Английский язык Учебник 7 класс Кузовлев Лапа Перегудова

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Российская академия наук Российская академия образования Издательство «Просвещение» Академический школьный учебник Условные обозначения и сокращения Гч говорение ЕЯ — слушание Ш — чтение EL — письменное задание — домашнее задание Q — задание повышенной трудности Д — дополнительное задание # — дополнительная информация в сети Интернет the Old World* — см. лингвостраноеедческий справочник (LCG) LCG — Linguistic and Cultural Guide AB — Activity Book R — Reader I Российская академия наук Российская академия образования Издательство «Просвещение» Академический школьный учебник глиисжии язык 7 класс Учебник для общеобразовательных учреждений Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки Российской Федерации 11-е издание, переработанное Москва «ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЕ» 2011 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2Англ*922 А64 Серия «Академический школьный учебник» основана в 2005 году. На учебник получены положительные заключения Российской академии наук (№ 10106-5215/15 от 31.10.2007 г.) и Российской академии образования (№ 01-487/5/7д от 24.10.2007 г.). Проект «Российская академия наук. Российская академия образования, издательство «Просвещением* — российской школен Руководители проекта: вице-президент РАН акад. В. В. Козлов, президент РАО акад. Н.Д.Никандров, управляющий директор издательства «Просвещение» чл.-корр. в АО А. М. Кондаков Научные редакторы серии: акад. РАО, д-р пед. наук А. А. Кузнецов, акад. РАО, д-р пед. наук М. Б. Рыжаков, д-р экон. наук С. В. Сидоренко Научный консультант авторского коллектива акад. РАО, д-р пси-хол. наук n.A.3uMHsui Авторы: В. П. Кузовлев, Н, М. Лапа, Э. ПТ. Перегудова, И. П. Костина, О. В. Дуванова, Ю. Н. Кобец Научный руководитель авторского коллектива проф. Е. И. Пассов Английский язык. 7 класс : учеб, для общеобразоват. учреждений / А64 [В. П. Кузовлев, Н. М. Лапа, Э. Ш. Перегудова и др.] ; Рос. акад. наук, Рос. акад, образования, изд-во «Просвещение». — 11-е изд,, пере-раб. — М. : Просвещение, 2011. — 252 с. : ил. — (Академический школьный учебник). — ISBN 978-5-09-019529-4. ISBN 978-5-09-019529-4 УДК 373.167.1:811.111 ББК 81.2АЛГЛ-922 © Издательство «Просвещение», 2010 © Художественное оформление. Издательство «Просвещение», 2010 Все права защищены (31? [email protected][}D®®D‘? i • f--f Lesson ■ S'* How did you spend ^^your h&lidays? ■ 1. Itafiii Mandy, John and Robert are talking about their summer holidays. Where did the children spend their holidays? (iistening for specific information) 2. S Mandy wrote to her friend about her summer holidays. 1) What were her impressions? Dear Helen, ^ I had a great time on holiday. In July my fomily and ( were near Snowdon,* we were woJking up the mountain from morning till lunch, it wos not eosy, but it was exciting! Last week we went sightseeing to York.* we went to an old costle. They say there are ghosts in the castle but we didn't see any. My friend had been there before, and she hadn't seen them either, in August the weather was fine. I went sunbathing and swam a lot! i took many fantastic photos. Tl) send you some. I am looking forward to' seeing you again,^ Mandy mm 2) In the letter, find the verbs in the past tense forms and name them. for revision Describing past actions On Sunday we went to an old castle. We were swimming for 2 hours. My friend had visited this museum before. I Past Simple Past Progressive Past Perfect GS (Grammar Support) p. 197—198 ' to look forward to + N/Ving — c нетерпением ожидать чего-л. ^ again [э'деп] — снова, опять Unit 1 Lesson 1 3. Robert had a lot of fun in the camp. Here are some camp activities. m What did Robert and his friends do on Monday? What do you think? I think Robert was playing darts from 6 till 7 in the evening. I think Robert ... I think Robert’s friends ... ‘7Н'<ш<Сещ f /-12 a.Hc. S(f04*KHU*t<^ 4. John spent his summer holidays in the Lake District.* ^ WWW,(akedistrict.gov.uk mm 1) How did John and his family spend their time in the Lake District? S~6 6- 7 2-9 *7*V, (^ideo. dcutta^ '■ е£е(й^ ^аиЫ you Like tiie Lxke- Vist^ctl | Take an Adventure Holiday this yearl Activities: windsurfing^ sunbathing, sightseeing, fishing, climbing, swimming and walking. I think John went wind^irfing and his father fished there. WORD ? втльхчИа Compound words sight + seeing = sightseeing wind + surfing = windsurfing sun + bathing = sunbathing sea + side = seaside Б& П 2) What did John write to his friend about his holidays? (AB ex. 1) Unit 1 Lesson 1 5. How did you spend your summer holidays? 1) Pair work. Talk about your summer holidays. Read Learning to learn note No 2. — Where did you spend your holidays? — I ... in a summer camp in town in the countryside by the seaside MY SUMMER HOLIDAYS — What did you do there? — I ... read books ... took part in ... went sunbathing ... helped my grandparents ... travelled to ... went sightseeing ... — Did you like your holidays? — I had a great time! I ... The holidays were boring because ... It was very interesting when I ... I’ll never forget the holidays because ... 2} What will you tell your foreign friend about your summer holidays? u 3) Discuss who had the most interesting holidays. G> Activity book ex. 2. Reader ex. 1. 8 Unit 1 Lesson 1 if" ■ 4 ~l Lesson» Ж Are hback S’'' to I school? rj-—.- .^,st»TTi=F55T™fl?7ram 1, In September British pupils go back to school after the summer holidays. Ш Щ 1) The school reporter asks Mandy, Robert and John the question "Are you glad to be back to school?". What are the children’s answers? Reporter: Are you glad to be back to school? John: I’m looking forward to school. I’ll have my favourite subjects again. Mandy: Of course, I am. ГИ meet my friends. Robert: Oh, no! I’m a bit nervous about tests in Maths! They are difficult! В 2) The reporter is going to write an article about the first day of school. Look through his notes and match the name and the words. John says that Mandy says that Robert says that he is a bit nervotis about tests in Maths, he is looking forward to school. she is glad to be back to school because she will meet her friends. В 3) Compare the original words of the children and the reporter’s words. What changes are there in the reporter’s words? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. in focus Reported speech: ‘that’-clauses Косвенная речь: дополнительные придаточные предложения Когда мы передаём то, что кто-то говорит, мы используем глагол to say и дополнительное придаточное предложение с союзом that, в котором личные и притяжательные местоимения прямой речи заменяются по смыслу. John: “/ am looking forward to school.” (прямая речь) John says that he is looking forward to school, (косвенная речь) Джон говорит, что он с нетерпением ожидает занятий в школе. GS р. 204 __Unit 1 Lesson 2 т 2. John's classmates are sharing their opinions about the first day of school, i 1) Report what the children say. ч********’'*******'**...................*»<*i***l^ * Tom says that he is starting a new school. * - He worries that he won’t have friends here. ■ Torn: I’m starting a new school. I worry that I won’t have friends here. Sarah: We had long summer holidays. I’m glad that we start learning new things. Susan: I’m looking forward to seeing our form teacher Mrs Langridge.* I’m happy that she’ll teach us this year. David: I don’t like going back to school. It’s sad that the holidays are over. Bryan: There агчз a lot of clubs at our school. I hope that we’ll have different competitions this year. S 2) What are the children’s feelings on the first day of school? Choose the words from the box to report their feelings. bcus Reported speech; 4hat’-clauses Для того чтобы передать в косвенной речи то, что люди думают, чувствуют, используются глаголы to think, to hope, to worry, to be upset, to be glad и др. Lucy: Ugh! We must wear that uniform again! Lucy is upset that they must wear uniforms again. Люси: У! Опять мы должны будем носить эту форму! Люси расстроена, что они опять должны носить форму.___G5 р 204 * Susan worries that they’ll have a lot of tests. Sometimes they are very difficult. is glad • is upset • is happy • worries hopes • thinks )L a lot of tests = lots of tests I Susan: ОЫ We’ll have a lot of tests. Sometimes they are very difficult. Dan: I’ll take part in different activities. There are lots of interesting activities at school. Linda: Most of the school subjects are great! We do a lot of interesting projects! Jane: We’ll have discos this year! I'll play in the school band again. 10 Unit 1 Lesson 2 Robert: I have no friends here. I’m a new pupil at this school. Jenny: This year is going to be hard. We’ll have a lot of tests in different subjects. Chris: The holidays are over. And I have to get up early again. 3. Pair work. Are you glad to be back to school? ^ 1) Share your feelings with your partner. I’m glad to be back to school. C It’s sad that the holidays are over. It’s good and bad to be back to school. I’m looking forward to I hope that ... I worry that ... 2) Report what your partner has told you. ... says that .. ... is glad that ... worries that Activity book ex, 1. NEXT LESSON IS A READING LESSON, l {Reader ex. 2) Unit 1 11 Lesson 2 рЛ ^ Lesson' ^ 11* What's your, avourite subject? 1. Vocabulary. John and Mandy go to Hazel Grove High School.* They are in Year 7, § ^ 1) Here is the timetable for Year 7. What does every day at school begin with? Л 8.45- 9.00 9.00- 10.00 10.00- 11.00 11.20- 12.20 13.10- 14.15 14.15- 15.15 MONDAY -K >« £1 Geography Maths ICT* Design and Technology* Science* TUESDAY E 0) СЛ CO Maths English ■ Art* Ш S History French WEDNESDAY < ' c о Maths PE* < LU (£. English I- О - Design and Technology* Music THURSDAY cc -I-* w Science* Maths ^ CD PE* Z) —I Religious Education* Science* FRIDAY D) Ш DC ICT* French Maths Geography I Drama Ip rq 2) What subjects do the children study in Year 7? ^ 3) Which subjects do (don’t) you study in the 7th form? IfflU 4) What day of the week is Mandy speaking about? Why doesn’t she like this day? (listening for detail) 12 Unit 1 Lesson 3 2. 03 Vocabulary. John is speaking about his timetable and subjects. О 1) What does John like? What doesn’t he like? Why? Use the word box to learn the meaning of the highlighted words. Our school day starts with registration. Every morning we also have assembly. I’m not sure that we should have assembly every day. I think that assembly is a waste of time and I can do without it. My favourite subjects are Biology, Chemistry and Physics. At these lessons we discover new things. It’s very interesting. I like Maths, too. Our teacher Mr Kernel is very kind and he helps us when we have problems. I always look forward to his lessons. But I don’t like French. I hate learning word.s and poems by heart. ё a waste of time — бесполезная трата времени to do without “ обходиться без чего-л. to discover — узнавать, открывать by heart [ha:t] — наизусть Words to ^ guess Biology [bai'obd^i] — ? Chemistry ['kemistri] — ? Physics [’fiziks] — ? 2) What will you tell John about your timetable and subjects? Use John’s story for help. Б) 3) Report what Mandy and Robert say about their timetable. Compare your timetable with the timetable at Hazel Grove High School, (listening for detail) ' Mandy: We have registration at 8.45 a.m. every day. • You: Mandy says that they have registration at 8.45 a.m. every day. But we * don’t have registration at my school. Unit 1 13 ^ Lesson 3 3. Mandy and Robert are discussing different subjects. Щ 1) What do they think about them? Complete their opinions with suitable arguments. ... there’s a lot of homework in it. ... we do interesting projects. That's exciting. My favourite subject is Maths because ... I like Science very much because ... I don’t think Geography is a waste of time because ... French isn’t interesting, ... I think PE is very useful because ... I hate Maths because ... Biology is boring and ... Chemistry is very interesting because ... at the lessons we discover new things. ... we have a lot of tests. I hate tests. ... it is very difficult. ... I think I can do without it, ... we do different exercises and play games. ... we learn by heart a lot. That’s boring. ... the teacher is nice and the lessons are interesting and fun. 2) What’s your opinion about the subjects you study? Why do (don’t) you like them? 4. Гз What’s your favourite subject? Why? 5. ^ All about me. Му timetable and favourite subject(s). (AB No 1) Reader ex. 4. J 14 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Lesson ув sciumi. you? 1. Children have different feelings about school. В 1) What do you think of when you talk about school? Write three things you like and don’t like about school. РИ 2) Listen to three children speaking about school. Do they speak about the things you have written about school? (listening for specific inforntation) 2. Mary, Mike, and William are sharing their opinions about school. 1) What do the children like about school? What don’t they like about school? Mary; Our school is not the best, but 1 like it. I’m good at a lot of subjects. My parents are happy that I get A’s and B’s.* I think that school is very important because we must learn to get a good job. As for me, I like discovering new things. I’ve got three favourite subjects. They are Science, ICT, and History. Most of my teachers are nice, some are strict but fadr. Everything is good at my school. But I think there should be more field trips* and outings to go on. Mike: I don’t like school very much. I have some problems with Maths. I’m always nervous when we have a test. Besides I hate homework. I think that everything is boring at school and school is a waste of time. I can get information from books, TV, and my computer! But I can’t do without my friends. I’m glad that I mix with’ them every day at school. Alex: I live in the country and I go to the little village school. We are all together — boys and girls of all ages. We are one big happy family because we all get on! The teachers are very good and they make learning interesting and fun. Besides, there are lots of after-school activities for children with different interests. I play in the school band. It’s very interesting! I am glad that I go to my little village school. to mix with — общаться c Unit 1 15 Lesson 4 S 2) Are the following statements true or false? Prove it from the texts. • Mary likes going to school because she likes discovering new things. • Mary likes school because they have really friendly teachers. • Mary is glad that they don’t go on field trips and outings at her school. • Mike doesn’t like school because he is not good at Maths. • Mike is bored at school and prefers reading books and watching TV. • Mike thinks that the best thing about school is that he can meet his friends there. • Alex worries that there are bullies and fights at his school. • Alex likes his school because he can take part in different activities at school. Dq 3) What’s your opinion about the things that Mary, Mike, and Alex speak about? — Mary says that everything is good at school. 1 think there are many good things about school, but I don’t tike some things: much homework, many tests ... — Mike thinks that everything is boring at school. I don’t agree. School is interesting and fun. 3. ^ Do you love school? Why? Why not? Give your comments. Read Learning to learn note No 3. Oh, school is the best thing the world! I think, there are good and bad things about school. I like (that) ... I can’t do without ... Besides, ... But I don’t like (that) ... I hate (that) ... School is (not) important because ... 4. Which opinion do (don’t) you share? Why? X ‘When I’m at home, I am looking forward to school. I think it’s great!’ ........................... ...,.. ...1^ 5. Activity book ex. 1. 16 Unit 1 Lesson 4 ^ Leison ( ах а тест? геп Н и V ■■■• щ ^.Ы 1-5- -*■ X, Оп exchange programmes, children from different countries often talk about school. 61 ^ What are the children talking about? What countries are they from? What do you think? (listening for the main idea) 2. S Phil and Mary are talking about school life. - ‘ ' 1) Use the word box and find in the dialogues how they: * • say they don’t understand something; • ask about meaning. — What are your marks at school? — I g'et fours and fives. — Fours and fives? What do they mean? Are you a good pupil? — Yes, I am. 4 means good and 5 means excellent. ^ — Oh, well done! But in my culture they mean В and A. • • • — What form are you in? — I’m in the third form. — Really? How old are you? — Thirteen. — I’m thirteen, too. But I’m in the seventh form, Sorry, I don’t quite understand. — Well, at most English schools forms start only at the secondary school, at the age of eleven. Si., — .b,' :»kL ' h И - w EB S 2) What are some other ways of saying you don’t understand ‘ . and asking about meaning? SAYING YOU DON’T UNDERSTAND ^ I’m sorry, but I have a question. Извини(те), у меня вопрос. Sorry, I don’t quite understand. Извини(те), мне не совсем понятно. I didn’t (quite) get you. Я не (совсем) понял вас. ASKING ABOUT MEANING What do you mean? Что вы имеете в виду? What do you mean by A’s? Что вы имеете в виду, говоря “A’s”? Сап you explain what you mean by assembly, please? Объясните, пожалуйста, что вы имеете в виду, говоря “assembly". ^ excellent ['eksslant] — отлично Unit 1 17 1 Lesson 5 Г Ш 3) Replace the highlighted expressions in the dialogues with those that fit from the word box. Act out the dialogues. 3. S ^ RoIg play. You are talking to your foreign friend about your school and schools in your country. Read Learning to learn note No 4. Л Pupil card 1 I Pupil card 2 Kir I I You are talking to your foreign friend about your school and schools in your country. You begin the conversation. Give some information about your school or schools in your country. Explain to your Russian friend what you mean. — I’m in Form 3W* — Many schools in the USA have summer classes.* — I go to Manchester Grammar School.* — All the pupils at our school have their own lockers.* — At 9 I go to a Sunday school.* — I get to school by a school bus.* — I'm a freshman.* — We are on a half-term.* — At the end of the term our school sends a report card* to parents. You are talking to your foreign friend about your school and schools in your country. Listen to your foreign friend. Tell your friend that you don’t understand what he/she says and ask about the meaning. m ■................................-f 4, Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 5. 18 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Lesson What Ш a pr'ogressive school llhef 1. S Jig-saw- l'Cadin^'1VI35^’'sclTOOls1n Britain are traditional, but there are progressive schools, too. Read Learning to learn note No 5. 1) In home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) and do the task. A S Si Summerhill is a famous progressive school. Read the text and vwite out the facts that show how different SunnmerhitI is from traditional schools. Summerhill is a boarding school' in Suffolk, England. A. S. Neill* opened this school in 1921. There are only eighty pupils, aged from five to eighteen. The children have classes usually according to^ their age, sometimes according to their interests. Every week the pupils and the teachers have a meeting^ where they make and change their rules. There is a timetable — but for the teachers. The pupils can go to the lessons or play, or spend their time in the art room. Children from other countries can study at Summerhill. Parents pay for the teaching. It costs about £6,000 a year. Summerhill is a progressive boarding school. First, ... Second, ... Besides ... More than that ... ' a boarding ['baidii}] school — школа-интернат ^ according to [э'кэ;6|г) ta] — в соответствии с ^a meeting — собрание Unit 1 Lesson 6 в @ S All schools have rules for pupils. Read some school rules. Write how pupils must behave at school. School rules Wear a school uniform. Be ready for class every day. Be polite. Take care of school things and stuff. Keep your classroom clean and tidy. Don’t bring dangerous things to school. Don’t leave a lesson without permission. Don’t use mobiles during the school day. Be friendly to classmates. Don’t run in school corridors. Don’t bully other pupils in any way. Come to school on time. Respect others and be courteous. Don’t bring chewing gum^ to school. Rules are very important at school. Pupils must follow general school rules.^ They ... They also must follow safety rules. They ... All pupils should behave well towards® each other and adults. They ... * chewing ['tfuir)] gum — жевательная резинка ^ general rules — общие правила ^ towards [ra'woidz] — до отношению к С S El your culture. The Utchitelskaya Gazefa published an article about one of the best boarding schools,* Read the pupil’s opinion about the boarding school and render it. Use the following phrases. Read Learning to learn note No 6. ^ Suffixes 10th form n + -er = lOth-former n know V + -ledge - knowledge ['nolicfe] n 20 Unit 1 Lesson 6 «Наша школа-интернат ^ большая дружная семья, и поэтому в пятницу мне не хочется расставаться с друзьями. Вы видели, чтобы десятиклассники дружили с первоклассниками? А здесь дружат! А мальчишки и девчонки прекрасно ладят между собой. У нас шестиразовое питание, уютные спальни, у каждого класса есть свой классный руководитель. Мы можем заниматься в разных кружках: театральном, музыкальном, компьютерном; можно поплавать в бассейне или поиграть на площадке в футбол. Здесь почти каждый день дискотеки. Мы получаем здесь хорошие знания, и мы счастливы*. , like а big family ... , in the playground ... meals 6 times a day . ... tenth-formers ... .. get good knowledge go to different clubs ... get on with ... to part with my friends ... almost every day ... ... a form teacher ... ... are friends with ... ... are happy ... ' a boarding ['bo;dio] school — школа-инте^сат 2) In expert groups. Compare your answers for the task and come to an agreemeiTt. Get ready to retell the text. 3) In home groups. Retell the text you’ve read to your group mates. Get ready to answer the questions. What classes do the pupils of Summerhill School go to? =. Who makes rules at Summerhill School? • Must the pupils of Summerhill School go to all the lessons? ■' Are rules important at all schools? • What rules should pupils follow at school? « How do the pupils of the boarding school behave towards each other? What activities can the pupils of the boarding school do? - Why are the pupils of the boarding school happy? 2* In the whole cIhSS, What makes a school progressive? Discuss your ideas about a progressive school. 3. ^ # www.summerhillschool.co.uk nn NEXT LESSON IS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON (AB p. 10} Unit 1 Lesson 6 21 Prolec^'^^ m.-:desson X. SI Choose a project you want to do. Read Learning to learn note No 7. My school r?-i-. I V • _ Make a list of headings under which you will describe your ^ school. Й ■ Write about the best things at your school and the things you | want to have (to change). I Illustrate your ideas with pictures, photos, and drawings.^ Write captions for them. . My dream schoo; • Make a list of headings under which you will describe your dream school. • Write about the things you want to have at your dream school. • Illustrate your ideas with pictures, photos, and drawings. Write captions for them. Use humour, fantasy and imagination. My ideal school day m Make a list of headings under which you will describe your ideal school day. • Write about the things you want to have and do on this day. • Illustrate your ideas with pictures, photos, and drawings. Write captions for them. Use humour, fantasy and imagination. 2> Present your project and answer your classmates’ questions to explain your ideas and choice. 3, Discuss your projects and decide which project is the best. Unit 1 22 Lesson 7 Ш-i-f 7 Lei^Son Test yourself LISTENING COMPREHENSION (AB-I) READING COMPREHENSION (AB-II) "O. г USE OF ENGLISH (VOCABULARY/GRAMMAR) (AB-III) SPEAKING 1. Role play. You and your foreign friend are talking about your schools. * * ■ M * ‘, f.i.:-; ’ - I РЦР'1 card 1J You and your foreign friend are talking about your schools. You go to a secondary school in London. You are in Year 7. You begin the conversation. Ask your Russian friend about his/her school and favourite subjects. Remember to ask about; - the form he/she is in; • the subjects he/she studies; • his/her marks in different subjects; • his/her favourite subjects; • why he/she likes them. Answer your friend’s questions. Pupil card 2 i You and your foreign friend are talking about your schools. Listen to your foreign friend. Answer his/her questions. Ask your friend about: • his/her school; • the subjects he/she studies; • the rules at his/her school. Unit 1 Lesson 8 2. Oral report, a group ol foreign pupils has come on a visit to your school. What will you tell them about your school and your school life? Remember to say: • what your school is like; • what after-school activities there are at your school; • what activities you take part in. You have to talk for one minute. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some questions. »o. WRITING (AB-IV)___________ CULTURAL AWARENESS (AB-V) El В Лг1 NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS FROM ^ UNIT 1 Lesson 1 again* to look forward to* sightseeing (to go~) sunbathing {to go~) Reading lesson chess* drama* a field trip* an outing* Lesson 3 assembly Biology by heart Chemistry to do without Physics a waste (of time) registration a timetable* to discover Lesson 4 to mix with* Lesson 5 excellent* to understand to mean quite Lesson 6 according to* a boarding school* knowledge* a meeting* Reader to float* a highlight* to miss* a raft* Answer the questions. 1) Which words do we use to name people’s activities on holidays? 2) Which words do we use to name school subjects? 3) Which words do we use to name pupils’ activities at school? 4) Which words can you guess? 5) How many new words and word combinations from Unit 1 do you know? S SELF-ASSESSMENT (AB-VI) Read Learning to learn note No 8. "i 24 Unit 1 Lesson 8 Lesson 4 , .1 f WUat are your achievements? X. In Britain, there are children who have achieved great results in different activities. ВЯ S 1) Vocabulary. What are George, Jonathan, Jodie and Emilia the best at? Use the word box to learn the meaning of the highlighted words. 1 tried hard and won the BBC* Young Musician of the Year competition, i think I have musical abilities. I want to be a famous pianist. (George, 13) I trained properly and set a new national record for the long jump. I think I've achieved much, but my ambition is to win the Olympics,* to be a top sportsman and a professional. (Jonathan, 14) Г go in for horse-riding and my greatest achievement was when I was in the British team at the TREC* European Championships. Our team won tlie bronze medal. My ambition is to win a gold medal, but I have to work hard to get what I want. (Jodie, 15) I won the Young Cartoonist of the Year Award. I’ve always enjoyed drawing and I have ability in drawing. I think it’s necessary to practise hard to be really good at something. (Emilia, 12) Abbreviations BBC t-bi: bi;'si;] but TREC [trek] to try ^— стараться hard — упорно an ability (in) — способность (в) properly — правильно, как следует to set a record (for) — установить рекорд (в) to achieve [s'tfKv] — достигать, добиваться an achievement — достижение an ambition [tcm'bijan] — стремление, цель top (sportsman) — 1) лучший 2) высший a professional [ргэ'Ге/пэ1] — профессионал to go in for phrv — заниматься, увлекаться ^ *?bpd championships ['((tempisnjips] — OOJ чемпионат gold — золотой an award [3'wc:d| —■ награда necessary ['nes3sn] — необходимый Ш ^ Words to guess bronze a — ? medal n — ? professional n — ? ,| cartoon n — 1) мультфильм 2) юмористический рисунок cartoomsf n — художник-юморист -i 26 Unit 2 Lesson 1 § Su 2) Are the following statements about George, Jonathan, Jodie and Emilia true or false? Prove it. • George has ability in music. • George’s ambition is to be a professional musician. • It was easy for George to win the competition. « Jonathan goes in for sport and he trains hard. • Jonathan wants to compete in the Olympics and to be a good sportsman. • Jonathan has set a world record. • Jodie has achievements in sport. • Jodie knows what to do if she wants to achieve her ambition. • Emilia hasn’t got any prizes. • Emilia is not interested in drawing cartoons. • Emilia knows what to do to be the best. for revision :z: Present Perfect/Past Simple I have set a record. Last year I set a national record. GS p. 197 2. British children write about their favourite after-school activities on the Internet. 5 1) What do the following children write? Fill in the gaps with the words from the box in the correct form. ability • achieve • ambition • award • championships • go in for • gold • hard necessary • professional • properly • set a record • top * try I c D running since I was 9 years old. My C Britain in the European C D is to compete for Great ZD and to become a C 1 sportsman. {Peter, 12) Last year I won the Young Sportsman of the Year C ~D. I ( J ) for the 100 metres. I’d like to be an Olympic swimmer one ) medal. I know it is C hard and C day. I want to win a C C J and ( D to train ) if I want to C D my ambition. (Clare, 13) / first started piajfirj^ the piano шНеп I a^as six. /Иу teacher sa^s that / have musical ч_______________tint it is neccssa/y to work a lot if t want to become a C~ ). (Neil, 10) Unit 2 27 Lesson 1 й Si 2} In your culture. What are the achievements of some Russian children? (AB ex. 1} 3* What are your and your friends’ achievements and ambitions? Й 1) Pair work, discuss your achievements and ambitions with your partner. Read Learning to learn note No 2. What do you do after school? What are you interested in? to go in for... to like to... to go to ... club to play ... What helped you to get good results? to practise hard to train properly to work hard to try hard What are your ambitions? What were your achievements? f X a competition (in) ^owin I g ^ j championship I a gold/bronze medal I towinl a (...) prize * to get / an award (for) My achievements and ambitions to set a record (for) to achieve good results (in) to be to become the best (at) a professional a top sportsman the best pupil the number one (player) to take part in a (sport) competition the world championship a concert to be in a national team ^ 2) What can you tell your foreign friend about your and your friends’ achievements? d:. Activity book ex. 2. Reader ex. 1. ’-----------1 28 Unit 2 Lesson 1 **| Lesson € с WUat сап you do ’" well? 1. At the end of each school term teachers usually comment on their pupils' work at school. These are the report cards of two British pupils, 1) Which subjects are Susan and John good at? Susan Parker John Smith ICT Mark: AIs very serious and careful. Works hard. ICT A smart student. Works well. Mark: A History Mark'. В Studies seriously. Listens carefully. History Doesn’t do projects correctly. Mark: C Mathematics Mark: A Works well. Mathematics Always tries hard. Mark: A Science Mark: A A good student. Does experiments properly. Science Presents projects carelessly. Mark: C 2) How do John and Susan work in History and Science? How do they work in Maths and ICT? 3) What words does the teacher use to say how the pupils work? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. 3 ^rQff)f(^Ci( in focus Adverbs of manner Наречия образа действия Когда мы описываем, как (каким образом) кто-то совершает то или иное действие, мы используем наречия образа действия, большинство из которых образуются от прилагательных при помощи суффикса -1у, Не listens carefulfl^. Он слушает внимательно. Исключения: well — хорошо hard — упорно fast — быстро GS р. 194 АВ ех. 1 Unit 2 29 Lesson 2 2. S Look at the portraits ot some famous people. What made these people famous? Match. 1) She is a professional writer and she writes wonderfully. She wrote eight stories about the character Harry Potter and became famous fast. Her books got a lot of awards. 2) She studied physics and chemistry seriously, discovered two chemical elements and won two Nobel* prizes. 3) He can swim very fast. At the Olympics in China he set a new record for winning the most gold medals at one Olympics. 4) Her acting ability was excellent. She acted very well in the film Gone with the Wind (1939). 5) He fought bravely and won several important battles at sea. f 30 Unit 2 Lesson 2 3. Children can be good at different things. Here are the results of school competitions. Why have the children achieved the top results? ‘Lucy Brown can take photos wonderfully. " \ГОЯО A Si?» BtSlLDlHa I act V + -or = actor n run V + -er = runner n Suffixes music n + -ian = musician n cartoon П + -ist = cartoonist n 2) What activities (school, after-school) are your schoolmates good at? How do they do these activities? UT4 3) What helped George, Jonathan, Jodie and Emilia (Lesson 1, ex. 1) to achieve a lot? -4. Activity book ex. 2. All about me. How I study. (AB No 2) Unit 2 31 Lesson 2 Ih i: Jil' ** ; i I p ; 1 [ ь II: r Lesson Who фап do it better? ^ '1 1. Here are some facts about George, Jonathan, Jodie and Emilia. B9 Ш 1} Look at the table and read the sentences below. Are the sentences correct? [ George I! Jodie ■ Emilia ^ Jona№arv ii ■ Gets up I 7 a.m. I 5.30 a.m. 7.30 a.m. 6 a.m. ' Trains (a day) 4 hours !2 hours 3 hours an hour and a half I J . I I George gets up early. But Jonathan gets up earlier. And Jodie gets up the earliest of all. Jodie trains properly. Emilia trains more properly. George trains most properly. 2) What forms of adverbs do we use to compare how the children work? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. 32 Unit 2 Lesson 3 ДгОт^ОХ in focus Comparative and superlative adverbs Наречия в сравнительной и превосходной степени Когда мы сравниваем, как выполняются те или иные действия, мы используем наречия в сравнительной и превосходной степени. Сравнительная степень односложных наречий образуется при помощи суффикса -ег, многосложных наречий — при помощи наречия more. Превосходная степень односложных наречий образуется при помощи суффикса -est, многосложных наречий — при помощи наречия most. fast быстро neatly аккуратно Исключения: well faster быстрее more neatly аккуратнее — better — (the) best badly — (the) fastest быстрее всех (the) most neatly аккуратнее всех worse — (the) worst GS p. 195 = Гч 3) Who gets up earlier (later), earliest (latest)? Who works harder, hardest? Compare George and Jodie; Emilia and Jonathan; Emilia, Jonathan and Jodie. 2. British and American children write to different magazines. Sometimes they ask for advice if they have some problems. H 1) What problems do the following children have? What is the advice? Match. A. I’m playing a song on my violin in front of one hundred people, and there is one difficult note in the song. I’m very nervous. B. I am good at basketball, and I want to play better. Unit 2 Lesson 3 33 f ■j: -s I с. I love sewing but everyone in my class thinks that it is strange. D. One of my classmates thinks that I don’t play football well. I’m not a top sportsman. But I like football. 1 ^ Explain better to people around yo\i. + If you train hardest, you will be the best. + Study the rules more properly. Practise the difficult note more carefully. ^ You should try harder. ^ Practise harder and you will play more perfectly. Ф Enjoy the game. Train harder and you will play better. /7]ЛГЮ f |br revision If-clauses [f you train hard, you will win. GS p. 205 sasR 2) Listen to the pieces of advice. Match them with the probiems. (listening for detail) 3. If children want to have better results, they should train harder. гп 1) Compare the three children. Who works hardest? (AB ex. 1) Гз 2) What advice can you give to Susan and John (Lesson 2 ex. 1 p. 29) if they want to be the top pupils? Use the adverbs in the box. If Susan wants to get A in History, she should study more seriously. | hard • neatly • perfectly • properly • seriously • well Ч I Elt ^ 3) OrOUp work* How do your friends and you do different things? Make a list of activities, make a survey and compare the results of the survey. 'I. Activity book ex. 2. All about Ше. My plans in studying. (AB No 3) NEXT LESSON IS A READING LESSON. Va (Reader ex. 2) 34 Unit 2 Lesson 3 Lesson W Are you a jdck-of-all-trades? 4^ 1. Some people are good at one thing. Others are good at a lot of things. 1) The British children are talking about their friends who are good at different subjects. Whose report card is this: Robert’s, Lisa's or Henry’s? (iistening for specific information) Mathematics ICT French Mark: A Mark: A-Mark: B+ History Geography PE Mark: B+ Mark: A Mark: A ^ 2) Is it possible to do a lot of things well? Are the opinions of the British chiidren similar or different? I think it is impossible^ to be good at Maths, History, Geography and Art at the same^ time. It’s better to be a top specialist. My friend Robert is the best in our computer club. He is the number one pupil at Maths and ICT. He writes programs* brilliantly and very fast. He can talk about computers for hours. His ambition is to write programs for computer ganies. Robert is not good at Geography and History. And he doesn’t care. I think it is possible^ to be good at many things. My friend Lisa is a talented person. She has acliieved much in different areas. And she works hard. She is the best pupil (she’s got A’s in most subjects) and at the same time she is a top sportsman. She is the be.st swimmer in Year 7. My friend Henry is not the best pupil. He likes Science and History and he likes making photos. But he doesn’t spend enough time on his favourite subjects. His marks are not good. I think he should study more seriously to get better results. Besides, he should make photos more carefully and neatly because they are not often good, either. ' impossible a — невозможный ' same a — тот (же) самый 'possible a — возможный Unit 2 35 Lesson 4 III в 3) Is the following information true or false? Prove it from the text. 1) Robert has got A’s in some subjects. 2) Robert can become a good programmer. 3) Robert can become a good historian. 4) Lisa is a hard-working person. 5) Lisa studies very well. 6) Lisa can do many things brilliantly. 7) Henry has a problem in organising his work. 8) Henry can become a good photographer. 2. If a person can do many things well, we call him or her a jack-of-all-trades." 1) Can we say that each of the children: Robert, Lisa or Henry is a jack-of-all-trades? Why? Why not? Read Learning to learn note No 4. 2) Can you call Kristin Thompson (Reader ex. 2) a jack-of-all-trades? Why? Why not? 3. Щ There is a proverb "A jack of all trades and master of none”. Is it good or bad to be a jack-of-all-trades? What do you think? Read Learning to learn note No 2. I think it’s good to ... I’m not sure that it is ... I don’t think it’s good to ... A person can ... • If a person does ... • It’s better to ... It is possible to become ... if ... • It is impossible to become ... It is better to ... • A person can’t become ... ^ Can you call one of your friends a Jack-of-aM-trades? Why? 5. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 3. ip- 36 Unit 2 Lesson 4 Lesson ^ - -r# Ч ": Do lyou know , how ...? 1., Children often ask each other what they can do well. S] § 1) LisWn and read the questions in the word box. Listen to the answers. Which question are the children answering? (listening for the main idea) ASKING IF SOMEONE CAN DO SOMETHING Do you know how to cook? Ты умеешь готовить? (Ты знаешь, как?) Do you know anything about playing football? Ты знаешь что-нибудь о том, как играть в футбол? What are you like at writing tests? Насколько хорошо гы умеешь выполнять контрольные задания? Щ 2) Henry and Lisa are talking about cooking. Read their conversation. Use the word boxes and find in the conversation: • how they say they can do something; • how they say they can’t do something. — Can you cook well? — I’m really good at cooking and I help my brother in the kitchen. The beat thing I’ve ever made was vegetable soup with potatoes and onions. My parents really liked it! — And I don’t know how to prepare big tasty dinners. But I’m not bad at salads and sandwiches. S 3) What are some other ways to say you can or can’t do something? SAYING YOU CAN DO SOMETHING I know how to cook. Я умею готовить. (Я знаю как.) I know something about cooking. Я кое-что понимаю в приготовлении еды. I’m not bad at playing football. Я неплохо играю в футбол. I’m really (quite) good at photography. У меня способности к фотографированию. SAYING YOU CANT DO SOMETHING I don’t know how to cook. Я не умею готовить. (Я не знаю как.) I’ve по idea how to take photos. Я понятия не имею, как фотографировать. I’m not good at playing football. Я не очень хорошо играю в футбол. Unit 2 37 Lesson 5 щ 4) Replace the highlighted expressians in the conversation with those that fit from the word boxes. Act out the conversation. 2. Й Pair work. Do you know what your classmate can do well? 1) Ask and answer the questions from ex. 1. 2) What can your friend do? Pupil card 1 , Ask if your partner can do the following: • windsurf; • play the violin; • write computer programs; • make kites. Answer your partner’s questions. to play the violin to play______chess Pupil card 2 ] Ask if your partner can do the following: • play chess; • learn long poems by heart; • draw cartoons; • float on a raft. Answer your partner’s questions. 3. Й Group work. What can or can’t your classmates do? Choose what to ask about and make a report. Different activities ♦ Playing basketball ♦ Sewing clothes ♦ Playing a musical instrument ♦ Working on the computer ♦ Dancing Activities at the English lessons ♦ Writing a report ♦ Doing projects ♦ Spelling ♦ Learning new words ♦ Reading ♦ ... Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 4. Unit 2 38 Lesson 5 Lesson W^vat do щои knoi^ about The Duke ofm Edinburgh's Award? 1, Jigsaw reading. The Duke of Edinburgh’s* Award is very popular in Britain. Read Learning to learn note No 5. T 1) In home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) about The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award and decide if the statements are true or false. A A Duke of Edinburgh’s Award (D of E) programme is for young people between the ages of 14 and 24. You can learn new skills and take part in lots of activities. You can do programmes at three levels, Bronze, Silver or Gold. You can do a Bronze D of E programme when you’re 14. If you are 15, you can start a Silver D of E programme. The Gold programme is for teenagers over 16. You achieve an Award if you do a personal programme of activities in four sections. You can take part in all types of activities. Every section gives you something different —^ that's the fun of iti a skill — умение a level — уровень 1. You need to be between the ages of 14 and 24 to take part in the D of E. 2. There are four levels of the programme and three sections at each level. 3. When you are 15 you can take part in the D of E Bronze or Silver Award. 4. Children with different interests and skills can take part in the programme. T/F T/F T/F T/F Unit 2 39 Lesson 6 в You call acliieve a Bronze, Silver or Gold Duke of Edinburgh’s Award (or level) if you do a programme of activities in fonr sections. These sections are: Volunteering/Service: You can help people, your community or care for animals. Find out who needs help! Physical: You can play for a local sports club, go to dance classes, run or do yoga. You can choose what to do. Skills: Have you ever wanted to do something different? Painting, driving, music or making kites? You can learn to do something new. Expedition: Plan and take part in an expedition. You can choose how you want to travel — by bike, on a raft, or on a horse or llama\ For each section you can choose from over 50 activities. a skill — умение a level — уровень service — помощь an expedition — ? volunteering — добровольная помощь .4 O' by____ bike on a raft 1. Each level of The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award has four sections. 2. You can choose playing football, running or long jump for the Skills section. 3. There is something new for everyone in each section. 4. There are more than 50 activities in each section. C The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award (D of E) is a part of the International Award Association. The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award was the first one. It started in the UK in 1956. Now there are programmes in 126 countries. The names of the Award may be different, but the idea is the same. The Award is not an organisation, but a programme. Young people help their community,* get life skills, and most of all, they have fun! The Award in the Russian Federation began in the Republic of Karelia. It became a part of the International Award Association in 2006. T/F T/F T/F T/F a part — часть a skill — умение international [^inta'naefnsl] an association [9,s?mi’eiJ'n] 1. The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award has achieved much for 126 years. 2. The Awards in many countries are alike, but the names are different. 3. The Award in Russia is also a part of the International Award Association. 40 Unit 2 Lesson 6 T/F T/F T/F ^ S 2) In expert groups, compare your answers to the true/false statements. Correct the false statements. Come to an agreement. Get ready to retell the text you’ve read. Use the statements as an outline. ^ ^ home groups. Retell your group mates what you’ve read, while listening to your group mates, fill in the outline. C ( C C - f i i f r ё < t 1 ^ C The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award: ZD levels: C... , ~ Л ), c j, and C • has C • invites young people between the ages C • has . sections at each level. They are: volunteering/service, cn 3 and C 3; 3), C Э, d In each section there are more than c D activities. « is a part of the C Award Association, that works in C D countries. In Russia it has worked since 2ш ^ III the whole clUSS. 1) What have you learnt about The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award? H 2) Do you want to take part in the award? Why? What will your personal programme be? www.dofe.org R NEXT LESSON IS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON. (AB p. 24) Unit 2 41 Lesson 6 ж' Lesson p / -1 PrSject lesson 1. Choose a project you’d like to do. Read Learning to learn note No 7. ^ www.firstnews.co.Lik • www.woodlandsjunior.kent.sch.uk/school/clubs/index.htnnl The Board of ame V.. - Think who of your classmates can get an award and which one. The awards may be: The fastest runner • The most serious person The hardest worker Explain why the person can get the award. • Design and make some of the awards. • Design the board of fame. The award / Mar, • Think of the name of the award and its idea. • Think of the levels, sections and activities of the award. • Design your own award programme. • Illustrate your plan. My ambitions r\.. • Make a list of your ambitions. • Think how you can achieve your ambitions, • Write about what you have already done. • Make a collage with photos and illustrations. 1 2. Гч Present your project to your classmates. Answer your classmates’ questions. 3> ^ Discuss the projects and decide which project is the best. 42 Unit 2 Lesson 7 \ь Lesson / i yourself LISTENING COMPREHENSION (ДВ-I) READING COMPREHENSION (AB-II) USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABUURY) (AB-III) Ol SPEAKING 1, R-Ol© play. You are talking with your foreign friend about your abilities. Can you do the same things well? Pupil card 1 J Ask your friend if he/she can do things that you can do weli. You begin the conversation. Remember to: • say what you can do well; • ask if your friend can do the same things; • ask about his/her achievements; » ask about his/her ambitions. Answer your friend's questions. '■’**•* Pupil card 2 j 1.........Ihfili...г,г^^ Listen to your friend and answer his/her questions. Ask him/her if he/she can do things that you can do weii. Remember to: • ask about his/her achievements; • ask about his/her ambitions. 2, Oral report, what are you good at? Can it heip you in your future life? Remember to say: • what you can do well; • what are your skills and abilities in different areas; ♦ what is your ambition; * what you do to achieve your ambition. You have to talk for one minute. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some questions. Unit 2 43 Lesson 8 h .А WRITING (AB-IV) ^ CULTURAL AWARENESS (AB-V) NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS FROM ^ UNIT 2 Lei^son 1 an ability to achieve an achievement an ambition an award bronze a championship to go in for gold hard necessary a professional properly to set (a record) top (sportsman) to try Lesson 2 an experiment* Reading lesson to be over* to come up* to get around to* to go out* to look up* a schedule* a tournament* Lesson 4 impossible* a person possible* same* (at the same time) Lesson 6 a level a part silver a skill Lesson 7 a board of fame* Reader an argument* a wing* Answer the questions. 1) Which words will you use to describe achievements? 2) The meanings of which words is it possible to guess? 3) Which words have suffixes/prefixes? 4) Which words have more than one meaning? 5) How many new words and word combinations from Unit 2 do you know? SELF-ASSESSMENT (AB-VI) I Read Learning to learn note No 8. 44 Unit 2 Lesson 8 * V Lesson т / т\ ^ How much do youj^ do for^ charity? X. Vocabulary, a lot of children in Britain do something for charity. Emily, Jack, Tom, Jennifer and Rose are talking about what they and their schoolmates do for charity. каш 1) How much do Emily, Jack, Tom, Jennifer and Rose do for charity? Use the word box to learn the meaning of the highlighted words. ГТ'"'" * I too. ! i.® „ Й. S • t.j*l —^ l ft ... li.NiTNTlE'.E^Dr «■t to r , ^ HelptheAged ^ THE TIME TO CARE IS HOW LciX.r't: h€hi/}t^ tJ lik' unicef# 46 Unit 3 Lesson 1 WOl^TJ ^ BUiLDiKa Suffixes donate v + -tion = donation л At my school we do a lot of projects for charity. Every class chooses a charity organisation, and then during the year the pupils collect money for the charity, We raise money for different charity organisations: Children in Need,* Save the Children,* Help the Aged.* (Emily, 13) A lot of schools in my hometown are involved in collecting money for charity. In our school there is a charity box. If you want to donate some money on charity, you put the money into the box. Our parents also make donations. (Jack, 13) My schoolmates and I like to contribute to charity. All pupils in my class want to make their contribution. We have a lot of fundraising ideas. We organise charity fairs and competitions, charity runs, sweet and cakes sales, talent shows. Then we donate the raised money to different charities. (Tom, 13) Last year, our class collected clothes and sent them to the UNICEF.* The clothes went to those in need. This year our class helps the RSPCA.* We volunteer at the local zoo garden. We feed the animals, clean the cages, organise excursions for kids and do other volunteer work. (Jennifer, 14) I joined a group of volunteers. We support a girl in India. We provide the girl with clothes and raised some money for her needs. I’m happy that we can make a difference to the needy child. (Rose, 13) Abbreviations UNICEF ['jumiseO but RSPCA f,a:r es pi; si; 'e(] Unit 3 47 Lesson 1 charity ['t/serati] — благотворительность a charity (organisation [prgonai'zeij'n]) ~ благотворительная организация to be involved [rn'vialvd] (in stli) — быть занятым, вовлечённым (во что-л.) to donate [daii'neii] (to, on) — передавать в дар; жертвовать а donation fdau'ncij’n] — передача в дар; пожертвование; to make donations делать пожертвования to contribute [kan'tnbjLi;!] (to) — делать вклад; жертвовать а contribution [,knntr('bju;Jn] — вклад; пожертвование; to make а (one’s) contribution сделать вклад, внести свою лепту boj ш а sale — распродажа to volunteer [,уп1эп'пэ] — добровольно помогать а volunteer [^vnlan'tia] — добровольный ПОМОПДНИК to support [s3'po;tJ — оказывать поддержку; помогать to provide [pro'vaid] (sb with sth) — обеспечивать (кого-л. чем-л.) to make a difference ['difrans] — делать что-л. значительное, важное Words to guess fundraising ['fAnd,reizir)] n — ? need 0 — нуждаться; need n — ?; needs n pi — ?; needy a — ? Й 2) What have you learnt about Emily, Jack, Tom, Jennifer and Rose’s contribution to charity? Decide if the following statements are true. Prove from the children’s stories. 1) Emily says that in her school pupils do a lot of charity projects, 2) Emily’s school raises money for different charities. 3) Jack's schoolmates and parents donate money to charity. 4) Tom’s school organises a lot of charity events. 5) Not all Tom’s classmates want to take part in charity fundraising. 6) Tom’s scliool usually spends the raised money on school needs. 7) Jennifer and her classmates support needy people in poor countries. 8) Jennifer volunteers at the zoo. 9) Rose and her friends support a poor boy in India. 10) Rose is glad that she helps the needy child. 48 Unit 3 Lesson 1 2. Children from different countries are involved in charity projects. Read what Emma wrote on a charity Internet site. Use the words from the box in the correct form to complete Emma’s story. a charity • a contribution • to contribute • to donate to be involved • to make a difference • to raise • to support • to volunteer Last summer my family looked after two girls from Chernobyl.* It was our ( ) to Chernobyl Children ~ ) children from ~ j from my teacher. ~ J to charity proj- Lifeline.* This charity C Byelorussia. I learnt about this The pupils from my class always C ects. We f ...1 at the local kindergarten, organise par- ties for kids, clean the local park. Also, we organise chari-tv fairs at our school fairs at our school to ( J money. Our parents ) too. They help us make things for the fairs and ] money. We are always looking forward to — j CHERNOBYL CHILD^^E^ S lifeline: 3. ^ Americans support charities? (AB ex. 1) How much do children do for charity? Give supporting details. WWW.charitiesdirectory.com • Children donate money on charity. • Children are involved in different charity projects. • Children support needy people in poor countries, • Children do volunteer work. 5. Щ Do you and your friends do anything for charity? Why? Why not? Read Learning to learn note No 3. www.actionforchildren.org.uk ... (not) involved in ... • ... (don’t) support ... ... (don’t) support ... (don’t) donate/make donations ... • ... (don’t) volunteer ... 6. ^ Activity book ex. 2. All about me. What I do for charity. (AB No 4) Reader ex. 1. Unit 3 49 Lesson 1 , V Lesson X/. Why are these da A important? V.A,' X. There are some days in the calendar that are not very popular, but many people find them very important. Q S 1) Which day is Mark speaking about? fa ocroeeR g «KMDirttRiKcee^y ' BOIHC GOOD SATURDAY Showing how much we care is necessary. My school contributes to the day by organising different charity projects. I like being involved. I personally enjoy taking part in the charity run and the talent show. Our parents help us with fundraising. We are always looking forward to making a difference. § 2) What activities is Mark speaking about? H 3) What verb form do we use to name different activities? Read the ruie and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. ^rOfTifY^Qf in focus Ving form Форма глагола с окончанием -ing 1. Когда мы называем действие, мы часто используем форму \Лпд, которая в предложении может выступать в качестве подлежащего. На русский язык форму Ving мы обычно переводим суидествительным или неопределённой формой глагола. Helping those in need is necessary. Помогать тем, кто нуждается, необходимо. Lesson 2 2. Мы также используем форму Ving в качестве дополнения после глаголов: • без предлогов I eniov taking part in the charity fair. Я c удовольствием участвую в благотворительной ярмарке. • с предлогами You сап help bv raising money. Вы можете помочь, собирая деньги, (by означает как? каким образом?) GS р. 202 2, Неге are some ideas how to contribute to “Make a Difference" Day. What do you think about the activities? . — Organising a charity fair is a good idea. I — I personally enjoy taking part in a charity run. to organise a charity fair to take part in a charity run to be involved in fundraising to donate money on charity to support those in need to provide poor people with money, food or clothes to volunteer at the nearest nursing home* to clean the local park to pick up litter in the school playground to plant trees and flowers to make a poster about different charity projects ... is a good idea. ... is very important. ... is not fun, but necessary. ... is a good contribution. I enjoy ... I’m interested in ... I look forward to ... I can help by ... I always take part in ... I'm good at ... I don’t mind^ ... Si Гз What do you know about “Make a Difference” Day? (AB ex. 1) 4, ^ The surveys show that children all over the world enjoy volunteering. How do the children volunteer? Finish up what the chiidren say. Use the prepositions from the box where necessary. Translate the statements. by • in • for • on • to • with * without ' a nursing home — лечебница, дом престарелых ^ to mind [mamd] — возражать Unit 3 51 Lesson 2 We want to make our hometown better ... We are always looking forward ... My friends contribute ... We have many ideas ... We help ... We spend the raising money ... I help the local charity club ... I can’t do ... I’m never bored ... I like to be involved ... I want to invite ail children to take part ... organising different charity projects, doing different charity projects, donating money to different charities, raising money for charity, supporting the needy people, cleaning the school playground, planting trees and flowers, picking up litter, doitig different charity projects, getting money for the work. 5. In. your culture. Russian volunteers have been organising Spring Week of Good* every year in April since 1998, mm 1} What do people do during Spring Week of Good? ^ www.gysd.org/about — My class contributed to Spring Week of Good. My class took part in the charity concert. —' My class contributed to Spring Week of Good by taking part in the charity concert. • My class contributed to Spring Week of Good. My classmates took part in the charity run. • We want to make our town better. We plant trees. m My friends and I support poor people. We provide tlieni with clothes and food, • We volunteer at the local nursing home. We don’t get money for our work. • We helped the local kindergarten. We cleaned the kindergarten playground. • I like planting trees. I’m never bored with it. • I do different charity projects. I enjoy it. mri 2) Think of other ideas for contributing to Spring Week of Good. 6. Activity book ex. 2. Reader ex. 2, 52 Unit 3 Lesson 2 Lesson What vkfald ^ ^ Discuss all the projects and decide which project is the best. 62 Unit 3 Lesson 7 - - V Lesson Test yourself SI LISTENING COMPREHENSION (AB-I) READING COMPREHENSION (AB-II) S USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) (AB- SPEAKING 1. Role play. You and your foreign friend are talking about how you help people around. Piinil oarH 1 i ^ РипН card 2 You and your foreign friend are talking You and your foreign friend are talking about how you help people around. about how you help people around. You begin the conversation. Answer your friend’s questions. Remember to; Remember to: • ask your friend about who he/she helps; • give examples of what you do to help • ask your friend about what he/she does people around; to help people around; • say about the projects you are involved • ask your friend to express his/her atti- in; tude towards volunteering; • express your attitude towards volunteer- • answer your friend’s questions. rng; • ask your friend about what he/she does to help people around. Unit 3 63 Lesson 8 s л 2. Oral report. You are telling your foreign friend about charity in Russia. Do Russian people support charity? Remember to: • say what you think about charity; • give an example of charity organisations in Russia; • say how Russian people contribute to charity; • say what you {your family, friends) do for charity; • explain why you {your family, friends) support (do not support) charity. You have to talk for one minute. The teacher will listen until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some questions. EL o. WRITING (AB-IV) El CULTURAL AWARENESS (AB-V) В ^ NEW WORDS AND WORD OOMBINATIONS FROM UNIT 3 Lesson 1 charity a charity (organisation) to be involved in a contribution (to make -) to contribute a donation (to make "I to donate fundraising to make a difference need needy to provide to support a volunteer Answer the questions. 1) Which words do we use to tell about charity organisations in our country? 2) Which words do we use to talk about volunteer work? 3) Which words do we use to describe our attitude towards charity? 4) How many new words and word combinations from Unit 3 do you know? в SFI F-ASSESSMENT (AB-VI)_____________________________________________ Read Learning to learn note No 8. Unit 3 to volunteer Lesson 4 Lesson 2 actually to mind personally a nursing home to show sympathy Lesson 3 Lesson 5 to babysit to sound Heading lesson terrific Lesson 6 crime deaf* against* fur* poor to kill* Reader right* to honour* to shout* to name after* (to make) a speech* to set up* 64 Lesson 8 Lesson Лге you eco-friendly 'i rl. Vocabulary. The British girl Mia is speaking about her eco-school. Q § 1) What do pupils at eco*school do? Use the word box to learn the meaning of the highlighted words. My school is an eco-school.* This means that we try to look after the environment, because our Earth is a wonderful world and we don’t want to destroy it. Becoming eco-friendly is not difficult. Everyone can do something to protect nature. We do a lot of tilings. We always put our litter in a bill because litter pollutes and spoils the environment. We reuse and recycle newspapers, cans, plastic and glass bottles instead of throwing them out. Recycling saves new materials and saves energy. We help wildlife by being more environmentally friendly. We do not disturb animals. We’ve built a nature garden near the school with a wildlife pond, bird boxest homes for mice. Besides, our pupils walk or cycle to school. We think that this helps to reduce air pollution. Air pollution causes climate change and some animals may disappear. Some chemicals can also contribute to climate change and damage the natural environment that’s why we do not use them. environment [in'vairaninont] — окружающая среда, природа Earth (the Earth) [з:0] — Земля to destroy [di'stroi] — разрушать, уничтожать eco-friendly ['i:k3u,frendli] = en,viron'mentally 'friendly — не приносящий вреда природе to protect [pra'tekt] — защищать, охранять nature ['neitfa] — природа a bin — контейнер для мусора to pollute [p3'lu:t] —■ загрязнять (делать непригодным для использования) to spoil (spoilt) — портить (вид, качество), делать менее привлекательным to recycle [,ri/saikl) — возвращать в оборот, перерабатывать glass [glo;s] — стеклянный instead of [m'sted 3v] — вместо to save — беречь, экономить wildlife ['waildlatf] — живая природа (жи ватные, птицы, рыбы в естественном состоянии) 66 Unit 4 Lesson 1 to disturb [di'st3:bj — причинять беспокойство, мешать a pond — пруд to reduce [n'dju:s] — уменьшать, сокращать air [еэ] — воздух pollution [рзМи;/эп] — загрязнение (окружающей среды) to cause [ko;zJ ^— быть/являться причиной, вызывать to disappear [,disc'pia] — исчезать to damage ['dBemicfe] — повреждать, причинять вред ' Words to guess use V — использовать reuse V — ? use « — ? natural ['nffitfrsi] a — ? environmentat [in^vairan'mentl] a — ^ 2) Is Mia eco-friendly? What does she personally do? What do you think? ts 3) Mia’s friends do a lot to help nature. Do you do anything? 2. S Here are some pieces of advice for you if you want to be eco-friendly. Is it difficult to follow these pieces of advice? Match the two parts. Recycle old clothes. Take them to rharity shops. Reuse plastic shopping bags. Do aot throw them away. Don’t leave glass and plastic bottles in the woods (= small forest). Do not use chemicals if possible. Support a wildlife organisation. Walk to school instead of going there by car. Reduce energy use. PETE falu Producing electricity also causes climate change. Pollution from cars damages people’s health. Some of them destroy ozone. Besides, they can cause health problems. Glass and plastic can be bad for wildlife. Plastic bags spoil nature and destroy the planet. Enuironmental groups organise different projects to protect nature. Other people may reuse them. for revision • • • • Countable and uncountable nouns a pond , GS p. 188 [^nature AB ex. 1 Unit 4 67 Lesson 1 I- 3. Й British and American children remember the three Rs*; reduce, reuse, recycle. What do they reduce? reuse? recycle? Why? (AB ex. 2} 4. Alt* is a funny American cartoon character. В 1) Are his pieces of advice funny? Fill in the gaps with the words from the box in the correct form. , bin • damage • destroy • disturb • environment • glass • instead of • pollute i protect • recycle • reduce • reuse D nature. Take care of the _________ spoil • throw • wildlife Always put garbage in a garbage . the countryside. because garbage newspapers. and plastic bottles, and metal pollution. Don’t throw away things if you can them. _ garbage into the pond. ~ " them. cans. Recycling helps to ^ Don’t Don’t water. Don’t Never draw or paint on trees. It will Plant flowers ________ Don’t C _______, picking them. D animals. Don’t _____ their homes. Create new places for BE AE litter garbage 2) What does Alf want you to do or not to do? I Alf wants us to protect nature. 5. People in the UK are recycling three times more litter than they were 10 years ago. mu 1) What do they recycle? (listening for specific information/taking notes) 2} What do you, your family reduce, reuse and recycle? Why? 6. Щ Are you, your relatives and your friends eco-friendly? What do you do to take care of the Earth? In our family we care about the environment. ^ [^ctually, I realty don’t do enough~to protect natureTj^^^ 7. n."' All about me. Му family is eco-friendly. (AB No 6) Reader ex. 1. Unit 4 68 Lesson 1 к Lesson Are there any eco~probiems In your hometown? 1. There are a lot of environmental groups in Great Britain: Friends of the Earth,* Greenpeace* and others. Here is one of their posters. Ш 1) What are they worrying about? I Our planet is in danger} Forests are cut down. Water is polluted. Air pollution is not reduced. Join us and clean the Earth. Everyone can make a difference! ^ 2) What structures do we use to talk about what happens? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. —------ in focus Present Simple Passive Страдательный залог в настоящем времени Когда мы сообидаем о действии, которое происходит с предметом, явлением, человеком в настоящем времени {и не называем, кто совершил это действие), мы используем сказуемое в страдательном залоге, которое состоит из глагола to be в форме am/is/are и причастия прошедшего времени (V3). Forests are cut down. При переводе страдательного залога используются: неопределённо-личные предложения Леса вырубают. или безличные предложения Леса вырубаются. GS р. 201 Unit 4 69 Lesson 2 «I ili 2. People try to protect nature, but sometimes people’s activities damage the environment. 1) Which activities are good for the Earth and which ones damage nature? x: I don’t think it is good when ... I think it is good that ... Rivers are polluted. Rainforests* are cut down. New trees are planted. Energy is saved. Water is wasted. The countryside is spoilt. Ozone levels are studied. Ozone is destroyed. Air pollution is reduced. Animals are disturbed. Towns are built instead of forests. S ^ 2) What is the ideal picture of the world? ' Rivers is not destroyed Air are disturbed Forests protected Animals polluted Wildlife spoilt Litter put into water Pollution from cars reduced : Water pollution recycled 3. England and Wales are becoming better places to live according to a report from the Environment Agency, but much more needs doing, 1) Pair WOrl^. What is the ecological situation in the UK like? What do you think? Ask and answer questions using the table above. — Are rivers polluted in the UK? — I think they are. / I hope they are notl mf^u 2) Listen to the report about the ecological situation in England and Wales. Were your suppositions correct? (listening for specific information) Unit 4 Lesson 2 4. тщ What happens when people do not care for the environment? Combine the two sentences into one and make necessary changes. i I When / If litter is left in the forest, the animals are hurt. People leave litter in the forest. Factories and cars pollute the air. People throw away plastic bottles. A iot of people don’t recycle paper. Some children break trees. ---------- People throw litter into the river. It hurts the animals. It causes climate change. It damages the environment. People cut down more trees to make paper. It disturbs birds. It pollutes the water. People leave glass bottles in the forest. It hurts animals. 5. Some children think it is possible to save the environment by recycling. 1) Is recycling paper important or a waste of time? Put the verbs in the cor- rect form (Present Simple Passive or Active). Many children think that recycling paper is a waste of time. But it isn’t correct. It is a fact that less energy (need) to make new paper from recycled paper and- less materials (use). When a lot of people (recycle) their paper, a lot of trees t-saue) and the forest and its wildlife (protect). Because when forests (cuf), fewer animals have homes. Every year an area of rainforest the size of Wales (cut down) and a lot of animals (disappear). Besides, it is necessary to understand 'hat when the rainforest (destroy), it (cause) global warming. It’s good when children (teach) about the environment from a young age. Then ihey (understand) that everyone can make a difference to their community, their town and the world. fo r revision • A little and a few a little energy a few trees GS p. 191 2) What happens when people do not recycle paper? 6. Гя What is the ecological situation in your region like? T* Activity book ex. 1. NEXT LESSON IS A READING LESSON. (Reader ex. 2) Unit 4 71 Lesson 2 Lesson ■Чен Т- uhoa^ be ш 'ge of the planets 1. ш In Britain, there are a lot of children who help the Earth. 1) Nikki, Jackie and Ben are talking about their attitude to helping nature. Which of these children are in the pictures? {listening for specific information) Ц 2) Which of the children think it is necessary to help the Earth? What do they personally do? My relatives live in Louisiana, the USA. They are wildlife specialists. They care for otters: there are a lot of them in Louisiana. They prepare the otters for life in the wild. Some otters are sold to zoos. But most of the animals go to states where otters have disappeared. When I visit my relatives I help them to care for otters. I love otters. I feed them, I clean their cages. My uncle says that he is happy that the otters are coming back. I am also very happy. I think it is necessary to help wild animals. Now I know I want to work for a wildlife park. (Nikki) 72 Unit 4 Lesson 3 I am sure we can help to save the Earth. We must remember the three Rs. I save the plastic bags from the grocery shop and reuse them. I save plastic food containers. They make good water toys. Before I buy something, I think: “Can I recycle it? If I have to throw it away, will it damage the environment?” I’ve just joined the RSPB'-^' Wildlife Explore Club, I’ve asked my mum to help me to make a protecting area for birds and other wild animals. We have planted trees and have made a pond. You can also help to save the environment by remembering to do simple things. For example, a lot of electricity is saved by turning off the TV and lights when you leave a room. I think small changes can make a difference to the environment. (Jackie) for revision [; Modal verbs Can I recycle it? They should do something. We must save the Earth. •••• GS p. 199 The problem of the environment is much talked about on TV, the radio, and in the newspapers. But my friends and I don’t really talk about it. At our school we don’t have any environmental programmes. Where I live there aren’t any special bins. And no one recycles anything. I know there are special environmental organisations: Greenpeace, the World Wildlife Fund* and Friends of the Earth. These groups are specially organised to help nature. I think they should be in charge of^ the Earth. (Ben) ' to be in charge of — быть ответственным за Unit 4 Lesson 3 Nikki thinks that children can Jackie adults must Ben wildlife specialists environ mental organisations should X2 APRIL# EARTH DAY ^ S 3} Who is in charge of the planet? What do Nikki, Jackie and Ben think about it? Prove it from their stories. help wildlife. be in charge of the planet, keep the planet healthy, save the Earth, make the planet a better place, change the world for the better. 2, Кз №o should be in charge of the Earth? What can the people do to help the planet? Why do you think so? Read Learning to learn note No 3. Environmental groups and organisations can do a lot. Wildlife specialists can help the environment. Taking care of the planet is everybody’s business. 3> F3 Are you in charge of the planet? How do you help the Earth? 4, ^ H Earth Day is celebrated on April 22. What is this day for? Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 3. JOIN US AND CLEAN THE EARTH. MAKE THE WORLD A BETTER PLACE. # TAKING CARE OF THE EARTH IS EVERYBODY’S BUSINESS. "j I ! i 74 Unit 4 Lesson 3 Lesson Are goLi worried ■_4 about nature? 1. At the environmental club Matthew and Lisa are reporting on the ecological situa-■ m their hometown. 1) What environmental problems are Matthew and Lisa talking about? (listening •or specific information) ± 2) What are Matthew’s and Lisa’s attitudes to ecological problems? Use the word ЭОХ and find how they say they are worried. — I’m very worried when people throw away litter, Tt-ink of all the litter around. Soon there won’t be any ■^ore places free of it. People should do something "X)ut litter, before it’s too late! — 1 find the situation in our countryside worrying. Near my house, there is a pond. It is polluted. Paint tiers, plastic bags, and sweets packets are thrown — the pond. All this destroys the pond’s wildlife. I’m r.-e people should think about nature and recycle their Tier instead of throwing it away. 3) What are some other ways to say you are worried? SAYING YOU ARE WORRIED I’m worried about water pollution. Меня волнует загрязнение воды, i find this problem (very) worrying. Эта проблема меня очень беспокоит. Гт (very) concerned about air pollution. Я беспокоюсь о загрязнении воздуха. Гт (very) concerned that forests are destroyed. Я (очень) обеспокоен/озабо- чен тем, что леса вырубают(ся). - 4) Replace the highlighted expressions in the conversation with those that fit from the «rord box. Act out the conversation. 2. Both adults and children are worried about environmental problems. ^ 1) What problems are the British worried about most of ail? Are you worried about T»ese problems or not? (listening for specific information) The British are worried that ... I am also concerned about ... / I don’t find this problem worrying. Unit 4 Lesson 4 75 ^ 2) R.ole play, you and your foreign friend are discussing some environmental problems. Read Learning to learn note No 9. Pupil card 1 You are discussing some environmental problems. Choose an environmental problem: air pollution • animals disappearing Say you are very concerned about this problem. Say what people should do to make the situation better. Listen to your partner. Say that you are also worried about the problem. Pupil card 2 You are discussing some environmental problems. Listen to your partner. Say that you are also worried about the problem. Choose an environmental problem: water pollution • cutting down forests Say you are very concerned about this problem. Say what people should do to make the situation better. Щ 3) What is the biggest environmental problem in your hometown? Are you concerned about it? What do people do to change the world for the better? What does your school do? 3. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 4. 76 Unit 4 Lesson 4 Lesson Have you ever: been to a nationul park? 1. Jigsaw reading, a lot of people like visiting national parks. Read Learning to learn note No 5. %r 1) In home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) about national parks. Which questions can you find information about? Answer these questions. t Wtiat are national parks for? • How many national parks are there in Britain and in the USA? • What are some of these parks? When did they appear? • What can people enjoy there? A America was the first country to start up “National Parks”, beginning with Yellowstone* in 1872. Now this and other parks together cover' a large area of ihe cotintry. Long before 1872, William Wordsworth,* the great English poet, wanted his native Lake District to become a special place. But only in 1951 did Ihe first national park in England and Wales appear.^ It was the Lake District National Park. Now there are thirteen national parks in England and Wales. They cover more than one tenth of the land area. 90 million visitors come to national parks every .ear. The first aim® of national parks is to protect the countryside; the second aim to let people enjoy the countryside, enjoy trees, flowers, animals and birds. ' to cover — покрывать; охватывать 'to appear — появляться ' an aim — цель ^The Brecon Beacons, Wales) ■ - .--vaipi. The Peak District, England Unit 4 Lesson 5 77 1 в The USA is a larger country than Britain. There are more than sixty national parks in the USA. The Great Smoky Mountains,* the Grand Canyon* and Yellowstone Park* are the most popular of them. The Everglades, in Florida, is one of the most interesting places. Most of its territory is covered* with grass. Open water is sometimes found, and there are a lot of islands with tropical plants. If you visit the Everglades, you can see a lot of alligators. Be careful, they are dangerous! They are protected, because the Everglades is a national park. Naturalists and tourists come to see water birds, bobcats,* bears and alligators. to cover покрывать; охватывать С Yellowstone, USA 3 c The Grand Canyon, USA revision Articles with geographical names the Everglades, Florida GS p. 189 C The Lake District is the largest national park in Britain. It is popular with walkers, cyclists, and people who go boating. It is one of the most beautiful and attractive places in the country. It has Windermere ['windamo], the longest lake in England, and Scafell Pike [,sko:fcl 'paik], the highest mountain in England. In 1810 William Wordsworth* described the beauty of the Lake District in his poems. The works of Wordsworth* and other romantic poets attracted visitors to the lakes. And now the Lake District is one of the most popular tourist places in Britain. Here you can enjoy fishing in the rivers and lakes, boating on the quiet waters or walking and cycling along the shores of the lakes. There's something for everyone! 78 Unit 4 Lesson 5 VOI^D fi рЯ BUILOIKCS attractive a — привлекательный; attract v — 7 beautiful a ~ красивый; beauty n — ? 2) In expert groups» Compare your answers to the questions. Come to an agreement. Get ready to retell your text. ^ 3) home groups. ТеМ your group mates what you’ve read. While lis- tening to your group mates, fill in the gaps in the article about national parks. The first C It was C national park appeared in '* more than ( ') park appeared in the USA in In Britain the first ?. Now there are J. ^ parks in the USA and C parks in England and Wales, The aim of the national ). and let people C parks is to protect C plants, ( h and birds. One of the most interest-.ng parks in the USA is the Everglades in ~). Water birds, (.. ) are protected in the Everglades. The Lake District is the ( ) national park in Britain. It is one of the most C Britain. It has the t ) lake and the C 3 places in mountain in England. 2. ^ in the whole class. What have you learnt about the national parks in the USA and Britain? ^ ^^/ww.us-national-parks.net • www.nationalparks.gov.uk • www.wildrussia.org/html/tour.htm 3. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 5. u NEXT LESSON IS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON § EL What are your friends like? (AB ex. 1) 4. Ted and Tracy are talking about their friends, E9 1) Who are their friends? Is it important for Ted and Tracy where their friends live? (listening for detail) ELF^ 2) Who are you best friends with? Is it important for you where your friends live? My best friend ... He/She ... We ... Also, ... Sometimes ... I (don’t) think that ... because Activity book ex. 2. Unit 5 86 Lesson 1 Lesson at makes a good friend? 1. People have different opinions on friends and friendship. ^ 1) Here is a poem by Mark Santos, a teenager, does Mark characterize friends and friendship? For me a friend is a person who cares. For me a friend is a person who shares, A person who is honest and fair, A friend is someone who is always there. Friendship is a feeling^ that lasts forever. And a true friend betrays you never. i. 2) What grammar structures are used in the poem to describe a true friend and nendship? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. 2 in tocusGZZSSCE ------------ Relative clauses with who/that/which Придаточные определительные с союзными словами (который/которая/которое/которые) в качестве подлежащих в придаточных определительных предложениях союзные слова who/that/which могут выполнять роль подлежащего. Если мы описываем человека, мы используем придаточные определительные предложения с союзными словами who или that. Если мы описываем предмет, мы используем придаточные определительные предложения с союзными словами which или that. Например; Му friend is а person who is always there for me. Мой друг — человек, который всегда готов прийти мне на помощь. Friendship is а feeling which/that can last forever. Дружба ~ это чувство, которое может длиться вечно. GS р. 205 3) Do you agree with how Mark describes a true friend and friendship? a feeling [Tdiri] — чувство Unit 5 Lesson 2 87 ^ i (■! ■ i! 2> S Your classmates and you can also have your own opinions on friends and friendship. What do you think about friends and friendship? Friendship is a feeling A true friend is a person Friends are people who which that (is/are) honest/fair/... can keep secrets. can rely on one another. (is/are) always there for you. (can/cannot) last forever, make up quickly, never fall out over little things, often get together and have fun. turn to one another for help, will never betray (you). make(s) you happy. 3. Pete Payne is the character in the book The Diary of a Teenage Health Freak.* Here are some notes from his diary. S 1) Who does Pete write about in his diary? What are his notes about? ■ч-сТаг; si'n kenQge This diary writer’s Name — Pete Payne. 14 years old. Nickname — “Know It Ail Pete.” Hobbies — watching TV, worrying about myself, teasing my younger sister. Personality* — shy, unattractive to girls, afraid of life, bad at sport; doing my homework before watching TV. • My older sister. Name — Sally. Personality — bossy, and will do anything for money (she wants to buy a motorbike). • My younger sister. Name — Susie Jane. Personality — worries what her friends will think of her family, enjoys shopping. • My best friend. Name — Sam Sproggs. Personality — crazy about bicycles, attractive to girls, tries to be original but isn’t, gets more pocket money than me. • Pet — eat (Sally’s). Name — Bovril. Age — 14 months and losing all her hair. • My house. Three bedrooms and a shoebox for Susie. • My room. Books everywhere. 1 *il(iai ivb iiilt: 2) Can you say the following about Pete Payne? What can you add? The diary’s writer is a boy who has a nickname “Know It All Pete”. He lives in the room which looks like a library; books are everywhere. 3) Describe the other people and things in Pete's diary. 4) Write down a few notes about your family and friends. Exchange these notes with your classmates. Tell the class about what you’ve learnt from the notes. 4, Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 1. * a personality [,p3:sa'naebti] — личность, индивидуальность Unit 5 88 Lesson 2 Lesson you ште any problems' with your Jr l ends? 1, In Great Britain, there are a lot of newspapers and magazines to which teenagers write letters about their problems, ^ 1) What problems do Brendan and Jessica write about? • • My Mum does not let my sister and me use the Internet. She thinks that the Internet is a thing that we can do without. But we can’t! What should we do? Brendan ie ... I go to a great school. But I’ve just started a new class, and I haven’t got a friend who I could play with. What would you advise? Jessica ^ 2) What do Brendan and Jessica write about the problems that are worrying :r»em? = 3) What grammar structures do they use to describe the thing and the person Uhat are worrying them? Read the rule and check. in focus Relative clauses with who/that/which Придаточные определительные предложения с союзными словами (который/которая/которое/которые) в качестве дополнения в придаточных определительных предложениях союзные слова who/that/which с предлогами и без предлогов могут использоваться в качестве дополнения: i’ve got а friend who I am never bored with. У меня есть друг, с которым мне никогда не скучно. I have some secrets which I cannot share with mv friends. У меня есть секреты, которыми я не могу поделиться со своими друзьями. Союзные слова who/that/which, используемые в придаточном предложении в качестве дополнения, можно опустить: Му friend is а person who I can always relv on. или My friend is a person i can always rely on. qS p. 205 Unit 5 89 Lesson 3 I 2. What do you think about people and things around you? would like to make friends with, can/can’t rely on. do not want to talk about, fall out over with my parents, can/can’t share my secrets with, can/can’t turn to for help, ain/are (never/always) bored with. make(s) my/our parents feel upset, (don’t) like to get together with, can learn something new from. 1, I’ve got a brother/a sister ; My classmates are people I’ve got some friends My parents are people who we 1 I’ve got some problems which I ; I like reading books Our neighbours are people I’ve got a pet The Internet is a thing Sometimes I get marks that 3. Laura and Phil are a sister and a brother. Are Laura and Phil friends? What do they say about each other? a new thing a wrong number something new anything wrong , • Laura says that her brother Phil is a person who she is never bored with. * Phil says that his sister Laura is a person who he can always rely on. I can learn a lot of new things from him. I can always rely on Laura. I’m never bored with Phil. I can’t do without my sister. I like getting together with my brother. I get on well with Laura. I always turn to him for help. I try not to fall out with Laura. I am always there for my brother. I can share all my secrets with her. 4. [|Sl ^ Group work. Game “Letters to the editor”. 5. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 2. Unit 5 90 Lesson 3 Lesson Г tl ОШ гшие many friends ж got? 1 According to the survey you can make 360 friends during your life - but only 6 of -em will be your true friends. 1) Ted, Joy and EJIen are speaking about their friends. Oo ail of them think that “the more friends the better”^? (listening for the main idea) = 2) How many friends have Ted, Joy and Ellen got? Ted: Most of my friends are my classmates. They are nice people who I’m never bored with. We are true friends, I can rely on them and I am always there for my friends. Let’s take Jack. He’s honest and he can keep secrets. It's very important in a friend, I think. Phil has a wonderful sense of humour and we often have fun together. Jessica is the smartest girl in our class! I can always turn to her for help if I’ve got a problem. With Mike we go to sports class and I help him to play football better. We often get together. Sometimes we fall out over silly things but we make up quickly. for revision most/most of most of my friends most of them most of all most friends GS p. 191 — 192 Joy: My only^ friend’s name is Linda. She is my neighbour and we spend a lot of time together. I tell her all about myself. Sometimes we fall out with her over little things but in a day or two we are good friends again. There are a lot of things that we both like -music, shopping, reading books about animals ... But most of all we like playing with our pets! I find it really important that you have one person in your life that you can be absolutely yourself with. I feel that I can always turn to her if I am upset. A lot of friends take a lot of time. We are two and we are happy. more friends the better »л1у a — единственный — чем больше друзей, тем лучше Unit 5 п Lesson 4 91 We both like music. We are both happy Ellen: I haven’t got a brother or a sister. My best friend Nancy lives in another city now and there is no one of my age I could make friends with. I haven’t got a dog or a cat, either. Of course, I mix with my classmates at school. But classmates and true friends are not one and the same thing. With a friend you can share all your problems and secrets. It’s important to have anyone who you can turn to for help or advice. I’m sure that people cannot do without friends. 3) What have you learnt about Ted, Joy, Ellen and their friends? have & have got I have/have got a friend. We have fun together. GS p. 196 •••• • What does Ted like his friends for? • What do Ted and his friends like doing together? • Do Ted and his friends ever fall out? • Is Joy happy with her only friend Linda? • How do Joy and Linda spend their time together? • What does Joy like about Linda most of all? • Why hasn’t Ellen got any friends in the city she lives in now? • Has Ellen got any friends among her classmates? • What does she think about having a true friend? 2. mm What do Ted, Joy and Ellen think about the importance of having friends? Do you agree with their opinions or not? Why? Unit 5 Lesson 4 3. Щ Can friends make you happy? How many friends can make you happy? ^ad Learning to learn note No 2. I think ... • I’m sure that ... • I hope ... First of all ... • It’s important that ... • In fact ... Besides, ... • The more ... the better ... • What is more -4. Щ Which of the following statements do you agree/disagree with? Why? Friends et school are a waste of йше; уоч to school to learn. A Jot of frfend, " « waste of time. People cannot do without friends. O. Activity book ex, 1. A.11 Hbout ITIG, My best friend. (AB No 7) NEXT LESSON IS A READING LESSON, y" 'J Unit 5 93 Lesson 4 с и !лШ we be pen friends with you? 1. Nowadays a lot of children from different countries go on exchange trips to Great Britain. On his exchange tour, Oleg from Russia made friends with Mike. Ш 1) What does Oleg suggest' to Mike on his last day in Britain? (listening for specific information) § 2) What do Oleg and Mike want to swap^ e-mail addresses for? Use the word box to find out how people can make suggestions and say that they are ready to do something. Oleg: I say, Mike, we’ve got on well with you for a month. Why don’t we swap e-mail addresses and become pen fTiendsl Mike: Why not? I thought about it as well. Oleg: We might e-mail each other and share our opinions about films, books, and school — anything! Mike: Sure. Oleg: And how about coming to Russia sometime? Mike: I’d be happy to come. Thanks. SUGGESTING How about coming to Russia one day? Как насчёт того, чтобы приехать когда- нибудь в Россию? You could correct my letters. Ты мог бы исправлять ошибки в моих письмах. We might (as wed) cad each other. Мы могли бы (также) звонить друг другу. Why don't we call Andrew? Почему бы нам не позвонить Эндрю? SAYING YOU ARE READY TO DO SOMETHING I’d be happy to do it. Я бы с удовольствием (сделал(а) это). No problem. Нет проблем. (Согласен. Согласна.) OK./Sure. Конечно. Why not? Почему бы и нет? ' to suggest [sa'cfeest] — предлагать ^ to swap (also to swop) — менять, обменивать(ся) 94 Unit 5 Lesson 5 £ 3) What are some other ways of expressing suggestion and saying that you are ■«аеу to do something? 5^4) Replace the highlighted expressions in the dialogue by those that fit from word box. Act out the dialogues. 2. ИГч What will you say to your foreign friends’ suggestions? (listening for il) 3. Гя Role play, In his letters, Kevin, a character in the story Some Friend!, makes 1 ’^>v suggestions to Dodie who he wanted to make friends with, Mhat conversation could take place between Dodie and Kevin? Read Learning to earn note No 9. Pupil card 1 j You are Kevin. You make the following suggestions to □odte; • to come to your house and look at the oond with all the frogs. • to show Dodie your tree fort. • to share your sandwich with Dodie. .... ' Pupil card 2 J You are Dodie. You are ready to accept Kevin’s suggestions: • to come to Kevin’s house and look at the pond but you are afraid of frogs. • to see Kevin’s tree fort. • to take Kevin’s sandwich because you forgot your lunch at home. -4. Activity book ex. 1. Unit 5 Lesson 5 Lesson О ^J Why do children ~ from different court tries make friends? 1. Jigsaw reading, children from different countries communicate in different ways to better understand one another. Read Learning to learn note No 5. # www.bbc.co.uk/worldclass/twinning.shlml • www.iss.edu S home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) and answer the questions. A Lizzie from Great Britain goes to a school which is twinned with another school in West Africa, a) What does Lizzie write about her pen friend in another country? My school is twinned' with ал mternational school in West Africa. We are swapping work projects with African children. We want to learn the things that African children learn and what life in Africa is like. I have got a great pen friend at this school. Her name is Shannen. We communicate^ by e-mail. I’ve learnt a lot of interesting things from Shannen: about the festivals her family celebrates, about their traditions and everyday life. Her language, religion^ and lifestyle^ are absolutely different but we understand each other very well. It is really important to have a friend in another country. It helps to learn more about other cultures and traditions. ^ to be twinned — зд, иметь дружеские связи to communicate [ks'mjumken] — общаться ®a religion [ri'Lidjaii] — религия '* a lifestyle — образ жизни SL b) Get ready to talk about Lizzie and her pen friend to your expert group mates. What is it like to have a pen friend in another country? Lizzie goes to school which They ... because ... Lizzie has got ... 1 They ... Lizzie has learnt ... She thinks it’s important .. because S Ei c) in the text find three reasons why it is important to have pen friends in other countries. t жни—I 96 Unit 5 Lesson 6 3 Here is Harriet’s report about the children who Harriet goes to an international school with, a) Does Harriet like going to an international school? Why? There are 30 children in our class and 10 of them are from different countries. It’s really interesting to have so many people from all around the world in one school. Everyone has different religions,^ lifestyles,^ families and stories to tell. We are all different but we all get on well. We communicate^ every day and I have learnt a lot about their religions. I have also learnt about their cultures from festivals and performances which are organised at our school. I advise an international school to everyone. They make you understand how big the world is and how many people live on the planet we call home. They help you to understand that we are all different and at the same time we are much alike. * a religion [n'licfean] — религия - a lifestyle ~ образ жизни *to communicate [ka'mjunikeit] — общаться b) Get ready to talk about international schools to your expert group mates. What s it like to go to an international school? Harriet goes to ... There are ... and .. Everyone has ... They ... Harriet has learnt ... International schools ~ SI c) In the text find three reasons why it is Important to go to an international chool. . Here is the story of Carrie Ann who with other young people from different countries lok part in a cross-cultural’ project. 1 a) What was the cross-cultural project like? I’ve taken part in a cross-cultural project. I spent a week in the Lake District.* I was happy to communicate^ with 24 young people from different countries. There was a great choice of activities which we could take part in — from rock climbing to jumping in an ice-cold lake at seven in the morning! This project helped us to know each other better and understand more about each others’ religions^ and lifestyles.^ By sharing different experiences we have leamt a lot about each other’s cultures. 1 think it is better than reading a book in a classroom. We have swapped e-mail addresses and telephone numbers. I believe that we have not only learnt a lot of different things but we have made great friends. cross-cultural — межкультурный to communicate [ka'mjimikeit] — общаться a religion [n'licJjan] — религия a lifestyle — образ жизни Unit 5 97 Lesson 6 1 ЕЬ b) Get ready to talk to your expert group mates about Carry Ann’s cross-cultural experience. What did she get out from the experiences? Carrie Aim has taken part in There were ... She was happy to ... This project helped ... Carrie Ann and her new friends They have not only ... but ... S EL c) In the text find three reasons why it is important to take part in cross-cultural projects. Fq EL 2) In expert groups. • Compare your answers for tasks a), b) and c). Come to an agreement about these points. • Get ready to retell in detail the story you’ve read. • List the reasons why it is important to communicate with people from different countries. ^ BS In home groups. • Retell the stories you have prepared to your teammates. • List the reasons why it is important to make friends with people from different countries. • While listening to your classmates check if they gave the following reasons: — to learn more about other countries and other people; — to learn how to get on with people of different cultures; — to understand that people from other cultures are different but much alike; — to better understand different cultures, religions and lifestyles; — to understand that the planet is our home and that we must get on with one another. 2. EL S ^ In the whole class. What can help children from different countries to better understand one another and to get on with one another? Complete the story below. Children go to schools which are twinned with C ) with one another. They swap C They make C 3 who they C Э with by e-mail. t: -Г 98 “"1- ' Unit 5 Lesson 6 They learn a lot of interesting things about C 3, c D and 3. Children go to ( Every day they C D schools. ) with children who have different C 3, and lifestyles. Children take part in d 3 projects. They communicate with one another C 'PS. They also take part in different ( 3 different stories and experi- 3. Any cross-cultural communication helps children from different countries: TO know what life is like in different countries; Ш learn (~ ): — ' 3 and how C ): to understand how d to understand that CT J and C 3. r. u NEXT LESSON tS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON. (AB p. 69) Unit 5 99 Lesson 6 I- ; I ; : Lesson Project 'ie rt r i 1. EL Choose a project you’d like to do. Read Learning to learn note No 7 ’ www.cyberparent.com/friendship An ideal friend V, . • Draw a portrait of an ideal friend. • Make the necessary captions. • Get ready to explain and give examples. My classmates are frie • Draw your classmates’ portraits who you are friends with. • Make the necessary captions. • Write about five things that show that you are friends. • Illustrate your ideas with photos and drawings. nas '^My foreign friend • Write about your foreign (pen) friend. • Write about five things that show that you are friends. • Get ready to describe your friend’s personality. • Give reasons why it is important to have foreign (pen) friends. • Illustrate your ideas with photos and drawings. 2. Щ Present your project and answer your classmates' questions to explain your choice and ideas. 3. Гч Discuss your projects and decide which project is the best. ^ — Unit 5 100 Lesson 7 Lesson 'I'eot У "%Jy_our. LISTENING COMPREHENSION (AB-I) READING COMPREHENSION (AB-II) 5 URF OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) (AB-III) SPEAKING 1. Hole play. You are talking to your foreign friend. He/She asks you about some ’T'er friend(s) you’ve got, M^at conversation could take place between your friend and you? .......... Pupil card 1 J You are talking to your foreign friend. You begin the conversation. Remember to: • ask who he/she makes friends with; • ask about his/her friend's personality; • ask what they do together; • ask what he/she likes his/her friend for; • answer your friend’s questions. Pupil card Your friend asks you questions about some other friends you’ve got. Answer your friend’s questions and: • give examples of your friendship; • say how long your friendship lasts; • explain why you are friends; • ask your partner questions about his/her friend(s). Unit 5 101 Lesson 8 2* Oral report. There is a very nice tradition among American and British kids. They swap friendship bracelets. This tradition comes from Indians — Native Americans. When kids swap friendship bracelets they show how much they like their friends. Who do you want to make friendship bracelets for? Why? You have to talk for two minutes. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some questions. .A WRITING (AB-IV) EL CULTURAL AWARENESS (AB-V) NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS FROM UNIT 5 Lesson 1 to be there (for sb) to betray to fall out {with sb over sth) forever to get together (can) keep a secret to last to make friends (with sb) to make up a neighbour quickly to rely (on sb) a sense of humour true to turn to (sb for sth) Lesson 2 a feeling a personality* Lesson 4 absolutely only (an ~ friend) Lesson 5 a pen friend to suggest* to swap Lesson 6 to be twinned (with) to communicate cross-cultural a lifestyle a religion Reading lesson to challenge* to forgive* mean* (a ' person) a purpose (on ~*) to smell* Reader almost* to belong* confident* even* just* {adv) quite* (adv) so* (adu) still* (adv) though* (adv) too* (- small) Answer the questions. 1) How many new words and word combinations from Unit 5‘ do you know? 2) Which words do we use to talk about friends? 3) Which words do you use to talk about things a true friend must do? 4) Which words do we use to talk about an international friendship? m SELF-ASSESSMENT (AB-VI) Read Learning to learn note No 8. C 102 Unit 5 Lesson 8 ;, ... ff>> J S' ^■^■...------------^..... _ "У"'*" "J. m-ii I agree that the London Tube map can be the icon of England. The map is easy to use, indeed.’ But I don’t think that the London Tube can best represent England. The Tube is not always safe to travel on! I agree with those who have voted for Wimbledon.* The Wimbledon tennis tournament is the only one that is played on grass. Wimbledon is exciting to watch and that is why tickets are always very difficult to get. J 2) What grammar structures do Olivia and Matt use to express what they think of the London Tube, the Tube map and Wimbledon? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. ^rOrnff^Cif in focus L. Adjective + infinitive Прилагательное + неопределённая форма глагола Если мы оцениваем человека или предмет, мы используем конструкцию adjective + infinitive с оценочными прилагательными; easy / boring / hard / nice / difficult / possible / good / interesting / safe / dangerous / expensive / cheap / exciting / beautiful / comfortable и т. п. Например: This game is interesting (for children) to play. В эту игру (детям) интересно играть. GS р. 203 indeed 108 действительно Unit 6 Lesson 2 woBt> МШ в\Л1Д)Ша Prefixes im + possible = impossible in + expensive - inexpensive un + easy = uneasy un + interesting = uninteresting un + safe - unsafe un + exciting = unexciting un + comfortable - uncomfortable 2> S Visitors to the website "Icons of England” do not only vote for other people’s .лоюе but they can make their own choice. What items do some British people vote for? What is special about these items? Match the two parts and the pictures on p. 110. # www.icons.org.ru 1) My choice is fish and chips.* 2i Cottage gardens are recognized as part of our culture. 3i I love the British weatherl 4i rd like to include Madame Tussaud’s Museum.* a) I vote for Alice's Adventures "iVonderland* by Lewis Carroll.* in 61 I vote for the Oxford English Dictionary! t) A traditional cup of tea! a) It is a typically English dish. I think that fish and chips is necessary for every visitor to the UK to try! b) The book is a significant part of British culture. It is very exciting for both children and adults to read. c) They are not easy to look after but they are absolutely marvellous! d) It is very interesting to talk about because it is always changing! e) British everyday life is impossible to imagine^ without afternoon tea. f) It has been around for more than 200 years. The collection of life-size figures of famous people is exciting to look at, indeed. g) It is made up of 20 books and includes 5,000,000 English words! The Dictionary is necessary for every English language lover to have and use. to imagiiie [I'mECctjin] — П1№дставлять, воображать Unit 6 109 Lesson 2 [;' 3. Here are the top six British items that have achieved global status. I 1) Why are these items popular all over the world? Describe each item. The Beatles music is very nice to listen to. And the words are easy for English language learners to understand. 1) The Beatles* music 2) Harrods* department store 3) English football* 4) The Harry Potter books 5) Cadbury* chocolate 6) Cheddar cheese* necessary for every tourist to London to visit. easy to buy both in the UK and in other countries. interesting to read, exciting to watch, nice to eat with hot tea. very nice to listen to. a) And the words are easy for English language learners to understand. b) You can learn a lot of exciting things from them. c) It is one of the most popular cheeses in the UK and it has been copied in many countries. d) But the shopping is very expensive there. e) Football matches are more exciting to watch at the stadiums like’ the Millennium Stadium* in Wales. f) The most popular Cadbury chocolate is Cadbury Dairy Milk. ’ like — такой (такая/такие), как 110 Unit 6 Lesson 2 u 2} Are any of the top British items popuiar in your country? Why? 4. Ш ^ British children are sharing their opinions on some famous Russian items, Agree or disagree with their opinions and give reasons or exampies. Oisfentng for oetaii) r revision Articles •••• Russian folk tales the folk tales of Russia GS p, 188 I, — I think that it’s interesting to read Russian folk tales ^ales^^ — Oh, yes. Russian folk tales are very interesting to read, indeed. I personally, like folk tales about animals most of all. _____ ■ ■ ■ ^ _ V O. Activity book ex. 1, 2. Reader ex. 3. Unit 6 111 Lesson 2 Ш t 4. : "' t' : ~- л 'r^/мгr•'Jr/t^Ш^?■?i et +' ' (I J I ' ■'"’i/ '- . i--. U '/ j'. ,, i 'W 1* There are different reasons why Britons have voted for one item as the icon of 1 England and have not voted for another one. i Ql 1) What items do Linda, Paul and Mike express their opinions on? (listening for specific information) 2) Do Linda, Paul and Mike agree with the choice some British people have made? Paul: r m sure that the British have only voted for the items that they like moat of all. They have chosen fish and chips. Terrific! The dish is very tasty and has been around for many years. The dish is not very healthy to eat every day but we do! As to Wimbledon, I’m all for it. The Wimbledon tournament is one of the highlights people enjoy every summer. Let’s take the Harry Potter books. They are very exciting to read, indeed. To many, Harry Potter is something they can’t do without. I think that people’s choice is a matter^ of taste and nothing else. Mike: I think that people vote for this or that thing not because they personally like it or not. I’m sure that people vote for traditional items that have been around for many years. They vote for the things that are recognized as part of our culture and our history, for the most significant or most typical items. They vote for what is great in the country, for what best represents Britain. The items people have voted for are easily recognized as the British ones all over the world. And it does not matter^ what country they come from. for revision Substitution: one/ones The London Tube is the largest one. The items are easily recognized as the British ones. GS p. 192 * a matter n — дело ■ to matter v — иметь значение 112 Unit 6 Lesson 3 Linda: I don’t think that the British have always made a proper choice. To many, fish and chips is the icon of England which they can’t live without. But I personally have not voted for it. Why? Because the “chip” is not British. It is Belgian. Many people have voted for tea. But tea is not British, either. It came from India! Most British people are crazy about football and they have voted for it. OK, football is British. But I don’t like football. Why should I vote for it? 3) Which of the children (Paul, Linda, or Mike) expressed the following ideas? Prove it from the sto--ves. I ’eople vote for the items that: ■ they like best of all. * :nost people like and can’t do without. ■. do not come from other countries. • are not enjoyed by everyone. ( are traditional and typical of the country. > best represent the country they live in. 2. It is not easy for people to choose an icon could best represent their country. nfhat makes people make a choice? Read Learning to learn note No 3. I think, ... • Let’s take ..., for example. Besides, ... • To many, ... • I’m sure that ... I agree that ... • It’s (not) good when ... It’s a matter of ... • It does not matter ... • It’s important 3. Which of the following items will you vote for as the icon(s) of Russia? Sive reasons. — www.justrussia.ru 4. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 4. Unit 6 Lesson 3 Т № Lessaji л Ь-Гг / t.i. у а ,,а/Ь^ё Л.Р е а taL ■:РГ ,л Г 't t/i г е^} ' г е с :■ you ^LWB in'^ 1. There’s a lot for a Russian tourist to see in London. Julia has just begun discovering London. Robert, who lives in London, is her guide for today. 09 1) Which of the pieces of street furniture are Robert and Juiia talking about? (listening for specific information) Q 2) What do Julia and Robert say to approve of each other’s suggestions? Use the word box to find out how people say that they approve. Robert: What would you like to see first, Julia? Julia: Everything. But right now I’d like to look around liere. Robert: I’m all for it! There are lots of interesting things to look at. Why don’t we have a look at a pillar box, for example? Julia: Yes, it seem.s just fine. Robert; The first pillar boxes appeared in 1853. This pillar box appeared when Queen Victoria* was on the th?-one. The letters VR on the box mean Victoria Regina. It’s Latin for Queen Victoria. If you want to send a letter, there are over 100,000 pillar boxes for you. Julia: That's very good! Robert: What shall we see next? ... 114 Unit 6 Lesson 4 — 3) What are some other ways to say that you approve? SAYING THAT YOU APPROVE КАК СКАЗАТЬ, ЧТО ВЫ ОДОБРЯЕТЕ ЧТО-ЛИБО tt seems just fine. Кажется, это как раз то, что надо. (Yes), that’s very goocfl (Да), очень хорошо! I’m alt for its Я целиком за! H’s just what I wanted. Это как раз то, что я хотел (а). = 4) Replace the expressions in the conversation with those that fit from the ey agree; iBTey partly agree, lammad: I don’t think it’s great to be famous because famous people are not ‘ree persons. r I know that many people think so but famous people are free to go anywhere md to do what they want. cnammad: Agreed, but vei*y often photographers chase them around, r How true. Once I saw a popular singer who was doing the shopping and photographers made her leave the shop. 3) What are some other ways of saying you agree or partly agree? SAYING YOU AGREE -ow true. absolutely agree, ’m with you there. Верно, Я совершенно согласен (согласна). Я с тобой согласен (согласна). SAYING YOU PARTLY AGREE ^s, maybe, but ... A-greed, but ... but on the other hand ... Да, может быть, но ... Согласен (согласна), но ... Да, но с другой стороны ... ^ 4) Replace the highlighted expressions in the talk with those that fit from the OT>rd box. Act out the talk. 2. s 1 ) Read what some people say about being popular. Say if you agree ar partly agree. Support the ideas with the statements from the right column. — There are good moments in being pop-,mr, — It’s not good to have many fans. — Neighbours of some actors and singers i_re not happy. — Some fans always chase famous actors or singers around. — In their letters to popular people some fans ask for very expensive things for themselves. Unit 7 135 Lesson 5 — There are bad things in being popular, — All popular people are very busy. — Young and unknown singers are free to go anywhere. — Some fans are not polite. — People don’t recognize* young singer*. — People give gifts and flowers to popi.'-lar actors, sportsmen or singers, — They don’t have time to enjoy thenH selves. — The fans of these actors and singers ar> noisy^ and leave litter. 2) Think of good and bad moments in the lives of popular actors, singers or sports^ men and write your statements. ^ 3) Ря1г work. Come out with your statements. Agree or partly agree with your group mates. 3* Activity book ex. 1. * to recognize ['rekagnaiz] — узнавать ^ noisy ['n3[Z[] — шумный J 136 ^ Unit 7 Lesson 5 LessVi How to famous? 1, Jig'Saw reading'. Famous people came to their fame in different ways, ^ead Learning to learn note No 5. ^ 1) In home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) and do the task. Make up a story about the life of the famous person using the outline. ... was bom and grew up* ... ... worked ... ... his/her ambition was ... ... was the person who/whose ... He/She ... ... it helped him/her to achieve a lot and made him/her famous. i Mark Twain was a talented writer and wrote some of the funniest stories in the world. His real name was Samuel Clemens. He was bom in 1835 and grew _p in the little town of Hannibal, Missouri. When Sam was twelve his father Unit 7 137 I Lesson 6 died. The shock changed him and be became a different boy. He stopped his iit-tle-boy games and thought about his mother’s hard work and money problems. He had to help his mother. Sam went to work in his brother Orion’s printing shop.^ At that time Sam began to write Hmny stories and took the name Mark Twain. Mark Twain had to change many jobs. He worked hard and visited many places in the USA. His experience and talent helped him to write his funny stories and people in America began to read and like what he wrote, and soon his stories became popular all over the world. ^ to grow up ['grau 'лр] — становиться взрослым printing ['pnntii]] .shop — печатная мастерская В Henry Ford was a man whose ideas changed the world. He was born in 1863 on a farm near Detroit, USA. But he didn’t want to live on the farm because he hated farming and he liked cars. When he was 16, he went to Detroit to work in a workshop. He worked hard and learnt how to use different machines. He began his experiments with machines and in 1896 he built his first car. In 1903, when H. Ford was 40, he started the Ford Motor Company. At that time the car was expensive for ordinary people. Henry Ford decided to change the situation. He was the first to use an assembly line^ and in 1908 the company made a car that many people could buy. The assembly line was a revolution in cars making. ^ to grow up ['grau ',\p] — становиться взрослым ^ an assembly {a'sembli] line — сборочный конвейер 138 Unit 7 Lesson 6 - ^ ___________ С Evtingeline Booth was born in London on Christinas Day in 1865 and since her ■!::;L*.dhood slie wanted to be like her father, William Booth.* The Booth home was Д place of good actions and wonderful ideas for helping others, William Booth tr-.ed to give the poorest people food and to get jobs for them. He started the Salvation Army.* Evangeline was only thirteen when she came to work in the Salvation Army. F^ple called her the “White Angel”. She raised money for poor people, support-bt: needy people and brought them food. Many workers of the Salvation Army vent to other countries and Evangeline came to the USA and made the Army a Жlэng organisation there. President Woodrow Wilson* gave her a medal for her V >rk. Then she came back to London and became the world leader of the r,ilvation Army. to grow up ['grou 'лр] — становиться взрослым ^ 2) In export g^roups. Compare your answers for the task. Come to an agreement. Get ready to retell your classmates the text, ЩТ, 3) In home groups. Retell your group mates the text you have read. Shile listening to your group mates, make up two more stories according to the mrtline. 2. ^ In the whole cluss. discuss what helped Mark Twain, Henry Ford arid Evangeline Booth to become famous. 3. Reader ex. 4. 2 D NEXT LESSON IS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON. they feel about their hobbies? 3) What adjectives do the children use to describe different hobbies and their elings about them? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. O/'OjrY^WOf in focus -ing and -ed adjectives Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ing и -ed Когда мы описываем чувства, эмоции, которые вызывают какие-то предметы, люди, занятия, мы используем прилагательные с окончанием -ing; boring, exciting, thrilling, surprising, tiring и др. Когда мы описываем чувства людей, их состояния, мы используем прилагательные с окончанием -ed: bored, excited, thrilled, surprised, tired и др, 1 am interested in chess. It’s a very interesting game. Мне интересно играть в шахматы. Это очень интересная игра, GS р. 193 Unit 8 Lesson 2 147 Ё1 f j:r2, S Manv British schools organise different clubs for children to do their favourite activities in the evening or at holiday time. What do different children say about one and the same activity? Ш Why front ^ of the television? ^ It's boringi '' Г D ' rama Join our clubs! Linda says that the drama club is interesting, Helen says that she is interested in performing different roles at their school parties. Photography I ancittg Playing the guitar Drawing ' Florse-riding *.............................................• A^OtOSport ' C itmbmg' Linda; The drama club is interesting. Tom; Гш excited about horses. Robert: I'm thrilled about motorsport. Sue: I’m surprised that some people are bored with photography. Alex; I feel relaxed when I play the guitar. Steve: I took up climbing three months ago. And now I’m really excited about it. Mark: It’s thrilling to watch motor races and to take part in them. Josh: Climbing is a thrilling and challenging kind of sport. I’d like to take it up. Justin: Riding horses is very exciting and I’d like to take up a horse-riding club. Helen: I’m interested in performing different roles at our school parties. David: I think that playing a musical instrument is relaxing. I can play the guitar for hours. Judy: I don’t think that photography is a boring hobby. I find it very interesting. 3. Here are the results of the hobby survey among British children. 1) What is Dan’s opinion about the results of the survey? Use -ing or -ed adjectives. Most popular non-sporting hobby Collecting 72% (per cent [pa'sent]) Drama 66% Drawing Most popular collections Stamps 25% Stickers 19% Coins 15% Most popular musical instrument Piano 26% Guitar 25% Violin 12% Most popular sporting hobby Swimming 24% Football 20% Hockey 9% Top hobbies you’d like to take up Horse-riding 23 % Ice skating 15% Fishing 14% 148 Unit 8 Lesson 2 I’m not surprised (surprise) that collecting is the most popular non-sporting lobby. I think it’s exciting (excite) to collect and swap different things. I agree ihat the most (interest) kinds of collections are stamps and stickers. Besides, they easier to find than coins. I’m (surprise) that 26% of the children are (in in playing the piano. As for me, I find it (bore). It’s (interest) to learn swimming is the most enjoyable sport. I’m also mad about it and do it four times a week. I feel very (fire) after my swimming lessons but I’ll never give up ЯЧ-inming. I don’t understand why children aren’t (interest) in football and ice ' ting. Maybe this is because of their parents who think that these sports are ngerous and are (ivorry) abotit their children’s health? It’s (surprise) that only ■S3 • of the children are (thrill) about horse-riding. Horse-riding is an (excite) booby, indeed. f&U 2) What is your opinion about the results of the survey? 4. Щ Group work. Are you excited about the hobbies that British children are on? it out. Do a survey and make up a report. *1: What sport do you go in for? P2: What is your non-sporting hobby? What do you collect? ^4: What musical instrument do you play? What hobby do you want to take up? PI: The most popular sports that my classmates go in for are ... My classmates are also keen on ... ... pupils are excited about ... ... pupils find ... interesting. O. What were your hobbies at different ages? Why did you do them? When I was ... I took up ... because ... At the age of ... I gave up ... because ... Then I ... And now ... I think ... 6. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 2. NEXT LESSON IS A READING LESSON. (Reader ex. 3) Unit 8 149 Lesson 2 ! Lesson 4 What’s the best Sjf way not to waste way j time? 150 Unit 8 1. Some British children enjoy relaxing in their free time, some others prefer something that is challenging, Ю 1) Do Anna, Tom and Ben prefer relaxing or doing anything else in their free time? (listening for the main idea) § 2) What are the most enjoyable activities for Anna, Tom and Ben in their free time? Anna: I take lessons in Irish dancing. You might think that it is boring, but for me, there's nothing more enjoyable than dancing. It is really fun. I have a chance to travel to Canada and the States* to compete. The only thing that matters for me now is to win in the World Championship of Irish dancing. Гга going there this month. I'm excited about it. I think Irish dancing is a brilliant hobby and people should try it before they say it’s boring. Tom; When I come home from school I do nothing but relax because I'm very tired after a difficult day at school. I like sitting in front of the TV with popcorn. I'm a bit of a coach potato.* My favourite channel is MTV.* My Mum doesn’t like the way I spend time. She says that sitting in front of the TV is a waste of time. I don’t agree. We all work very hard at school and it’s fair to relax. More than that, I get a lot out of TV. There is notliing I don’t know aboiit my favourite groups. And it’s fun to be a fan! Ben: There’s one thing that you should do after school, it is going in for sport. Sport is not only enjoyable, but useful, because it makes you healthy. I’m mad about climbing and I spend every spare minute at the local climbing centre.* It’s a change from school. I took up climbing about 6 months ago and I was thrilled about it. The great thing about climbing is that you can become good at climbing quickly. It’s challenging and it makes me feel really strong. Besides, I’ve made lots of friends at the centre and I really enjoy it. Lesson 3 3) Why do the children like spending their free time in this way? Prove or correct the following statements, using their stories. j Anna takes up Irish dancing because she wants to win in the World Championship. • Anna is excited about dancing because she has a chance to travel. • Tom learns a lot from TV programmes. • Tom’s mother thinks that he needs to relax after school. • Tom doesn’t find watching TV boring. • Climbing makes Ben feel strong. • Ben made many friends at the climbing centre. For Ben, climbing is interesting and enjoyable. 4) Do the children waste their free time or spend it in a good way? What do you think? Explain your point of view. 2. What is free time for? What’s your opinion? Read Learning to learn note No 3. I think that free time is for relaxing. Ж I don’t is only think that free time for relaxing. The best way to spend free time is ... • Of course, it’s important ... But you should also ... As for me, I ... • I find it ... 3. Щ What do you think about the way you spend your free time? Do you waste or spend it in a good way? What do your parents think about it? 4, Activity book ex. 1. Unit 8 151 Lesson 3 Lesson What about watching a good film? 1. Linda and Susan are talking about their plans for the evening. SB 1) What will the girls do? (listening for specific information) @2) Linda suggests doing different things. Use the box and find in the dialogue how Susan: • refuses Linda’s suggestion; • accepts Linda’s suggestion. Linda: Susan, what are you going to do this evening? Jane and I are going to the cinema. Will you join us? Susan: I’d like to, but I’m performing at the drama club today. Linda: Really? What about going to a cafe on Friday then? Susan: That would be nice. I think I will take my sister, too. r revision Describing future actions What are you going to do this evening? Jane and I are going to the cinema, I will take my sister. to be going to Present Progressive Future Simple GS p. 197, 199 3) What are some other ways of accepting and refusing a suggestion? ACCEPTING A SUGGESTION I’d love to. Certainly. All right. That would be nice. Мне бы очень хотелось. Конечно. Хорошо. Согласен. Прекрасно. 152 Unit 8 Lesson 4 REFUSING A SUGGESTION Unfortumdedy, ... I’d like to, but ... I’m afraid I can’t. К сожалению, ... Я бы с удоеольствием, но ... Боюсь, что не смогу. ^ ^ 4) Replace the highlighted expressions in the dialogue with those that fit from the box. Act out the dialogue. 2. SB Role play. Your foreign friend suggests doing some activities. Accept or refuse his/her suggestions. If you refuse, explain why. 3. Щ Role play. You and your foreign friend are discussing plans for a Sunday afternoon. Pupil card 1 I You and your foreign friend are discussing plans for a Sunday afternoon. You begin the conversation. Suggest doing the following: • go to a swimming pool; • play tennis. Listen to your friend and accept his/her suggestion to play bovding. Explain why. • ’ Pupil card 2 | You and your foreign friend are discussing plans for a Sunday afternoon. Listen to your friend. Refuse his/her suggestions. Explain why. Suggest doing the following: * go on a trip to the countryside; • go to a sports centre and play bowling. 4. П S rq Group work. Game “Sunday afternoon”. (AB ex. 1) 5. ^ Activity book ex. 2, Reader ex, 5. Unit 8 153 Lesson 4 Lesson 1ЯПШШТт1Г>|ПГ^ How do teens from different countries spend their free time'/ 1. Jigsaw reading. Most schoolchildren from different countries have free time every day. Do children from Great Britain, America and Australia do similar activities after school? Read Learning to learn note No 5. 1) In home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) and do the task. S El A How do children in Great Britain spend their free time? Answer the questions. • What hobbies do children enjoy? • What sports do children go in for? • What do children do to earn money? • What clubs/organisations are most children involved into? In Great Britain most children spend their free time at home, watching TV or doing chores about the house. Or they may listen to music or read. Many children have hobbies. They are great collectors, they collect stamps, or postcards, or stickers of favourite footballers or pop stars. Young people hang out in streets and parks, visit town centres and go window shopping. ’ Many young people use some of their spare time to earn^ money by working in shops at weekends, delivering newspapers, helping in the yard or car washing for people in their community. Children are also involved in different clubs and organisations: they go to the Scouts,* Boys’ and Girls’ Brigades,* Children enjoy playing and watching different sports: football, rugby,* cricket,* swimming, horse-riding, tennis and many other games. ^ to go window shopping — рассматривать витрины ^ to earn [з;п] ■— зарабатывать SEL В How do children in the USA spend their free time? Answer the questions. • What hobbies do children enjoy? • What sports do children go in for? • What do children do to earn money? • What clubs/organisations are most children involved into? 154 Unit 8 Lesson 5 Children in the USA have a lot of interests. Both boys and girls play many of the same games. They swim, play baseball and basketball, go boating and camping.^ Youth organisations like the Boy Scouts,* the Girl Scouts* and the Boys’ Clubs of America* involve children in different activities. After school children take part in activities of different clubs. They join photography, music, art, stamp collecting, theatre and other clubs. Often schools have bands, choirs and sports for boys and girls. In farm areas children learn to work together in 4-H* clubs. Many children have part-time jobs after school hours. They eam^ money by delivering newspapers or helping to take care of elderly people in nursing homes. During the summer holidays children go to camps where they have lots of activities and learn different skills. H V ’ to go camping — ходить в поход ■ to earn [з:п] — зарабатывать El С How do children in Australia spend their free time? Answer the questions. What hobbies do children enjoy? What sports do children go in for? What do children do to earn money? What clubs/organisations are most children involved into? In Australia sports are an important part of many children’s life, with cricket,* football (soccer) and swimming being the most popular. Most children take part in after-school sports during the year. Most girls choose netball,* and boys often choose rugby* or cricket. Children prefer to spend a lot of time chatting online with their friends or hanging out at the beach. After school many children also do different chores about the house or they may earn* money by working at the local supermarket or fast-food restaurant. Thousands of Axistralian children join the Scouts* and Girl Guides* clubs where they learn different skills. ^ to earn [з;п] — зарабатывать Unit 8 155 Lesson 5 ЕЬ 2) In expert groups, compare your answers for the task and come to an agreement. Fill in the table with the information you have read. Get ready to retell the text. Great Britain The USA Australia Sports Hobbies Jobs Clubs/organisations Other activities Й S 3) In home groups. Retetl the text you have read to your group mates. Use the questions as an outline. While listening to your group mates fill in the table with the information about the chiidren’s free-time activities. 2, Щ In the whole class. How different or simiiar are chiidren’s after-schooi activities in Great Britain, America and Austraiia? 3> A.11 ubout me. What i itke doing and what i don’t like doing in my free time. (AB No 11) ^ scouts.org.uk • www.scouting.org • www,scouts.com.au nu NEXT LESSON iS A CONSOLlDATiON LESSON. (AB p. 111) 156 Unit 8 Lesson 5 Lesson Project lesson !• SI Choose a project you’d like to do. Read Learning to learn note No 7. My ideal weekend • Design a timetable of your ideal weekend. • Write about things you’d like to do and places you’d like to go to at the weekend. • Illustrate your ideas with pictures, photos and drawings. Write captions for them. our tree time • Write questions to find out your classmates’ popular free-time activities/hobbies. • Do a survey. • Put the results of the survey in writing, tables or graphs. • Illustrate your ideas with pictures, photos and drawings. hobby I’d like to tai Describe a hobby you’d like to take up. Explain your choice. Illustrate your ideas with pictures, drawings and captions. •i-.. 2. Щ Present your project and answer your classmates’ questions. 3k Щ Orscuss your projects and decide which project is the best. Unit 8 Lesson 6 157 Lesson Test yourself LISTENING COMPREHENSION (AB-I) В READING COMPREHENSION (AB-II) В USE OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) (AB-I SPEAKING X. Role play. You are at an international summer camp. You and your foreign friend are discussing how to spend the evening together. V Pupil card 1 I '''.... ■ ■ ■ i'" You and your foreign friend are discussing hov/ to spend the evening together. You begin the conversation. Suggest doing the following: • play netball; • take part in a drawing competition. Listen to your friend and accept his/her suggestion to take photos of the camp. Expiain why. Pupil card 2 | You and your foreign friend are discussing how to spend the evening together. Listen to your friend and refuse his/her suggestions. Expiain why. Suggest doing the foilowing: • cycie; • take photos of the camp. 158 Unit 8 Lesson 7 .J 2. Oral report, июк at the pictures. VWiich are your favourite hobbies/free-time activities? Why? Which activities wouici you like to take up? Why? You have to talk for one minute. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some questions. БЕ o. WRITING (AB-IV) CULTURAL AWARENESS (AB-V) Unit 8 159 Lesson 7 ф NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS FROM UNIT 8 Lesson 1 a cliange (from) a sticker to be fond of to be keen on to be mad about enjoyable relaxing a stamp thrilling to take up to hang out challenging to give up to get sth out of sth Lesson 2 per cent* surprising/surprised tiring/tired Reading lesson admission* Lesson 4 unfortunately certainly Lesson 5 to earn to go window shopping to go camping Reader a candle* to run out of* to talk out of** to turn on* neither* spooky* Answer the questions. 1) Which words do we use to describe free-time activities? 2) Which words and expressions do we use to express one’s likes? 3) Which words do we use to describe people’s feelings? 4) Which words are formed with the help of suffixes? 5) How many new words and word combinations from Unit 8 do you know? IS SELF-ASSESSMENT (AB-VI)___________________________________________ Read Learning to learn note No 8. 160 Unit 8 Lesson 7 L . I W;- ^ Lesson What do you know about the capital of your country? 1. Vocabulary. Ron and Fanny are telling their relatives about the trip to London. mm 1) What places did Ron and Fanny like in London? Use the word box to learn the meaning of the highlighted words. www.projectbritain.com Ron: London is an ancient city. Tlie Romans* founded it many centuries ago. They started it as a fortress. Later it became a town. In old times different people damaged and destroyed it. But skilful Londoners restored their city again and again, Fanny: Westminster Abbey* is magnificent! But I don’t know who designed that beautiful building, Ron: I liked St Paul’s Cathedral.* It’s the most important church of London. It is really big! Fanny: The East London mosque is oiie of the largest in tlie UK. I like it a lot! It’s beautiful! 162 Unit 9 Lesson 1 J Ron: The British Museum* and the National Gallery* house world masterpieces: rare paintini^s, ancient sculptures, unique books ami metal works of old masters. Fanny: I admired the Monument. Christopher Wren, a famous British architect, designed it to commemorate the Great Fire of London.* ancient f'einjhnt] — древний to found [Faund] — основынать as [kz] — как a fortress ['fo:tras] — крепость a gallery ['gselan] — галерея later ['leita] — позже to restore [n'sto:] — восстанавливать, реставрировать magnificent [mccg'nifisant] — великолепный, величественный to design [di'zam] — проектировать a building ['bildig] — здание, сооружение bo I a cathedral [ko'0i;dr3l] — кафедральный собор a church [tfa:!)] — церковь ! ^ a mosque [musk] — мечеть ' to house [haus] — вмещать(ся), поме-щать(ся) a masterpiece ['ma;st3pi:s] — шедевр rare [rea] — редкий a painting ['pcintiq] — картина unique (_iu'ni.k] — уникальный a master ['ma:st3] — мастер a monument r'mnnjumant] — памятник 2) What did you learn about London? Decide if the following sentences are true, false or unstated according to the story. 1) The Romans founded London two centuries ago. 2) The Romans began London as a fortress. 3) Later London became a town. 4) Very good masters restored the city again and again. 5) The magnificent building of Westminster Abbey houses rare paintings and unique books. 6) Christopher Wren designed Westminster Abbey. 7) St Paul’s Cathedra] is a big church. 8) There are a lot of masterpieces in the National Gallery and in the British Museum. 9) The Great Fire of London is commemorated in the Monument. Unit 9 Lesson 1 163 2. In your culture. Moscow, the capital of the Russian Federation, has a long and interesting history. В 1) Who contributed to building and decorating Moscow? What do you think? Match. ' I think/1 know Prince Yuri Dolgoruky founded Moscow in the twelfth century. | Prince Yuri Dolgoruky* Russian masters The Russian architect Konstantin Thon* Andrei Chokhov, a skilful master, Barma and Postnlk Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov* The architect Nikolai Zhukov m 2) Listen to check. designed and built the Moscow Mosque in 1904. designed and built St Basil’s Cathedral.* designed the Grand Kremlin Palace.* founded Moscow in the twelfth century, redecorated the Uspensky Cathedral in 1642— 1643. designed and made the Tsar Bell.* founded one of the best galleries of Russian paintings. 3} What articles are used with the nouns that mean professions and buildings? Look at the examples in ex. 2.1) and explain the rule. , - QfOfy)WQf revision 1 ••••• Articles the Russian architect Konstantin Thon the Uspensky Cathedral Andrei Chokhov, a skilful master St Basil’s Cathedral GS p. 189—190 AB ex. 1 164 Unit 9 Lesson 1 3. S In your culture. 1) What can you tell your foreign friends about Moscow? Use the words from the box. buildings • masters • cathedrals • churches • design * fortress ^ founded • galleries • house • later • magnificent • masterpieces | paintings * rare • restored / c The Tretyakov Gallery D The Pushkin Museum Yuri Dolgoruky Moscow ___^ Moscow in 1147. t_ protect it. After wars and a t _______ to protect it. After wars and 3 it and built new homes for themselves. There were a lot of ______ in old Moscow. Moscow Tsars asked Italian architects _ Russian Tsars made fires the Muscovites D them. Italian and Russian architects created beautiful to and painters decorated them with wonderful frescos.* The building of the Uspensky Cathedral is _ ~ ! have d Э, ancient books Today Moscow museimis and ^__ Western European _______ and I things: Russian and metal works of famous world C _J. The famous Pushkin Museum* and the Tretyakov Gallery ______ . Moscow is famous for its sights. 2) Which sight in Moscow do you like best? Why? 4. Activity book ex. 2. Reader ex. 1. Unit 9 Lesson 1 165 I ST' л Lesson r\ii What do you know about the history of your hometown? 1. Tourists from many countries like to visit the Tower of London. mm 1) Why do tourists visit the Tower of London? I The Tower of London is a popular tourist attraction. It was founded by William the Conqueror^' in the eleventh century and was used as a fortress and a palace. Then it was made a prison.^ Later an interesting museum was opened in the Tower of London. Э 2) What did you learn about the history of the Tower of London? What structures are used to tell about it? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. focus lIZ_1^13 Past Simple Passive Страдательный залог в прошедшем времени 1. Когда мы сообщаем, что произошло (было сделано) с предметом или человеком, мы используем страдательный залог в прошедшем времени, который образуется при помощи was/were -ь V3: The Tower was founded in the 11th century. Тауэр был основан в XI веке, Was the Tower founded in the 11th century? When was the Tower founded? The Tower was not (wasn't) founded in the 10th century, it was founded later. 2. Если нам необходимо сообщить, кем было совершено действие, мы используем предлог by: The Tower was founded by William the Conqueror. Тауэр был основан Вильгельмом Завоевателем. Who was the Tower founded by? GS p. 201 * a prison ['pnzn] — тюрьма 166 Unit 9 Lesson 2 2, @ In your culture, неге are some facts from the history of St Petersburg, 1} Put the facts in the chronological order. 1) The Peter and Paul Cathedral* was designed by Domenico Trezzini at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 2) The Mikhailovsky Castle was built by Vasili Bazhenov* and Vincenzo Brenna at the beginning of the nineteenth century. 3) St Isaac’s Cathedral* was decorated by famous Russian painters in the middle of the nineteenth century. 4) The magnificent Kazan Cathedral was built in 1811, 5) St Petersburg was founded by Peter the Great* on May 27, 1703. 6) The Victory Monument was created in 1975. 7) The Dutch Church was housed in the beautiful building in Nevsky Prospect in 1831—1837. I for revision Dates • • • We write: on May 27, 1703. We read: on the twenty-seventh of May, nineteen о [эи] three, or May the twenty-seventh, nineteen о three GS p. 194 The Mikhailovsky Castle Ш 2) Pair work. AsR your teacher for additional information about the sights of St Petersburg. • Was the Victory Monument bnilt in 1975? • Who was the Kazan Cathedral designed by? • When was the Peter and Paul Fortress started? Unit 9 Lesson 2 3) What would you tell tourists about the sights of St Petersburg? The Winter Palace was built and designed by Bartolomeo Rastrelli. The Winter Palace was built in 1754—1762. 1) Bartolomeo Rastrelli built and designed the Winter Palace. 2) They founded the Hermitage museum* in 1764. 3) Designers decorated the Summer Gardens* with wonderful sculptures in the 18th century. 4) Well-known architects designed and decorated the famous St Petersburg bridges.* 5) Bartolomeo Rastrelli designed the Catherine Palace for Tsarina Elisabeth.* 6) They restored and redecorated the Peterhof* palaces after the Great Patriotic War. 3. S Belgorod, the capital of the Belgorod Region, is another Russian city with a long and interesting history. What is Veronika telling her foreign friends about Belgorod? Use the verbs in the Present Simple and Past Simple Passive or Active. I live in Belgorod and I like my city very much. Belgorod (mean) “white city” because the region is rich in^ limestone.^ My city is very old, it (start) in the thirteenth century. I know that Belgorod (destroy) by Mongols and in 1596 the town (found) again as a fortress to protect the borders^ of Russia. Today Belgorod is a modern and beautiful city. Belgorod is famous for its cathedrals, they (build) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Preobrazhensky Cathedral is my favourite, it (design) by the architect Evgeny Vasiliev. I like Selivanov’s House, it (build) in 1792. Now it (house) the Literature Museum, There are funny metal sculptures in the streets. Ordinary people (commemorate) in them. The sculptures (create) by masters from Belgorod and Kharkov. I think that people who (visit) Belgorod 10 or 15 years ago will like it how the city looks like today. The Burning Bulge Diorama 4. si; All about me. Facts about my hometown. (AB No 12) Activity book ex. 1, 2. Reader ex. 2. ^ rich — богатый; to be rich in — ? ^ limestone ['laimstaun] — известняк ^ border ['Ьз:4э] — граница Г 1 168 Unit 9 Lesson 2 Lesson What wiU be built in uour city? 1. Londoners often discuss the plans for building something new in their city, BBS 1) What are they going to build in London in the future? Europe’s biggest mosque will be built in London in the near future. The London medical centre will be designed by a famous architect. A new underground railway will be built in the east of London in five years’ time. ^ 2) What changes will take place in London in the future? What structures are used to tell about it? Read the rule and check. Read Learning to learn note No 1. Future Simple Passive Страдательный залог в будущем времени Когда мы сообщаем о том, что произойдёт (будет сделано) с предметом или человеком, мы используем страдательный залог в будущем времени, который образуется при помощи will -I- be -I- V3: А new theatre will be built in St Petersburg soon. В Санкт-Петербурге скоро будет построен новый театр. Will а new theatre be built soon? Where will a new theatre be built soon? A new theatre will not (won’t) be built soon. GS p. 202 2m In your culture. There have been a lot of changes in Russia. And there will be more changes in the future. ^ 1) What are they in your opinion? St Nicholas’s Cathedral One thotisand new ships The Painters’ House The monument to Minin Pozharsky* Four new theatres More underground stations railways More and more cars will be built in Moscow. will be restored in Kronstadt.* will be produced near St Petersburg. and will be rebuilt in Russia. will be designed and built will be restored and will be built Unit 9 169 Lesson 3 Щ 2) Pair work, compare your suppositions with your partner. • Will St Nicholas’s Cathedral be rebuilt? • Where will four new theatres be built? 3) Ask your teacher to check your suppositions. 3. Dinara lives in Kazan. В 1) What is Dinara saying about her hometown? Use the verbs in the Present, Past, Future Simple Passive or Active. The Qol Sharif mosque My city is very old, it {found) in 1005, Kazan {destroy) by wars and fires. After one of the fires the icoii^ Our Lady of Kazan {discover). Today it is a famous icon and it {respect) by many Christians. During the Great Patriotic War Kazan {become) an important city where planes and tanks {produce). Today Kazan is the capital of Tatarstan. In 2005 we {celebrate) its birthday, one millennium. The Kazan Kremlin was the centre of the celebration. The Kremlin {include) Muslim and Christian monuments. The Qol Sharif mosque {rebuild) in 1996, it’s one of the largest mosques in Russia. The magnificent Blagoveshchensky Cathedral {build) in the middle of the sixteenth century. I am sure that my city will be better and more beautiful. In a few years’ time, new underground railways and new roads^ {build). New wonderfrd buildings {design) in the future. I hope that our people {create) new theatres, museums, unique medical centres and big libraries. ^ 2) What can you say about your hometown? 4. ВГ What does Olga want to be done in her hometown? (AB ex. 1) 5. All about П10, My hometown’s plans. (AB No 13) ^an icon [*;нкэп] — икона road [rsud] — дорога I i 170 Unit 9 Lesson 3 Lesson / What are your WiMid'Brs €>f the £ Wo V- ew 1. The Official New 7 Wonders' of the World** were chosen on the Internet in 2007, m 1) Listen to Fred and Lisa and say which sights they chose, (listening for the main idea) a wonder ['wAiida] — чудо Unit 9 171 Lesson 4 2) Do Lisa, Fred and Misha agree with the internet choice? Fred: For me it is hard to decide what sight to choose. I think I’d like to choose Christ the Redeemer because it is magnificent. It is a wonderful and symbolic sculpture. It is really interesting and I’d like to see it with my own eyes, I also think that the Great Wall of China is really great! It is so^ large that it can be seen from space. And it was built centuries agol My choice is two wonders out of the seven ones. Lisa: AH the sights are beautiful but most of them were created centuries ago! The new “wonders of the world” include no modern buildings or towns! But we can’t do without them. Yes, the Taj Mahal is really beautiful! But I admire the Sydney Opera House* building in Australia. 1 think we must include it in the list^ of the New Wonders. Misha: I like the idea of the New Seven Wonders of the World. It is a bridge between the past and the future, between cultures and religions. But I am upset that the Kremlin and Red Square^ are not included in the list of the New Wonders. lam sure they deserve'^ it! The Kremlin and Red Square are symbols of Russia, one of the biggest countries in the world. S ^ 3) Which of these ideas could belong to Lisa, Fred or Misha? 1) Modern buildings must be included in the list of the New Wonders. 2) The Internet choice is the right choice. 3) It is difficult to decide what sights can be included in the New Seven Wonders. 4) The idea of the New Seven Wonders is very good. 5) Different cultures become closer® in the New Wonders of the World. 6) It’s good when people from different cultures make an important choice together. 4) Which opinion do you share? Why? 2. Maybe one day you will take part in the New Wonders of the World competition. I) What constructions^ would you like to choose as new wonders of the world? Why? Read Learning to learn note No 3. ‘ For me it’s hard to decide/choose ... • My choice is ... • I I am sure that ... • But I am not sure that ... j . We can't do without ... • I think it’s quite right to ... • 2) What constructions can be chosen as “wonders of your hometown”? 3. Activity book ex. 1. Reader ex. 3. ’ so — так, настолько list — список ^ a square [skwes] — площадь ^ to deserve [di'z'Jiv] — заслуживать, быть достойным ® closer I'klausa] — ближе construction [кэп'к1глк,Гп] — строение, здание 172 Unit 9 Lesson 4 г*? Lesson Do 'you go to the museums? 1. Many foreign tourists visit the Russian Museum in St Petersburg. Q 1) Which picture are the guide and the tourist talking about? (listening for the main idea) Э 2) The British tourist is interested in the painting but he doesn’t understand all. Use the word box and find in the dialogue how the tourist; • asks the guide to say something again; • shows he is listening. — Here is the picture of the famous Russian painter Victor Vasnetsov Vitiaz at the Crossroads.* The painter showed the world of Russian fairy tales in his works. — How interesting! — Yes, I think that this vitiaz comes from those old fairy tales, — Sorry, what does “vitiaz” mean? — Vitiaz is the Russian word for “knight”,' — Could you repeat the name of the painter, please? — V-I-C-T-O-R V-A-S-N-E-T-S-O-V. Victor Vasnetsov. a knight [nan] — рыцарь Unit 9 Lesson 5 173 J: f Э 3) What are some other ways to ask someone to say something again and to show you are listening? ASKING SOMEONE TO SAY SOMETHING AGAIN I am sorry, what did you say? Извините, что вы сказали? Pardon? Прошу прощения? I beg your pardon? Я прошу прощения? Could you repeat please? He могли бы вы повторить пожалуйста? SHOWING YOU ARE LISTENING Really? Вот как! Indeed? Неужели! I see. Я понимаю. How interesting! Как интересно! S 4) Replace the highlighted expressions in the dialogue with those that fit from the word box. Act out the dialogue you’ve got. 2. SS Pair work. You are listening to the guide at the Tower of London. Respond to the guide’s remarks. — There is a legend which says that the Tower was built by the Romans, not by William the Conqueror.* — The White Tower is the oldest part of the Tower of London. It was built in 1078. — The White Tower is a symbol of London and Britain. — The Tower of London Is famous for ghost stories. — The Tower was a prison, most famous prisoners were kings, queens, princes and princesses. — Lady Jane Grey* was queen for nine days in 1553. She was the saddest person in the history of the Tower. 3. ^ Role piety. You are talking to your foreign friend. Read Learning to learn note No 9. ■ Pupil card 1 J ................. Tell your foreign friend about your hometown. — My hometown has a long/not very long history. It was founded in ... — There are wonderful sights in my hometown. They are ... Listen to your friend and respond to his/her remarks. Pupil card 2 i Tell your foreign friend about your hometown. — My hometown Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. — Glasgow has always been famous for building ships. Listen to your friend and respond to his/her remarks. 4, r.'' Activity book ex. 1. NEXT LESSON IS A READING LESSON. (Reader ex. 4) 174 Unit 9 Lesson 5 Lesson 'What do you know about the Moscow Kremlin? 1, Jigsaw reading. The Moscow Kremlin attracts many people from all over the world. It has a long history and historical buildings and museums. Read Learning to learn note No 5. 1) In home groups. Read one of the texts (A, B, or C) and do the task. A The Moscow Kremlin is very old. The Kremlin was founded in the year Moscow began, it happened in 1147. It was started as a fortress but later beautiful palaces were built in the Kremlin and it became the home of the Russian Tsars. The Kremlin was destroyed and restored many times. Moscow is often called “belokaraennaya" or “white-stone". It coines from the times’ of Prince Dmitry Donskoy* in 1367—1368 when white-stone walls and towers of the Kremlin were built. In 1485—1495 the Kremlin was rebuilt and it got its famous red walls and towers. Today the Kremlin has 20 towers. The Kremlin’s symbol is the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower where the most famous clock in Russia is. Now the Kremlin is the place where the President of Russia works. And it is the most popular tourist attraction. * times — времена The Spasskaya Tower Answer the questions. ■ When was the Kremlin founded? • How did the Kremlin look like in the fourteenth century? • When did the Kremlin get its famous red walls? • How many towers are there in the Kremlin? • What is the most famous Kremlin tower? What is it famous for? В The Moscow Kremlin is famous for its cathedrals. The magnificent Uspensky Cathedral is the most important church in the Kremlin and the oldest one. All Russian monarchs* were crowned' there. The Uspensky Cathedral was designed by the Italian architect Aristotle Fioravanti in the fifteenth century. But its famous icons were painted in the seventeenth century: one hundred and fifty painters were brought to Moscow from different Russian towns and they decorated the Cathedral. It was damaged by French soldiers in 1812 and later it was redecorated. The cathedral was closed in 1918 and reopened in 1990. The Uspensky Cathedral Unit 9 Lesson 6 175 I The Blagoveshchensky Cathedral is another masterpiece of the Kremlin. It was built by Pskov masters in 1484—1489. Many of its unique icons were painted by the great Russian icon-painter Andrei Rublev.* ‘ to crown [kraon] — короновать Answer the questions. • What cathedrals are there in the Kremlin? • Who built them? When were they built? • Who painted their icons? • What happened to the cathedrals in different historical periods? C There are wonderful museums in the Kremlin. The Oruzheinaya Palata* is one of the oldest museums in the Kremlin and in Russia. It was built by the architect Konstantin Thon* from St Petersburg. The building was designed specially for the museum. It houses one of the richest collections^ of Russian, West European and Eastern arms, silver and gold dishes, men’s and women’s clothes — masterpieces of different periods in Russian history. One of the most interesting things that can be seen in the Oruzheinaya Palata is the Monomakh Cap,* It was used as the Crown^ of the Riissian Tsars. In 1806 the Oruzheinaya Palata became a public museum and today many tourists visit the famous exhibitions every day. The Oruzheinaya Palata ^ to collect — коллекционировать; a collection [ks'lekfn] — ? ^ a crown [kraun] — корона Answer the questions. • What is the most famous Kremlin museum? • Who designed the building of the museum? • When did it become a public museum? • What collections are housed in this Kremlin museum? 176 Unit 9 Lesson 6 ^ 2) In expert groups, compare your answers for the task. Come to an agreement. Get ready to retell the text to your classmates. Use the answers to the questions as an outline. 3) In home groups. Retell the text you have read to your group mates. While listening to your group mates compiete the story about the Kremiin. The Moscow Kremlin is so old! It was founded in century the Kremlin got ,_ In the fifteenth The most famous C The Moscow Kremlin is famo\is for The Uspensky Cathedral was designed by C D in Russia is in the Kremlin Spasskaya Tower. X_______ ________5 Aristotle Fioravanti. The Blagoveshchensky Cathedral was built by Pskov t The Oruzheinaya Palata is C rich collections, they are ___ in the Kremlin in Russia. It has got у of different periods in Russian history. 2, Щ In the whole class. What can you tell your foreign friend about the history and the sights of the Moscow Kremiin? П NEXT LESSON IS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON. (AB p. 125) Unit 9 177 Lesson 6 it !i=- 1^^ i:. Pro]eci lesson X. EL Choose a project you’d like to do. Read Learning to learn note No 7. www.tourism-review.com/seven-wonders-of-russia-news 1179 • www.sightseeingmoscow.ru • www.saint-petersburg.com/sightseeing 1 The Seven Wonders of my country V. . • Choose the sights that may be the wonders of your country. Write some information about the sights. • Illustrate your story. @T.e s„h,s V. • Choose the sights. • Write some information about each sight. • Illustrate your story. ^My hometown in the гщ ^ • Think of what you want to be built in your hometown. • Write some information to explain your choice. • Illustrate your story. 2. Present your project to your classmates and answer their questions. 3. m Discuss the projects and decide which project is the best. 178 Unit 9 Lesson 7 Lesson Test kJ I.ISTF^NING COMPREHENSION (AB-I) О READING COMPREHENSION (AB-II) Гд HSF OF ENGLISH (GRAMMAR/VOCABULARY) (AB-III) €l SPEAKING 1. RoIg play. You have come back home from Britain. In the English lesson you are telling your classmate about the city you visited. Read Learning to learn note No 9. Pupil card 1 Tell your classmate about your trip to a British city. You begin the conversation. Remember to; • tell your classmate about the history of the British city; • tell your classmate about the sights of the city; • answer your classmate's questions. Л' ■ ■ •• k. ..... ( Pupil card 2 ). Ask your friend about the trip to a British city. Listen to your friend. Remember to: • ask your friend about the history and the sights of the city. 2ф Oral report. Your foreign friend wants to know more about your hometown. Tell him/her about it. Remember to speak: ' • about its history; • about most interesting sights; Unit 9 179 Lesson 8 • about the people who built and decorated your town; • about the buildings that will be built. You have to talk for one minute. The teacher will listen to you until you have finished. Then he/she will ask you some questions. >o. WRITING (AB-IV) в CULTURAL AWARENESS (AB-V) NEW WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS FROM UNIT 9 Lesson 1 a mosque so as a painting a square a building rare a wonder a cathedral to restore Lesson 5 a church unique indeed to design a fortress Lesson 2 Lesson 6 to found a prison* rich times* a gallery Reader to house Lesson 3 a chapel* later an icon* a crown* magnificent a road a lighthouse a master Lesson 4 a mystery* a masterpiece a construction* a stone* a monument Answer the questions. to deserve 1) Which words can you guess? 2) Which words do you use to describe the sights of your hometown/your country? 3) Which words do you use to speak about your hometown or some other cities in your country? 4) How many new words from Unit 9 do you know? Ei SELF-ASSESSMENT (AB-VI) Read Learning to learn note No 8. “i 180 Unit 9 Lesson 8 Lesson * la ow da гие see /. / eaan ocneri 1. Here are some British children's opinions about Russia and its people. ; ' § Б) 1) Are these children’s opinions about Russia different or alike? Choose the correct word to complete what they say. Then listen to check. *54 ----for revision...........................................ж They are serious pupils. They work seriously, (adverbs of mariner) He is a person who I admire, (relative clauses with who/which/that/whose) Travelling is really fun. I enjoy travelling. (Ving form) GS p. 194 GS p. 205 GS p. 202 There are some exchange students from Russia at my school. They are very smart and friendly children who / which like laughing and having fun. They are good at learn / learning English, I think Russian children are more interested in getting / to get good marks at school than British children. They learn serious / seriously. In ray opinion, Russian children study hard / harder than British children. But British children ask more questions and are involved in their lessons more active / actively than Russian children. Though we are different we get on really good / well. (Judy) I have a Russian pen friend whose / who name is Alexei. Swan / Swapping e-mails with him is a great fun. It’s fun having / have a friend who / which shares the same interests with you. We both like the same music, sport games and the same subjects at school. I’ve learnt a lot of interesting tilings about Russia from Alexei. Having . Have a pen pal in Russia makes you understand how many things are there to learn ! learning! (Josh) 182 Unit 10 Lesson 1 Last winter we visited my Mum’s cousins who / which live in Moscow, I had never been to Russia before and I was looking forward to visit / visiting them. Our trip was really exciting. I enjoyed to go / going sightseeing. We admired the Kremlin and the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. Moscow is one of the best cities where / that you never get bored. The culture is thrilling and the people are nice, (Julia) SI 2) What do these children say about Russia? Complete the table about Russia using the information from the children’s opinions. Consider the following items. How do they see Russia? What have you learnt about Britain? • free time • school • sights • people 3) Which of the opinions about Russia do you agree with? Give your reasons. 2. What have you learnt about Britain and its people? 1) Look through the textbook and complete the table about Britain. Consider the same items. Гч П 2) Ря1Г work. Compare your answers with your partner’s. Discuss the results. 3. ^ Do British children have anything in common with children from your country? Are you different or alike? What do you think? 4. Hi'' Are British children and children from your country different or alike? Write a composition (80—100 words). Unit 10 183 1 Lesson 1 Lesson ^ Г 4 Is your hfjmetow/l a OayjilaL of CultureV X. Every city is unique and has its special best items. Here is \what some children write about their cities on the Internet site. ШБ1 1) What is special about these children’s cities? Choose the correct words to complete the children’s stories about their cities. Listen to check. for revision It is an interesting museum. I'm interested in science. (-ing and -ed adjectives) The museum is really interesting to visit, (adjective +■ infinitive) I advise you to visit the museum, (complex object) A lot Of new houses are built in my city every year. (Simple Passive) ••••• GS p. 193 GS p. 203 GS p. 203 GS p. 201 I live in an exciting / excited city. The hot springs^ that make my city unique was / were discovered three thousand years ago. That was the time when my city founded / was founded. My city is one of the most fantastic places to visit because it has an interesting / interested history, a lot of theatres and museums, good sports and shopping centres. We have beautiful landmarks, a lot of magnificent historical buildings, some big green parks and no pollution. All these and the relaxing / relaxed atmosphere and nice people make the city one of the biggest attractions for those who are interesting / interested in British culture. (Jennifer, Bath) 184 Unit 10 * hot springs — горячие источники Lesson 2 Му hometown is a pleasant place to live in! We have different exciting / excited things in the city for people of all ages to enjoy themselves. There are a lot of sports centres, football stadiums, parks and the zoo. All these places are thrilling to visit / to visit them. A lot of festivals, concerts and sports competitions is / are organised in my city. Many people are concerning / concerned about the events that happen i are happened in the city. We want our city be / to be more beautiful and cleaner. All people in my hometown are involved / involve in clean-up projects. Every year the streets of the city decorate / are decorated with about two million flowers. My hometown is recognized / recognizing as one of the most beautiful cities in Russia. The city is getting better all the time. Many new roads and beautiful houses will be built / build in the very near future. Historical buildings, churches and cathedrals will restore / be restored. (Denis, Lipetsk) 2) Which of the above can be said about your hometown? ^ 3) Are there anything the children want to improve in their hometowns? 2. 15 The Capita! of Culture* programme was set up in 2005. Every year the European Capita! of Culture is chosen, A lot of people want their hometown to be chosen. 1) Which of the children’s hometowns can be chosen as Capital of Culture in your opinion? Give reasons. 2) What makes a city the Capital of Culture? What do you think? A Capital of Culture is the place where A Capital of Culture is the city which .. 3. Г5 Next European Capital of Culture will be chosen soon, 1) Does your hometown deserve to be the next Capital of Culture? What do you think? Use the table above to support your opinions. # www.uneecc.org/htmls/history1 .html 2) What would you do in your hometown to improve its chances of winning? ^ ГТ Are there any other cities that deserve to be the Capital of Culture in your opinion? Give reasons. 5. What city deserves to be the Capital of Culture? Write a composition (80—100 words). Unit 10 185 Lesson 2 Lesson 'eJOr--'!'' s ■T' Do ff'Oll, Huorry tlbvUL ^ the ^jama ргоЫе/пз?\ X, The surveys show that children all over the world are concerned about the life around them. Here are some children’s worries. Ш 09 1) Do these children worry about similar problems? Use the words given in capitals to form new words to complete what the children say. Then listen to check. I worry about the ^_______________ problems. I’d like other people not to make the Earth a litter bin. The _______________ ill the world is getting worse every day. A lot of paper is thrown in the parks, streets and lots of other places. I want all people to be ___________ _________________I think that not only special _______________should be in charge. We also can make ______________Let’s put our litter in the bins. our Then our cities would be happy and clean places to live. Our Earth needs___________________Please don’t let it be destroyed. (Frank) I find school worrying. I know that school is very important because we must learn to get a good job. And my school ___________________are not bad. But I always feel nervous about not having excellent marks. I’m glad I have my parents and friends who are _______________ and help me to look at the bright side of school. (Betsy) ENVIRONMENT POLLUTE ENVIRONMENT/FRIEND ORGANISE CONTRIBUTE PROTECT ACHIEVE SUPPORT 186 Unit 10 Lesson 3 I don't feel good about the people in poor coun- NEED tries. I think that this problem should be taken more ______________I think all people should make their time and money _______________ to support them. Learning to share is the way to make our life happier. (Peter) SERIOUS DONATE 1 am very happy with my life. I go to a good school, have lots of great friends. But I think that we need more _______________________ for our free time. Not everyone wants to sit at home watching TV all day. There should be more clubs to mix with your friends. I think a lot of children would be interested in_______________________ (Lizzie) ACTIVE VOLUNTEER Sit 2) What are these children’s worries? What do they suggest to improve the situation? Complete the table using the children’s stories. What is the problem? How to improve the situation? • ecology charity • free time • school 3) Which of these children’s worries do you share? 2. ^ П Pair work. What problems do you worry about? Can you suggest any ways to make your life better? Discuss it with your partner. 3. u What problems do you worry about? Write a composition (80—100 words). N0(T LESSON IS A CONSOLIDATION LESSON (ДВ p. 134) Unit 10 187 Lesson 3 Grammar support THE NOUN Имя существительное Именем существительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает предмет. Countable and uncountable nouns Исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные Существительные бывают исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми. Исчисляемые существительные могут употребляться; — как в единственном, так и во множественном числе: а bin — а lot of bins; — с артиклем а/ап: а bin, ап idea Неисчисляемые существительные употребляются только в единственном числе. С ними не употребляется неопределённый артикль а/ап: Litter pollutes the environment. Pollution is reduced. Следующие существительные являются неисчисляемыми в английском языке в отличие от русского языка: advice (совет/советы) knowledge (знание/знания) hair (волос/волосы) work (работа) Noun + noun Существительное в качестве определения Существительное может использоваться в качестве определения перед другим существительным: а school uniform — школьная форма а war ship — военный корабль THE ARTICLE Артикль в английском языке многие существительные употребляются с артиклями a/an/the. Артикль ставится перед существительными. 1. Артикль, как правило, не используется с существительными во множественном числе или неисчисляемыми существительными, значения которых являются обобщёнными: I like Russian folk tales. She studies Russian literature. Однако, если существительные во множественном числе или неисчисляемые существительные конкретизируются каким-либо образом, с ними используется определённый артикль the: I like the folk tales of Russia. She studies the literature of Russia. (B обоих примерах существительные конкретизируются с помощью фразы с of.) 2. Артикль а/ап не употребляется перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе после слов а type of, а sort of, а kind of; a type of map, a sort of map, a kind of map. 188 Grammar support 3. Articles with geographical names (Артикли c географическими названиями). 1) Артикль не употребляется с названиями: — континентов: South America; — большинства стран: England, Russia; — городов: New York; — улиц и площадей: Baker Street, Red Square; — парков: Yellowstone Park; — отдельных горных вершин: Mount Everest; — озёр, если в названии есть слово lake: Lake Union. Но: the Baikal. 2) Артикль the употребляется с названиями: “ стран, если в названии есть слова «союз», «федерация», «королевство», «штат»: the UK — the United Kingdom, the USA — the United States, the Russian Federation: — других географических названий, имеющих форму множественного числа: the Netherlands — Нидерланды {страна), the Everglades — Эверглейдс (регион); — горных цепей: the Alps; — рек: the Volga; — океанов, морей и заливов: the Atlantic Ocean, the Caspian Sea, the Gulf of Mexico; — полюсов Земли: the South Pole, the North Pole. 4. Articles with professions (Артикли c существительными, обозначающими профессию). 1) Определённый артикль the используется, если профессия человека предшествует имени собственному: The famous architect М. Kazakov designed beautiful buildings in Moscow. 2) Определённый артикль the используется, если должность/титул/звание является частью составного именного сказуемого и указывает на то, что данный человек единственный, кто занимает данную должность, имеет данный титул или звание: Charles is the Prince of Wales. 3) Определённый артикль the используется с прозвищами людей/монархов и с порядковыми числительными в именах монархов: Peter the Great — Пётр Великий Leif the Lucky — Удачливый Лиф (или Счастливчик Лиф) пишем: Peter I читаем: Peter the First 4) Неопределённый артикль а/ап может использоваться, если профессия следует за именем собственным, т. е, выполняет в предложении функцию приложения: М. Kazakov, а famous architect, designed beautiful buildings in Moscow. 5) Неопределённый артикль a/an используется, если профессия/титул/звание является частью составного именного сказуемого и указывает на то, что данный человек один из тех, кто имеет эту профессию/титул/звание: V. Surikov is а famous Russian painter. 6) Артикль не используется, если существительное в дополнении или в составном именном сказуемом указывает на положение, которое человек имеет или достиг: In 1952 Elizabeth became queen. Elizabeth И is queen. 189 Grammar support 5. Articles with proper names (Артикли c именами собственными). 1) Артикль не используется; — с названиями общественных зданий, мест отдыха и городских организаций, имеющими в качестве определения имя собственное (имя человека или название местности), а также с главными общественными зданиями или организациями города: Cambridge University, Buckingham Palace, London Zoo, Salisbury Cathedral, Birmingham Airport, Manchester City Council. Ho: the White House, the Royal Palace (white и royal не являются именами собственными); — с существительными, имеющими в качестве определения имя собственное в притяжательном падеже: McDonald’s, Harrods, Lloyds Bank, Pushkin’s poems, Nelson’s Column, St Basil's Cathedral. 2) Определённый артикль the употребляется с названиями: — театров, кинотеатров, музеев, памятников, концертных залов: the National Theatre, the Taganka Theatre, the Odeon, the British Museum, the Albert Hall, the Wallace Monument; — мест, зданий с предлогом of; the Houses of Parliament, the Museum of Modern Art, the Tower of London; — фестивалей, конкурсов, соревнований, оркестров, имеющими в качестве определения имя собственное (имя человека или название местности): the Manchester band, the Aldeburgh Festival, the Tchaikovsky Contest; — соборов/церквей/храмов, если определением перед ними является существительное, обозначающее религиозный праздник: the Uspensky Cathedral - the Assumption Cathedral — Успенский собор. 6. Articles with unique things (Артикль c уникальными предметамн/веща-м и/объекта ми). Определённый артикль the используется: — с предметами/вещами/объектами, существующими е единственном экземпляре: the Monomakh Cap — шапка Мономаха; — с названиями планет и полюсов: the Sun, the Moon, the North Pole. THE PRONOUN Местоимение Местоимение — это часть речи, которая употребляется вместо существительного или прилагательного. The personal pronouns: objective case Личные местоимения e объектном падеже Личные местоимения могут использоваться в именительном и объектном падежах. Nominative Objective Nominative Objective 1 me we us j you you you you he him they them she her it it 190 Grammar support Личные местоимения в объектном падеже выполняют в предложении функцию прямого и косвенного дополнения. Му Mum asks me to wash the dishes. — Мама просит меня вымыть посуду. We like animals and we like books about them. — Мы любим животных и книги о них. The indefinite pronouns Неопределённые местоимения Some / Any Местоимения some и any (некоторые, несколько, какие-нибудь) употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными и существительными во множественном числе. Some употребляется в утвердительных предложениях, any употребляется в отрицательных предложениях и в вопросах. Some chores about the house are not interesting but necessary. — Некоторые обязанности по дому неинтересны, по важны. Do you have any chores about the house? — У тебя есть какие-нибудь обя,зан-ности по дому? (А) Few / (А) Little Местоимение (а) few используется с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе; местоимение (а) little используется с неисчисляемыми существительными. 1 have а few friends. — У меня есть несколько друзей. I have а little time. — У меня есть немного времени. А few и а little (несколько, немного) обозначают наличие достаточного количества, т, е. имеют положительное значение. Few и little (мало, немного) подчёркивают недостаточность количества, т. е. имеют отрицательное значение. Tve got а little bread and we can do some sandwiches. —^ У меня есть немного хлеба, и мы можем сделать несколько сандвичей. Tve got little bread and that's why I have to go to the baker’s. — У меня мало хлеба, поэтому надо идти в магазин. I’ve got а few books so I can give one to you. — У меня есть несколько книг, поэтому я могу дать тебе одну. Гт sorry but I can’t give you a book. I have few. — К сожалению, я не могу дать тебе книгу. У меня их мало. Most / Most of Местоимение most of (большинство) используется перед существительными с артиклями, указательными, притяжательными местоимениями, а также перед личными местоимениями в объектном падеже. Most of the adults I know are my parents’ friends. Most of iny friends are my classmates. Most of us like getting together at Kevin’s place. Most of также используется перед географическими названиями, даже если они употребляются без артикля и местоимения. Most of Wales is protected. 191 1 Grammar support Most (большинство) используется перед существительными без артикля, указательных и притяжательных местоимений. Most people are nice and friendly. One / Ones (Слова-заместители существительных) Слова-заместители one/ones употребляются для того, чтобы избежать повторения одного и того же исчисляемого существительного. Слово-заместитель one употребляется вместо существительного в единственном числе, слово-заместитель ones вместо существительного во множественном числе: This map is the best one. — Эта карта — лучшая (карта). The sights that people have voted for are the best ones, I think. — Достопримечательности, за которые люди проголосовали, лучшие, на мой взгляд. Перед словами one/ones может быть использован артикль, если они употребляются с прилагательными; — Which sights have you chosen? — The best ones, I think. — Какие достопримечательности ты выбрал? — Самые лучшие, я думаю. This shirt is big. Do you have a smaller one? — Эта рубашка большая. У вас есть поменьше? THE ADJECTIVE Имя прилагательное Имя прилагательное — это часть речи, которая обозначает признак предмета. The degrees of comparison of adjectives Степени сравнения прилагательных 1, Имена прилагательные в английском языке имеют три степени сравнения: положительную (the Positive), сравнительную (the Comparative) и превосходную (the Superlative), This library is big. — Эта библиотека большая. This library is bigger than that one. — Эта библиотека больше, чем та. This is the most popular museum in the world. — Это самый популярный музей в мире. 2. Степени сравнения образуются следующим образом. Adjective Comparative Superlative Односложные прилагательные: 1) заканчивающиеся на -е vi^ide \wider widest 2) заканчивающиеся на гласную + согласную буквы big bigger biggest 3) все другие young younger youngest Двусложные прилагательные: 1) заканчивающиеся на -у happy happier happiest j 2) некоторые другие clever cleverer cleverest 192 Grammar support Продолжение Adjective Comparative Superlative Многосложные прилагательные aggressive more aggressive most aggressive less aggressive least aggressive 1 Прилагательные, образующие степени сравнения не по правилам good bad far better worse farther best worst farthest Перед сочетанием прилагательного в превосходной степени с существительным употребляется определённый артикль the. Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ed и -ing в английском языке есть много парных прилагательных, оканчивающихся на -ed и -ing, например: amused amusing bored boring excited exciting frightened frightening interested interesting relaxed relaxing surprised surprising tired tiring Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ed, употребляются, когда описывают чувства людей, их состояния. Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ing, употребляются, когда описывают предметы, вещи, занятия, людей, которые вызвали те или иные чувства у людей. The book interests me. The book is interesting. I’m interested in history books. THE NUMERAL Числительное Именем числительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает количество (количественные числительные) или порядок предметов при счёте (порядковые числительные). Количественные числительные hundred, thousand, million не имеют окончания -S, если перед ними стоят числительные two, three, four и т. д., а также few и several: two hundred, three thousand, four million. Количественные числительные hundred, thousand, million могут переходить в разряд существительных и принимать окончание -s. В этом случае за ними следует существительное с предлогом of: hundreds of schools — сотни школ thousands of books — тысячи книг millions of people — миллионы людей 193 Grammar support Dates Даты 1, в Британии наиболее распространённый способ написания дат следующий: 27 Мау(,) 1703; 27th Мау(,) 1703, т. е. запятая может ставиться или не ставиться. Когда дата пишется в предложении, то запятая ставится обязательно: Не was born on 23rd May, 1968. 2. Даты читаются так: 27 Мау(,) 1703 = the twenty-seventli of May, nineteen о [эи] three или May the twenty-seventh, nineteen о [эи] three 1900 = nineteen hundred 2009 = two thousand and nine 1380 = thirteen (hundred and) eighty the 1960s = the nineteen sixties 2000 = two thousand the 30s = the thirties THE ADVERB Наречие Наречием называется часть речи, указывающая на признак действия или на различные обстоятельства, при которых протекает действие. Наречие относится к глаголу и показывает, как, где, когда и т. п. совершается действие. Adverbs of manner Наречия образа действия Наречия образа действия показывают, как (каким образом) кто-то совершает то или иное действие. She plays beautifully. — Она прекрасно играет. Образование наречий от прилагательных 1. Наречия могут образовываться от прилагательных при помощи суффикса -1у. Не is serious. Не studies seriously. — Он серьёзный (ученик). Он относится к учёбе серьёзно. При прибавлении суффикса -1у происходят следующие изменения: slow + -1у —* slowly heavy + -ly —heavily terrible + -ly —► terribly Исключения: good — well. 2. Некоторые наречия не отличаются no форме от соответствующих прилагательных. Не is а fast runner. Не runs fast. — Он быстрый бегун. Он бегает быстро, 3. Некоторые наречия имеют две формы: одну, сходную с прилагательным, и другую, образованную при помощи суффикса -1у. Эти две формы отличаются по значению. high/highly You can jump high. — Ты можешь прыгать высоко. The sportsmen are highly popular, — Спортсмены очень популярны, hard/hardly She works hard. — Она упорно работает. She hardly knows him. — Она едва его знает. 194 Grammar support late/lately I get up late. — Я встаю поздно. Have you seen him lately? — Ты видел его недавно? The degrees of comparison of adverbs Степени сравнения наречий 1. Наречия в английском языке имеют три степени сравнения: положительную (the Positive), сравнительную (the Comparative) и превосходную (the Superlative), properly — more properly — most properly тщательно — тщательнее — тщательнее всех 1) Для того чтобы сравнить, как выполняются те или иные действия, используются наречия в сравнительной степени. You should work more properly. — Следует работать более тщательно. 2) Для того чтобы показать, что действие совершается наилучшим/наихудшим образом, используются наречия в превосходной степени. Не works (the) hardest, — Он работает упорнее всех. 2. Степени сравнения наречий образуются следующим образом. 1 Positive Comparative Superlative j Односложные наречия fast faster fastest Многосложные наречия carefully more carefully less carefully most carefully least carefully Наречия, образующие степени сравнения не по правилам well (хорошо) badly (плохо) far (далеко) better worse farther best worst farthest Adverbs of frequency Наречия частотности Наречия неопределённой частотности always, often, seldom, never, usually, sometimes и наречия определённой частотности every day, every week, once a week, twice a week, three times a month показывают, как часто происходят какие-либо действия. Position of adverbs of frequency Место наречий частотности в предложении 1. Наречия неопределённой частотности могут стоять в предложении: а) после вспомогательного глагола и глагола to be: I have never played the piano. 1 am seldom late for classes. б) перед другими глаголами: We usually hang out in the park. 195 Grammar support I I— в) в конце или в начале предложения (usually, often, sometimes): Usually I hang out in the park, I go there often, r) в вопросительных предложениях наречия неопределённой частотности ставятся после вспомогательного глагола и подлежащего: Do you often play the piano? 2, Наречия определённой частотности стоят в конце предложения: I go to а drama chib twice a week. THE VERB Глагол Глаголом называется часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета. Have and have got 1. Have и have got используются, чтобы сказать о том, что что-то у кого-то есть, В настоящем времени в основном используется конструкция have got, а в прошедшем и будущем времени используется глагол have. I have а lot of friends. = I’ve got (have got) a lot of friends. I don’t have many friends at school. = I haven’t got many friends at school. Does he have a problem? = Has he got a problem? I had a lot of friends when I was a child. I didn’t have many friends in my childhood. Did you have many friends in your childhood? И t. д, 2. Have + object (дополнение) исполь^зуется для описания привычных или повторяющихся действий. На русский язык такие сочетания переводятся с помощью глагола, значение которого зависит от значения дополнения. We have fun each time we get together. — Мы веселимся всякий раз, когда собираемся вместе. She has English on Wednesdays. — Она занимается английским языком по средам, THE TENSES Видо-временная система английского глагола Видо-временные формы для выражения настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времени делятся на следующие группы: Simple Tenses (простые видо-временные формы), Progressive Tenses (длительные видо-временные формы), Perfect Tenses (совершенные видо-временные формы) и Perfect Progressive Tenses (совершенные длительные видо-временные формы). The Present Progressive Tense Настоящее длительное время 1, Present Progressive употребляется для выражения действия, совершающегося в момент речи: I am reading а book now. 2. Для обозначения момента речи употребляются следующие указатели времени: now — сейчас, af this moment — в настоящий момент, at 5 o’clock — в 5 часов: I am writing а new novel at the moment. 196 Grammar support 3. Present Progressive употребляется для описания будущих действий, когда мы говорим о запланированных и подготовленных действиях. Вероятность выполнения этих действий очень велика: We are going to the concert tonight. —^ Вечером мы идём на концерт. (Мы уже купили билеты и т. п.) 4. Некоторые глаголы не употребляются во временах группы Progressive. К ним относятся: to see, to hear, to know, to understand, to forget, to think (в значении «думать», «полагать»), to want, to love, to like, to hate, to admire (в значении «восхищаться»). 5. Present Progressive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в настоящем времени (am, is, are) и формы Present Participle (Ving) смыслового глагола; Не is watching TV now. Is he watching TV now? He is not (isn’t) watching a film now. The Present Perfect Tense Настоящее совершенное время 1. Present Perfect употребляется для описания прошедших действий, событий, когда подчёркивается их важность в настоящем, а не время, когда они произошли; 1 have seen this film. — Я видел этот фильм (то есть я могу рассналатъ теперь о нём). I’ve leamt new English words, — Я выучил новые английские слова (неважно, когда я выучил слова, важно, что я их знаю сейчас). 2. Present Perfect употребляется для описания действий, которые начались в прошлом и продолжаются в настоящем. Начало действия в прошлом обозначается предлогом since (с), период продолжения действия обозначается предлогом for (в течение); The museum has been around for more than 175 years. — Музей существует (в течение) 175 лет. The museum has been around since 1835. — Музей существует с 1835 года. 3. Present Perfect не употребляется, если указывается, когда произошло действие в прошлом (yesterday, last week, in 1990, three years ago, etc.). В этом случае употребляется Past Simple. I saw this film yesterday. 4. Present Perfect образуется c помощью has/have и Past Participle (V3) смыслового глагола. I/you/we/they have seen the film Braoeheart. He/she has seen the film Braoeheart, Have you seen this film? She hasn’t .seen this film. The Past Simple Tense Простое прошедшее время 1. Past Simple употребляется для описания действий, событий, которые произошли в прошлом (важны действия и время их совершения); I travelled to Britain last year, — Я ездил в Британию в произлом году. 197 1 Grammar support 2. Время совершения действия может уточняться при помощи указателей времени yesterday, last year, а hundred years ago, in 1993, during the holidays, long ago. 3. Утвердительная форма правильных глаголов в Past Simple образуется путём прибавления суффикса -ed к основе глагола. Утвердительная форма неправильных глаголов в Past Simple образуется различными способами. (См. таблицу неправильных глаголов.) Вопросительная и отрицательная формы как правильных, так и неправильных глаголов образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола did и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to. Did you travel to Scotland last year? When did you travel to Scotland? I did not (didn’t) travel to Wales last year. The Past Progressive Tense Прошедшее длительное время 1. Past Progressive употребляется для выражения действия, которое происходило в определённый момент в прошлом или в течение какого-то периода времени в прошлом. Не was reading а new book for ап hour yesterday. — Он читал книгу вчера в течение часа. 2. в предложениях с глаголами в Past Progressive употребляются следующие указатели времени; at 11 o’clock, all day long, all night, for two hours, the whole evening и др. 1 was reading a new book the whole evening yesterday. — Я читал новую книгу весь вечер вчера. 3. Определённый момент в прошлом, когда происходило действие, выраженное глаголом в Past Progressive, может быть выражен другим (как правило, более коротким) действием в прошлом (Past Simple). When I came to the party, all people were dancing. — Когда я пришёл на вечеринку, все танцевали, 4. Past Progressive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в прошедшем времени (was, were) и формы Present Participle (Ving) смыслового глагола. Не was reading а book for an hour. We were dancing the whole evening. What was he doing at 11 o’clock yesterday? He was not (wasn’t) doing his homework at 11 o’clock yesterday. The Past Perfect Tense , Прошедшее совершенное время 1. Past Perfect употребляется для обозначения действия, которое завершилось к определённому моменту в прошлом. Момент в прошлом, с которым соотносится Past Perfect Tense, обычно обозначается обстоятельством времени или другим прошедшим действием: Before 2005 he had visited London twice. — До 2005 года он был в Лондоне дважды. We visited London in 2005. We had not been there before. — Мы ездили в Лондон в 2005 году. Раньше мы там не были. 198 Grammar support 2. Past Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола had и Past Participle (V3) смыслового глагола: Before 2005 he had visited London twice. Had you been to London before 2005? I had not (hadn’t) been to London before 2005. The Future Simple Tense Простое будущее время 1. Future Simple употребляется для описания действий, которые произойдут в будущем. I will go to the cafe in the evening. — Я пойду в кафе вечером. 2. Future Simple употребляется для выражения неподготовленного и незапланированного будущего действия. Говорящий только в момент речи решает, что сделает в будущем, причём нет полной уверенности в том, что действие произойдёт; I think I will go to the cafe in the evening. —^ Я думаю, что пойду в кафе вечером. 3. Future Simple образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола will и неопределённой формы смыслового глагола. I/you/he/she/we/they will (’ll) watch a film in the evening. Will you watch a film in the evening? She will not (won’t) go to Moscow on holiday. To be going to Собираться что-то делать 1. Оборот to be going to используется, когда мы говорим о действии, которое собираемся совершить в будущем: I am going to watch a film. — Я собираюсь смотреть фильм. Are you going to visit your grandparents? — Ты собираешься побывать у дедушки и бабушки? I am not going to see this film. — Я не собираюсь смотреть этот фильм, 2. Оборот to be going to не употребляется с глаголами движения (to go, to come, to leave, to arrive). Для выражения данной функции с этими глаголами употребляется Present Progressive. THE MODAL VERBS Модальные глаголы Модальные глаголы (сап, must, have to, should, may и др.) не выражают действия (состояния), а передают лишь отношение говорящего к действию, оценку действия, т. е. возможность, долженствование, необходимость, вероятность совершения действия и т. п. 1. Модальные глаголы имеют ряд отличительных особенностей: — не имеют окончания -es или -s в 3-м лице единственного числа (кроме have to): Не cares about nature. Everybody must care about nature. — после модальных глаголов (кроме have to) употребляются глаголы в форме инфинитива без частицы to: We want to plant trees. We must plant a lot of trees. 199 Grammar support — вопросительная и отрицательная формы модальных глаголов образуются без вспомогательного глагола to do (кроме глагола have to): — Should we recycle? — Yes, we should. I should recycle more. — We shouldn’t throw away plastic bags. 2. Модальный глагол can используется, когда сообщается об умении или неумении делать что-либо или о наличии или отсутствии возможности что-либо делать. На русский язык переводится как «уметь, мочь/иметь возможность». I сап play football and I can play it now. — Я умею играть в футбол и могу (имею возможность) поиграть сейчас. We cannot go to England on holidays. — У нас нет возможности поехать в Англию на каникулах. 3. Глагол must используется, когда сообщается о необходимости что-то делать. На русский язык переводится как «должен, обязан». Отрицательная форма на русский язык переводится как «нельзя»: We must саге about nature, — Мы должны (обязаны) заботиться о природе. You mustn’t throw away litter. — Тебе (Вам) нельзя бросать мусор. Must he reduce energy use? — Он должен сократить потребление электроэнергии? 4. Модальный глагол should употребляется для выражения совета, мнения, рекомендации и на русский язык переводится как «должен, следует, нужно (бы), следовало (бы)». Children should do what they are told. — Дети должны делать то, что им говорят. You shouldn’t (should not) be late. — Тебе не следует опаздывать. Should you take warm clothes? — Ты должен взять тёплую одежду? 5. Модальный глагол have to употребляется, когда сообщается о том, что кто-то вынужден делать что-то, кому-то необходимо или приходится делать что-либо в соответствии с определёнными правилами или в силу каких-либо обстоятельств. На русский язык глагол have to переводится как «приходится, обязан, вынужден, должен». В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях модальный глагол have to ведёт себя как обычный глагол действия: Do you have to wear a school uniform? — Тебе нужно носить школьную форму? We have to wear school uniforms, — Нам приходится носить школьную форму. Не has to wear а school uniform. — Ему приходится носить школьную форму. I don’t have to wear a school uniform. — Мне не нужно носить школьную форму THE PHRASAL VERBS 1’лагольные идиомы Глагольные идиомы (phrasal verbs) состоят в основном из глагола и наречия (verb + particle). О значении глагольной идиомы сложно догадаться по значениям составляющих её слов, поэтому лучше обратиться к словарю. Глагольные идиомы больше распространены в разговорной речи, чем в письменной. 200 Grammar support Глагольные идиомы имеют разные структуры: I get up early, — Я встаю рано. I turned to him (for help). — Я обратился к нему (за помощью). I get on with all my classmates. — Я в хороших отношениях со всеми одноклассниками . THE PASSIVE VOICE Страдательный залог Страдательный залог выражает действие, которое совершается над лицом или предметом, являющимся в предложении подлежащим. Страдательный залог нередко используется, когда не важно или не известно, кто совершает действие. Страдательный залог образуется с помощью глагола to be в соответствующей временной форме и причастия прошедшего времени основного глагола (V3). The Present Simple Passive Страдательный залог в настоящем времени 1. Present Simple Passive употребляется для сообщения о действии над предметом, явлением или лицом, которое происходит в настоящем времени. Water is puUuted. — Вода загрязняется. 2. Present Simple Passive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола be в нужном лице (am/is/are) и Past Participle (V3) смыслового глагола. Nature is destroyed. Animals are hurt. Are trees planted? Trees are not cut down. 3. при переводе Present Simple Passive используются неопределённо-личные или безличные предложения. The river is poHuted. ■— Река загрязняется. Trees are not cut down. — Деревья не вырубают. The Past Simple Passive Страдательный залог в прошедшем времени 1. Past Simple Passive используется, когда говорится о действии, которое было совершено в прошлом над лицом или предметом, являющимся в предложении подлежащим: The Winter Palace was built in the 18th century. — Зимний дворец был построен в XVIII веке, 2. Предлог by используется, когда надо указать, кем было совершено действие; St Petersburg was founded by Peter the Great. — Санкт-Петербург был основан Петром Великим. 3. При образовании Past Simple Passive используется was/were и Past Participle (V3) смыслового глагола. I was asked to help. We were asked to help. Was the palace restored? The museums were not destroyed. 201 Grammar support The Future Simple Passive Страдательный залог в будущем времени 1. Future Simple Passive используется, когда говорится о действии, которое будет совершено в будущем над лицом или предметом, являющимся в предложении подлежащим. А new theatre will be built in my city soon. 2. При образовании Future Simple Passive используется will be и Past Participle (V3) смыслового глагола. The cathedral will be restored next year. Where will new houses be built soon? — В моём городе скоро будет построен новый театр. Will а new theatre be built soon? A new theatre will not (won’t) be built soon. The Ving forms Формы глагола с окончанием -ing 1. Форма Ving является неличной формой глагола, которая называет действие и сочетает в себе глагольные свойства со свойствами других частей речи и переводится на русский язык по-разному. Гт good at swimming. — Я хорошо плаваю. When Гт on holiday, I like swimming. — Ha каникулах я люблю плавать. Swimming is my hobby. — Плавание ~ моё хобби. We help children by raising money, — Мы помогаем детям, собирая деньги. 2. Ving форма выполняет в предложении следующие функции: — функцию подлежащего: Collecting stamps is my hobby, — Коллекционирование марок — моё хобби. — функцию части сказуемого: Му favourite sport is swimming, — Мой любимый спорт — плавание. — функцию дополнения: 1 am interested in collecting stamps, — Я интересуюсь коллекционированием марок. — функцию обстоятельства (после предлогов Ьу, without, instead of): You can help by raising money. ■— Вы можете помочь, собирая деньги, 3. Ving форма употребляется после глаголов и прилагательных с предлогами: to help by/with, to take part in, to look forward to, to be interested in, to be bored with, to be involved in, to be good at и др. All my classmates took part in planting flowers at the school yard. После предлогов инфинитив не употребляется. ^ 4. Ving форма употребляется после следующих глаголов: to enjoy, to finish, to hate, to imagine, to mind, to miss, to practise, to spend time, to suggest и др. I enjoy dancing, THE INFINITIVE Инфинитив Инфинитив — неличная форма глагола, которая в русском языке соответствует неопределённой форме глагола, отвечающей на вопросы «что делать? что сделать?». Инфинитив только называет действие или состояние. 202 Grammar support The complex object (verb + object + infinitive) Сложное дополнение Сочетание существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже с инфинитивом называется сложным дополнением. I want you to help me. — Я хочу, чтобы ты мне помог. Сложное дополнение употребляется после глаголов to advise, to ask, to hate, to help, to invite, to leave, to let, to like, to make, to mean, to need, to prefer, to recommend, to teach, to want, would like и др. На русский язык переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением или неопределённой формой глагола. Mum asks me to do the dishes. — Мама просит, чтобы я вымыла посуду. Мама просит меня вымыть посуду. После глаголов to make и to let инфинитив употребляется без частицы to. Мпт makes Steve tidy his room. — Мама заставляет Стива убрать в его комнате. Adjective + infinitive Прилагательное + неопределённая форма глагола 1. Конструкция adjective (for people) + infinitive используется для того, чтобы сказать, какими по своим качествам или характеристикам являются для других людей те или иные люди или предметы: Не is easy {for people) to amuse. = It’s easy {for people) to amuse him. — {Людям) легко его развеселить. This game is not interesting {for children) to play. = It’s not interesting {for children) to play this game. — В эту игру {детям) неинтересно играть. 2. В конструкции adjective (for people) -г infinitive используются только оценочные прилагательные (opinion adjectives), такие, как easy, boring, hard, nice, difficult, (imjpossible, good, (un)interesting, (un)safe, dangerous, (un)expen-sive, cheap, (un)exciting, beautiful, (un)comfortable и т. п. 3. в конце конструкции adjective (for people) -г Infinitive часто используются предлоги. She is nice to talk to. — C ней приятно разговаривать. The place is nice to live in. —^ В этом месте хорошо жить. The infinitive as an attribute Неопределённая форма глагола в качестве определения Неопределённая форма глагола (infinitive) может использоваться для того, чтобы сообщить о лице или предмете особую (специфическую) информацию, которая ставит их в ряд первых (the first), единственных (the only), последних (the last) и т. п., совершивших какое-либо действие, Yuri Gagarin was the first person to go to space, В этом случае infinitive переводится как придаточное предложение определительное: Юрий Гагарин был первым человеком, который полетел в космос. 203 Grammar support THE DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH Прямая и косвенная речь 1. Речь какого-нибудь лица, передаваемая буквально так, как она была произнесена, называется прямой речью. Речь, передаваемая не слово в слово, а только по содержанию, в виде дополнительных придаточных предложений, называется косвенной речью. прямая речь Косвенная речь John says, “Гт glad to be back to school.” John says that he is glad to be back to school. ! Джон говорит; «Я рад, что опять иду в школу». Джон говорит, что он рад опять идти в школу. 2. При обращении повествовательного предложения из прямой речи в косвенную производятся следующие изменения: косвенная речь вводится глаголом to say и союзом that, который, однако, часто не употребляется, кавычки не используются; личные и притяжательные местоимения прямой речи заменяются по смыслу, как и в русском языке. Прямая речь Косвенная речь Mandy says, “1 am looking forward to school.” Mandy says (that) she is looking forward to school. Robert says, “I see my friends every day.” Robert says (that) he sees his friends every day. j 3. Для передачи прямой речи, кроме глагола to say, используются и другие глаголы. Для того чтобы передать в косвенной речи то, что люди думают, их чувства, используются такие глаголы, как to think, to hope, to be glad, to worry, to be upset и др. Прямая речь Косвенная речь John: “We have a lot of tests. They are difficult.” John worries that they have a lot of tests and that they are difficult. Mandy: ‘TTl join our computer club.” Mandy thinks that she’ll join their com- ! puter club. 1 THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Придаточные предложения Придаточные предложения могут выполнять самые разнообразные функции в составе сложноподчинённого предложения. 204 Grannmar support Relative clauses Относительные придаточные предложения Относительные придаточные предложения бывают двух видов — относительные придаточные определительные и относительные придаточные уточняющие. 1. Относительные придаточные определительные предложения используются для сообщения важной информации о людях или предметах. Они следуют непосредственно за определяемым словом в главном предложении. 1) Если придаточные предложения определяют одушевлённые предметы, то в них используются союзные слова who/that. Если придаточные предложения определяют неодушевлённые предметы, то в них используются союзные слова which/that: Му friends are people who can help me when I’m in need. ^— Мои друзья — это люди, которые могут помочь мне в беде. I like books which/that tell about people from different cultures. — Я люблю книги, которые рассказывают о жизни людей в других странах. 2) В придаточных предложениях определительных союзные слова могут выступать в функции подлежащего, прямого и косвенного дополнения. Предлоги могут употребляться е конце придаточного предложения или перед союзными словами (кроме союза that). I’ve got а lot of friends who/that can help me when I’m upset, {подлежащее) — У меня много друзей, которые .могут помочь мне в трудную минуту. Phil is my friend who I like most of alh {прямое дополнение) — Фил — мой друг, которого я люблю больше всех. She’s а person with who(m> I’m never bored, {косвенное дополнение) She’s a person who I’m never bored with. — Она такой человек, с которым мне никогда не скучно. 3) В придаточных предложениях определительных союзные слова who/that/ which можно опустить, если они не выполняют функцию подлежащего. Chris is а person (who) I like most of all. Придаточные on редел итепьные предложения с союзным словом whose используются для того, чтобы сообщить определённую информацию о чьей-либо деятельности, собственности, чьих-либо особенностях, чертах характера и т. п. Союзное слово whose используется вместо his, her, their, its. 1 admire people whose ideas can change the world. — Я восхищаюсь людьми, чьи идеи могут изменить мир. THE FIRST CONDITIONAL Первый тип условных предложений Условные предложения первого типа выражают вполне реальные, осуществимые предположения, относящиеся к будущему. В условных предложениях первого типа, относящихся к будущему, глагол в придаточном предложении употребляется в Present Simple, а в главном предложении — в Future Simple. В соответствующих русских условных предложениях будущее время употребляется как в главном, так и в придаточном предложении: I will play better if I practise harder. — Я буду играть лучше, если я буду тренироваться упорнее. 205 Grammar support Linguistic and cultural guide 4-H [fsir'eitn — a club that teaches farming to boys and girls in country areas. The four h’s stand for head, heart, hands and health. The purpose of this club is to improve the head, heart, hands and health of each of its members. A and В ['ei and 'bi:] 5 и 4 — schools in England and America use their own marks: letters or percentages. (A = 90—100% — отлично; В = 80—89% — хорошо; С = 70—79 % — удовлетворительно; D = 60—69% — плохо; F = О—59“/) — очень плохо.) Alf [self] Альф — а title character of an American television serial (appeared in 1986). Alf is an alien ['eilion] (пришелец). His name is Gordon Shumway and his nickname is ALF (Alien Life Form). He is from the planet Mel mac, which has green sky, pink grass and a purple sun. Alf has a huge appetite (he eats everything, but likes to eat cats), he is troublesome (причиняет беспокойство) and sarcastic but friendly, and he helps people around him. Alfred the Great [,*lfr3d йэ 'greit] Альфред Великий (849—899) — king of Wessex. Alfred fought against Danes (= people from Denmark) to win back English land. He is usually considered to be the first king of England. Alfred was a well-educated man who encouraged (поощрял) education, improved his army and the law (закон) system. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland [,^1jsjz 3d,ventf3z ш'wAndsl^nd] (or Alice in Wonderland) «Приключения Алисы в Стране чудес» — а children’s book written by Lewis Carroll* in 1865. It tells the story of the dream adventure of a young girl, Alice. She meets many strange creatures, including animals that speak and characters from playing cards. She also changes size several times as a result of eating or drinking something. Armstrong, Neil ['a:mstrt)0,'ni:l] Нил Армстронг (1930—) — an American astronaut. As commander (командир) of the Apollo 11 («Аполлон-11») spaceship in 1969 he was the first person to step (ступил) onto the Moon. Art [a:t] школьный предмет «Изобразительное искусство» — the subject that gives some skills in painting, drawing and sculpture. assembly [a'sembh] собрание — all schools must organise a short daily meeting for the whole school to give important information and provide some form of religious worship (богослужение). Babayevskaya joint-stock company, the [Ьл'Ьл]еУ5ка)а ^cfeomtstnk 'клтрэш] Кондитерский концерн «Бабаевский» — one of the best companies that has been producing chocolate and sweets in Russia since 1804. The company has a long and wonderful history which is closely connected with the Abrikosoff and Sons company. In 1922 it got the name “Babayevsky". Now a great choice of chocolate bars and sweets includes 3,000 brand names. bank holiday [,bffipk'holsdci] официальный выходной день — an official public holiday when all banks and post offices are closed, as well as most factories, offices and shops. Bazhenov [Ьэ'зепэ!], Vasily Василий Иванович Баженов (1737 or 1738—1799) — a famous Russian architect who worked mostly in Moscow, His most famous building is Pashkov’s House (дом Пашкова) — now the Russian State Library. BBC [,bi; bi;'si:] (in full the British Broadcasting Corporation [,bntij',br3:dka:stii) ,кэ:рэ'ге1/эп]) Би-Би-Си (Британская радиовещательная корпорация) — the largest British radio and television broadcasting company. 206 Linguistic and cultural guide Beatles, the [bi:tlz] Битлз — a popular British music group who made their first record (запись) in 1962 and became probably the most famous and successful group ever. Their songs and their films were popular in the 1960s. The group broke up in 1970, but they have remained famous as the most talented popular musicians of their time. Belfast Botanic Gardens [,bel'fu:st ЬэДжшк 'ga:dnz] Ботанический парк Белфаста — a public park in Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland. The park occupies 110,000 m^ of south Belfast. The Gardens were opened in 1828 as the private Royal Belfast Botanical Gardens. In 1895 it became a public park. The Gardens' most famous item is the glasshouse called Palm House. In the Gardens there are a great number of rare flowers, trees and other plants. In the Gardens concerts and music festivals are held. The gardens are popular with office workers, students and tourists. bobcat ['bobkset] рысь рыжая — a wild cat in North America. Booth, William ['bu:6,'wilj9ni] Вильям Бут (1829—1912) — the English founder of the Salvation Army.* He was a preacher (священник) and started the movement to bring Christianity (христианство) to poor people while giving them food, clothes, etc. Boys and Girls Clubs of America [,Ьш2эп дз:1г ,kL\bz 3v э'тепкэ] клубы для мальчиков и девочек — federation of more than 1000 organisations set up (1906) in Boston. Most clubs consist of a neighbourhood building dedicated (предназначенный) to children and young people and staffed (укомплектованный) by professionals and volunteers. The centres are open after school and at weekends to provide a safe place for free time activities such as sports and computer classes. Boys’ Brigade, the ['boiz bn,geid] «Бригада мальчиков» ^— an organisation which was set up in Britain in 1883 for boys to develop team spirit (дух) and responsible behaviour. Braveheart ['brervlmu] «Храброе сердце» — a popular movie made by the famous Australian actor Mel Gibson who played the main role of William Wallace.* British Library, the (BL, the) [,bnUj 'laibraril Британская библиотека — the largest public library in Britain. The library has more than 10 million books which occupy 320 km of shelf space. It has a copy of every book published in the country. It has more than 6,000 different editions of Shakespeare’s plays. It can take up to two days to find a necessary book. British Museum, the [,bntif mju'ziismj Британский музей — the national museum of Britain, founded in 1753. It has one the world’s best collections of art and archeological treasures (сокровища), Cadbury ['k^dban] «Кэдбери» — a British company which makes chocolate. The company was created by George and Richard Cadbury. Cadbury is especially famous for its Dairy Milk Chocolate. There exists a Cadbury World exhibition which tells about the history of chocolate making and the role played by Cadbury in this amazing story. This “factory in the garden” appeared in 1890. Carroll Lewis ['кжгэ1, 'lu:is| (nichname of Charles Dodgson) Льюис Кэрролл (1832—1898) — an English writer and lecturer in mathematics at Oxford University, famous as the author of the classic children’s stories Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. He also wrote nonsense (funny) poems. 207 Linguistic and cultural guide Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the [k3,9i:dr3l sv ,krciisl бэ 'seivjs] храм Христа Спасителя — a cathedral in Moscow. The original (подлинное, первоначальное) building of the cathedral was started in 1839 and finished in 1883. It was designed by Konstantin Thon* and devoted (посвящён) to the victory of the Russian army over Napoleon’s troops (войска) in the Patriotic War of 1812. The original building was destroyed in 1931. The new building was built in 1995—1997. Cheddar cheese [,(Гсбэ ''ifv.z] сыр Чевдер — hard, pale yellow cheese, originating in the English village of Cheddar, in Somerset, UK. Cheddar cheese has been produced since 1170 and has been copied widely, both in tlie UK and in other countries. Cheddar cheese is the most popular cheese in the UK. Chernobyl [1Гз:'пэиЬэ1] Чернобыль — a town in Ukraine where in 1986 an explosion (взрыв) at nuclear power station (атомная станция) caused deaths, illnesses and pollution. Chernobyl Children Lifeline [1/з;,пэиЬэ1 ,tjildr3n 'laiflani] Детская линия жизни Чернобыля — а charity that brings children from the polluted areas to stay with families in the UK. Childnet Award [,tjaild^net a'word] Награда за лучший детский интернет-сайт — each year, Childnet — a charity organisation based in London — recognizes the most outstanding Web projects developed by and for children. Childnet awards first-, second-, and third-place prizes in different categories: individuals, schools, etc. Also, there are some there special awards. Children in Need [,yildr3ti in 'ni;d] Фонд помощи нуждающимся детям — а British charity organisation which raises money and helps children in Britain and all over the world. climbing centre ['klaimig senta] центр, где можно заниматься восхождением, лазаньем — there are а lot of indoor (находящиеся в помещении) climbing centres in the UK. Most centres hire equipment (дают напрокат снаряжение). community [ks'mjirniti] община — a group of people living together. They have the same interests, religion, nationality, etc. couch potato ['kaot) рэДейзи] лежебока, телеман — a lazy, do-nothing television watcher. cricket ['krikit] крикет — a very popular summer game which is played with a ball, a bat and wickets (ворота) by two teams of eleven players. da Vinci, Leonardo [da 'vintfi, Jka'ntrdau] Леонардо да Винчи (1452—1519) —^ an Italian artist, scientist and writer. One of the greatest painters of the Renaissance.* He was also an engineer, mathematician, musician, naturalist and philosopher, as well as an architect and sculptor. His most famous paintings include the Mona Lisa and The. Last Supper («Тайцая вечеря»). darts [du:ls] игра «метание стрелок» —^ a game in which darts are thrown at a circular board. Design and Technology [di,zain and tck'nobcfei] школьный предмет «Трудовое обучение» — this brings together practical subjects like cooking, woodwork, sewing and metalwork with the new technology used in those fields. Dickens, Charles ['dikinz, 'tTctlz] Чарлз Диккенс (1812—-1870) —^ one of the greatest English writers. He described life in Britain in the times of Queen Victoria and showed how hard it was, especially for the poor and children. His most famous novels are Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Л Tale of Two Cities, A Christmas Carol and others. 208 Linguistic and cultural guide Doljjoruky |,dnlg3'niki). Prince Yuri княяь Юрий Долгорукий —■ the founder of Moscow (1147) and an important person in the transition (перемещение) of political power (власти) from Kiev to Vladimir—Suzdal. Donskoy [don'skoi], Dmitry Дмитрий Донской (1350—1389) — the Grand (Великий) Prince of Moscow since 1359 and of Vladimir since 1362. He led (возглавил) the Russian troops (войска) in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380 where he defeated (нанёс поражение) the Mongol-Tartars. Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan [,кэопэп 'doil, S3: 'a:0cj сэр Артур Конан Дойль (1859—■ 1930) — the British writer who created the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes.* Arthur Conan Doyle was a doctor, but after the success of his first Holmes story in 1887 he began writing full-time. Duke of Edinburgh, the [,dju;k av 'edmboro] герцог Эдинбургский (1921—) — also called Prince Philip. The husband (муж) of the British queen, Elizabeth II. He is involved in many public organisations, for example the one that gives the Duke of Edinburgh’s Award. eeo-school ['i:kou,sku:l] экошкола — a school that joins the Eco-Schools programme. Eco-Schools is a global programme, that encourages pupils and teachers to come up with fun, eco-friendly projects to help make their school a more pleasant place to be and reduce its impact (влияние) on the environment. A school must form an eco-committee of interested pupils and a teacher representative (представитель). The group meets regularly to discuss and agree on environmental projects to help achieve the programme’s Bronze, Silver and Green Flag awards. Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the [,edinbor3 ,fesTivol Тгтф] (The Fringe) Фестиваль искусств в Эдинбурге — the world’s largest arts festival. It was established (был ут1реждён) in 1947. It takes place in Scotland’s capital Edinburgh during three weeks every August. The Fringe mostly attracts events (представления) from the performing arts, particularly theatre and comedy. Fringe often shows experimental works. In addition to events included in the programme, there is a street fair. eisteddfod [ai'stedfsd] айстедвод (состязание бардов) — an annual gathering in Wales where competitions are held for poets and musicians. Eisteddfods are important celebrations of Welsh language and culture, and date back to the 12th century. Elizabeth [i'liz3b90] Ели.завета Петровна (1709—1761) — the Russian Empress (императрица) in 1741 —1761. A danghter of Peter the Great.* During her reign (царствования) the University of Moscow was founded in 1755. No one person was executed (казнён) when she ruled Riissia. Elizabeth I, Queen [i,liz3b30 da T3:sr] королева Елизавета I (1533—1603) ^— the queen of England and Ireland (1558—1603). Her reign (царствование) is considered one of the greatest periods of English history. Elizabeth II, Queen [idizabaG Ээ 'sekand] королева Елизавета II (1926—) — the queen of Britain since 1952. Eriksson, Leif ['enksan.'liifl Лиф Эриксон — a Viking who is considered (считается) to be the first European to land (высадиться) in Northern America. It happened in about the year 1000. European Capital of Culture, the [Juara'pi:an 'ksepitl av 'lc\[t)'a] Европейская культурная столица — every year the European Union (EU) chooses a city which deserves (заслуживает) to be the Centre of Culture. The first Capital of 209 Linguistic and cultural guide Culture was Cork in the Republic of Ireland in 2005, followed by Patras in Greece in 2006, Luxemburg in 2007 and Liverpool in 2008. The EU has designed the Capital of Culture programme to replace the City of Culture status which began with Athens in 1985. fancy-dress party [,fsensi ,dres'pu;ti] костюмированный вечер — a party which people come to in unusual or amusing clothes (dressed as characters from books, films, past or future periods of history, etc.). field trip tnp] учебная экскурсия — a week away from home in a study centre where pupils not only practice various skills in geography, biology and history but also enjoy spending time with people of their own age, walking and playing games. fish and chips [,й/эпЬ hfips] рыба c картофелем во фритюре — a meal consisting of fish fried in butter and eaten with fried potato chips. Pish and chips is the British favourite takeaway dish since the late Victorian* era. The first fish-and-chip shop opened in London in 1860. football f'futbo:!] футбол — a sports/ball game originated in Britain and is known officially as “association football” and sometimes as “soccer”. It has been played since the 12th century. The Football Association Cvip (FA Cup) is competed for in the Cup Final every year. This is the biggest day in the football calendar. The football season lasts from August to May. Form 3W [fo:m '9ri: 'd^biju:] 3B класс — the pupils of this form are in the third year of secondary school and the first letter of their form teacher’s name is W. fresco ['fresksu] фреска — a painting on the wall and ceiling (потолке) made on wet plaster (штукатурке), common for Russian churches. freshman ['frejman] первокурсник (BE) — a student in the first year at college or university. Friends of the Earth Ld'vendz 3v 6i 'a-.G) (FoE) (‘Друзья Земли» — an environmental group, founded in the UK in 1971. The aim of the group is to protect the environment. It has branches in 30 countries. Giant’s Causeway, the [^djaisnt 'koizwer] Тропа великана — an assembly of impressive basalt (базальтовые) coluimis located in Northern Ireland occupying an area of about 0.7 km^. The tallest columns are about 12 metres. The Giant’s Causeway is recognized as the fourth greatest natural wonder (чудо) in the UK and the most popular tourist attraction. According to a legend the Irish warrior (воин) Finn McCool built the causeway to walk to Scotland to fight his Scottish counterpart (противник) Benandonner. Girls’ Brigade, the ['дз:]г bn,geid] бригада девочек — an organisation that specializes in working with churches to provide fun and inspiring local groups (known as companies) where girls and young women can belong, achieve and discover Jesus. GB companies are primarily for girls and young women, aged 4 to 18, and meet in safe and friendly environments. grammar school ['дгжтэ ,sku:l] классическая школа — a school where pupils over the age of 11 get academic education and prepare for higher education. Grand Canyon, the [,gra:nd 'kamjan] Большой каньон ^— a very large, deep gorge (ущ;елье) cut by the Colorado River in the US state of Arizona. The Canyon is about 350 km long. It was made a national park in 1919. This is one of the deepest gorges on the land. Grand Kremlin Palace, the [,gr продолжаться, длиться late [leit] 1, a (later, latter; latest, last) опоздавший; поздний 2. adv (later; latest) поздно later ['Icita] adv позже Latin ['iictm] n латинский язык laugh [la:f] 1. n смех 2. v смеяться layer ['leia] n слой leader ['И:бэ] n руководитель, вождь, лидер learn [!з:п] v (learned; learnt) учиться, учить что-л. leave [ti:v] v (left) 1) покидать 2) оставлять left [left] 1. a левый 2. adv налево, слева legend ['letfeand] n легенда lemon ['lemon] n лимон 230 Vocabulary let [let] V (let) позволять, разрешать; - us go идём{те) letter ['leto] n 1) письмо 2) буква level ['ieW] n уровень, ступень library ['laibran] n библиотека life [lart^ n (pi lives) жизнь life-size ['laifsaiz] a в натуральную величину lifestyle ['laifstail] n стиль жизни light [lait] n. свет like I [laik] 1. n нечто подобное, похожее 2. adv так, подобно этому like II [talk] v любить, нравиться line [lain] n линия, черта list [list] 1, n список 2. V составлять список listen ['lisn] V слушать literary ['litran] n литературный literature ['litratja] n литература litter ['1иэ] n мусор little r'litlj 1. a (less, lesser; least) маленький, небольшой 2. adu немного, мало live [liv] и жить llama ['Itcniaj n лама local ['bukl] a местный Londoner ['1лт1эпэ] n лондонец long [lor)] 1. a 1) длинный 2) долгий, продолжительный 2. adv 1) долго 2) давно; - ago давно look [Ink] 1. n взгляд; to have a ~ посмотреть на 2. и 1) смотреть, глядеть 2) выглядеть; to ~ after присматривать за, заботиться о; ухаживать; to ~ for искать; to - forward to с нетерпением ожидать; to ~ through просматривать lose и терять lot [IntJ а 1) разг, большое количество, множество; а - of много, множество; lots of огромное количество кого-л., чего-л. love [Iav] 1. п любовь 2. и любить lover ['!луэ] п любитель loyal ['Ь|э1] а верный, преданный lunch [lAiitJ] п обед (обычно в полдень в середине рабочего дня), ленч Mm machine [тэ'П:п] п машина mad I myed] а помешанный на чём-л., увлечённый чем-л. magazine [,niyeg3'zi:n] п (периодический) журнал magnificent [mreg'nifasant] а великолепный; величественный mail [moil] п почта main [mem] а главный, основной таке [mcik] v (made) 1) делать, совершать; to ~ (it) up 1) составлять, выдумывать 2) мириться; to а difference делать что-л. значительное, важное 2) заставлять maker ['meika] п 1) творец, создатель 2) мастер 3) производитель, изготовитель man [тагп] п (р1 теп) 1) человек 2) мужчина manuscript ['mfcnjuskript] п рукопись many ['mem] а (more; most) много map [ma:p] n карта (географическая) mark [та:к] п отметка marvellous ['ma;vl3S] а изумительный, удивительный masterpiece ['moistapiis] п шедевр match [тж1]] I. п матч, соревнование 2. V подбирать (под пару), сравнивать material [ma'tiarral] п материал mathematics [,п1жв['тжикк] п математика maths [тжЭк] п (сокр. разе, от mathematics) математика matter ['maets] 1. п вопрос, дело 2. и иметь значение may [mei] v модальный глагол мочь, иметь возможность maybe ['nieibi] adv может быть, возможно meal [mi:l] п еда mean [mi:n] v (meant) 1) значить, означать 2) намереваться, иметь в виду meaning ['miinig] п значение; смысл medal ['medl] п медаль medical ['niedikl] а медицинский medicine ['medsn] п 1) медицина 2) лекарство meet [mi:l] и (met) 1) встречать(ся) 2) удовлетворять, соответствовать (желаниям, требованиям) 231 Vocabulary melt [melt] и таять member ['memba] n член, участник messy ['mesi] a 1) грязный 2) беспорядочный metal ['metlj n металл metre n метр (мера) metro ['metrao] n (pi -os) метрополитен, метро mice [mais] pi от mouse middle ['midi] a средний might [malt] и past от may military ['militanj a военный milk [milk] n молоко millennium [mi'lemoni] n (pi тж. -nia) 1) тысячелетие 2) тысячелетняя годовщина million ['miljan] пит card миллион mind [maind] v 1) обращать внимание, придавать значение 2) возражать minute ['mmit] п минута miss [mis] и 1) пропустить 2) скучать {по ком(у)-л.) mix [miks] v 1) мешать, смешиЕать(ся) 2) общаться mobile ['moubail] п разг. мобильный телефон model ['modi] 1. п 1) модель 2) эталон, образец 2. и моделировать, лепить modern ['mndn] а современный moment ['тэотэШ] п момент Monday ['nundei] п понедельник money ['тлш] п (тк. sing) деньги month [тлп0] п месяц monument ['тшцитзпт] п памятник moon [mu:n] п луна more [то:] 1. а 1) сравн. cm. от much и many 2) больший, более многочисленный 2. adu 1) сравн. cm. от much 2) больше morning ['то:п1Г)] п утро mosque [mosk] п мечеть most [moust] а 1) превосх. cm. от much и many 2) наибольший motor ['тзшэ] п двигатель, мотор motorbike ['mootobaik] п мотоцикл mountain ['maontm] п гора mouse [maos] п мышь Mr ['mists] сокр. от mister Mrs ['misiz] сокр. от mistress much [iHAtJ] 1. a (more; most) 1) много 2) большой 2. ado очень mum [nuni] n BE мама Muscovite ['niAskovaitJ n москвич, москвичка museum [mju'zi;3m] n музей music ['ntjuizik] n музыка musical ['mjirzikl] a музыкальный musician [mju'zijn] n. музыкант Muslim ['inuzbm] n мусульманин, мусульманка must [nust] и модальный глагол, выражает долженствование, обязанность myself [mai'selO pron reft себя, меня самого, себе Nn name [neim] 1. п 1) имя 2) фамилия 3) название 2. и называть, давать имя national ['ntej’noi] а. национальный native ['ncttivj а 1) родной; а ~ language родной язык; а ~ speaker носитель языка 2) местный natural ['npetfr3i] а природный naturalist ['n^etfralist] л натуралист nature ['ncitfa] п природа near [шэ] prep около, возле neatly ['ni;tli] ado чисто, аккуратно necessary ['nesasrt] а необходимый need [ni;d] 1. п нужда; pi нужды 2. о нуждаться в чём-л. needy ['tii:di] а нуждающийся, бедствующий neighbour ['neiba] п сосед, соседка neither ['naida] ado также не nervous ['n3:v3s] а беспокоящийся, взволнованный net [net] п Сеть (1 nternet) never ['ncv3] ado никогда new [nju:] a новый news [nju;z] n новость, новости newspaper ['njtrs^peipa] n газета next [nekst] 1. a следующий 2, ado затем, потом nice [nais] a приятный, хороший nickname ['mkneim] n прозвище night [nait] n ночь; вечер 232 Vocabulary noisy ['n^izi] a шумный, шумливый none [run] pron neg 1) никто, ничто, ни один 2) никакой north [пэ:0] п север note [nout] п ij {обыкнов. pi) заметка, запись 2) нота notebook ['пэшЬик] п записная книжка nothing ['лл0п)] 1. п ничто 2. ado нисколько, совсем нет novel ['novlj п роман now [паи] adv теперь, сейчас nowadays ['nauadeiz] adv в наше время; теперь; в наши дни number ['плтЬэ] п 1) число 2) номер nursing ['ti3:sip] п уход {за больным и т. д.)\ а ~ home лечебница, дом престарелых Оо object 1. п ['nbct^rkt] предмет, вещь 2. и [ab'ctjekt] возражать, противоречить of [ov] prep указывает на принадлежность; передаётся родительным падежом official [s'tijl] о официальный often f'ofn] adv часто, много раз old [auld] а (older, elder; oldest, eldest) старый Olympic [o'linipik] a олимпийский on [on] prep на, в; о, об once [wAns] 1. n один раз 2. adv однажды onion [Vnjon] n 1) лук репчатый 2) луковица only ['aunli] 1, a единственный 2. ado только, единственно open 1'эирэп] 1, a открытый 2. v от-крывать(ся) opera ['прогэ] n опера opinion [ypinjan] n мнение or [o:] cj или orchestra ['oikistra] n оркестр order ['а:бэ] n 1) порядок; последовательность 2) орден ordinary ['n:dnari] a обычный, обыкновенный organisation [^oipanai'zeifn] n ор|’анизация organise [^oiganaiz] n организовывать original [з'пс]5гпз1] a 1) оригинальный 2) подлинный 3) первоначальный other ['л5з] a другой, иной otter ['ota] n зоол. выдра ourselves [ana'selvz] pron refl себя, себе out [aut] prep указывает на положение вне другого предмета вне, за, из outing ['atrtip] п загородная прогулка, экскурсия outline ['autlain] п схема, план, конспект oven ['луп] п печь, духовой шкаф over ['эсгуэ] 1. adv указывает на окончание, прекращение действия; the lesson is ~ урок окончен 2. prep за, в течение; по, по всей поверхности owl [aul] п сова own [эип] а {после притяжательных местоимении и существительных в possessive case) свой, собственный ozone ['auzaunj п хим. озон Рр pack [рхк] и заполнять packet ['раекн] п пакет page [peid5] п страница paint [peint] 1. п краска 2. v 1) писать красками 2) красить painter ['рсшо] п художник painting ['pemtip] п картина pair [реэ] п пара palace ['pcCbs] п дворец paper ['рсфэ] п 1) бумага 2) газета parade [po'reid] п парад pardon ['pa:dn] и прощать, извинять; ~ те извините меня parent ['реэгэпТ] п родитель park [pu;k] п парк part [pa:t] 1. п 1) часть 2) роль 3) участие; to take ~ in принимать участие в чём-л. 2. о расставаться (witli — с кем-л.) partly ['pa:tli] adv частью, частично partner ['рсЫпэ] п компаньон; партнёр part-time [,po:t'taim] п неполный рабочий день party ['pa;tr] п званый вечер, вечеринка past [pa:st] 1. п прощлое, прошедшее 2. а прошлый patient ['рс|/{э)п1] п больной, пациент patriotic [,puetri'r)tik] а патриотический; the Great - War Великая Отечествен- ная воина 233 Vocabulary pattern ['paetn] n образец, пример pay [pel] V (paid) платить peace [pi:s] n мир peaceful ['piisfal] a мирный, спокойный peak [pi:k] n пик, вершина pen Mend [^pcn trend] n, друг no переписке penny ['pern] n (pi pence, pennies {об отдельных монетах) пенни, пенс people ['pi:pl] п люди per cent [pa'sent] n процент perfectly ['p3:likili] adv совершенно, вполне perform [рэТэ:т] v играть, исполнять performance [рэ'Гэ:тэп5] n спектакль, представление period ['pisrisd] n период, промежуток времени, срок permission [pa'mi/n] п разрешение person ['pxsnj п. личность, человек personal ['рз:5пэ1] а личный personality [,рз:&э'пж1э11] п 1) личность, индивидуальность 2) (известная) личность, персона personally ['рз:5эп1т] adv лично pet [pet] n любимое животное photo [Тэшэо] п ipl -os [-эиг]) разг. фотография; to take -s фотографировать photographer [ГэЧвдгэГэ] п фотограф photography [ГэЧвдгэй] п фотографирование physical ['fizikl] а относящийся к физике physics ['fiziks] п физика pianist [ф1:эп15Т] п пианист piano [рт'аепзи] п {р1 -os [рйэепэиг]) фортепьяно pick [pik] и выбирать; to ~ up собирать picture ['piktja] п картина, изображение piece [pi:s] п кусок, часть pilot ['pailat] п пилот, лётчик pipe [paip] п 1) труба 2) дудка place [pleis] п место; to take ~ случаться, иметь место plan [plccn] 1. п план; проект 2. v составлять план, планировать plane [plem] п разг. самолёт planet ['plasnit] п планета plant [plarnt] 1. п растение 2, о сажать, сеять plastic ['plaestik] а пластмассовый, сделанный из пластика play [piei] 1. п игра 2. и играть playground ['pleigraund] п площадка для игр, спортивная площадка pleasant ['plezant] а приятный please [pli:z] v пожалуйста pocket money ['pnkit ,тлт] n карманные деньги poem ['pauim] n стихотворение poet [фэш!] n поэт poetry ['pomtri] n поэзия point [point] n пункт, момент, вопрос; ■- of view точка зрения polite [рэ'1аИ] a вежливый pollute [po'liiit] о загрязнять {делать непригодным для использования) pollution [po'lujbn] п загрязнение {окружающей среды) pond [pmici] п пруд pool [рп:1] п спорт, (плавательный) бассейн {тж. swimming -) poor [р'иэ] а бедный, неимущий pop [pop] а разг. популярный popular ['pnpjub] а популярный portrait ['po:trot] п портрет possible ['pDsabl] а возможный, вероятный post [psjist] и послать по почте postcard ['p3ustka*d] п почтовая открытка, карточка poster ['pausta] п плакат potato [рэЧеНэц] п {р1 -oes) картофель pound [paund] n 1) фунт {единица веса = 453,6 г) 2) фунт стерлингов practical ['pricktikl] а 1) практический 2) фактический practice ['prtektis] п практика practise ['praektis] v тренироваться, заниматься чем-л. prefer [pri'fa:] v предпочитать (to prefer sth/sb to sth/sb) prepare [рпфеэ] i? 1) готовить, подготавливать 2) готовиться present ['prezant] n настоящее president ['prezidant] n президент pretty ['pnti] a хорошенький, приятный prince [pnns] n 1) принц 2) князь princess [,prin'ses] n 1) принцесса 2) княгиня, княжна prison ['prizii] n тюрьма prisoner ['pnzna] n узник 234 Vocabulary prize [praiz] n награда, приз produce [pra'djiiis] v производить product ["prodAktJ n продукт profession fpra'fefn] n профессия professional [prs'fejnal] n профессионал program(nie) ['ргэидгзет] n программа programmer ['ргэидгаетэ] n программист progressive [prau'grc'iiv] и передовой, прогрессивный project f'pro^ckt] n проект proper ['props] a правильный, подходящий properly ['propoli] adv должным образом; как следует; правильно prospect ['prospekl] п перспектива protect [pn'tekt] v защищать protection [ргэЧек/п] n защита, охрана proud [praud] a гордый; to be ~ of гордиться proverb ['prov3:b] n пословица provide [prs'vaidj v обеспечивать public ['рлЬ1[к] a общественный pudding I'pudip] n пудинг publication [,pAbli'keifn] n публикация {книги, фотографии, статьи и т. д.) publish f'pAblijj V публиковать pudding ['pudipl п пудинг put [put] о (put) класть, положить pyjamas [рз'фнгпэг] п пижама Qq queen [kwi:n] л королева question ['kwest[3n] п вопрос quickly ['kwikli] adv быстро quiet ['kwaiat] a тихий quite [kwait] adv вполне, совершенно Rr race [rets] n состязание в беге, гонка radio ['rcidiou] л радио raft [ro:ft] л плот railway ['reilwei] л железная дорога; attr железнодорожный rain [rein] 1. л дождь 2, о (в безличн. оборотах) it --s идёт дождь raise [reiz] и собирать (деньги и т. д.) ranger ['гешфэ] л лесничий гаге [геэ] а редкий reach [г1:1Л о достигать, доходить read [ri:d] о (read [red]; read [red]) читать ready ['redi] a готовый, приготовленный real [nal] a действительный, настоящий really ['roll] adv действительно, в самом деле reason ['ri;zn] л причина rebuild [,ri:'b(id] v перестраивать recognize ['rekagnaiz] v 1) узнавать 2) признавать record ['rekoid] n рекорд recycle [,ri;'sa[kl] n возвращать в оборот, перерабатывать recycling [,ri;'saiklig] л 1) переработка отходов (для повторного использования) 2) сбор вторичного сырья red [red] а красный reduce [ri'djuis] и уменьшать, сокращать reflect [ri'flektl v отражать, воспроизводить, свидетельствовать (о чём-л.) refuse [n'fjuiz] и отказывать region ['ri:c{53n] п край, область relative ['rebtiv] п родственник relax [n'laeks] v расслаблять(ся); делать передышку relaxing [ri'lacksig] а расслабляющий religion [п^к^зэп] л религия religious [пЙ1фэй] а религиозный rely [n'lai] и полагаться, доверять, быть уверенным (оп, upon) remark [n'ma:k] л замечание; высказывание remember [п'тетЬэ] и помнить, вспоминать render ['renda] и переводить (на другой язык) repeat [n'pi;t] о 1) повторять 2) повторяться replace [ri'pleis] v заменять report [ri'po:t] V сообщать, передавать что-л. сказанное другим лицом reporter [ri'poda] л репортёр, корреспондент represent [,repr['zent] v представлять republic [ri'pAblik] л республика reserve [n'zs.v] л; a nature ~ заповедник respect [n'spekt] v уважать respond [n'spnnd] v отвечать, реагировать responsible [n'spDHSsbl] a ответственный (to — перед, for — за) 235 Vocabulary restaurant ['гез1эп)г)| n ресторан restore [n'sto:] v восстанавливатъ(ся), реставрировать result [ri'zAlt] n результат retell [,ri;'te]] v (retold) снова рассказывать, пересказывать reuse [,ri:'jii:z] v использовать снова revolution [,rev(3)^lu:J(3)nJ n революция rich [rrtO a богатый ride [raid] v (rode; ridden) ехать верхом right [rail] 1, a верный, правильный 2, adv: ~ now в этот момент river ['rivo] n река road [raud] n дорога, путь, шоссе roast beef [,roust'bid] n ростбиф rock [rok] n скала role froulj n роль romantic [rou'maentik] a романтический room [ru:m] n комната royal ['roial] a королевский rubbish ['глЬу] n хлам, мусор rule [ru:l] 1. n правило 2. и управлять ruler ['ги:1э] n линейка run [глп] 1. n бег, пробег 2. и (ran; run) бежать runner ['глаз] п бегун, участник состязания в беге Ss sad [sa;d] а печальный, грустный safe [seif] п безопасный, надёжный safety ['seifti] п безопасность, сохранность salad ['saeladj п салат sale [sell] п продажа; распродажа same [seim] pron демонстр, как прил. тот (же) самый; одинаковый sandwich ['sa:nwicb] п бутерброд, сандвич Saturday ['saitadei] п суббота save [seiv] v 1) спасать 2) экономить saviour ['seivja] п спасатель say [sei] V (said) говорить, сказать scared [skead] a испуганный; to be ~ of бояться (чего-л.) school [skid] ji школа; primary ~ начальная школа; secondary ~ средняя школа science ['saisns] n наука scientist ['saiantist] n учёный scooter ['sku:t3] n 1) детский самокат 2) AE скутер Scot [sknt] n шотландец Scottish ['skotij] a шотландский sculpture ['skAiptja] n скульптура sea [si:] n море seaside ['si;said] n морской берег secret ['si:kr3t] n тайна, секрет section ['sek/n] n 1) часть 2) раздел see [si;] и (saw; seen) видеть; смотреть seem [si:m] v казаться sell [sel] V (sold) продавать(ся) send [send] v (sent) посылать, отправлять sense [sens] n чувство sensible ['scnssbl] a разумный, здравомыслящий September [scp'temba] n сентябрь serious ['sisriasj a серьёзный service ['s3:vis] n служба set [set] 1. n набор, комплект 2. v (set) ставить, помещать; to ~ the table накрывать на стол several ['sevrDlJ a несколько sew [s30j V (sewed [-d]; sewed, sewn) шить sewing ['s9Uii]] n шитьё share [Jea] о 1) делить(ся) 2) разделять (мнение, вкусы и т. п.) sheep [['■:?] ^ измен.) овца, баран ship [Jip] п корабль shock [)'пк] п потрясение shoebox ['Jkbnks] п коробка для обуви shop [|Ьр] 1. п магазин 2. v делать покупки (обыкн. to go ~ing) shopping ['Jnpitj] n посещение магазина с целью покупки; to do one’s ~ делать покупки shore [Jd:] n берег (моря, озера, океана, но не реки)-, побережье show []эи] 1. п зрелище, шоу 2. v (showed [-d]; showed, shown) 1) показывать 2) демонстрировать shy [j'ai] a застенчивый, робкий sick [sikj a преим. AE больной side [said] n сторона sight [salt] n 1) вид 2) pi достопримечательности sightseeing ['sait,si:ir)] n осмотр достопримечательностей; to go - осматривать достопримечательности i 236 Vocabulary silly ['silt] a глупый silver ['silvo] a серебряный similar ['simab] a подобный (to) since [sms] prep c, после sing [sTp] V (sang; sung) петь singer ['sips] n певец, певица sir [S3: {полная форма)-, sa {редуцированная форма)] п сэр, господин sister ['sisto] тг сестра sit [sii] V (sat) сидеть site [salt] n 1) место 2) сайт situation [,s[t[u'ei/n] n ситуация size [saiz] n размер skate [skcu] и кататься на коньках skateboarding ['skcEtboidir)] n катание на скейтборде ski [ski:] l> кататься на лыжах skilful ['skrlfl] a искусный, умелый skill [skii] n мастерство, умение skirt [sk3;t] n юбка sky [skai] n небо small [sma:l] a маленький smart [smu:t] a 1) остроумный, находчивый 2) красивый smile [small] n улыбка so [sau] 1. ado 1) так, таким образом 2) итак 3) употр. для усиления: так, настолько 2. соп; чтобы, для того чтобы (so (that) soccer ['snka] n разе, футбол sociable ['зэиГзЫ] a общительный soldier ['sauldja] n солдат solve [solv] и решать, разрешать {проблему) some [злт] pron 1) некоторый 2) некоторое количество someone ['блшзулп] ргоп indef кто-то, кто-нибудь something ['sAmOtp] pron indef 1) кое-что, нечто, что-нибудь, что-то 2) некоторое количество, несколько sometimes ['sAmtaimz] ado иногда song [sop] n песня soon [su:n] adu скоро sore [so:] a больной; воспалённый sorry ['son] a predic огорчённый; to feel ~ for sb сочувствовать кому-л. sound [saund] v звучать soup [su:p] n суп south [sau0] n ЮГ space [speis] л космос, космическое пространство Spanish ['spasnij] a испанский spare [spea] a свободный speak [spi:kj v (spoke; spoken) говорить, разговаривать special ['spefl] a специальный; особый specialist ['spejlist] n специалист specially ['spejlij adu 1) особенно, в особенности 2) специально specific [spa'sifik] a особый, особенный spend [spend] v (spent) 1) проводить 2) тратить, расходовать spoil [spoil] о (spoilt; spoiled [-d]) портить {вид, качество), делать менее привлекательным spring [spriri] п весна square [skwea] п площадь stadium ['steidiam] п {pi -dia) стадион stamp [stKCmp] n (почтовая) марка standard ['steendad] n стандарт, норма star [st