in the two columns to get a microdialogue. 1. Why is Jenny crying? 2. How could I have spoilt it? What have I done wrong? 3. Why are you angry with me? 4. Why is Ben walking up and down the street? 5. Do you know that Steve is being late? 6. Your friend Andrew has just called to say that he is not coming. a) I’m quite angry with you. You could have sent me a card. b) You could have come a bit earlier to help with the preparation. c) She must have stayed out of doors all the time. d) You should have put less pepper into the stew. U i 7. Where did Alice spend her holidays? 8. How could he possibly break his new camera? 9. Did Peter tell you about his health problems? 10. Doesn’t Margo look nicely suntanned? 11. Aren’t you glad I’m back? 12. Where did John and Mary spend their honeymoon? e) You should have asked them yourself. We are not on speaking terms. f) I’m not sure but he may have lost his key again. g) She must have lost the skiing competition. h) He should have consulted the doctor ages ago. i) He must have caught a cold after all. j) He may have forgotten to read the instructions. k) Really? He could have telephoned to warn me. l) She may have stayed with her cousin in Blackpool. 51. study the topical vocabulary to speak about people and their ways. People, the most wondrous creatures in the world, are often complex characters and far from perfect. At the same time a lot of human features are worthy of respect and admiration. Here are the most common characteristics of people’s personalities. We may be: • affectionate • ambitious • boastful • candid • competitive • considerate • creative • critical • devoted • easy-going • fair-minded • frank • generous • hypocritical • imaginative • impatient • impulsive • insincere • irresponsible • level-headed • loyal • malicious • obstinate • outgoing • petty • possessive • realistic • rebellious • reserved • ruthless • self-centered • self-confident •shy • strong-willed • tender • tolerant • two-faced • uncontrollable • unreliable • unscrupulous • vain • weak-willed According to the circumstances and individual traits of character our behaviour may be: f:’:l • civilized • aggressive • decent • arrogant • determined • brutal • emotional • disappointing • heroic • disgraceful • irreproachable • revolting • logical • ridiculous • moral • scandalous • noble • snobbish • practical • unpredictable • sensible • violent We are not the same at different Circumstances can make us feel: periods of our lives. • thoughtful • sentimental • positive • hopeful • confident • relaxed • ecstatic • light-hearted • sociable • self-satisfied • up in the clouds • triumphant • over the moon • optimistic • on top of the world • enthusiastic • content • cheerful • bewildered • bitter • bored • confused • disappointed • disillusioned • fed up • gloomy • heart-broken • hostile • irritable • lonely • melancholic • miserable • nervous • nostalgic • pensive • restless At the same time there are a lot of things that brighten our lives. The most common of people’s delights are: • a loving family and good friends • an interesting job, an interesting hobby • various arts • the beauty of nature • the ability to travel and see the world • meeting people • good books, films, TV programmes • а comfortable dwelling • the ability to help others • independence • the ability to make one’s own choices And probably the greatest of all delights in most people’s lives is love, the emotion of utmost importance. Here is some of “love” vocabulary. We may: • feel love for someone • be infatuated with someone • be in love with him or her • be smitten with love • adore or worship sb • think the world of sb • dote on sb • hold them dear or care for them • be mad, crazy, nuts or wild about someone {informal) • fall in love with someone • be head over heels in love with a person • have a love affair with someone • have a crush on someone {informal) Love can be: • true, unconditional, unrequited • love at first sight • first love • the first love of your life (= the greatest love of your life) A very important part of our lives consists of socializing. People around us change our lives, make us happy or miserable. Consequently, our attitudes to people are different. We may: • have great respect or affection for sb • be close and enjoy each other’s company • hate the sight of them • envy or fear them • have a grudge against them • have a lot in common • feel sorry for them or sympathize with them • be jealous of someone • keep your distance from someone • be indifferent to someone or detest a certain person • despise or resent someone • not be able to bear or stand someone 224 • Life is not easy, it has a lot of ups and downs. There are a lot of things we have to put up with: • anger • corruption • crime • cynicism • drought • envy • famine • fanaticism • fascism • hard work • infidelity • injustice • intolerance • old age • pollution • racism • religious persecution • sexism • sicknesses • spite • terrorism • unemployment • vandalism • vices • violence • war • xenophobia 52. Use the suitable words of your Topical Vocabulary and say how you would characterize people if they: 1. always try to be more successful than others; 2. make other people suffer; 3. are friendly and enjoy meeting other people and talking to them; 4. are not willing to wait; 5. are inclined to act suddenly, without careful thought; 6. don’t show what they feel and don’t say very much; 7. don’t want to obey somebody, are not willing to change their plans, ideas or behaviour; 8. give people more than is usually expected of them; 9. don’t express their feelings or opinions honestly; 10. claim to have certain moral principles or beliefs but behave in a way that shows that they are not sincere; 11. want fame; 12. in order to be admired are eager to tell other people what they have done or could do. 53. Match the adjectives characterizing people's behaviour with the corresponding definitions. a) extremely bad and shocking b) extremely proud, thinking that other people are less important or worse c) reasonable and practical d) very honest and morally good, impossible to criticize e) doing something to help other people rather than for yourself f) extremely unpleasant, disgusting g) good, behaving towards other people in an honest, fair and nice way h) silly or unreasonable, deserving to be laughed at 8 ~ O. B. Афанасьева, 11 кл. 1. decent О 2. ridiculous О 3. arrogant О 4. unpredictable О 5. disappointing О 6. disgraceful с~,з 7. noble 8. irreproachable О 9. sensible О 10. revolting О О О Ч1 о о i) not as good as you had hoped for or expected ^j) changing often, in a way that is ^ impossible to prepare for О И 54. Think about two or three characters of your favourite works of fiction or films and describe them using the words from your Topical Vocabulary. Say; • what the name of the book/film is • who the author of the book/the film director is • (approximately) when the book was written/the film was made • why you can describe the character you have chosen as such-and-such 55. You have certainly experienced various feelings during your life. Say under what circumstances you felt: 1. disillusioned 6. on top of the world 2. nostalgic 7. restless 3. enthusiastic 8. confused 4. relaxed 9. lonely 5. triumphant 10. fed up Mention: • when it was; • how long you had that feeling; ■ with whom you shared it. 56. A. Say what things, people or their actions can make you feel: • hostile • pensive • melancholic • disappointed • nervous • heart-broken • irritable content over the moon • sentimental confident self-satisfied • ecstatic hopeful B. Say how these feelings usually show. C. Say what kind of people you: • respect and admire • sympathize with • detest, despise or resent keep distance from • feel sorry for • envy, fear or feel jealous of 57. Look through the section of your Topical Vocabulary where the names of people's delights are listed. Put the items in the order of importance significant for you. Explain your choice. 58. Tell the class a real or an imaginable love story. Use the corresponding section of your Topical Vocabulary. 59. Work in pairs and discuss the problem of socializing. The corresponding section of your Topical Vocabulary can help you. Find out: 1. How often your partner meets people who are not his/her classmates; 2. What people they are (their occupations, age, hobbies, habits, etc.); 3. Why your partner meets them and what he feels in their company; 4. How they influence your partner’s lifestyle. 60. From the list of vices given at the end of your Topical Vocabulary choose five which you consider the worst and most difficult to put up with. Explain why you think so. 61. A. Look through ex. 43 and 44, remember the fairy tale "The Selfish Gianf' and say why you think the Giant had been punished describe the changes in the Giant’s garden explain what made the Giant change B. Give your opinion about people's selfishness. Do you think it is possible to be cured of it! What or who in your view can influence selfish men, women and children so that they begin thinking more about others and their problems than about themselves! Can egoizm help people in certain situations! When? 62. Mia Thermopolis is the main character of Meg Cabot's book "The Princess Diaries". Mia is a teenager who lives in New York City at present time. The text below is what she writes about the women she admires. Read the text and say what features of character attract Mia in the women she mentions. ■ The Women I Admire Most in the Whole World ■ by Mia Thermopolis Madonna Madonna Ciccone [tji'kona] revolutionized the fashion world with the iconoclastic sense of style, sometimes offending people who 8* 22 are not very open-minded or have no sense of humour. It was because she wasn’t afraid to make such people mad that Madonna became one of the richest female entertainers in the world, paving the way for women performers everywhere by showing them that it is possible to be sexy on stage and smart off it. Princess Diana Even though she is dead. Princess Diana is one of my favourite women of all time. She, too, revolutionized the fashion world by refusing to wear the ugly old hats that her mother-in-law told her to wear. Also she visited a lot of really sick people, even though nobody made her do it. The night Princess Diana died I unplugged the TV and said I would never watch it again, since media was what killed her. Hillary Rodham Clinton Even though everybody was talking bad about Hillary Clinton all the time for not leaving her husband who was going around having love affairs with people behind her back, she pretended like nothing was going on, and went on running the country, just like she’d always done, which is how a president should have. 228 Joan of Ark Joan of Ark, or Jeanne d’Arc as they say in France, lived in the twelfth century and one day when she was my age, she heard this angel’s voice tell her to take up arms and go help the French army fight against the British, so she cut off her hair and got herself a suit of armour, just like Mulan in the Disney movie, and went and led the French forces to victory in a number of battles. But then, like typical politicians, the French government decided Joan was too powerful, so they accused her of being a witch and burned her to death at the stake. 23.. toed ", Christy Christy is not a real person. She is the fictional heroine of my favourite book of all time, which is called Christy, by Catherine Marshall. Christy is a young girl who goes to teach school in the Smokey Mountains at the turn of the century because she believes she can make a difference, and all these really hot guys fall in love with her. Only I can’t tell anyone that this is my favourite book, because it’s kind of sappy^ and religious, and plus it doesn’t have any spaceships or serial killers in it. Helen ThermoDolis Helen Thermopolis, besides being my mother, is a very talented artist who was recently featured in Art in America magazine as one of the most important painters of the new millennium. But even though she’s such an important artist, my mom always has 'sappy {informal) = silly, foolish {AmE) 229 time for me. I also respect her because she is deeply principled: she says she would never think of inflicting her beliefs on others, and would thank others to pay her the same courtesy. 63. Л. Say if you consider the following characteristics to be important and why. 1. to be original and daring, to pave the way for other people (Madonna); 2. to be kind and charitable, to help people who are in need of help (Princess Diana); 3. to face the hardships of life stoically, to be firm and determined (Hillary Clinton); 4. to be brave and dedicated, to be patriotic (Joan of Arc); 5. to believe that what you do can really make a difference (Christy); 6. to be creative and deeply principled (Helen Thermopolis). B. Speak about people who, in your opinion, manage or managed to demonstrate these qualities. 64. A. Make your own list of people (men and women) whom you admire most. Explain why you admire them. B. In groups work out one list of admirable people consisting of 5—7 personalities. 65. A. Say if you have any role models. Who they are and why and in what way you wish to be like them. B. Discuss the necessity of having a role model. 66. A. Explain what these English proverbs about love mean. Try and find their Russian equivalents. 1. The course of true love never did run smooth. 2. Love is blind. 3. Love laughs at locksmiths. = Love will find a way. = Love conquers all. 4. All is fair in love and war. 5. Love me, love my dog. ■ f ■ Й30] в. Illustrate one of the proverbs above with a short story. 67. Comment on these quotations. 1. Love is an egoism of two (Antoine de La Sale). 2. Love is the business of the idle, but the idleness of the busy\ (E. G. Bulwer-Lytton) 3. Love is the idler’s occupation, the warrior’s relaxation and\ the sovereign’s ruination (Napoleon Bonaparte). 4. No man, at one time, can be wise and love (Robert Herrick). 5. ’Tis better to have loved and lost. Than never to have loved at all (Tennyson). 6. Those who are faithless know the pleasures of love; it is the faithful who knows love’s tragedies (Oscar Wilde). 7. When poverty comes in at the doors, love leaps out at windows (John Clarke). 8. Love reckons hours for months, and days for years; And every little absence is an age (Dryden). Writing 68. Write an argumentative essay on one of the topics given below. Follow the instructions given in Unit Three, ex. 63. Consider at least three arguments "for" and three arguments "againsf'. 1. Poets have written beautiful words about love comparing it with heaven, but a lot of people living on the earth will say that love is hell. 2. There is a well-known proverb Love is blind. With time people have written its continuation and friendship closes its eyes, meaning that real friends never speak about each other’s faults and imperfections, never criticize each other. 3. Philosophers call Man the most admirable being, but it was Man who performed most outrageous and disgusting things on the earth. 4. There is an opinion that Man is by nature a political animal, but various kinds of surveys show that a lot of people don’t think about politics at all and are politically indifferent. They would rather call Man an apolitical creature. U 23 MisGefianeous «9. Listen to the poems (No 20, 21) and say what their messages are. A. The poem you are going to listen to is believed to be a piece of war poetry. The story runs that the poem “Do Not Stand at My Grave and Weep” was left in an envelope for his parents by Steven Cummins, a soldier killed on active service in Northern Ireland, to be opened in the event of his death. It was thought at first that the soldier himself had written it, but then doubts appear. Claims were made for nineteenth-century magazines, but in the end its origins remain a mystery. In some respects this poem became the nation's favourite. Ш Do Not Stand at My Grave and Weep ■ (by an anonymous author) Do not stand at my grave and weep I am not there; I do not sleep. I am a thousand winds that blow, I am the diamond glints on snow, I am the sun on ripened grain, I am the gentle autumn rain. When you awaken in the morning’s hush I am the swift uplifting rush Of quiet birds in circled flight. I am the soft stars that shine at night. Do not stand at my grave and cry, I am not there; I did not die. B. The second piece for listening is the famous extract from “Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare, where Juliet speaks of her love for Romeo. О Romeo, Romeol wherefore art^ thou^ Romeo? Deny thy^ father and refuse thy name; Or, if thou wilt not^, be but sworn my love. And I’ll no longer be a Capulet. art = are ^thou [баи] = you ^thy [dai] = your ‘'wilt not [wilt'not] = won't ’Tis^ but thy name that is my enemy; Thou art thyself^, though not a Montague. What’s Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O, be some other name! What’s in a name? that which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call’d. Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name. And for that name which is no part of thee^ Take all myself. 70. Translate the text into Russian. Try to preserve the original style of the author. Then the snow came, and after the snow came the frost. The streets looked as if they were made of silver, they were so bright and glistening, everybody went about in furs, and the little boys wore scarlet caps and skated on the ice. The poor little Swallow grew colder and colder, but he would not leave the Prince, he loved him too well. He picked up crumbs outside the baker’s door when the baker was not looking and tried to keep himself warm by flapping his wings. But at last he knew that he was going to die. He had just strength to fly up to the Prince’s shoulder once more. “Good-bye, dear Prince!” he murmured. “I am glad that you are going to Egypt at last, little Swallow,” said the Prince, “you have stayed too long here.” “It is not to Egypt that I am going,” said the Swallow. “I am going to the House of Death. Death is the brother of Sleep, is he not?” And he kissed the Happy Prince on the lips, and fell down dead at his feet. At that moment a curious crack sounded inside the statue, as if something had broken. The fact is that the Prince’s leaden heart had snapped right in two. It certainly was a dreadfully hard frost. Early the next morning the Mayor was walking in the square below in company with the Town Councillors. As they passed the ’'Tis = It is ^thyself [6ai'selQ = yourself ^thee = you 233 column he looked up at the statue: “Dear me! How shabby the Happy Prince looks!” he said. “The ruby has fallen out of his sword, his eyes are gone, and he is golden no longer,” said the Mayor; “in fact, he is little better than a beggar! And here is actually a dead bird at his feet!” continued the Mayor. “We must really issue a proclamation that birds are not to be allowed to die here.” So they pulled down the statue of the Happy Prince. “As he is no longer beautiful he is no longer useful,” said the Art Professor at the University. Then they melted the statue in a furnace, and the Mayor held a meeting to decide what was to be done with the metal. “We must have another statue, of course,” he said, “and it shall be a statue of myself.” “Of myself,” said each of the Town Councillors, and they quarrelled. When I last heard of them they were quarrelling still. The broken lead heart would not melt in the furnace and was thrown away. They threw it on a dust-heap where the dead Swallow was also lying. “Bring me the two most precious things in the city,” said God to one of His Angels; and the Angel brought Him the leaden heart and the dead bird. “You have rightly chosen,” said God. (shortened from “The Happy Prince” by Oscar Wilde) Ш34 Think what information you would send to the aliens from some distant star to show them what Man is. Present this information to the class on 1—2 sheets of paper and explain why you have chosen it. adj — adjective — прилагательное n — noun — существительное pi — plural — множественное число sb — somebody — кто-либо sth — something — что-либо V — verb — глагол Unit One. Sounds of Music adoption [a'dopjan] — заимствование, принятие adoption of old forms — заимствование старых форм asymmetric [,eisi'melrik] — асимметричный avant-garde [,aeva:i}'ga:d] — 1) n авангардисты; 2) adj авангардистский band [bamd] — оркестр jazz band — джазовый оркестр brass band — духовой оркестр banjo ['Ьаепфзо] — банджо bass [bcis] — бас bassoon [b3'su:n] — фагот brass [bruis] — 1) n медь; 2) adj медный cantata [кжпЧанз] — кантата catchy I'kaetfi] — запоминающийся, прилипчивый a catcliy melody — прилипчивая мелодия cello [Ч)е1эп] — виолончель chorister ['knrisln) — хорист clarinet [,klsen'nct] — кларнет complex ['konipleks] — adj сложный composer [кэт'рэи/.э] — композитор concerto [ksn'tletmi] — n концерт {музы кал иное произведение) conductor [ksn'dAkta] — дирижер cymbal ['simbsl] — тарелка {музыкальный инструмент) daring ['deanо] — 1) n отвага; 2) adj отважный, дерзкий divine [di'vain] — божественный, дивный dramatic [dra'mahikl — 1) драматический, театральный; 2) драматичный, поразительный drum [drAin] — барабан brass drum — большой барабан duet [djirot] — дуэт ensemble [nn'snmbl] — ансамбль expressive [ik'spresiv] — экспрессивный, выразительный flute [flu:t] — флейта guitar [gi'ta;] — гитара harmonic [hai'mnnik] — гармонический harp [ha:p] — ap приобретать; 2) п приобретение to gain sth by doing sth — приобрести что-либо, делая что-либо giggle ['gigl] — хихикать gleam [gli:m] — блестеть, поблескивать glisten ['glisn] — сверкать, сверкнуть gloom [glu:m] — 1) мрак, тьма; 2) мрачность, уныние gloomy ['glu:mi] — мрачный glow [glau] — 1) о светиться, пылать; 2) п жар, зарево to glow with happiness — светиться от счастья gossip ['gnsip] — 1) u сплетничать; 2) n сплетник; 3) uncount, сплетни to gossip about or over someone or sth — сплетничать о ком-либо или о чем-либо grief-stricken ['gri:f,strilon] — убитый горем grin [grin] — усмехаться, скалить зубы grumble ['дглтЫ] — 1) ворчать; 2) жаловаться; 3) п ворчание to grumble about/at sth or sb — жаловаться на что-либо или кого-либо guffaw [ga'fo:] — громко хохотать Н high [hai] — высокий hit [hit] (hit, hit) — ударять to hit sth on sth — удариться чем-либо обо что-либо to hit sb on the face — ударить кого-либо по лицу to hit sb with a stick — ударить кого-либо палкой 248 to hit back — ответить критикой на критику, дать сдачи to hit on/upon — додуматься до чего-либо, случайно на что-либо наткнуться to hit out — наброситься на что-либо (кого-либо), раскритиковать to hit (up) for sth — просить что-либо (чаще деньги) 1 ignoramus [,igna'reim9s] — (literary) невежда ignorance ['ignsrans] — невежество ignorance of sth — неведение чего-либо to admit/confess one’s ignorance — сознаться в собственном невежестве to be/live in ignorance — быть/ жить в неведении ignorant [hgnsrant] — невежественный, неосведомленный incident ['insidant] — случай incidentally [,insi'dentli] — случайно indignant [in'dignant] — возмущенный, негодующий to be indignant over/at sth — негодовать no поводу чего-либо indignation [,indig'neirn] — возмущение, негодование insult [in'sAlt] — 1) i? оскорблять; 2) [hnsAlt] n оскорбление to be an insult to sb — быть оскорбительным для кого-либо insulting [m'sAllir)] — оскорбительный irresistible [,m'zist9bl] — неотразимый К kind [kaind] — добрый kindly ['kamdii] — 1) adj добродушный; 2) adu добродушно, по-доброму labour [Meibs] — (formal) труд, чаще тяжелый физический труд lean [li:n] (leaned or lent) — 1) v склоняться; 2) прислоняться, опереться; 3) n наклон, уклон to lean over one’s shoulder — заглядывать через плечо to lean against a tree — прислониться к дереву to lean on a cane — опираться на трость leaning(s) [Mi:nio(z)] — склонность, пристрастие linger ['кодэ] — задерживаться, медлить, мешкать to linger over sth — засидеться за чем-либо to linger in the mind or the memory — остаться в памяти to linger on — задержаться, сохраниться lofty ['Infti] — (mainly literary) высокий, возвышенный long [Ing] — сильно хотеть, жаждать чего-либо, тосковать (по прошлому) М main [mein] — главный, основной the main character — главный герой the main building — главное здание the main purpose — основная цель the main entrance — главный, центральный вход march [maitj] — маршировать, ходить строевым шагом meditate ['mediteil] — размышлять to meditate on/upon sth — размышлять о чем-либо 249 miserable ['mizarabl] — жалкий, несчастный misery ['miz(9)n] — страдание, мучение to live in misery — жить в страданиях mount [maunt] — 1) u взбираться, подниматься; 2) накапливаться; 3) сесть верхом; 4) п гора (в названиях) to mount the hill — взобраться на холм Mount Everest — гора Эверест muse [mju:z] — 1) u раздумывать; 2) n муза to muse on/upon/about/over sth — раздумывать о чем-либо mutter ['тл1э] — 1) у бормотать; 2) п бормотание to mutter to yourself — бормотать себе под нос to mutter sth about sb/sth — пробормотать что-либо о ком-ли-бо/чем-либо N пар [паер] — короткий сон to take а пар — вздремнуть nonsense ['m)ns(9)ns] — бессмыслица, чепуха to talk nonsense — говорить чепуху not to stand/put up with (any) nonsense — не потерпеть никаких глупостей О ordeal [9:'di:l] — мучение, страдание panic-stricken ['paenik,strik9n] — охваченный паникой ponder ['pnnd9] — {formal) взвешивать, обдумывать до принятия решения to ponder on/upon sth — обдумывать что-либо poverty-stricken ['pDV9ti,strik9n] — живущий в нищете prick [prik] — 1) у уколоть; 2) п шип, колючка to prick (up) one’s ears — навострить уши prone [pr9un] — 1) имеющий склонность; 2) подверженный to be prone to sth — иметь склонность к чему-либо prudence ['pru;d(9)ns] — осторожность, осмотрительность, благоразумие prudent ['pru;d(9)nt] — осмотрительный, осторожный, благоразумный R rattle ['raetl] — 1) у греметь, трещать, дребезжать; 2) п грохот, треск; 3) погремушка to rattle on/away — говорить, трещать без умолку receive [n'si;v] — {formal) получать reflect [ri'llekl] — задуматься, размышлять (тщательно и серьезно) to reflect on/upon sth — размышлять о чем-либо remark [ri'ma:k] — замечать, высказываться remarkable [п'тшкэЫ] — замечательный, удивительный resist [rt'zist] — сопротивляться to resist (the) temptation — противиться соблазну, устоять перед соблазном resistance [ri'zistans] — сопротивление 250 resistant [n'zistant] — оказывающий сопротивление, неприемлющий roar [п>:] — 1) и рычать, грохотать, греметь; 2) п рык, рычание, грохот to roar with pain — кричать от боли to roar with laughter — покатываться со смеху roaring ['гэ:по] — грохочущий S shimmer ['/пт>э] — мерцать shine [fain] — светить(ся) shuffle ['JXfl] — идти медленно, шаркающей походкой sink [siok] — 1) тонуть (о предме-max); 2) опускаться to sink back — откинуться {на спинку стула, кресла и т. д.) to sink down into sth — опуститься на что-либо to sink in — проникать, доходить to sink to — опуститься до {какого либо неблаговидного поступка) skinny ['skini] — очень худой, кожа да кости slender ['slenda] — тонкий, стройный slumber f'slAmba] — {literary) сон smirk [sm3:k] — ухмыляться sob [sob] — рыдать (плакать долго, всхлипывая) spare [spea] — уделять, тратить, одалживать to spare neither money nor expense — не жалеть ни сил, ни денег to spare sb’s feelings — (по)ща-дить чьи-либо чувства to spare sb sth/spare sb from sth — избавить кого-либо от чего-либо to spare sb’s life — пощадить чью-либо жизнь spare [spea] — adj запасной, дополнительный, свободный stagger ['staega] — идти нетвердой походкой, пошатываясь stride [straid] (strode, stridden) — идти быстро, размашистой походкой strike [straik] — 1) u (struck, struck) ударять; 2) бастовать; 3) n забастовка to be on strike — бастовать to strike for sth — бастовать c целью добиться чего-либо to be struck by the idea — прийти в голову (о мысли) It struck me. — Мне пришло в голову (Меня осенило), striking ['slraikig] — поразительный stroll [slraul] — неторопливо прохаживаться swagger ['swgega] — идти, расхаживать с важным видом swear [swea] (swore, sworn) — 1) браниться; 2) клясться to swear at sb — ругать, бранить кого-либо to swear to sb — поклясться кому-либо to swear to sth — поклясться в чем-либо swearing ['swearig] — брань sympathetic [,simp3'0etik] — сочувствующий to be sympathetic to someone or sth — сочувствовать кому-либо или чему-либо to have a sympathetic ear — быть готовым выслушать чужие проблемы sympathize ['simpaGaizJ — сочувствовать sympathy ['simpaGi] — сочувствие to have sympathy for someone — выражать сочувствие кому-либо to have sympathy with one’s ideas — сочувствовать чьим-либо идеям to be out of sympathy with sb or sth — не испытывать сочувствия к кому-либо to be in sympathy with sb or sth — испытывать сочувствие к кому-либо tall [tD:l] — высокий (о людях и предметах) tear [tea] (tore, torn) — разрывать, рвать to tear apart — разрывать на части to be torn between — рваться между to tear down — сносить to tear off — 1) сносить; 2) (вы)бе- жать стремглав to tear up — разрывать в клочья terror-stricken ['tera,strikan] — охваченный ужасом toil [tail] — тяжкий труд trifle ['trail!] — относиться несерьезно to trifle with sb — играть на чувствах кого-либо trudge [trAcfe] — медленно плестись, тащиться tutor ['tju:t9] — 1) V {formal) обучать кого-либо; 2) п преподаватель вуза, колледжа tutorial [tju;'ta:ri3l] — занятие в небольшой группе twinkle ['twiQkl] — мерцать V vague [veig] — смутный, непонятный, неопределенный, уклончивый W walk [work] — идти пешком wander ['wondo] — бродить (бесцельно) weep [wirp] — {formal) плакать (обычно долго и беззвучно) wish [wij] — сильно хотеть, желать чего-либо yearn [)з:п] — {literary) хотеть чего-либо невозможного или труднодостижимого 252 UNIT ONE. Sounds of Music ................................... 3 Listening Comprehension....................................... 5 Reading ...................................................... 8 Use of English............................................... 19 New Vocabulary............................................ New Grammar............................................... 29 Vocabulary and Grammar Revised ........................... 35 Writing ..................................................... 55 Miscellaneous................................................ 56 Project Work................................................. 58 UNIT TWO. Town and Its Architecture ......................... 59 Listening Comprehension...................................... 67 Reading ..................................................... 71 Use of English............................................... 82 New Vocabulary............................................ New Grammar............................................... 92 Vocabulary and Grammar Revised ...........................102 Writing .....................................................120 Miscellaneous................................................122 Project Work.................................................124 UNIT THREE. Wonders of the World .......................125 Listening Comprehension......................................129 Reading .....................................................131 Use of English...............................................143 New Vocabulary............................................. — New Grammar...............................................153 Vocabulary and Grammar Revised ...........................160 Writing .....................................................177 Miscellaneous................................................. — Project Work.................................................180 253 UNIT FOUR. Man As the Greatest Wonder of the World.........181 Listening Comprehension.....................................184 Reading ....................................................186 Use of English..............................................197 New Vocabulary............................................ — New Grammar...............................................207 Vocabulary and Grammar Revised ...........................213 Writing ....................................................231 Miscellaneous..............................................232 Project Work...............................................234 Topical Vocabulary.........................................235 EngUsh-Russian Vocabulary..................................246 Учебное издание Афанасьева Ольга Васильевна Михеева Ирина Владимировна АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК XI класс Учебник для школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев и гимназий Профильный уровень Центр германских языков Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова Зам. руководителя Н. И. Максименко Редактор Ю. А. Смирнов Художественный редактор Н.В.Дождёва Дизайн макета К. В. Парцевскои Художники С. В. Трубецкая, Н.В.Дождёва Техническое редактирование и компьютерная верстка С. В. Китаевой Корректоры З.Ф. Юрескул, Н.Д.Цухаи Оператор О. Ю. Любезнова Налоговая льгота — Общерюссийский классификатор продукции ОК 005-93-953000. Изд. лиц. Серия ИД № 05824 от 12.09.01. Подпистно в печать 27.05.08. Формат 70Х 90 Vi«* Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура SchoolBook. Печать офсетная. Уч.-изд. л. 15,95. Тираж 20 000 экз. Заказ № 20436 (o-r*i. Открытое акционерное общество «Издательство «Просвещение». 127521, Москва, 3-й проезд Марьиной рощи, 41. Открытое акционерное общество «Смоленский полиграфический комбинат». 214020, г. Смоленск, ул. Смольянинова, 1. s iTU BOOH Учебно-методический комплект по английскому языку для XI класса школ с углубленным изучением английского языка авторов О. В. Афанасьевой и И. В. Михеевой является продолжением учебной серии для II-X классов, созданной авторскими коллективами под руководством И. Н. Верещагиной и О. В. Афанасьевой. В состав УМК входят: • учебник • рабочая тетрадь • книга для чтения • книга для учителя • аудиокассеты Учебно-методический комплект: • готовит учащихся к сдаче ЕГЭ по всем видам речевой деятельности; • содержит тексты и задания, соответствующие возрасту и интересам старшеклассников и затрагивающие современные проблемы; • основывается на коммуникативно-когнитивном подходе к обучению иностранным языкам; • формирует умения ведения дискуссии, участия в дебатах. ISBN 978-5-09-016617-1 785090 ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО